Amethyst

A precious stone in the third row of the breastplate of the high priest (Ex. 28:1919And the third row a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst. (Exodus 28:19); Ex. 39:1212And the third row, a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst. (Exodus 39:12)); and the twelfth stone in the foundations of the wall of the heavenly Jerusalem (Rev. 21:2020The fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst. (Revelation 21:20)). This gem is not definitely identified. It may be the purple variety of corundum, known as the oriental amethyst, or the transparent amethystine quartz which contains oxide of manganese and alumina. The Hebrew word is achlamah which is translated ἀμέθυστος in the above two passages in Exodus by the LXX, who also have the same in Ezekiel 28:1313Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created. (Ezekiel 28:13), where there is nothing in the Hebrew.