Greek Particles and Prepositions

John 17:3; Romans 8:2; 1 Corinthians 6:2; 1 Corinthians 7:14; 2 Corinthians 6:4-8; Hebrews 1:2; Hebrews 13:20
Preface
The following notes on particles and prepositions were the fruit of private research for private use in studying the New Testament, so that the reader must not expect anything of a complete treatise on the subject to which they apply; and, perhaps, he will find sometimes what may not satisfy his judgment as to the metaphysical connection of the literal with the moral sense of a word. But when it was merely the question of using one's labors, undertaken in and for his own New Testament studies, for the service of others who may profit by the labor without adopting all that is said, he could have no objection to their being printed. The reader may learn how many nice points of meaning there are in the use of these words, and may use these notes to come to a more just appreciation of the force of words and shades of meaning than the notes themselves can furnish. As a help to his further labors he may find them useful. They are in no sense offered as anything complete or final. They were formed in bond fide noting down the remarks and fruits of private research for private use. The reader can profit by them and draw his own conclusions. They will, at least, supply a pretty large index to the New Testament use of these words, and raise questions for inquiries which the paper itself may not solve. One only can guide us into truth and the mind of God in His word.
GREEK PARTICLES
Ἄν expresses what is hypothetical possibility. When the ground of hypothesis is stated before, it is accompanied by the indicative; the consequence is asserted as a fact: it would so happen in that case, μετενόησαν ἄα, Matt. 11:20, 2120Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his mighty works were done, because they repented not: 21Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works, which were done in you, had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. (Matthew 11:20‑21); so chap. 12:7, and often. When the possibility or hypothetical case is stated in the verb to which άν belongs, the verb is in the subjunctive, as ὃς ἄν ἀπολύση, ἕως ἂν εἴπω, ὅπως ἂν φανώσι, ὃς γάρ ἂν ποτίστῃ. As to time, 1 Cor. 11:2525After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. (1 Corinthians 11:25), ὁσάκις ἂν πίνητε, that is, whenever they did do it, the doing it being uncertain. So as to place, Mark 9:1818And wheresoever he taketh him, he teareth him: and he foameth, and gnasheth with his teeth, and pineth away: and I spake to thy disciples that they should cast him out; and they could not. (Mark 9:18), ὅπου ἂν καταλάβη, wherever he did, but the taking him was occasional and uncertain; ὅπου ἂν κηρυχθῇ (Mark 14:99Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her. (Mark 14:9)), the preaching was incidental.
Ἄν means, I think, in that case, ever, every, (immer). Έάν is practically εἰ ἄν. Hence, when ἄν (if not to be read ἐάν, which always has the subjunctive, as uncertain) leaves the act uncertain or not accomplished (cases of time ἄχρις οὗ ἂυ θῇ, 1 Cor. 15:2525For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. (1 Corinthians 15:25)), it has the subjunctive. Where the act is assumed or done, ἄν is still ever, but the verb is in the indicative. Thus, Mark 6:5656And whithersoever he entered, into villages, or cities, or country, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought him that they might touch if it were but the border of his garment: and as many as touched him were made whole. (Mark 6:56), ὅιτου ἂν εἰσεπορεύετο εἰς κώμας, because it is an assumed fact. He went into the villages, had gone into them, when they wanted to touch Him; but κἂν ἅψωνται, uncertain whether they could. Then ὅσοι ἂν ἥπτοντο, where it is the fact; but Matt. 10:1111And into whatsoever city or town ye shall enter, inquire who in it is worthy; and there abide till ye go thence. (Matthew 10:11), εἰς ἣ δ' ἂν πόλιν εἰσέλθητε, because it was a future uncertain possibility. So Luke 9:5757And it came to pass, that, as they went in the way, a certain man said unto him, Lord, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest. (Luke 9:57), James 3:44Behold also the ships, which though they be so great, and are driven of fierce winds, yet are they turned about with a very small helm, whithersoever the governor listeth. (James 3:4), Rev. 14:44These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are virgins. These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. These were redeemed from among men, being the firstfruits unto God and to the Lamb. (Revelation 14:4), Mark 14:99Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her. (Mark 14:9)," wherever he went" may be ἄν, but indicative; " wherever he might go," ἄν, with subjunctive. The same rule applies to time as to other cases; if the hypothesis is stated previously, the verb with ἄν is in the indicative, as Matt. 11:2323And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to hell: for if the mighty works, which have been done in thee, had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day. (Matthew 11:23), " they would have remained " ἔμειναν ἄν. Otherwise, as a future is not a fact, it is in the subjunctive, ἕως ἂν θῶ, and a multitude of cases. Is not its real force ἀνά, each, every one? As we say, whoever, whosoever, and, in German, immer. The fact and non-fact is more plain in cases of time than others, though the principle is identical. " Till it come," " it remains till." The first is non-fact, the second fact, though based on an hypothesis, but if-then the fact is so. Finally, if the hypothesis precedes, ἄν has the indicative. So without an hypothesis (Mark 6:5656And whithersoever he entered, into villages, or cities, or country, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought him that they might touch if it were but the border of his garment: and as many as touched him were made whole. (Mark 6:56)), where it is connected with an assumed or actual fact. It answers to the English ever, and affects style: "as many as ever I could," that is, " every one I possibly could," it is possibility.
Ἅπαξ, ἐφάπαξ, once, and once for all, or all at once, on once, auf einmal, at one time, as we say, at once. It is not merely that he did it, or it happened once, but that all that is in question is brought into that once; " Five hundred saw him at one time." " He entered in, ἐφάπαξ, into the holy place." It is not that He once did it, ἅπαξ, but that, not like the high-priest, who repeated his entrances, the work not being finished, Christ did it once for all. It was all summed up and complete and enduring in effect on that one entrance to stay there. So "of His offering the same; so Rom. 6:1010For in that he died, he died unto sin once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God. (Romans 6:10), it is not merely that He did it once, not twice, but that all His dying to sin was in that act, and that it was absolute, complete, and final; He had no more to do with it. It was all done then in that act and completely. We reckon ourselves to have died, and once for all too, have no more to do with it. Ἅπαξ is simply once, not twice; only it is used (as in English) for a past time which has not continued. " You once knew this; " once delivered ".
Ἄpa is not οὖν, a consequence drawn, but resumes what has been gone through and gives its real force, assuming its truth as a witness of something which follows. Hence, it is often accompanied by οὖν, so then it always, I think, gives the idea of this being so; or if a question, is it indeed so that? Thus, Matt. 12:2828But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God is come unto you. (Matthew 12:28). It was not οὖν, therefore, but " then, this being so, the kingdom of God is come to you." So Matt. 7:2020Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them. (Matthew 7:20), ἄραγε, γε strengthening the consequence, thus then surely {also ja), Rom. 10:1717So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. (Romans 10:17). So in questions; only it often takes its force from what is passing in the mind, the tacit assumption of facts or statements, as Matt. 18:11At the same time came the disciples unto Jesus, saying, Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven? (Matthew 18:1), τίς ἄρα μείζων, that is, " Seeing there is a kingdom, and you say it is going to be set up, and you say such and such things concerning it, Who is to be greatest in it? " So Luke 12:4242And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season? (Luke 12:42), where it is given occasion to by Peter's question, which is not meant to be directly answered, and the ἄρα refers to the Lord's whole conception of the condition of the servant. Compare Matt. 24:4545Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season? (Matthew 24:45), where the Lord evidently answers what is passing in His own mind. In Luke 1:6666And all they that heard them laid them up in their hearts, saying, What manner of child shall this be! And the hand of the Lord was with him. (Luke 1:66) the antecedent circumstances are evident. So chapter 8:25. In Luke 22:2323And they began to inquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing. (Luke 22:23), " since some one would," " it being so- Τίς ἄρα? " It is less evident but the same sense in chapter 11: 48, " you being what you are, and doing what you are, ἄρα μαρτυρείτε." With εἰ it is uncertain possibility under the circumstances; still " this being so:" hence it increases the improbability of εἰ, Acts 8:22, 17: 27. Rom. 5:1818Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. (Romans 5:18), ἄρα οὖν " therefore, this being so "; Rom. 8:11There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. (Romans 8:1)," This being so, there is none "; and Rom. 14:1919Let us therefore follow after the things which make for peace, and things wherewith one may edify another. (Romans 14:19) is the same. In 1 Cor. 7:1414For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by the wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the husband: else were your children unclean; but now are they holy. (1 Corinthians 7:14) it is elliptical, " if it were as you say, and you had to leave the husband or wife "; but the force of ἄρα is the same. 1 Cor. 15:1515Yea, and we are found false witnesses of God; because we have testified of God that he raised up Christ: whom he raised not up, if so be that the dead rise not. (1 Corinthians 15:15), " if indeed it be so." Gal. 3:77Know ye therefore that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham. (Galatians 3:7), in the sense is the same. It is the application in proof of what has been said, " This being so," etc. The other cases are all simple, indeed all are, when once its proper force is seized.
Γάρ requires a little more mental attention. Its simple meaning is an illative for, a reason for what precedes, not a cause but a " because." But it is very often indeed a resuming of a series of thought in the writer's mind, and is no inference from what precedes, but a new statement of the case from facts or thoughts in the writer's mind. The same point is proved, but the yap or inference does not refer to what has been stated, but to what is in the writer's mind, and this confirming the general thought. A singular case of this is in Matt. 1:1818Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. (Matthew 1:18), where the matter is wholly in the writer's mind, and he has only said " thus ": so that all that follows with yap is the explanation of οὕτως. This is an extreme case perhaps; but this use of γαρ is very common with the apostle Paul, and we should not seize his meaning without seeing it. Thus Rom. 1:1717For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith. (Romans 1:17) is a simple plain inference or reason: " he was not ashamed of the gospel, for it was the power of God unto salvation." But in verse 18, γάρ has not this direct force, but begins a long series of proofs of what made that gospel necessary; and the point laid down in verse 17 he returns only in chapter 3: 21. But it all bears on that, and is what his mind goes through to prove the point. It may be filled nominally by an ellipse, as " (and I have these thoughts and can show the value and necessity of this righteousness, and that this is the only possible righteousness), for the wrath of God is revealed," etc. This is very common with Paul. You have both again in Rom. 5:6, 76For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. 7For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die. (Romans 5:6‑7); the simple use in verse 10; the resumed new proof of what was in his mind in verse 13. So, I believe, in verses 16, 17, for the first part of these sentences is clearer as a question; so, in verse 19, he is proving his general point, not what precedes. So in chapter 7: 14, where, as in many cases, the connection is so obvious that it creates no difficulty. But in chapter 8:2, 3, we have two distinct new grounds of argument which prove the main point of what he is at, in connection with what precedes, but not the proof of it. You could not say, in verse 2, ὅτι or διότι, which " for " in English often answers to. It aids in proving the general point, but by a collateral testimony. One is delivered from the whole condition and element to which condemnation applied, and is introduced into another to which no condemnation can apply; he is in Christ, not in the flesh. Verse 3 is another and additional point to prove it. Still chapter 6 had shown one, and the end of chapter 7 the ἀδύνατον of the law. These verses 2 and 3 resume the whole results, and describe the condition of the man in Christ which had not been spoken of in these chapters. The delivering power of life in Christ is the force of verse 2, and what Christ had done before we are in Him (or God in and by Him as to the flesh) in verse 3. The same reference to the result in his mind is in chapter 8:18, We are not glorified together because he reckoned. He illustrates the state of thought which expressed it by a new series of thoughts. This ground for the question in the thought of the speaker is common in interrogation. Matt. 27:2323And the governor said, Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out the more, saying, Let him be crucified. (Matthew 27:23), τί γὰρ κακὸν ἐποίησε: " I ought not to condemn him," or " why do you seek it? for," etc. Acts 19:3535And when the townclerk had appeased the people, he said, Ye men of Ephesus, what man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipper of the great goddess Diana, and of the image which fell down from Jupiter? (Acts 19:35), " Who is there? " " Your judgment about Diana is incontrovertible, for who is there among men? " John 7:4141Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee? (John 7:41), μὴ γὰρ ἐκ τῆς Γαλιλαίος ὁ Χριστός ἔρχεται, " it cannot be as you suppose, for does," etc. It is not that a positive thought is formed in the mind, to which the question refers, as I have filled up the ellipse. It is vague, but assumes to negative doubt, or reject some consequence, by the question which proves it cannot be. " Who then doubts that Diana is great? " His object is to prove them wrong in making an uproar, for, etc.; in demanding Christ's life, for, etc.; in pretending Jesus to be the Christ, for, etc.; and this is put as a question which by its certain answer settles it.
In Acts 2:1515For these are not drunken, as ye suppose, seeing it is but the third hour of the day. (Acts 2:15), οὐ γάρ is not " for," I suspect, but " these indeed are not, as you suppose, drunk, for "-" these are in no way."
So with καὶ γάρ has the sense of even. It cannot have the sense of for, save very elliptically: "yet you may still do it, for even the dogs," etc., Matt. 15:2727And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters' table. (Matthew 15:27). In John 7:4141Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee? (John 7:41), yap has the force of indeed, but with a question as above, denying it thus; but its force is indeed. Again, 1 Cor. 9:1010Or saith he it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written: that he that ploweth should plow in hope; and that he that thresheth in hope should be partaker of his hope. (1 Corinthians 9:10), δι' ἡμας γάρ, " indeed, surely, even, for us." James 4:1414Whereas ye know not what shall be on the morrow. For what is your life? It is even a vapor, that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth away. (James 4:14) again helps us to the connection of the two sentences. We must say even, perhaps; but the reason is given why it is the weak thing which the question supposes-" it is as nothing, for it is a vapor ": but if we do not supply the ellipse, we must say "indeed," "even." Acts 8:3131And he said, How can I, except some man should guide me? And he desired Philip that he would come up and sit with him. (Acts 8:31), "I cannot do so, for how should I be able," etc.; but again with the ellipse, we must say, " how indeed should I? " And in this use of it, I do not see, however unusual, it may not be ἡ γάρ ἐκεῖνος, Luke 18:1414I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other: for every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted. (Luke 18:14), " than surely that other one," yap being merely increased affirmation, as ëé in Hebrew, or "ja " in German, or immo. It was left out as difficult in some mss.; rather, yea, than that other, for the other thought himself so. In Rom. 3:22Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God. (Romans 3:2), we have πρώτον γάρ, first indeed, first surely, etc., chapter 15: 27, εὐδόκησαν γάρ. Again, " they were pleased indeed "-the mind stops, says, " no doubt." It is the more striking here, for in verse 26 we have εὐδ. γάρ in the usual sense of for. If the force of γάρ be the mind stopping and affirming anything, inasmuch as, indeed, it being so that, which is the reason for what is spoken of, or what is in the mind, to which the previous part referred.* Then ἢ γὰρ ἐκείνος, Luke 18:1414I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other: for every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted. (Luke 18:14), would be, " than, whatever people may think, that [other] one " " than, yes surely, that other." So Acts 16:3737But Paul said unto them, They have beaten us openly uncondemned, being Romans, and have cast us into prison; and now do they thrust us out privily? nay verily; but let them come themselves and fetch us out. (Acts 16:37), " Nay, whatever they may pretend to, let them come! " " Nay, surely not." So in 1 Cor. 9:1010Or saith he it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written: that he that ploweth should plow in hope; and that he that thresheth in hope should be partaker of his hope. (1 Corinthians 9:10), Acts 4:1616Saying, What shall we do to these men? for that indeed a notable miracle hath been done by them is manifest to all them that dwell in Jerusalem; and we cannot deny it. (Acts 4:16), ὅτι μὲν γάρ, for then indeed, or for indeed, for that indeed, etc. Rom. 3:22Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God. (Romans 3:2), πρῶτον μὲν γάρ, first then indeed, first indeed. In 2 Cor. 12:11It is not expedient for me doubtless to glory. I will come to visions and revelations of the Lord. (2 Corinthians 12:1), we have a special use of it: " Well (δή) it is not expedient for me to glory, I will then now come," etc. 1 Cor. 11:2222What? have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? or despise ye the church of God, and shame them that have not? What shall I say to you? shall I praise you in this? I praise you not. (1 Corinthians 11:22), " have ye not then? " καὶ γάρ has essentially the sense of since, literally for even. It gives a confirming proof, as καὶ γάρ Γαλιλαίος ἐστιν, Luke 22:5959And about the space of one hour after another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was with him: for he is a Galilean. (Luke 22:59) Cor. 5:7 Cor. 13:8, since, or for, for even if, since if. Matt. 15:2727And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters' table. (Matthew 15:27), Mark 7:2828And she answered and said unto him, Yes, Lord: yet the dogs under the table eat of the children's crumbs. (Mark 7:28), for even, or since.
(* And I suspect that to be the sense of γάρ. If, as alleged, it is composed of γε and ἄρα it is clearly so, and removes question and doubt.)
Γε does not present much difficulty, though not easy sometimes to put in English. Its general idea is at least, at any rate, Luke 11:8; 18:58I say unto you, Though he will not rise and give him, because he is his friend, yet because of his importunity he will rise and give him as many as he needeth. (Luke 11:8)
5Yet because this widow troubleth me, I will avenge her, lest by her continual coming she weary me. (Luke 18:5)
, where we may say yet, only it is feeble; so with καί, Luke 19:4242Saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes. (Luke 19:42), even, at any rate, at least; 1 Cor. 9:22If I be not an apostle unto others, yet doubtless I am to you: for the seal of mine apostleship are ye in the Lord. (1 Corinthians 9:2)," at any rate I am to you." Sometimes even is the best, in the same sense substantially. Acts 2:1818And on my servants and on my handmaidens I will pour out in those days of my Spirit; and they shall prophesy: (Acts 2:18), Rom. 8:3232He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things? (Romans 8:32), the latter ὅς γε, where (ja in German) even is right, but cold; not even better perhaps. Acts 2:1818And on my servants and on my handmaidens I will pour out in those days of my Spirit; and they shall prophesy: (Acts 2:18), καί γε, yea even, or yea by itself, or yea on the very. Ἀλλά γε is more difficult, Luke 24:2121But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done. (Luke 24:21). But then, he stops his account of what He was when alive, with " but then there is this," " in spite of all this," " too," " into the bargain," " this, at any rate, has taken place." Acts 8:3030And Philip ran thither to him, and heard him read the prophet Esaias, and said, Understandest thou what thou readest? (Acts 8:30); "do you, at least then, understand as you are reading (άρα), do you at least (γε) understand it." Acts 11:1818When they heard these things, they held their peace, and glorified God, saying, Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life. (Acts 11:18), " then indeed," " these things being so, doubtless God has given the Gentiles life," " certainly without question," which is the force of " at any rate," affirming that, in spite of ail that might be alleged, it was so; or whatever might be of other cases. 1 Cor. 6:33Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life? (1 Corinthians 6:3)," but indeed things of this life," " not at least things of this life," such as these at any rate cannot be excluded if we are to judge angels. These are all the passages, found only in Luke or Paul's writings.
Δέ is distinction, not opposition, a second thing,-ἀλλά is opposition. Δέ may be often translated " now," as Matt. 1:1818Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. (Matthew 1:18). It supposes some thought to have been in the mind if not expressed, and goes on to what follows: ἀλλά, as sondern after a negative in German, is in contrast. So Rom. 7:77What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet. (Romans 7:7), " no, I do not say that, but I do say that," etc. Δέ admits what precedes, but adds or modifies. There is difference but no opposition. It carries on the sentence to another element of thought, another, but carries it on. Mark 5:3333But the woman fearing and trembling, knowing what was done in her, came and fell down before him, and told him all the truth. (Mark 5:33), " but the woman being afraid." Mark 9:5050Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his saltness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves, and have peace one with another. (Mark 9:50), " Salt is good, but if," etc. Sometimes there is more contrast, but it is as if μέν were there. Acts 22:2828And the chief captain answered, With a great sum obtained I this freedom. And Paul said, But I was free born. (Acts 22:28), ἐγώ δέ. But you may generally translate " and " without altering the sense, as Rom. 2 We say, " I do one thing to one, and another thing to another "; if I say " but," it brings in mere opposition: but in English the opposition lies in the sense, even with " and "; in Greek it is expressed by δέ. Δέ is a continuation of the same reasoning, a completing it, though the subject matter may be opposed. So Matt. 12:26-2826And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom stand? 27And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your children cast them out? therefore they shall be your judges. 28But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God is come unto you. (Matthew 12:26‑28).
Ἀλλά negatives the thing it is in contrast with: δέ connects them in reasoning, though it may be the converse, or distinct, " not in circumcision, άλλ' in uncircumcision," Rom. 4:1010How was it then reckoned? when he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. (Romans 4:10), Mark 9:88And suddenly, when they had looked round about, they saw no man any more, save Jesus only with themselves. (Mark 9:8), " they saw no man, ἀλλά they saw Jesus "; chapter 14:29: Rom. 3:3131Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law. (Romans 3:31), "ἀλλά, on the contrary, we establish"; and chapter 5:14, " sin is not imputed,"-that is true-" but death reigned." So Rom. 8:3737Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors through him that loved us. (Romans 8:37), referring to verse 35, " on the contrary ": 1 Cor. 3:22I have fed you with milk, and not with meat: for hitherto ye were not able to bear it, neither yet now are ye able. (1 Corinthians 3:2)," not only do I say this, ἀλλ' οὐδέ, on the contrary ye are not even now." In 1 Cor. 9:1212If others be partakers of this power over you, are not we rather? Nevertheless we have not used this power; but suffer all things, lest we should hinder the gospel of Christ. (1 Corinthians 9:12) we have it twice: the second is evident contrast, the first we have got the power but, etc., in contrast with the natural effect of having it. It is less evident in 2 Cor. 8:77Therefore, as ye abound in every thing, in faith, and utterance, and knowledge, and in all diligence, and in your love to us, see that ye abound in this grace also. (2 Corinthians 8:7), but is just a beauty of style. It is as much as to say, " It is as if I doubted of this, and therefore sent Titus. It is not that, but what I want is, that you," etc. Eph. 5:2424Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing. (Ephesians 5:24), ἀλλά is sometimes used when it is a setting aside a current of thought in the mind to substitute another; so it is used, I take t, here. So 2 Cor. 11:66But though I be rude in speech, yet not in knowledge; but we have been throughly made manifest among you in all things. (2 Corinthians 11:6). It gives force simply to style, as in 2 Cor. 7:1111For behold this selfsame thing, that ye sorrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you, yea, what clearing of yourselves, yea, what indignation, yea, what fear, yea, what vehement desire, yea, what zeal, yea, what revenge! In all things ye have approved yourselves to be clear in this matter. (2 Corinthians 7:11)," yea " is well enough, "ay, not only that but."
Μενοῦνγε is used only three times in New Testament. Phil. 3:88Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord: for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ, (Philippians 3:8) is read ἀλλα μὲν oὖv in the editions. Luke 11:2828But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it. (Luke 11:28), Rom. 9:2020Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus? (Romans 9:20), 10: 18. It has the sense of a kind of " ay, indeed, if you talk of that." So Luke 11:2828But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it. (Luke 11:28), " If you talk of blessing, such and such are the really blessed." Rom. 9:2020Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus? (Romans 9:20), "Ah, indeed, you talk of calling God in question; who are you then? " And chapter 10:18, " If you talk of not having heard, why their sound is gone out into all the world." In the first, " yea "; in the second, " nay but " is all well, in the third, " yea." Literally it is " now then indeed."
For Μηδέ and Μήτε, see 2 Thess. 2:22That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand. (2 Thessalonians 2:2), in editions. Μησέ adds a subject of negation: μήτε contrasts different points into which the subject spoken of in the negative is divided, " not shaken nor troubled (μηδέ)-by word, nor by letter (μήτε)."
Τέ by itself connects two things in a measure in one, καί leaves them two: but when τέ is used with καί, it raises the subject of τέ into prominence. It is not only what follows καί, but what precedes τέ too; but still unites them: saying, not the two, but both, take place. So indeed μήτε.... μήτε, both form part of one single subject. There is more bond in τέ than in καί in the two things mentioned, as in 2 Thess. 2:22That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand. (2 Thessalonians 2:2), both are connected with θροεῖσθαι. It is more also, or both, than and. It is found twice as often in Acts as in all the rest of the New Testament; then in Hebrews, Romans, Luke, rarely elsewhere: often it is a mere shade of different aspect of something from καί. James and John, both James and John; bad and good, both bad and good. The sense is the same, only " both " brings them together to the mind as one. The distinct commandments, Mark 10:1919Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Defraud not, Honor thy father and mother. (Mark 10:19), are μή, not μήτε.
Δή is only six times used. It arrests the mind on the noun or verb, impressing it on it, as the important point then in the mind. The passages are Matt. 13:2323But he that received seed into the good ground is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it; which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, some an hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty. (Matthew 13:23), Luke 2:1515And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us. (Luke 2:15), Acts 13:2, 15:36, 1 Cor. 6:2020For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God's. (1 Corinthians 6:20), 2 Cor. 12:1. It is then, then now; also does well in Matt. 13:2323But he that received seed into the good ground is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it; which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, some an hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty. (Matthew 13:23): then now in Luke 2:1515And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us. (Luke 2:15), 1 Cor. 6:2020For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God's. (1 Corinthians 6:20), 2 Cor. 12, " well it is not," would do.
Μεν does little more than arrest the mind instead of simply stating the fact. With δέ it contrasts the two members, but often hardly more than " these " and " those" in English, without " indeed " and " but," as Acts 27:4444And the rest, some on boards, and some on broken pieces of the ship. And so it came to pass, that they escaped all safe to land. (Acts 27:44). The difference I believe to be this-when a common statement applies to both, " indeed " and " but" may be left out in English; when the subjects of μεν and δέ are different, then they have their places; thus Matt. 22:55But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his farm, another to his merchandise: (Matthew 22:5), " they went,-all,-some to one thing, some to another," but verse 8, " the wedding indeed is ready, but they that are bidden." In Luke 8:5, 65A sower went out to sow his seed: and as he sowed, some fell by the way side; and it was trodden down, and the fowls of the air devoured it. 6And some fell upon a rock; and as soon as it was sprung up, it withered away, because it lacked moisture. (Luke 8:5‑6), it is μέν and καί; in Matt. 13:4, 84And when he sowed, some seeds fell by the way side, and the fowls came and devoured them up: (Matthew 13:4)
8But other fell into good ground, and brought forth fruit, some an hundredfold, some sixtyfold, some thirtyfold. (Matthew 13:8)
, μέν and δέ. Luke 3:1616John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire: (Luke 3:16), both, no doubt, are baptizers, but "ἐγὼ μὲν ὕδατι, αὐτός δὲ ἐν πνεύματι." The contrast is full.
Μὲν οὖν, is always, I think, a fresh start of subject in the mind of the writer, assuming acquaintance with what precedes, and referring to it as the basis of some new statement, where some particular point, connected with what precedes, comes out into relief. The writer has some one or some thing in his mind, shut up in the previous part, which makes the prominent subject in some new statement. Οὖν, I think, connects; μέν fixes the mind on the particular object. Once μὲν οὖν, but then οὖν has its own ordinary force. I think μέν οὖν thus always begins a new sentence. It is chiefly found in the narrative of the Acts, as may be supposed. See οὖν.
Ὅπως is almost always the expression of object or purpose. Acts 3:1919Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord; (Acts 3:19), in Α. V. is a mere false translation.* The only exception is Luke 24:2020And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him. (Luke 24:20). It is not always so that or that, but always the object or intention, as Matt. 12:1414Then the Pharisees went out, and held a council against him, how they might destroy him. (Matthew 12:14), Mark 3:66And the Pharisees went forth, and straightway took counsel with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. (Mark 3:6), Matt. 26:5959Now the chief priests, and elders, and all the council, sought false witness against Jesus, to put him to death; (Matthew 26:59), Luke 11:3737And as he spake, a certain Pharisee besought him to dine with him: and he went in, and sat down to meat. (Luke 11:37), Acts 23:2323And he called unto him two centurions, saying, Make ready two hundred soldiers to go to Caesarea, and horsemen threescore and ten, and spearmen two hundred, at the third hour of the night; (Acts 23:23). But ὅπως is the object in the result, not the intention as in the mind. I do a thing ἱνα, that is the intention in my mind. Ὅπως is the effect of the act, the aim of the act, not the intention of the mind, it is " so that," not essentially " in order that," it is the πῶς of the thing.
(* " When the times of refreshing shall come " should be translated " so that the times," etc.)
Οὖν. Therefore (folgerung), sometimes however a mere consequence of facts in the mind, not a cause, then, and its proper sense is not cause but consequence, hence " therefore." I say in the mind, because it is the mind singling out some particular person and thing in a less open way in the mind, in what precedes, and bringing it out into relief and importance. See μέν in connection with which it is thus used. With a question, and with εἰ, it has this force of consequence; for example, " these things being so." Matt. 13:27; 12:1227So the servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? from whence then hath it tares? (Matthew 13:27)
12How much then is a man better than a sheep? Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the sabbath days. (Matthew 12:12)
. Eἰ οὖν, chapter 7:11; 22: 45, any hypothetical case is as the formal word εἰ: thus ὄταν, chapter 24:15; Mark 12:66Having yet therefore one son, his wellbeloved, he sent him also last unto them, saying, They will reverence my son. (Mark 12:6), ἔτι oὖv ἕνα υἱόν ἔχων. " This being so," " if it be so." It has this force even in direct statement and command, as Mark 3:31; 13:3531There came then his brethren and his mother, and, standing without, sent unto him, calling him. (Mark 3:31)
35Watch ye therefore: for ye know not when the master of the house cometh, at even, or at midnight, or at the cockcrowing, or in the morning: (Mark 13:35)
; Luke 3:7; 6:9, 367Then said he to the multitude that came forth to be baptized of him, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? (Luke 3:7)
9Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask you one thing; Is it lawful on the sabbath days to do good, or to do evil? to save life, or to destroy it? (Luke 6:9)
36Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful. (Luke 6:36)
; John 4:2828The woman then left her waterpot, and went her way into the city, and saith to the men, (John 4:28). The causative and antecedent grounds often run into one another, John 2:2020Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days? (John 2:20). But the antecedent occasion is as common as the sense of cause (see the discourses in John's Gospel throughout). " This being so, such and such follows " is the sense which rises up into " therefore." A strict cause is διὰ τοῦτο, and can be used with ούν, " therefore " these things being so, John 5:1818Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God. (John 5:18). Sometimes what is so is expressed, as is naturally the case with εἰ, " if they are so "; ὅταν, " when they were so,-then," etc.
Μή, when used where we might suppose οὐ could be (for it has its own use besides), gives, I think, the state and character, not the fact; but it is only a shade of meaning. Thus Matt. 1:1919Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a publick example, was minded to put her away privily. (Matthew 1:19), Joseph, δίκαιος ὤν, he being a just man, μὴ θέλων, "a just man, and unwilling "; οὺ θέλων would be the fact. So Acts 27:7, 157And when we had sailed slowly many days, and scarce were come over against Cnidus, the wind not suffering us, we sailed under Crete, over against Salmone; (Acts 27:7)
15And when the ship was caught, and could not bear up into the wind, we let her drive. (Acts 27:15)
; it was the state of things, " the wind not suffering." It is not the fact that the wind then and there did not suffer that the ship should easily make her way, but the wind being such that it could not, and (ver. 15) the ship was caught, and unable. So Acts 12:1919And when Herod had sought for him, and found him not, he examined the keepers, and commanded that they should be put to death. And he went down from Judea to Caesarea, and there abode. (Acts 12:19); the shape it takes in the mind is the state of Herod, not the fact that he did not find. Compare 2 Cor. 4:18, 5: 21; Matt. 7:2626And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand: (Matthew 7:26); Luke 12:44And I say unto you my friends, Be not afraid of them that kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do. (Luke 12:4); John 7:4949But this people who knoweth not the law are cursed. (John 7:49); Rom. 4:1717(As it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations,) before him whom he believed, even God, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth those things which be not as though they were. (Romans 4:17): so often. Hence it is commonly used with a participle, or future conditional, future at least in thought, as Luke 17:11Then said he unto the disciples, It is impossible but that offences will come: but woe unto him, through whom they come! (Luke 17:1); see John 12:47, 4847And if any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. 48He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him: the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day. (John 12:47‑48), both cases. So of a state, in the infinitive with article, Luke 8:6, 22:34; Heb. 11:33Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear. (Hebrews 11:3); or without, as Luke 18:11And he spake a parable unto them to this end, that men ought always to pray, and not to faint; (Luke 18:1), where the article is with δεῖν. In many cases, when it refers to a fact, the imperative, its very common use, is understood. In questions it is not merely, as usually stated, the expectation of a negative answer, but a present presentation of it as not so, or of circumstance which made it likely the inquiry would convey a doubt, or undesired, unpleasing possibility, one that can hardly be supposed true, and raises the question-not an inquiry for information. Thus John 18:17, 25; 6:6717Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art not thou also one of this man's disciples? He saith, I am not. (John 18:17)
25And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not. (John 18:25)
67Then said Jesus unto the twelve, Will ye also go away? (John 6:67)
; Mark 2:1919And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them? as long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. (Mark 2:19). In the last the negative answer meets it. John 7:4747Then answered them the Pharisees, Are ye also deceived? (John 7:47); Mark 12:14, 1514And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not? 15Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said unto them, Why tempt ye me? bring me a penny, that I may see it. (Mark 12:14‑15), where οὐ is used for indicative negation of fact, μή for the moral propriety with subjunctive. For the contrast of affirming expected answer with οὐχί, see John 7:41, 4241Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee? 42Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was? (John 7:41‑42).
Ναί, though used for " yes," as Matt. 9:2828And when he was come into the house, the blind men came to him: and Jesus saith unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this? They said unto him, Yea, Lord. (Matthew 9:28), etc., is, however, something more, as " yea " (from the usus loquendi) is in English. It affirms positively when a matter might be supposed to be in doubt, or reiterates as a certainty that cannot fail, as Luke 11:5151From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, which perished between the altar and the temple: verily I say unto you, It shall be required of this generation. (Luke 11:51). Query, is it more than simply " yes " in Matt. 21:1616And said unto him, Hearest thou what these say? And Jesus saith unto them, Yea; have ye never read, Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise? (Matthew 21:16), a reply, or in any way connected with what follows? But it is very commonly, at any rate, emphatic, as Luke 7:26; 12:526But what went ye out for to see? A prophet? Yea, I say unto you, and much more than a prophet. (Luke 7:26)
5But I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear: Fear him, which after he hath killed hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, Fear him. (Luke 12:5)
. In Matt. 15:2727And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters' table. (Matthew 15:27), Mark 7:2828And she answered and said unto him, Yes, Lord: yet the dogs under the table eat of the children's crumbs. (Mark 7:28), it is simply " yea, Lord," that is, " yea, Lord, you can do it" even on your own ground, " for even," or "since." It calls in question any opposition.
Ὥστε does not express an intention, but a means or instrument which brings about what follows: ὅτι a fact which exists, when the ὅτι is applied: ἵνα what is in view or intention, when what governs ἵνα is stated.
Ἵνα is the object and intention of the person or thing from its nature, and sometimes amounts to a telic infinitive [all modern Greek infinitives are formed, I learn, by it (va)]. Hence it is not merely in order that, as an indirect consequence; that is, I do one thing in order that, in its turn, another may follow; but in Greek it is immediate also. Ὅτι answers to what or why, meeting the τί, the what or the why is so and so; hence that answering to " what," and for or because answering to " why." But when there is not cause or object* but intention, or end of anything, it is ἵνα. Hence with words of request, command, or wish, desire, as 1 Cor. 14:11Follow after charity, and desire spiritual gifts, but rather that ye may prophesy. (1 Corinthians 14:1) (and in sense, 2 Cor. 8:77Therefore, as ye abound in every thing, in faith, and utterance, and knowledge, and in all diligence, and in your love to us, see that ye abound in this grace also. (2 Corinthians 8:7)), it is common; Matt. 4:3; 12:10; 20:21, 31, 33; 26:633And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread. (Matthew 4:3)
10And, behold, there was a man which had his hand withered. And they asked him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days? that they might accuse him. (Matthew 12:10)
21And he said unto her, What wilt thou? She saith unto him, Grant that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on the left, in thy kingdom. (Matthew 20:21)
31And the multitude rebuked them, because they should hold their peace: but they cried the more, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou Son of David. (Matthew 20:31)
33They say unto him, Lord, that our eyes may be opened. (Matthew 20:33)
63But Jesus held his peace. And the high priest answered and said unto him, I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God. (Matthew 26:63)
; Mark 7:32, 3632And they bring unto him one that was deaf, and had an impediment in his speech; and they beseech him to put his hand upon him. (Mark 7:32)
36And he charged them that they should tell no man: but the more he charged them, so much the more a great deal they published it; (Mark 7:36)
; Rom. 15:3131That I may be delivered from them that do not believe in Judea; and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be accepted of the saints; (Romans 15:31); Eph. 1:1717That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him: (Ephesians 1:17), etc., etc. Some cases are less evident. Matt. 5:29, 30; 8:8; 10:2529And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. 30And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. (Matthew 5:29‑30)
8The centurion answered and said, Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest come under my roof: but speak the word only, and my servant shall be healed. (Matthew 8:8)
25It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master, and the servant as his lord. If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, how much more shall they call them of his household? (Matthew 10:25)
, and even chapter 26: 4, Mark 4:2121And he said unto them, Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick? (Mark 4:21) shows the connection, the object and intention are there, not merely one act in order to another. Mark 6:1212And they went out, and preached that men should repent. (Mark 6:12), " preached, ἵνα "; chapter 6: 36, " let them go, ἵνα." Thus we have the direct intention and object of the act, or will, or thing. Luke uses it quite as much (it is not used in an ecbatic sense) in chapter 7: 6, 36; 8: 31, 32; 9:40, 45; 16:27; 18: 39, 41, and others. I do not believe, for instance, John 9:22And his disciples asked him, saying, Master, who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he was born blind? (John 9:2) is for ὥστε; it was not the will of the parents, of course, but the meaning and end of the act. A person may object to this, as contrary to his way of thinking; but so it is. ἱκανός ἵνα is not " so that," but the τέλος of the ικανότης in the mind of the writer, and is powerful in style. It is intention, or something to be; ὅτι may be future, if it is a fact, not what is in view as an object. So in chapter 11:50, συμφέρει Ἵνα. Is not the sense always future to that on which ἵνα depends, ὅτι an existing fact? To state a cause you must have the caused fact; an intention looks to the future. In John 6:2828Then said they unto him, What shall we do, that we might work the works of God? (John 6:28) it is not " in order that," that is, doing one thing that another may come, but with this intention or object to fulfill it; the direct τέλος of the will in doing, not a subsequent effect: hence ίνα. And this sentence also gives the clue to its use in chapter 9:22. It was the intention or object of their agreement. In chapter 4:34, " my meat is ἵνα ποιώ." Ὅτι has no place here; it is an infinitive in sense, but it gives the intention. His meat was not having done it, but to do. " If any man θέλει to do his will, he shall know of the doctrine." Still John carries its use farther. We understand the intention in the works or speaker's mind of an ικανότης, fit for (propre a, not pour) that. But John 13:11Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end. (John 13:1), ἐλήλυθεν αὐτοῦ ἡ ὥρα, ἵνα it was the intention and meaning of that hour, as the writer viewed it, and divinely so. Still it is a special use of it. So chapter 18: 39, a custom, ἵνα the object or meaning of the custom; still it is carrying its use very far. So in 1 John 1:99If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9), " faithful and just ἵνα he might forgive "; again a telic infinitive ὅτι has no place. So chapter 4: 21, here it depends on εντολή, " the intention of the ἐντολή was," etc. In chapter 5:3, I suppose it is the intention to keep, as in the passage, " my meat is "; but this carries its use very far, as it is evident John does (but ὅτι would have another sense), as before in his Gospel, chapter 4: 34. But in John 17:33And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent. (John 17:3), it is merely infinitive (not ὅτι, nor ὥστε). So indeed, practically, is 1 John 5:33For this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments: and his commandments are not grievous. (1 John 5:3) (see above). John 11:19, 3119And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother. (John 11:19)
31The Jews then which were with her in the house, and comforted her, when they saw Mary, that she rose up hastily and went out, followed her, saying, She goeth unto the grave to weep there. (John 11:31)
, shows how it connects " in order to " with infinitive. John 11:3737And some of them said, Could not this man, which opened the eyes of the blind, have caused that even this man should not have died? (John 11:37), we have ποιῆσαι ἵνα, " caused this man not to die"; not acted so that he had not, but acted to hinder him dying, only ἀποθάνῃ so that it was effectual; after need, John 2:2525And needed not that any should testify of man: for he knew what was in man. (John 2:25), for any one to bear witness; chapter 5: 7, infinitive; chapter 8:56; 16: 2 (a strong case). 1 John 5:3535He was a burning and a shining light: and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light. (John 5:35); 2 John 66And this is love, that we walk after his commandments. This is the commandment, That, as ye have heard from the beginning, ye should walk in it. (2 John 6); 3 John 44I have no greater joy than to hear that my children walk in truth. (3 John 4). With the pronoun " this," John 6:29, 39, 40; 15:13; 17:329Jesus answered and said unto them, This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent. (John 6:29)
39And this is the Father's will which hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day. 40And this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life: and I will raise him up at the last day. (John 6:39‑40)
13Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. (John 15:13)
3And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent. (John 17:3)
; Luke 1:4343And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? (Luke 1:43). The real point, I believe, is, besides the common use, " in order that," when it is future, a thing in posse, not in esse, an object in view; hence equivalent to " to " with an infinitive; whereas ὅτι is in esse, not merely in posse. In Matt. 26:3434Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, That this night, before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. (Matthew 26:34), ὅτι seems future, but it is " you will have done it before." In Mark 4:3838And he was in the hinder part of the ship, asleep on a pillow: and they awake him, and say unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish? (Mark 4:38), it is present, " we are perishing." Ὅτι is used after speak or write in Greek, when in English it is left out, as John 4:4242And said unto the woman, Now we believe, not because of thy saying: for we have heard him ourselves, and know that this is indeed the Christ, the Saviour of the world. (John 4:42), and a multitude of cases. The only strong case as to ἵνα is after αὐτός. Still, though peculiar and idiomatic, it is an object in view, the thought and will of the person who acts or speaks. Luke 1:4343And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? (Luke 1:43) is the strongest of all, but it is not the fact that she has come, but this, that she should come-should have the thought or mind of coming. So John 17:33And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent. (John 17:3), it is not the fact that a person who has known has life, but the thought that to know is or could be life to him that knew. It is the abstract idea, what life eternal is. It is to know, it is found in knowing, which thus stands as an object to be atttained before the mind. This was the way of having it. Ὅτι would be that they have known a fact about some people, ἵνα is sollen, what is to be. So in Luke 1:4343And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? (Luke 1:43), " whence " refers to the mind or intention to come, the motive ἵνα for coming. In the case of αὐτός, etc., the thought is, this must be to have the matter in question, a man must know to have; that is, the knowing is looked at as a thing to be necessary, not existing. So with " greater love hath no one than this, that (ἵνα) life must be laid down to make this good "; that is, it is not the fact which (ὅτι), but viewed as needed and so to be, a moral consequence, not a fact; as I have said, ὅτι always refers to a fact, ἵνα to an intention. There may be a future with ὅτι, but it is an assertion of the fact (which may be future), as Luke 19:26; 18:826For I say unto you, That unto every one which hath shall be given; and from him that hath not, even that he hath shall be taken away from him. (Luke 19:26)
8I tell you that he will avenge them speedily. Nevertheless when the Son of man cometh, shall he find faith on the earth? (Luke 18:8)
, not an object in purpose or intention. Not " I command, request, that it should "; but " I say that it will,: that it should is in purpose; the other is an assertion of fact, though the fact be future. " That" or " because" are not really different as the meaning of δτι; when it means " because " it is practically διὰ τοῦτο ὅτι.
(* See farther on. Hence ὅτι is a present thing, is, or is caused; ἵνα, future to the motive, or causing word.)
Ἕως, is as far as, hence can be with verbs, ἕως ἐλήλυθεν, ἕως ἡμερα ἐστίν, John 9:44I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work. (John 9:4), John 12:35, 3635Then Jesus said unto them, Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon you: for he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. 36While ye have light, believe in the light, that ye may be the children of light. These things spake Jesus, and departed, and did hide himself from them. (John 12:35‑36), ἔχετε. Hence with the sense of till or while, because both are " as long as." It is not objective; ἕως ἡμέραν, if it were Greek, would be " up to day," " during night." Hence the genitive, which is a genitive absolute. So you can have (which shows its force) ἕως εἰς, Luke 24:5050And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. (Luke 24:50), ἕως ἄνω, John 2:77Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim. (John 2:7); and again, ἕως ἔξω, Acts 21:55And when we had accomplished those days, we departed and went our way; and they all brought us on our way, with wives and children, till we were out of the city: and we kneeled down on the shore, and prayed. (Acts 21:5); ἕως ἔσω, Mark 14:5454And Peter followed him afar off, even into the palace of the high priest: and he sat with the servants, and warmed himself at the fire. (Mark 14:54). There is always the sense of so far as; not merely to as an object, but " up to," " all the way there." It is not είς, zu, but his zu ihm. Hence it is " whilst" with an indicative, as John 9:44I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work. (John 9:4) above, or with a conjunctive when it is intention, Mark 6:4545And straightway he constrained his disciples to get into the ship, and to go to the other side before unto Bethsaida, while he sent away the people. (Mark 6:45), or future προσεύξωμαι, as Matt. 26:3636Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane, and saith unto the disciples, Sit ye here, while I go and pray yonder. (Matthew 26:36).
Μή, μήποτε, etc., not, that not, but, as is known, intention of the mind, not fact, as Matt. 4:66And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down: for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone. (Matthew 4:6); μήποτε " thou dash "; μηδέποτε, 2 Tim. 3:77Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth. (2 Timothy 3:7). Οὔποτε is not found replaced by οὐδέιτοτε. Οὐ and οὐδέποτε are fact. Hence μὴ with imperative, and with an interrogative, meaning, " can you suppose that...? " when the intended answer is " not "; οὐ, when " yes." So in moral reasons, μή: διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν, Matt. 13:55Some fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth: and forthwith they sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth: (Matthew 13:5), 6. Hence with participles, as verse 19, μὴ συνιέντος: Luke 2:4545And when they found him not, they turned back again to Jerusalem, seeking him. (Luke 2:45), μὴ εὑρόντος. In Matt. 13:55Some fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth: and forthwith they sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth: (Matthew 13:5), οὐκ εἶχε γῆν, the fact. The participle is a supposed or assumed state on which the fact is based. So indeed μή in interrogation is a supposition that not. " Μή thou greater than our father Jacob? " John 4:1212Art thou greater than our father Jacob, which gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle? (John 4:12). It is a state of mind or of things on which something is based, when not the simple expression of a state of mind, as in the imperative. We have οὐ μή, not only in assertion, where it is not at all, but in questions also, οὐ μή and μὴ οὐ. But I do not think either a mere doubling of the negative οὐ μή is not, certainly not, but no in no case, under no supposition: the mind cannot entertain the negative. So μὴ οὐ is interrogation, as before, but with the sense " is it to be supposed...? " " are we to lay it down that...? " etc. Οὐ μή is used in an interrogative sense, but with a note of admiration, Luke 18:77And shall not God avenge his own elect, which cry day and night unto him, though he bear long with them? (Luke 18:7). "And God would not avenge his own elect! "-" is that to be supposed? " In Heb. 10:1, 111For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect. (Hebrews 10:1)
11And every priest standeth daily ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins: (Hebrews 10:11)
οὐδέποτε approaches the nearest to μηδέποτε, but it is the fact; μηδέποτε, in 2 Tim. 3:77Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth. (2 Timothy 3:7), the character of γυναικάρια. Μηκέτι and οὐκέτι follow the same principle. Οὐκέτι is fact; μηκέτι, command, consequence, ὥστε μηκέτι, not οὐκέτι, but they could not, οὐκέτι. So μηδέ Mark 2:22And straightway many were gathered together, insomuch that there was no room to receive them, no, not so much as about the door: and he preached the word unto them. (Mark 2:2), μηκέτι with infinitive. In 1 Thess. 3:1, 51Wherefore when we could no longer forbear, we thought it good to be left at Athens alone; (1 Thessalonians 3:1)
5For this cause, when I could no longer forbear, I sent to know your faith, lest by some means the tempter have tempted you, and our labor be in vain. (1 Thessalonians 3:5)
, it is the participle as before with μή. The same generally with ὥστε, ὥστε οὐκ ἔτι εἶ δοῦλος the fact: ὥστε μή ἰσχύειν, the thought as a consequence, not the fact. So Mark 1:45; 2:2; 3:2045But he went out, and began to publish it much, and to blaze abroad the matter, insomuch that Jesus could no more openly enter into the city, but was without in desert places: and they came to him from every quarter. (Mark 1:45)
2And straightway many were gathered together, insomuch that there was no room to receive them, no, not so much as about the door: and he preached the word unto them. (Mark 2:2)
20And the multitude cometh together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread. (Mark 3:20)
. The strict sense of ὥστε is " so as," Matt. 15:3333And his disciples say unto him, Whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, as to fill so great a multitude? (Matthew 15:33): then " so that," " that," Matt. 12:2222Then was brought unto him one possessed with a devil, blind, and dumb: and he healed him, insomuch that the blind and dumb both spake and saw. (Matthew 12:22), Gal. 2:1313And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him; insomuch that Barnabas also was carried away with their dissimulation. (Galatians 2:13), or with οὔτως, John 3:1616For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (John 3:16), Acts 14:11And it came to pass in Iconium, that they went both together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spake, that a great multitude both of the Jews and also of the Greeks believed. (Acts 14:1), " but that" with "so" understood; that is, not intention (ἵνα) but result, even if in thought.
Ἀλλα, when not a contrasted " but "; " not this, but that," is an arrest in the thought, in the sense of this. " Do I say this? nay, but," etc. It stops the mind on what was going before, and brings in something else. The ellipse depends on the passage, as Acts 10:2020Arise therefore, and get thee down, and go with them, doubting nothing: for I have sent them. (Acts 10:20), " but arise "; or no ellipse really, but, turning to another point, it supposes some contradiction might be urged, or means " not only "; but it is never, I think, copulative, as alleged. See with ἡ, Luke 12:5151Suppose ye that I am come to give peace on earth? I tell you, Nay; but rather division: (Luke 12:51), 2 Cor. 1:1313For we write none other things unto you, than what ye read or acknowledge; and I trust ye shall acknowledge even to the end; (2 Corinthians 1:13) (this peculiar).
GREEK PREPOSITIONS
Note that, as to its primitive force, the genitive is anything in its nature, origin, or character, " of."
The dative is immediate connection or proximity to.
The accusative is objective, towards. These senses are modified by the preposition, or, rather, the preposition borrows the sense of the case, and adds its own peculiar meaning to give a special form to the thought, as παρά, περί, μετά, ἐκ: παρά with a genitive, " from," but it is genus still; περί, around or about you, is more remote from the radical sense, but still the circumstances draw their character from the relationship to the governed word; what they are is περὶ ὑμῶν, etc. With the accusative it is the object whom they do or will refer to, περί ἐμέ. Ἐκ is only source and characteristic source, hence has only the genitive. Μετά is like περί, the thing is characterized by its association, μεθ' ἡμών. They are thought of as associated with " us." This characterizes them: μετά ταϋτα, they are separated, and they are a distinct object by themselves when ταϋτα are complete, hence they come after. Πρός and παρά have genitive, dative, and accusative.
Ἀνά: besides the idea of respectively, each, we have only άνά μέσον, Matt. 13:2525But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way. (Matthew 13:25), Mark 7:3131And again, departing from the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, he came unto the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the coasts of Decapolis. (Mark 7:31), 1 Cor. 6:55I speak to your shame. Is it so, that there is not a wise man among you? no, not one that shall be able to judge between his brethren? (1 Corinthians 6:5), Rev. 7:1717For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters: and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes. (Revelation 7:17), among, between, in the midst of. 1 Cor. 14:2727If any man speak in an unknown tongue, let it be by two, or at the most by three, and that by course; and let one interpret. (1 Corinthians 14:27) shows connection of prepositional and adverbial use, ἀνά μέρος [each] for [his] part, in his turn, by course; so, by fifties, or fifty each, man by man, each man. Ἀνά has the accusative from its objective force, up to, reaching up to, in all cases, even when it means each respectively. The translation of it may be various. Ἀνά μέσον is not ἐν μέσω, which may be a point unconnected with the rest. Ἀνά connects the thing which is άνά with that ἀνά (up to) which it is, so as to have to say to all. He fills up that to which ἀνά applies. It is not mittelpunkt but mitten unter. Not in the middle but in the midst.
Ἀπό, genitive: point of departure. Hence, by reason of, occasioned by, Matt. 13:44; 14:2644Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto treasure hid in a field; the which when a man hath found, he hideth, and for joy thereof goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field. (Matthew 13:44)
26And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear. (Matthew 14:26)
; Luke 22:4545And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow, (Luke 22:45), Acts 11:1919Now they which were scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen travelled as far as Phenice, and Cyprus, and Antioch, preaching the word to none but unto the Jews only. (Acts 11:19); Heb. 5:77Who in the days of his flesh, when he had offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to save him from death, and was heard in that he feared; (Hebrews 5:7); Matt. 18:77Woe unto the world because of offences! for it must needs be that offences come; but woe to that man by whom the offence cometh! (Matthew 18:7). On the part of, not simply by but of, away from, Luke 9:22; 17:2522Saying, The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day. (Luke 9:22)
25But first must he suffer many things, and be rejected of this generation. (Luke 17:25)
; but here, after ἀποδοκιμάζω. So Acts 2:2222Ye men of Israel, hear these words; Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you by miracles and wonders and signs, which God did by him in the midst of you, as ye yourselves also know: (Acts 2:22), where ἀπό is in the verb, not in 2 Cor. 7:1313Therefore we were comforted in your comfort: yea, and exceedingly the more joyed we for the joy of Titus, because his spirit was refreshed by you all. (2 Corinthians 7:13). It is not for ὑπό. The cases are after ἀπό in the verb, or after ἀναπέπονται, which supposes toil, and ceasing to have it; not the present effect of an agent (ὑπό) under whose power and influence the matter happens, or the person is. In a good state, Titus might have been received and cheered ὑπό; though scarcely this last, but not ἀναπέπαυται when they had been going wrong before. His refreshment now proceeded from them: "peace from" is simple, "delivered from," also; so with παρέλθη, Mark 14:3535And he went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from him. (Mark 14:35). The point of departure is clear in ἀφ' ἑαυτοῶ, ἀφ' ἑαυτῶν, etc., Luke 12:5757Yea, and why even of yourselves judge ye not what is right? (Luke 12:57); John 5:19; 10:18; 16:1319Then answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise. (John 5:19)
18No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father. (John 10:18)
13Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will show you things to come. (John 16:13)
. It is used of material, of clothes, or food. A mass is supposed, and the part is taken " from " it; as we say, " made from wool." So, choice from, Matt. 7:1616Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? (Matthew 7:16), ἀπό, point of departure of the judgment: it is a con-elusion drawn " from," not by means of,, instrumentally; in the same verse materially " from." Luke 14:1818And they all with one consent began to make excuse. The first said unto him, I have bought a piece of ground, and I must needs go and see it: I pray thee have me excused. (Luke 14:18), ἀπό μιας is idiomatic; said to be, " one point of view left out as understood "; if so, it is simple. Their minds started from one point to the common conclusion.
Ἐκ, genitive: out of, a place, set of people, or what any one is sunk in, or the like. Hence it is a moral source, and goes deeper than ἀπό: ἀπό is a motive; this a principle. English uses it so too. He did it " out of fear," " from fear." Both are English. There is a shade of difference in the sense. Fear in the latter case is a motive, the point of departure of the mind. Ἐκ supposes one more in the state referred to. I can say, ἀπό τοῦ ὕδατος; one leaves the water to be on land; ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος, out of the water in which one was. What answers to ἀπό is " at," to ἐκ is " in." Hence ἐκ is more abstract; ἐκ πίοτεως, on that principle. Ἀπό εὐλάβειας, that was the actual governing and producing motive. Ἐκ is sometimes merely a shade of meaning different from ἐπό, but there is the difference noticed. Hence ἐκ has the force of the character of anything: ἐκ τοῦ κοσμοῦ, ἐκ τοῦ διάβολοῦ, ἐκ τοῦ πατρός. And this tone of thought is found even where place is in question and the article is used. " New Jerusalem descended ἐκ τοῖ οὐρανοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ." It came out of, no doubt, but it stamps its character in revealing its source. Ὰπό is the point of departure. It came from God Himself. It was heavenly but it came from God-was not merely divine. Speaking of time, it differs little practically from άπό, though the ideal difference remains: ἀπό πολλῶν ετῶν since many years, ἐκ χρόνων ἱκανῶν a long while, beginning from many years ago, and taking its rise in a period which still lasted. The first is a date, the last a characterized period; so ἐκ νεότητος. But characterizing, as marking origin out of which anything is, is the common use, where not materially used. " The baptism of John, was it ἐξ οὐρανοῦ Ø: hence, Matt. 1:2020But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. (Matthew 1:20)," is of the Holy Ghost"; John 1:1313Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. (John 1:13), " born of God." Hence characteristic of the state or thing which causes the action of the verb, as one " lives by (ἐκ) faith." It is not διά, the means of living, but the character of the life. "A tree is known ἐκ τοῖ καρποῦ," Matt. 12:3333Either make the tree good, and his fruit good; or else make the tree corrupt, and his fruit corrupt: for the tree is known by his fruit. (Matthew 12:33) and Luke 6:4444For every tree is known by his own fruit. For of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a bramble bush gather they grapes. (Luke 6:44). In Matt. 7:16, 2016Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? (Matthew 7:16)
20Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them. (Matthew 7:20)
, it is ἀπό. The former is characteristic in the thing, the latter is a conclusion in knowledge, " from." " Oἱ ἐκ περιτομής:" ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ:" " ὁ ἐκ τῆς γῆς:" ἐκ τοῦ κοσμοῦ λαλεῖν:" Ø οἱ ἐξ ἐριθείας." In a multitude of shapes it is used for characterizing, as the source of anything does, only that its use to express character goes far, as in ἐκ μέρους, partly, in part, ἐξ ἰσότητος. It becomes thus adverbial. Thus, he agreed with the laborers ἐκ δηναρίου: we say, at a penny, Matt. 20:22And when he had agreed with the laborers for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard. (Matthew 20:2). Ἐκ is commonly used where we have the genitive, where it is one or more from among a set of objects whether left or not.
Ἐν governs the dative. It means properly "in": then, with plurals, "amongst." Where it is connected with words of motion, it indicates the result in which that motion places and leaves them, ἀνελήφθη ἐν δόξη. It is used to mean what accompanies and characterizes, where we should say, " with," " in the power of," ἐν ῥάβδῳ " with a rod." It is not the origin of the character as a source,* but characterizes the power by which we act; see Col. 1:88Who also declared unto us your love in the Spirit. (Colossians 1:8), ἐν πνεύματι. A strong case of this instrumental character is in Luke 14:3131Or what king, going to make war against another king, sitteth not down first, and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand? (Luke 14:31); if ἐν δέκα χιλιάσι..." with ten thousand." So Heb. 9:2525Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others; (Hebrews 9:25), ἐν αἵματι ἀλλοτρίῳ: Matt. 6:77But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking. (Matthew 6:7), ἐν πολυλογίςί. Hence it is not the effective instrument of activity, that is διά, but what characterizes: πολυλογία is not looked at as the means, but as the character of the prayer which will be heard. Hence the state or occasion, 1 Cor. 15:5252In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. (1 Corinthians 15:52), ἐν σάλπιγγι έσχατη; at or during, within, when referring to time, John 2:19, 2019Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. 20Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days? (John 2:19‑20), ἐν τρισῦν ἡμέραις. So (here more literally used) Matt. 11:25; 12:125At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes. (Matthew 11:25)
1At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were an hungred, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat. (Matthew 12:1)
, ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ καιρῷ John 5:1616And therefore did the Jews persecute Jesus, and sought to slay him, because he had done these things on the sabbath day. (John 5:16), ἐν σαββάτῳ. It has thus the force of the " means by which," ἐν τούτῳ γνώσονται, John 13:3535By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another. (John 13:35). We have a peculiar case in ἐν ὑμῖν κρίνεται ὁ κόσμος, 1 Cor. 6:22Do ye not know that the saints shall judge the world? and if the world shall be judged by you, are ye unworthy to judge the smallest matters? (1 Corinthians 6:2)-" If the judgment of the world shall be characterized by your doing it, surely," etc.: " if ἐν ὑμῖν-if such be the case with the judgment of the world." It is not simply as instruments; but if such a judgment be found to be in the hands of the saints, and so characterized as to be " by us,; if that be the case with that judgment. So in Heb. 10:1010By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. (Hebrews 10:10), ἐν ᾧ θελήματι. Christ comes to do God's will. That is what sanctifies us; that will (that is, God's) which Christ was to do is what sanctifies us. One must in English say " by," but the emphasis is on " which." But it is not the διά of an instrument, but the ἐν or character of what does it. So, he came, Luke 2:2727And he came by the Spirit into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him after the custom of the law, (Luke 2:27), " ἐν τῷ πνεύματι into the temple." It is not the instrument, but what characterized His coming: only τῷ personifies the Spirit, that is, gives personality to the thought, " the Spirit," as one acting not merely ἐν πνεύματι, which is the state of the person. He casts out devils, Matt. 12:2424But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, This fellow doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub the prince of the devils. (Matthew 12:24), ἐν τῷ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων. It was what characterized His power (personally again) or miracle. Acts 20:1919Serving the Lord with all humility of mind, and with many tears, and temptations, which befell me by the lying in wait of the Jews: (Acts 20:19), ἐν ταῖς ἐπιβουλαῖς, that was the state of things in which he found himself, and which causes his tears. It was not διά, simply instrumentally, but what characterized the situation.
(* We have the same difference with the same prepositions in French, Il l'a fait en homme de courage; c'est un prix de fou.)
Is not διά an historical word when the fact that took place is looked at as taking place at a given time? Whereas ἐν is the abiding character and being of him or it, by which the work is wrought, ἐν ᾧ ἔκτίσθη, δι' αὐτοῦ ἔκτισται, Col. 1:1616For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: (Colossians 1:16), 17. So Rom. 5:99Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him. (Romans 5:9), 10, justified ἐν τῷ αἵματι, reconciled διὰ τοῦ θανάτου. Then when any one is looked at as a distinct agent or means, it is διά, Rom. 5:99Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him. (Romans 5:9), δι' αὐτοῦ; so Col. 1:2020And, having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself; by him, I say, whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven. (Colossians 1:20), δι' αὐτοῦ, because Christ is looked at as such, as a distinct person, as a man, though ἐν αὐτῷ is applied to the fullness of the Godhead. Heb. 1:1, 21God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, 2Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; (Hebrews 1:1‑2), God spoke ἐν υἱῷ. There they are not separated, but δι' οὗ ἐποίησε, a particular historical act, and God is looked at as distinct; see John 1:33All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. (John 1:3), δι' αὐτοῦ ἒγένετο. There He is looked at as a distinct person, verse 2, πρὸς τὸόν Θεόν, and it is an historical fact. Col. 1:1616For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: (Colossians 1:16), ἐν αὐτῷ ἐκτίσθη, its literal ordinary cause and abiding characteristic, δι' αὐτοῦ in verse 20, historical (see the cases farther on). Διά is the instrument of a fact, ἐν an abiding cause or state (διά may be used as a state through which we pass, but it is then also only temporary, what characterizes a state which produces a consequence. Thus 2 Cor. 6:55In stripes, in imprisonments, in tumults, in labors, in watchings, in fastings; (2 Corinthians 6:5), ἐν πληγαῖς would be in that state of things he proved himself a minister: διά πληγών would have been the means of proving himself so. Hence 2 Cor. 6:77By the word of truth, by the power of God, by the armor of righteousness on the right hand and on the left, (2 Corinthians 6:7), δι' ὅπλων, because that was the proof. It might be thought that verse 8 διὰ δυσφημίας καὶ εὐφημίας was in going through it, but I doubt it.
In 2 Cor. 6 we have a string of examples, of different shades of meaning, still showing that in which he approved himself a minister of God; that in which the characterizing power came out in which he was shown to be suitably such. It was not merely that in those states his conduct proved it, nor simply Jby these things as a means: all concurred in giving evidence. This case is the more remarkable because he changes it after a while to διά. This is only a change of style occasioned by ὅπλων, which were clearly instruments, and not merely characteristic as to the state he was in; and διά goes on rightly because there is contrast: the most opposite things were the means of showing it. The " yet " inserted in English (ver. 8) is wrong. So " the unbelieving husband is sanctified by (έν) the wife "-not " by means of" (διά). Then it would be more real; but just as a Jew was profaned in the Gentile wife-was so characterized in respect of the wife, as qua husband of the Gentile woman, the marriage giving him this character-so the converse held good in Christianity: the other stood, as wife, sanctified by the husband; or, vice versa. This characteristic force is plain in many cases, ἐν ἀληθείᾳ, ἐν δόλῃ, ἐν κρύπτῷ, ἐν προσώπῳ, λόγος ἐν έξουσίᾳ-where it does not mean being really in Christ, it is the same with " Christ," or " the Lord." " Receive her in the Lord," " only in the Lord "; that is, the sense of the Lord, and what He is in the soul, and what the person is as respects His will and claims, is to characterize the reception, the marrying, etc. So of " children, obey your parents in the Lord." " Ye are not in flesh but in Spirit." This characterizes your state, if the Spirit of God dwells in you. So Christ was declared to be Son of God " in power," ἐν δυνάμει, this characterizing the state of sons hip of which the proof was given. On the whole, when it is not used in a material or local sense, ἐν characterizes (not in its source, that is ἐκ, but) what accompanies it; very commonly in English it must be rendered with or by. So in English, " He did it out of hatred " to me: that was its source, cause. " He did it in hatred " or " with hatred "; this characterizes the act when he was doing it. " He did it in self-will." It is the description of the state or condition in which he who acts is.
Διά, genitive and accusative. Its sense is through: with a genitive, simply so, physically and morally, or figuratively: with the accusative more remotely so. It is then a motive or reason for a thing of which the thing is not independent, but not the effective instrument by which an effect is wrought; that is, this is not the sense of διά with an accusative. There are some important passages connected with this distinction: as to time, the literal " through," διά τριῶν ἡμερῶν, " in the course of" (Matt. 26:6161And said, This fellow said, I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days. (Matthew 26:61)); δι' ὅλης τῆς νυκτός, διὰ πυρός, 1 Cor. 3:1515If any man's work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire. (1 Corinthians 3:15) So, I doubt not, δι' ὕδατος, 1 Peter 3:2020Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water. (1 Peter 3:20). Hence, for " in a state of," δι' ἀκροβυστίας, and analogously διὰ τῆς τεκνογονίας, 1 Tim. 2:1515Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety. (1 Timothy 2:15); the article denotes the childbirth she was to undergo. Rom. 4:1010How was it then reckoned? when he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. (Romans 4:10), we have ἐν ἀκροβυστίᾳ, the state as noticed in " ἐν "; that characterized his state. In verse 11, we have ἐν τῇ ἀκροβυστίᾳ and δι' ἀκροβυστίας. Διὰ I apprehend to be more vague and general. That condition specifically and contrastedly characterized Abraham. He was ἐν ἀκροβυστίᾳ. For Gentile believers it was merely de facto they were in that state. So of τεκνογονίας, so of νυκτός. It is a time, state, or period, not a characteristic. For the rest the application of " through " to time, place, and circumstance, is very simple. It then comes to mean the instrument or means by which, or through which, a thing happens, " through " being still the radical thought. It is an intermediate instrument; " all things were made by him." (John 1:33All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made. (John 1:3)). " By whom also he made the worlds." (Heb. 1:22Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; (Hebrews 1:2).) It is not that the same Being may not be the author; but that His action in that case, where διά is used, is looked at as the intermediate instrument of His will, or, it may be, an actually intermediate agency if divine-" without him was not anything made." Thus 1 Cor. 8:66But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him. (1 Corinthians 8:6), εἰς Θεὸς ὁ πατήρ ἐξ οῦ——
Εἰς Κύριος δι' ού. Christ is the divine Creator, but He is in this case viewed as an agent of a divine will. So Heb. 1:22Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; (Hebrews 1:2). The use of διά does not hinder the source of action and the primary agent to be the same person. We read in the chapter, δι' ἑαυτοῦ καθαρισμόν ποιησάμενος. So in Col. 1:1616For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him: (Colossians 1:16) we see He was the end and object, τά πάντα.... είς αυτόν εκτισται, which is said, as to us at least, distinctively of God the Father, 1 Cor. 8:66But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him. (1 Corinthians 8:6); δΓ αύτοϋ being applied to Christ. And in Colossians we have ἐν αὐτῷ ἐκτίσβη (compare ἐν) and δι' αύτου. Creation was characterized by His action, as the world's judgment by ours (ἐν ὑμῖν): but there He was the one by whom all thing? were created. So," spoken by the prophets," here they were intermediate to the Holy Ghost (διά), it was not αφ' αὑτῶν, but δι' αὐτῶν, Luke 1:7070As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began: (Luke 1:70), more fully and absolutely.
The accusative is still through, but a cause or motive, and so more remotely " through "; not the means or instrument. " They had delivered him through envy "; this was the moving cause; their hearts and minds did it; but the medium, intermediate passion, through which they acted, was envy. Matt. 13:5858And he did not many mighty works there because of their unbelief. (Matthew 13:58), " because of their unbelief," still " through," but it was not indeed a motive, but a cause, what occasioned it, because. Here we may notice John 6:5757As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me. (John 6:57), κἀγὼ ζῶ διὰ τὸν πατέρα καὶ ὁ τρὼγων με, κἀκεῖνος ζήσεται δι' ἐμέ: Ø ' because ' of the Father, he that eats me even he shall live é because' of me ": again not as motive, but cause or reason why (chap. 14: 19, ὅτι ἐγὼ ζῶ καὶ ὑμεῖς ζήσεσθε). There was such connection between Him and the Father, that because the Father lived, He lived. The Lord only states the fact: we know they were one. What the Lord states is that it was not an independent life, but that, inasmuch as the Father lived, He lived. The two things could not be separated, and He, speaking as on earth, takes the dependent side, yet the connection was such that if His Father did, He did. So, he that eats Him will live by reason of His living. There was an indissoluble connection. Yet our life is dependent on His, but therefore cannot fail. So Rev. 12:1111And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death. (Revelation 12:11), " through," " by reason of." The use of διά with an accusative for a motive is common: thus, John 7:1313Howbeit no man spake openly of him for fear of the Jews. (John 7:13), Matt. 12:2727And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your children cast them out? therefore they shall be your judges. (Matthew 12:27); so with τό and an infinitive, Luke 2:44And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) (Luke 2:4); both genitive and accusative, Rom. 5:1212Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned: (Romans 5:12): so, διατί, διό.
There is another point to be mentioned in connection with the intermediate character of διά. When the instrument is the proper cause or instrument, the immediate instrument, the noun is in the dative (the δι' ἑαυτοῦ of Heb. 1:33Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; (Hebrews 1:3) only confirming it). The genitive with διά is viewed as another agent from the one who uses it-as a distinct agent. Thus Rom. 5:15, 1715But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many. (Romans 5:15)
17For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.) (Romans 5:17)
, τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παροηπώματι; then verse 16, δι' ἑνὸς ἁμαρτήσαντος, τό δώρημα, by the offense of one, it was the act of the offender himself which brought ruin on all that belonged to him; it was not merely through it as a distinct means, but that act of the one brought the evil in on the many; but God's free gift was by the means of a person brought before us distinctly. So verse 17, τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι ὀ θάνατος ἐβασίλευσε διὰ τοῦ ἑνός; here the one Adam is viewed as a distinct person from death personified, but " by the offense of one " was his act; so at the end of verse 17, διὰ τοῦ ἑνός Ίησοῦ Χριστοῖ. In verse 18, we have it as a distinct act, δι' ἑνός παραπτώματος, εἰς πάντας, in and by itself as a means, " and so by one righteousness." Compare the use of " ἐν " in this same passage. The dative is a mere means identified with the agent, the διά makes a distinct object to the mind.
In Heb. 13:2020Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant, (Hebrews 13:20), " the God of peace brought Christ from the dead, ἐν αἵματι," in that way and character; but in Heb. 9, " Ηe entered in once, διά τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος." (Verse 12.) This refers to οὐ χωρὶς αἵματος of verse 7.. I do not think it means that that was the means of His entering in simply. As to Himself, His person, we all know it was not so: He says, " the Son of man who is in heaven," and could, as to the external fact, have had twelve legions of angels. This is not the question. But even as to us it is not simply that it was needed, but that was the way and state in which He entered in: not He got in by that means even as to us, but He went in in that way. The glorious work, according to the importance and character of the place, would not otherwise have been suitably done, but He did so enter in διά, for it is the force of διὰ I inquire into here. Χωρὶς αἵματος, there could have been no fitting association, however small, between Israel and the most holy place, and He entered in thus offering it (προσφέρει). Christ as our High Priest, and representing us, could not enter thus without blood, or, as regards us, God would not have been glorified: so He entered διὰ His own, showing indeed His own worth and perfectness, not only to be there Himself, but to obtain the entrance of others and (before that) guilty ones; and as priest He enters in with this to present in its power and efficacy for others. It was the witness that He had put away their sins, so that they could come to God, and God was fully glorified. The holiness of the place required this blood-shedding, seeing sin had come in, but according to a holy redemption, in which the innocent never would have been. So He entered in διά His own blood. Man could have had that place in no other way. And He had taken up man's cause. (Christ's personal place is more in the cloud of incense, which is not in question here.) This is a little obscure, but right. It was His act, not His necessity; He entered in with that in its power, and not (as I have said) got in by it.
Eἰs is in general simple-the direction towards; reaching, if not hindered. " I am going to Rome." It is well known that, where it is used with verbs of rest, it implies arrival there by motion. " Thou wilt not leave my soul εἰς ᾄδου," where it had gone on leaving the body. (See 2 Thess. 2:44Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God. (2 Thessalonians 2:4), where it depends on the active force of καθίσαι, sets himself down there.) What is said (Acts 8:2323For I perceive that thou art in the gall of bitterness, and in the bond of iniquity. (Acts 8:23)) of Simon, that he was εἰς χολήν πικρίας is different in sense from ἐν. Ἐν would have been a mere state; here there was will, and the bent of his own mind. " Given up to " would not express it. That implies another, possibly final, possession by it. But his mind was gone that way; " your heart is gone into the gall of bitterness and bond of iniquity ": ὄντα is its state, but its then state was to have given itself to that. Mark 8:1919When I brake the five loaves among five thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took ye up? They say unto him, Twelve. (Mark 8:19) is plain enough, being the direction of the act: He broke it to them, giving it to them; the act was towards them. So ἁμαρτάνω εἰς, Matt. 18:1515Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. (Matthew 18:15), " against thee" as to thee; that was the direction his sin took. So Luke 12:1010And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Ghost it shall not be forgiven. (Luke 12:10), speak a word " against," as to. It is used also for time, verse 19, " laid up for many years "; as we say against winter, as provisions, or for. So for an object, aim, or purpose, Matt. 26:88But when his disciples saw it, they had indignation, saying, To what purpose is this waste? (Matthew 26:8), εἰς τί ἡ ἀπώλεια (Mark 14:4; 15:344And there were some that had indignation within themselves, and said, Why was this waste of the ointment made? (Mark 14:4)
34And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? (Mark 15:34)
); "To what purpose is this waste? " (Where it is a contact of violence, ἐπί is used; nation shall rise ἐπί nation.) This use of as to as an object is common. " She has wrought a good work εἰς ἐμέ," and in several forms, as the baptism of repentance εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιών, Mark 1:4, 384John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins. (Mark 1:4)
38And he said unto them, Let us go into the next towns, that I may preach there also: for therefore came I forth. (Mark 1:38)
, εἰς τοῦτο ἐξελήλυθα.
In connection with the object to which the mind or faith is directed, we have πιστεύω εἰς. So ἐλπίζω εἰς, 2 Cor. 1:1010Who delivered us from so great a death, and doth deliver: in whom we trust that he will yet deliver us; (2 Corinthians 1:10); as in John 6:47; 7:38; 12:4447Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me hath everlasting life. (John 6:47)
38He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. (John 7:38)
44Jesus cried and said, He that believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me. (John 12:44)
, and frequently. When it is the believing simply what a man says, it is the dative, as chapter 10:37, 38, and elsewhere. 1 John 5:1313These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God; that ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the Son of God. (1 John 5:13), πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα; and to the same purport, βαπτίζω εἰς τό ὄνομα,* εἰς Μωσῆν,** εἰς τὸ βάπτισμα Ίωάννου,*** εἰς Χριστόν****. It is that at which they arrived, to which they were attached by the baptism, as they went to Christ: here morally, as to Rome materially. See 1 Cor. 12:1313For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit. (1 Corinthians 12:13), Matt. 28:1919Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: (Matthew 28:19). With Jesus it is ἐπί τῷ ὀνόματι in Acts 2:3838Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. (Acts 2:38), εἰς τό in Acts 19:44Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, that they should believe on him which should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus. (Acts 19:4); so 1 Cor. 1:1313Is Christ divided? was Paul crucified for you? or were ye baptized in the name of Paul? (1 Corinthians 1:13), etc. A singular use of this is in Matt. 10:4141He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a prophet's reward; and he that receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall receive a righteous man's reward. (Matthew 10:41), in the name of a prophet, εἰς ὄνομα. Ἐν ὀνόματι would, it seems to me, be in another's name (ἐπί, Matt. 18:55And whoso shall receive one such little child in my name receiveth me. (Matthew 18:5), Mark 9:3737Whosoever shall receive one of such children in my name, receiveth me: and whosoever shall receive me, receiveth not me, but him that sent me. (Mark 9:37), as the condition of reception), as John 5:4343I am come in my Father's name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive. (John 5:43), where the end of the verse has the same force, pleading, presenting himself, his name, as warrant for reception, as Jesus did the Father's; whereas here εἰς ὄνομα is not the warrant for receiving, but that to which they were received (that is, according to the honor due to a prophet he was received into that place). Εν ὀνόματι is bearing it as a character and warrant of reception, εις the place and title in (into) which he is received. Where we have εἰς τὸ γενέσθαι (Rom. 4:1818Who against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father of many nations, according to that which was spoken, So shall thy seed be. (Romans 4:18)), it is no purpose in the person, nor so that it so resulted, but the bearing of the act; " he believed in hope to the becoming." So εἰς τὸ εἶναι δίκαιον, Rom. 3:2626To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus. (Romans 3:26): also 1:20, Acts 3:1919Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord; (Acts 3:19), 1 Cor. 8:1010For if any man see thee which hast knowledge sit at meat in the idol's temple, shall not the conscience of him which is weak be emboldened to eat those things which are offered to idols; (1 Corinthians 8:10), 2 Cor. 7:33I speak not this to condemn you: for I have said before, that ye are in our hearts to die and live with you. (2 Corinthians 7:3), Eph. 1:1818The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints, (Ephesians 1:18). See 1 Thess. 4:99But as touching brotherly love ye need not that I write unto you: for ye yourselves are taught of God to love one another. (1 Thessalonians 4:9). This idea of an effect or the bearing of any act takes sometimes a very peculiar form. " The Ninevites repented εἰς τό κήρυγμα." They met the preaching by repentance, Matt. 12:4141The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here. (Matthew 12:41). So chapter 14:31, εἰς τί ἐδίστασας; " to what [end] or to what [purpose]?" In the first passage it takes the form of a cause, but having an effect characteristic of the cause. In the second, cause is supposed, " wherefore," for the question " why " supposes a cause, here the want of one. What was the good of it? But it never loses its etymological sense.
The idea of "towards" requires little notice: in the sense of for, in favor of, διακονίας εἰς ἁγίους, 2 Cor. 8:4; 9:14Praying us with much entreaty that we would receive the gift, and take upon us the fellowship of the ministering to the saints. (2 Corinthians 8:4)
1For as touching the ministering to the saints, it is superfluous for me to write to you: (2 Corinthians 9:1)
: so λογίας, 1 Cor. 16:11Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye. (1 Corinthians 16:1). The use of it in chapter 15: 54 is striking; " death is swallowed up εἰς νῖκος," not " in," as if it were lost in a sea which subsisted, but absorbed " into " a victorious power and gone. The end and object is apparent in Phil. 1:55For your fellowship in the gospel from the first day until now; (Philippians 1:5), " your fellowship," εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον; so chapter 2: 22, ἐδούλευσεν εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον. Chapter 4: 15, 17, εἰς λόγον; verse 17 is " to put to the account." Col. 3:1010And have put on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge after the image of him that created him: (Colossians 3:10), ἀνακαινούμενον εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν. (Comp. 1: 10, αὐξανόμενοι τῇ ἐ.) So verse 12, ἱκανώσαντι ἡμᾶς εἰς τὴν μερίδα, where the force of εἰς is the same. It is the goal reached, or to be reached, by ἀνακαινούμενοι and ἱκάνωσεν. Remark on Gal. 3:1717And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. (Galatians 3:17), that it is to Christ, not in. The covenant was confirmed to Him, the Seed (according to Gen. 22); and then we have an example of εἰς τό, as the bearing, οὐκ ἀκυροι, εἰς τό καταργῆσαι τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν to the making of no effect. In 2 Cor. 10:1616To preach the gospel in the regions beyond you, and not to boast in another man's line of things made ready to our hand. (2 Corinthians 10:16), besides εἰς τὰ ὑπερέκεινα, we have, εἰς τὰ ἕτοιμα; so in verses 13, 15, εἰς τά ἄμετρα (see Gal. 6:44But let every man prove his own work, and then shall he have rejoicing in himself alone, and not in another. (Galatians 6:4)); 2 Cor. 2:99For to this end also did I write, that I might know the proof of you, whether ye be obedient in all things. (2 Corinthians 2:9), " obedient εἰς πάντα Ø; Phil. 2:1616Holding forth the word of life; that I may rejoice in the day of Christ, that I have not run in vain, neither labored in vain. (Philippians 2:16), εἰς ἡμέραν.
All these and other like cases which present the same difficulty, I apprehend, flow all from the idea of reaching to the object looked forward to, so as to be up to or fail in this. See a peculiar case in Luke 13:99And if it bear fruit, well: and if not, then after that thou shalt cut it down. (Luke 13:9). As to time this is common: so I suppose " the law a schoolmaster εἰς Χριστόν," reaching unto Him as its object (compare Eph. 1:1414Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory. (Ephesians 1:14)), εἰς τὰ ἅμετρα, εἰς τὰ ὑπερέκεινα, and εἰς τὰ ἕτοιμα, with some irony; 2 Cor. 11:33But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ. (2 Corinthians 11:3), εἰς τὸν Χριστόν. But it has the general sense of as to, concerning, as the object of thought: thus 1 Thess. 5:1818In every thing give thanks: for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus concerning you. (1 Thessalonians 5:18), Eph. 5:3232This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church. (Ephesians 5:32); but in both with " you," with " Christ," with " the church," as the object in view. See Gal. 5:1010I have confidence in you through the Lord, that ye will be none otherwise minded: but he that troubleth you shall bear his judgment, whosoever he be. (Galatians 5:10). So, above, 2 Cor. 2:99For to this end also did I write, that I might know the proof of you, whether ye be obedient in all things. (2 Corinthians 2:9), Luke 16:8, 18And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light. (Luke 16:8)
1And he said also unto his disciples, There was a certain rich man, which had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he had wasted his goods. (Luke 16:1)
Thessalonians and Ephesians are the strongest, for the mere sense of" concerning," " as to," but they have the force of application to, as applying to.
Γενέσθαι εἰς is simple in structure,-to become anything, what is produced. Λογίζεσθαι εἰς, " esteemed such," is pretty nearly as plain. See the difference of ἐλλογεῖται and ἐλογίσθη: the former is putting so much to account, Rom. 5:1313(For until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law. (Romans 5:13), Philem. 1:1818If he hath wronged thee, or oweth thee ought, put that on mine account; (Philemon 18) (only, I believe, in these two places); λογίζομαι is " to esteem, or account as such."
Ἐπί, with genitive, dative, and accusative. The first two mean upon; the last, to, towards, to direct oneself; ἐπί anything (as usual with the accusative), motion, not rest. I state here generally that the genitive is the fact; the dative is more characteristic or permanent connection. With the genitive it signifies on, or before (as " before magistrates," etc.); ἐπί Τίτου, 2 Cor. 7:1414For if I have boasted any thing to him of you, I am not ashamed; but as we spake all things to you in truth, even so our boasting, which I made before Titus, is found a truth. (2 Corinthians 7:14), aupres de. Most cases where the sense is not physical still have the sense of on: miracles on the sick; ἐπ'ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερων, on the last of the days. It is always " at," or " approximation," but as added or upon.
It is used for time, hence Matt. 1:1111And Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren, about the time they were carried away to Babylon: (Matthew 1:11), ἐπί τῆς μετοικεσίας; so Luke 3:22Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness. (Luke 3:2), Acts 11:2828And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar. (Acts 11:28). I doubt as to Mark 2:2626How he went into the house of God in the days of Abiathar the high priest, and did eat the showbread, which is not lawful to eat but for the priests, and gave also to them which were with him? (Mark 2:26), and 12:26, whether it does not mean the section of Jewish scripture. The general sense is adjunctive apposition, without fixed relationship, with the general thought of super—induced. This connects it with the sense of " before." Hence we have over anything, in the genitive, or upon, as, ὁ ὢν ἐπί πάντων Θεὸς, Rom. 9:55Whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen. (Romans 9:5)· Βut here peculiarities have to be noticed, and shades of thought in the writer. Eph. 4:66One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all. (Ephesians 4:6), we have again Θεὸς: ὁ ἐπί πάντων so with βασιλεύει ἐπί. Matt. 2:2222But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither: notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee: (Matthew 2:22). Καθίστημι in Acts 6:33Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business. (Acts 6:3), ους καταστήσομεν έπϊ της χρείας ταύτης: Acts 8:27; 12:2027And he arose and went: and, behold, a man of Ethiopia, an eunuch of great authority under Candace queen of the Ethiopians, who had the charge of all her treasure, and had come to Jerusalem for to worship, (Acts 8:27)
20And Herod was highly displeased with them of Tyre and Sidon: but they came with one accord to him, and, having made Blastus the king's chamberlain their friend, desired peace; because their country was nourished by the king's country. (Acts 12:20)
. We may add Rev. 9:11; 11:611And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon. (Revelation 9:11)
6These have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days of their prophecy: and have power over waters to turn them to blood, and to smite the earth with all plagues, as often as they will. (Revelation 11:6)
. In Matt. 24:4545Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season? (Matthew 24:45), the genitive (καταστήσω), but in verse 47 the dative. So in Luke 12:4242And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season? (Luke 12:42) the genitive, and verse 44 the dative. Matt. 25:21, 2321His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. (Matthew 25:21)
23His lord said unto him, Well done, good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. (Matthew 25:23)
, genitive with καταστήσω (ἐπὶ πολλῶν). The general sense of ἐπί is at, and so upon, before, at, over, against. All these are forms of juxtaposition. But the dative gives more closeness of connection, as in a relative place of charge, when used in the literal sense. As to over, the fact is expressed in the genitive, it is mere place (so of before); " over many things," " over his household," the fact of being, living, or placed above, suffices. With the dative it is not the fact, but the relation conferred. One was over the θεραπεία, in a place of course, but in a superior one. So " over many things." That is in the genitive. So where God is spoken of, it is the genitive. Of course He is above or over all things. But " set him over all his goods " is a distinct, relative, permanent place, definitely given. There it is the dative. Locality is genitive," before magistrates," " on a hill"; but ἐπί with the dative characterizes a state, and in such cases without an article, and denotes the state or character, not merely the locality, ἐπί πίνακι, Matt. 14:88And she, being before instructed of her mother, said, Give me here John Baptist's head in a charger. (Matthew 14:8). Acts 9:3333And there he found a certain man named Eneas, which had kept his bed eight years, and was sick of the palsy. (Acts 9:33), κατακείμενον ἐπί κραββάτῳ (comp. Mark 2:44And when they could not come nigh unto him for the press, they uncovered the roof where he was: and when they had broken it up, they let down the bed wherein the sick of the palsy lay. (Mark 2:4)), that was his state. In Mark 6:5555And ran through that whole region round about, and began to carry about in beds those that were sick, where they heard he was. (Mark 6:55), we have carrying about the sick, ἐπί τοις κραββάτοις, the dative; it was their state, but the article shows the beds the sick were lying habitually on. In chapter 7: 30, we have βεβλημένην ἐπί τῆς κλίνης; it was the fact. " Sitting on horseback," Rev. 6:2, 4, 52And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer. (Revelation 6:2)
4And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword. 5And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand. (Revelation 6:4‑5)
, is the dative. It was a fixed characteristic relationship, given as such. Chapter 4:2: on the throne, genitive; it was a fact, a locality. Often sitting has the accusative, as if the act of him who sits; he set himself on. One must not press the grammar as to language in Revelation, but so it is in chapter 4: 4.
The constant use of the dative is to present the condition, occasion, cause, circumstance, which gives its occasion to the existence of what it refers to: this in a multitude of shapes, but always that by reason or occasion of which the act takes place; sometimes a formal condition, sometimes a mere occasion. The cases are vary frequent. Matt. 4:44But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. (Matthew 4:4)," man lives ἐπί παντὶ ῥήματι Ø; it is the condition or occasion of his living: chapter 7: 28, " they were astonished ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ Ø; it was the occasion, what led to their astonishment; as we say, "at." This is often found. I add a considerable list: Matt. 19:99And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery. (Matthew 19:9), " by reason of"; chapter 22:33; Mark 1:22; 3:522And they were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes. (Mark 1:22)
5And when he had looked round about on them with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts, he saith unto the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it out: and his hand was restored whole as the other. (Mark 3:5)
, " He was grieved ἐπί τῇ πωρώσει." Chapter 9: 37, ἐπί τῷ ὀνόματί μου; his name was the occasion and motive for receiving: so verse 39, and chapter 10:22; Luke 1:14; 5:5; 9:48; 13:1714And thou shalt have joy and gladness; and many shall rejoice at his birth. (Luke 1:14)
5And Simon answering said unto him, Master, we have toiled all the night, and have taken nothing: nevertheless at thy word I will let down the net. (Luke 5:5)
48And said unto them, Whosoever shall receive this child in my name receiveth me: and whosoever shall receive me receiveth him that sent me: for he that is least among you all, the same shall be great. (Luke 9:48)
17And when he had said these things, all his adversaries were ashamed: and all the people rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him. (Luke 13:17)
; Acts 3:12, 1612And when Peter saw it, he answered unto the people, Ye men of Israel, why marvel ye at this? or why look ye so earnestly on us, as though by our own power or holiness we had made this man to walk? (Acts 3:12)
16And his name through faith in his name hath made this man strong, whom ye see and know: yea, the faith which is by him hath given him this perfect soundness in the presence of you all. (Acts 3:16)
, the second a case worthy of remark, ἐπί τῇ πίστει (see Phil. 3:99And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith: (Philippians 3:9)), "on faith," we might say; Acts 4:22Being grieved that they taught the people, and preached through Jesus the resurrection from the dead. (Acts 4:2)i; 5: 35, is also a special case," take heed " ἐπί τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τούτοις, it was the occasion or object which was the occasion, what they were was a motive. It is a more unusual case, Acts 8:22And devout men carried Stephen to his burial, and made great lamentation over him. (Acts 8:2), I suppose," by his occasion," "by reason of him." So we should say in English "over him." It is almost literal. It is not ὑπέρ αὐτῷ. Chapter 14:3 (see Heb. 8:11Now of the things which we have spoken this is the sum: We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens; (Hebrews 8:1), Acts 5:3535And said unto them, Ye men of Israel, take heed to yourselves what ye intend to do as touching these men. (Acts 5:35), 2 Cor. 9:1414And by their prayer for you, which long after you for the exceeding grace of God in you. (2 Corinthians 9:14)), as to the last the Lord being the occasion and motive, the moving object. "As to " is the nearly resulting sense, but weak. Acts 15:31; 20:38; 26:631Which when they had read, they rejoiced for the consolation. (Acts 15:31)
38Sorrowing most of all for the words which he spake, that they should see his face no more. And they accompanied him unto the ship. (Acts 20:38)
6And now I stand and am judged for the hope of the promise made of God unto our fathers: (Acts 26:6)
, Rom. 5:2; 10:192By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God. (Romans 5:2)
19But I say, Did not Israel know? First Moses saith, I will provoke you to jealousy by them that are no people, and by a foolish nation I will anger you. (Romans 10:19)
Cor. 1:4; 9:10, moved, sustained by hope. Chapter 13:6; 16: 17, 2 Cor. 1:4; 3:144Who comforteth us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort them which are in any trouble, by the comfort wherewith we ourselves are comforted of God. (2 Corinthians 1:4)
14But their minds were blinded: for until this day remaineth the same vail untaken away in the reading of the old testament; which vail is done away in Christ. (2 Corinthians 3:14)
, the occasion, but the force of occasioning is small: still it is " at, on that occasion." Chapter 7: 4, 7, 13, the first is again " occasion " (" as to ") without motive; second, its common use; third, the same again, ἐπί Τίτου (verse 14) is aupris de, analogous to " before " a magistrate. The sense is very general, " my boasting in the case of Titus, my Titus-boasting." Chapter 9: 13, 15, are simple cases: as to 14, it is more doubtful; but I believe it to be " in your case": see 1 Thess. 3:77Therefore, brethren, we were comforted over you in all our affliction and distress by your faith: (1 Thessalonians 3:7). I doubt its being " upon." Eph. 2:1010For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them. (Ephesians 2:10), " with that in view," " under that condition "-I do not mean as a condition to be fulfilled,-but He so created us, that being the state and character which entered into the conditions of the creation in God's mind (see 1 Thess. 4:77For God hath not called us unto uncleanness, but unto holiness. (1 Thessalonians 4:7)). Phil. 1:3, 5; 3:93I thank my God upon every remembrance of you, (Philippians 1:3)
5For your fellowship in the gospel from the first day until now; (Philippians 1:5)
9And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith: (Philippians 3:9)
; again ἐπί τῇ πίστει, moyetmant. Acts 3:1616And his name through faith in his name hath made this man strong, whom ye see and know: yea, the faith which is by him hath given him this perfect soundness in the presence of you all. (Acts 3:16), 1 Thess. 3:7, 9; 4:77Therefore, brethren, we were comforted over you in all our affliction and distress by your faith: (1 Thessalonians 3:7)
9For what thanks can we render to God again for you, for all the joy wherewith we joy for your sakes before our God; (1 Thessalonians 3:9)
7For God hath not called us unto uncleanness, but unto holiness. (1 Thessalonians 4:7)
. These are " as to," " by occasion of," " by reason of," what comes in as an occasion or ground, Titus 1:22In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began; (Titus 1:2), ἐπ' ἐλπίδι; this calls for attention. It is " in view of having that as his object." As the good works or holiness, so this hope was in God's mind (now revealed) one of the conditions of existence of this gospel scheme. Philem. 1:77For we have great joy and consolation in thy love, because the bowels of the saints are refreshed by thee, brother. (Philemon 7), Heb. 7:1111If therefore perfection were by the Levitical priesthood, (for under it the people received the law,) what further need was there that another priest should rise after the order of Melchisedec, and not be called after the order of Aaron? (Hebrews 7:11), " under that condition and order of things." The law being the condition of their existence with God, their raison d'etre. So Heb. 9:10, 15, 17, 2610Which stood only in meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed on them until the time of reformation. (Hebrews 9:10)
15And for this cause he is the mediator of the new testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance. (Hebrews 9:15)
17For a testament is of force after men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth. (Hebrews 9:17)
26For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. (Hebrews 9:26)
(8:1 seems to me a case we have had, amounting in sense to " in respect of," taking these into view: " as to these this is the sum," the summing up to be attached to them; see Acts 5:3535And said unto them, Ye men of Israel, take heed to yourselves what ye intend to do as touching these men. (Acts 5:35), 2 Cor. 9:1414And by their prayer for you, which long after you for the exceeding grace of God in you. (2 Corinthians 9:14), Acts 14:33Long time therefore abode they speaking boldly in the Lord, which gave testimony unto the word of his grace, and granted signs and wonders to be done by their hands. (Acts 14:3)), Heb. 10:2828He that despised Moses' law died without mercy under two or three witnesses: (Hebrews 10:28) (this connects with another branch of the same general meaning, but the two or three were the condition of conviction), James 5:11Go to now, ye rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come upon you. (James 5:1), Rev. 18:99And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning, (Revelation 18:9) (this is," as to her," " on her occasion "); so verse 11.
I have dwelt on this, because the general idea of the condition of existence of that which is expressed in the verb is (where it is not physical) the main use of ἐπί with the dative. The accusative, as ever, puts the object farther off, and supposes or states movement towards it. Some cases may appear singular, and, as with εἰς, verbs of rest are so put, if movement has led to it: and the difference depends on what is in the writer's mind. Some cases remain; duration of time, " till," has ἐπί with an accusative; it looks forward to it as a point for time to move on to; as Acts 17:2; 19:8, 10; 20:9, 112And Paul, as his manner was, went in unto them, and three sabbath days reasoned with them out of the scriptures, (Acts 17:2)
8And he went into the synagogue, and spake boldly for the space of three months, disputing and persuading the things concerning the kingdom of God. (Acts 19:8)
10And this continued by the space of two years; so that all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks. (Acts 19:10)
9And there sat in a window a certain young man named Eutychus, being fallen into a deep sleep: and as Paul was long preaching, he sunk down with sleep, and fell down from the third loft, and was taken up dead. (Acts 20:9)
11When he therefore was come up again, and had broken bread, and eaten, and talked a long while, even till break of day, so he departed. (Acts 20:11)
, Rom. 7:11Know ye not, brethren, (for I speak to them that know the law,) how that the law hath dominion over a man as long as he liveth? (Romans 7:1), Gal. 4:11Now I say, That the heir, as long as he is a child, differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all; (Galatians 4:1), Acts 18:2020When they desired him to tarry longer time with them, he consented not; (Acts 18:20), and doubtless others. When it is a given point attained, we have the genitive, as Heb. 1:11God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, (Hebrews 1:1), 2 Peter 3:33Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, (2 Peter 3:3) (comp. Luke 3:22Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness. (Luke 3:2), Acts 11:2828And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should be great dearth throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar. (Acts 11:28)). As to falling and sitting, genitive and accusative will be found, I apprehend, as the writer looks at the act of falling (accusative), or to the result and to the ground (there genitive). One would be fell " to," the other " on "; compare Matt. 26:77There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head, as he sat at meat. (Matthew 26:7), the act, with accusative: verse 12, the result when on the body (genitive); Luke 22:4444And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground. (Luke 22:44), accusative. In Acts 10:1111And saw heaven opened, and a certain vessel descending unto him, as it had been a great sheet knit at the four corners, and let down to the earth: (Acts 10:11), we have both: the sheet was κατοβαῖνον ἐπ' αὐτόν, and καθιέμενον ἐπί τῆς γῆς, there it was actually on it. In Rev. 4:2, 42And immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and one sat on the throne. (Revelation 4:2)
4And round about the throne were four and twenty seats: and upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold. (Revelation 4:4)
, you have both with καθήμενον. In Luke 22:3030That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. (Luke 22:30), it is genitive (so as to eating at table). In Rev. 20:44And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. (Revelation 20:4), accusative: " salt" is more active here. Acts 12:2121And upon a set day Herod, arrayed in royal apparel, sat upon his throne, and made an oration unto them. (Acts 12:21), genitive: " being set down " ἐπί τοῦ βήματος. Matt. 23:22Saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat: (Matthew 23:2), genitive: " sit on Moses' seat." Chapter 25:31, genitive, " on the throne of his glory." In Matt. 24:33And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world? (Matthew 24:3), we have the genitive; Luke 21:3535For as a snare shall it come on all them that dwell on the face of the whole earth. (Luke 21:35), accusative. Then with κάθημαι, Acts 8:2828Was returning, and sitting in his chariot read Esaias the prophet. (Acts 8:28), genitive, John 12:1515Fear not, daughter of Sion: behold, thy King cometh, sitting on an ass's colt. (John 12:15), accusative. Perhaps we might say, "seated on" for genitive, " sitting on " for accusative. The genitive is the fact of locality, the accusative more the activity of the person. (In Rev. 6:2, 4, 52And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer. (Revelation 6:2)
4And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword. 5And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand. (Revelation 6:4‑5)
, αὐτῳ of the received text, should be αὐτόν, accusative, according to the best copies). Matt. 9:99And as Jesus passed forth from thence, he saw a man, named Matthew, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he saith unto him, Follow me. And he arose, and followed him. (Matthew 9:9), accusative. In chapter 28:2, αὐτοῦ ἐπάνω, being locality always, has always the genitive. The only apparent exception is 1 Cor. 15:66After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. (1 Corinthians 15:6); but this is attractively governed by ὤφθη. There are a few other cases to notice: John 8:77So when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. (John 8:7), ἐπ' αὐτῇ; verse 59, ἐπ' αὐτόν. The latter is simple and physical, " cast stones at him ": in verse 7 " let him first cast the stone in respect of her, with her in view, as to her." In Matt. 16:1818And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. (Matthew 16:18), " on this rock" is dative. 1 Cor. 3:1212Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble; (1 Corinthians 3:12)," build on this foundation," ἐπί (accusative). The former, I apprehend, is fixed relationship, as we have seen. It is the object to which His activity tends in the actual fact of building. The rock is there; He builds on it. In the second he actively adds materials to the foundation.
Heb. 10:21; 3:6; 7:1321And having an high priest over the house of God; (Hebrews 10:21)
6But Christ as a son over his own house; whose house are we, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end. (Hebrews 3:6)
13For he of whom these things are spoken pertaineth to another tribe, of which no man gave attendance at the altar. (Hebrews 7:13)
, and 8:8, are all accusative, which may be noted. " Over the house," etc., is always the accusative. There are other passages, as Acts 7:1010And delivered him out of all his afflictions, and gave him favor and wisdom in the sight of Pharaoh king of Egypt; and he made him governor over Egypt and all his house. (Acts 7:10), Luke 1:3333And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end. (Luke 1:33). It is not locality, not proper relationship as connected with it, but " set over." In the case of superiority necessarily and permanently abiding over various things or persons, it is genitive, as we have seen (Matt. 24:4545Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season? (Matthew 24:45), Luke 12:4242And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season? (Luke 12:42)), and, when set over in formed determinate relationship, dative (Matt. 24:4747Verily I say unto you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods. (Matthew 24:47), Luke 12:4444Of a truth I say unto you, that he will make him ruler over all that he hath. (Luke 12:44)). Here with " setting over a house or people," it is accusative. " He is at the head of the house "; I could not say " at the head of all his goods," but " over them." You could not have the immediate relationship with a house, and it falls into the government of what has set him there. (I doubt the word " own " in Heb. 3:66But Christ as a son over his own house; whose house are we, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end. (Hebrews 3:6); it does not affect this question).
There remains πιστεύω ἐπί, ἐλπίζω ἐπί, etc. Thus we have 1 Tim. 4:1010For therefore we both labor and suffer reproach, because we trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, specially of those that believe. (1 Timothy 4:10), ἠλπίκαμεν ἐπί Θεῷ; chapter 5:5, ἐπί Θεόν; 1 Peter 3:55For after this manner in the old time the holy women also, who trusted in God, adorned themselves, being in subjection unto their own husbands: (1 Peter 3:5) ἐλπίζουσαι ἐπί τὸν Θεόν; 1 John 3:33And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure. (1 John 3:3) ἐλπίδα ἔχειν ἐπ' αὐτῷ; Heb. 2:1313And again, I will put my trust in him. And again, Behold I and the children which God hath given me. (Hebrews 2:13), ἔσομαι πεποιθὼ ςἐπ' αὐτῷ; Rom. 15:1212And again, Esaias saith, There shall be a root of Jesse, and he that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles; in him shall the Gentiles trust. (Romans 15:12), ἐπ' αὐτῷ ἐλπιοῦσι. In these " counting, reckoning, leaning on Him," as in English. 1 Tim. 6:1717Charge them that are rich in this world, that they be not highminded, nor trust in uncertain riches, but in the living God, who giveth us richly all things to enjoy; (1 Timothy 6:17), dative, riches. The difference is the same; the accusative looks out at the object of trust (often εἰς), the dative rests in Him on whom we lean. The difference of idea with the same fact is seen in Matt. 26:7, 127There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head, as he sat at meat. (Matthew 26:7)
12For in that she hath poured this ointment on my body, she did it for my burial. (Matthew 26:12)
, the act and the result, when it was on His body, the first accusative, the second genitive.
The general idea of adding with a dative is frequent, ἐπί πασι, ἐπί τούτοις. " Besides these I have gained ten, or five, talents more," Matt. 25:20, 2220And so he that had received five talents came and brought other five talents, saying, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me five talents: behold, I have gained beside them five talents more. (Matthew 25:20)
22He also that had received two talents came and said, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me two talents: behold, I have gained two other talents beside them. (Matthew 25:22)
. " Besides all this, shut up John in prison," Luke 3:2020Added yet this above all, that he shut up John in prison. (Luke 3:20), and in many ordinary cases, as Eph. 6:1616Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked. (Ephesians 6:16). What is Rom. 4:1818Who against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father of many nations, according to that which was spoken, So shall thy seed be. (Romans 4:18)? The condition or state of his mind in believing, as in 1 Cor. 9:1010Or saith he it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written: that he that ploweth should plow in hope; and that he that thresheth in hope should be partaker of his hope. (1 Corinthians 9:10), and Rom. 8:2020For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope, (Romans 8:20). (The first, Rom. 4:1818Who against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father of many nations, according to that which was spoken, So shall thy seed be. (Romans 4:18), is only doubtful because of πιστεύω). We say " on trust," or " credit," in the same way (not on hope). It characterizes the state or condition.
Κατά, save in a few isolated cases, does not present any difficulty in its application. It means literally down with a genitive; and with the accusative, down along, primarily; but it seems to me to have more the sense of going through the governed object; even in the genitive it is not " down " to an object, but " down along," as a hill. Its secondary meaning in the genitive, and more frequent in New Testament, is against. In the accusative it has more distinctly the sense of along, through, amongst, throughout, when literally used. Its secondary meaning is the object governed by it measuring the action which is connected with it by κατά, according to the sense of the word governed by it, as καθ' ἡμέραν, day by day, or every day: κατ' οἶκον. It is much oftener used in the accusative than in the genitive, and in most cases can be translated according to. It has always the same sense, though it cannot be rendered the same in English; but the action of the sentence is measured or estimated by the word governed by κατὰ whatever comes under that category: thus καθ' ὁδόν, κατὰ πᾶσαν αἰτίαν, " so far as for every cause." Here the very cause measures the action. So κατ' ἐπαγγελίαν ζωῆς, this measured the apostleship and gave it its character. He was an apostle by the will of God in a service morally measured and characterized by that Περιπατεῖν κατὰ ἀγάπην, ζῆν κατὰ τὴν αἵρεσιν: according to love, and the principle of that sect were the measure and character of his walk and life. It is always the same fundamentally, as κατὰ τὰς πλατείας his walk was measured and characterized by the streets of the city, or ὅλην τὴν χώραν, " all the region." Hence it has the sense implicitly of through or thorough, and this is the origin of its use in composition, κρίνω, κατακρίνω, καταχρώμενος (where the sense is not " abusing," but " using " it as ours).
A few questions arise. What is 1 Cor. 15:1515Yea, and we are found false witnesses of God; because we have testified of God that he raised up Christ: whom he raised not up, if so be that the dead rise not. (1 Corinthians 15:15)," borne witness κατὰ Θεοῦ? " We find also swearing by God, Matt. 26:63, and Heb. 6:13, 16. But I believe the sense to be " reaching to and embracing all through " its object. When the swearing is merely the fact of bringing a person in, it is ἐν, not κατά, as in all New Testament examples, I,believe; but Matt. 26 and Heb. 6, where the solemnity of the case gives κατά, and " against" has the same radical force. The connection of the two is seen in 1 Cor. 15:1515Yea, and we are found false witnesses of God; because we have testified of God that he raised up Christ: whom he raised not up, if so be that the dead rise not. (1 Corinthians 15:15), we have testified of God, κατὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ. It reached to and embraced even God, so as to comprise Him in the matter: we have said that God raised Him. Hence we can have καθ' ὅλης τὴς περιχώρου, and ὅλην τὴν πόλιν; the general idea being the same, " reaching to and embracing," " going through": only the genitive being more of local rest, " throughout," and the accusative connected with motion, or objective, his walk reached to the whole city and took it in. The καθ' ὅλης is more complete and absolute, more pervading, than καθ' ὅλην, but this, though seemingly a nice difference, is distinct enough when the mind expresses it. "A fame went throughout the whole region " gives the idea of pervading; " he went through all Galilee," the country he traversed as a general fact, going to different parts of the whole country. Yet these things form the power and beauty of style. I could hardly say " he went καθ' ὅλης τῆς πολεῶς." It fills the place too much, unless he went to every house in it, and then there is too much the object of activity. But" reaching to," " embracing," and so measured by it materially or morally, is always the leading idea, taking in that and measured by it in the sentence in which it is used, against, according to, down, are the general English translation. Hence we have καθ' ὑμᾶς with the sense of apud: see Rom. 16:55Likewise greet the church that is in their house. Salute my wellbeloved Epaenetus, who is the firstfruits of Achaia unto Christ. (Romans 16:5), 1 Cor. 16:1919The churches of Asia salute you. Aquila and Priscilla salute you much in the Lord, with the church that is in their house. (1 Corinthians 16:19), Col. 4:1515Salute the brethren which are in Laodicea, and Nymphas, and the church which is in his house. (Colossians 4:15)," church in his house." In English, " your " being the sense, " a poet of yours," Acts 17; 28 Again in Col. 4:77All my state shall Tychicus declare unto you, who is a beloved brother, and a faithful minister and fellowservant in the Lord: (Colossians 4:7), Eph. 3:2020Now unto him that is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that we ask or think, according to the power that worketh in us, (Ephesians 3:20), Phil. 1:1212But I would ye should understand, brethren, that the things which happened unto me have fallen out rather unto the furtherance of the gospel; (Philippians 1:12); Ephe-sians 1:15, "your faith," "faith found with you." It is still carrying the mind on to them and taking them in; what precedes is found there, it singles him out as belonging to them, the measure of his character was that it was theirs. See 1 Peter 4:1414If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are ye; for the spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you: on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified. (1 Peter 4:14); here " measure," (we say in English, " as far as they are concerned"), Rom. 11:21, 2421For if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he also spare not thee. (Romans 11:21)
24For if thou wert cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and wert graffed contrary to nature into a good olive tree: how much more shall these, which be the natural branches, be graffed into their own olive tree? (Romans 11:24)
, κατά φύσιν κλάδοι " natural branches, or according to nature," it was their measure, estimate, and character: other branches were not that, but παρά φύσιν. Hence κατὰ τὴν ὁδόν, Acts 8:3636And as they went on their way, they came unto a certain water: and the eunuch said, See, here is water; what doth hinder me to be baptized? (Acts 8:36), journeying characterized the place of the water, it was not κατ' οἶκον, but κατὰ τὴν ὁδόν.
Μετά is simple enough, it is juxtaposition; σύν is connection. Hence μετά with the genitive is among, with; but in the accusative, still juxtaposition; but what is μετὰ is removed on, and at the end of, what is placed in juxtaposition to. Practically it is always with when the noun is in the genitive, and often when in the accusative. I know but one sentence where the sense is doubtful—Luke 1:7272To perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant; (Luke 1:72). The English can hardly be borne out. The fathers are looked at as those with whom mercy was in exercise, but in the blessing confirmed in their children, according to the promise made to them.
Παρά is always by, by the side of, and, in genitive and dative, as far as I am aware, " near a person." In the genitive it is "from with a person"; in the dative, with or near him. In the accusative, having the force of movement withal, it refers also to places, but still with the force of beside: but hence may mean beyond, outside of, out of the way, along, besides, but always with the same radical force: πίιπειν παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν, " by the way side "; περιπατεὶν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν, ἁμαρτωλοί παρὰ πάντας "beyond all"; ἡμερα παρ' ἡμέρας, beyond, that is, as better, παρὰ φύσιν, " unnatural," Ø not according to nature," something " beside and beyond it "; παρ' ἐλπίδα," beyond hope παρὰ τὸν κτίσαντα, " more than," " besides, and beyond." 1 Cor. 12:1515If the foot shall say, Because I am not the hand, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body? (1 Corinthians 12:15) is the only difficult passage I am aware of. I do not think it can be " on account of." Παρά has also thus the force of comparison, excellent; παρά, because it is beyond the thing compared with. Παρά τοῦτο is, I apprehend, assuming this to be so, if I set this by the side of the other, supposing it is not a foot, is it therefore not of the body?
Περί is simply about, the accusative, giving as usual more the idea of activity as to the object, even where the sense is substantially the same, οἱ καθήμενοι περὶ αὐτόν: περὶ ἐμέ, Phil. 2:2323Him therefore I hope to send presently, so soon as I shall see how it will go with me. (Philippians 2:23); αἱ περὶ τὰ λοιπὰ ἐπιθυμίαι, Mark 4:1919And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful. (Mark 4:19).
The only thing to remark further is Acts 25:1818Against whom when the accusers stood up, they brought none accusation of such things as I supposed: (Acts 25:18), where it may be a question whether it is to be connected with σταθέντες, which is hardly the case, and so used physically (compare ver. 7), or with ἐπέφερον, concerning him. It runs into the sense of in reference to. It answers to about in English pretty exactly. There is the well-known peculiarity of οἱ περί τινα being used for the person himself, as Acts 13:1313Now when Paul and his company loosed from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphylia: and John departing from them returned to Jerusalem. (Acts 13:13), " including "; πρὸς τάς περί (Μ. Καὶ Μ.), John 11:1919And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother. (John 11:19), where it is the persons themselves, and hence τάς. If Acts 25:1818Against whom when the accusers stood up, they brought none accusation of such things as I supposed: (Acts 25:18) be not so, there is no example of περί governing the genitive in the New Testament in a material sense. With the noun in the accusative it is frequent. The different shade of meaning may be noticed in Phil. 2:19, 20, 2319But I trust in the Lord Jesus to send Timotheus shortly unto you, that I also may be of good comfort, when I know your state. 20For I have no man likeminded, who will naturally care for your state. (Philippians 2:19‑20)
23Him therefore I hope to send presently, so soon as I shall see how it will go with me. (Philippians 2:23)
, περί ὑμῶν. In verses 19, 20, it was the actual circumstances that surrounded them, the state they were in. In verse 23, it was what related to him, what was going to happen to him, what referred to him, not what he was then in. But these are mere shades of thought, yet sensible ones, and give beauty and tone to speech. As regards things and places, to which the things which are περί refer, we have seen that in the New Testament, if it be not the one exception, the word after περί is always in the accusative.
Πρό, genitive only; before, as to time, place, and hence in front of, as in English. It calls for no particular remark.
Πρός, genitive, dative, accusative. Its common use is the accusative with (as ever) the thought of motion toward a remote object, or rather an object not in connection already with that which acts by the preposition. There are in the New Testament but six exceptions (two, new readings) to the objective case, in die Richtung hin. Five have the dative, where it is at, connection, proximity. Thus Luke 19:3737And when he was come nigh, even now at the descent of the mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works that they had seen; (Luke 19:37), ἐγγίζοντος πρὸς τὴυ καταβάσιν would be " drawing near the descent," but τῇ καταβάσει, " as he drew near (that is, Jerusalem) at the descent," etc.
The only case that requires any notice is the one instance of the genitive, Acts 27:3434Wherefore I pray you to take some meat: for this is for your health: for there shall not an hair fall from the head of any of you. (Acts 27:34), in which the genitive force is remote at first sight, but it was towards the side of, connected with, their safety that their eating took place. With the genitive, it seems to me, there is an ellipse; πρός τινος, by some one, that is, " by," at his side. The text is the same; it was on the side of, associated with their safety. It was πρός, in the direction of, the accomplishment of their safety. Hence " for " is quite right in sense. Πρός always directs the thought to; hence the accusative is its natural case, but it may show me something directing me toward another as its cause or source, and then it is genitive. If directing my thoughts to it, as at, it is dative; if as towards, the accusative, πρός τό ὄρος, " towards the mountain "; πρός τῷ ὄρει still so, but at it, an der, an die. We have πρός ἑαυτούς, πρὸς ἀλλήλους διαλογίζεσθε, because it was in addressing, speaking to, each other. So Acts 28:2525And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed, after that Paul had spoken one word, Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers, (Acts 28:25), a more striking case. The objectivity is less sensible in some cases, but still is there, as in περί. "Are not his sisters all πρός ἡμᾶς Ø; Mark 6:33Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were offended at him. (Mark 6:3): so 9: 19, πρὸς ὑμᾶς (so John 1:22The same was in the beginning with God. (John 1:2), Mark 2:2; 4:12And straightway many were gathered together, insomuch that there was no room to receive them, no, not so much as about the door: and he preached the word unto them. (Mark 2:2)
1And he began again to teach by the sea side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land. (Mark 4:1)
, 1 Cor. 16:6, 7, 106And it may be that I will abide, yea, and winter with you, that ye may bring me on my journey whithersoever I go. 7For I will not see you now by the way; but I trust to tarry a while with you, if the Lord permit. (1 Corinthians 16:6‑7)
10Now if Timotheus come, see that he may be with you without fear: for he worketh the work of the Lord, as I also do. (1 Corinthians 16:10)
, 2 Cor. 12:2121And lest, when I come again, my God will humble me among you, and that I shall bewail many which have sinned already, and have not repented of the uncleanness and fornication and lasciviousness which they have committed. (2 Corinthians 12:21)) " with you," not μετά associated, but apud, not cum. So πρὸς καιρὸν πιστεύουσι, " up to a certain time." A more unusual case is Luke 12:4747And that servant, which knew his lord's will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes. (Luke 12:47), προς τό θέλημα, not κατά taking it as the rule or measure, but up to it, reaching it, acting with a view to it, as an object to be attained; he had it as his object. It was not failure in measure merely, but in purpose, and taking it as his measure, the object of his mind and will; and this sense (practically " according to ") goes far in its use: 2 Cor. 5:1010For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. (2 Corinthians 5:10), " received according to what he has done," πρός ἅ. Gal. 2:1414But when I saw that they walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, I said unto Peter before them all, If thou, being a Jew, livest after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, why compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews? (Galatians 2:14), πρὸς τὴν ἀλήθειαν, " according to the truth," keeping it in view as an object; Eph. 3:44Whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ) (Ephesians 3:4), 2 Cor. 3:44And such trust have we through Christ to God-ward: (2 Corinthians 3:4): so " we have peace towards God," Rom. 5:11Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ: (Romans 5:1), looking at Him as the object; Acts 24:1616And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offence toward God, and toward men. (Acts 24:16), conscience, and Rom. 15:1717I have therefore whereof I may glory through Jesus Christ in those things which pertain to God. (Romans 15:17), a more peculiar case, but the same. Hence it may be comparative, as the object to which we refer, Rom. 8:1818For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us. (Romans 8:18). Hence Matt. 19:88He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so. (Matthew 19:8), " Moses in view of the hardness of your heart." " So προς τους αγγέλους, Heb. 1:7, 87And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire. 8But unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy kingdom. (Hebrews 1:7‑8), as to speaking, with them in view in His mind. As to time, we have πρός, towards, πρός Ισπέραν, Luke 24:2929But they constrained him, saying, Abide with us: for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent. And he went in to tarry with them. (Luke 24:29), 1 Cor. 7:55Defraud ye not one the other, except it be with consent for a time, that ye may give yourselves to fasting and prayer; and come together again, that Satan tempt you not for your incontinency. (1 Corinthians 7:5), προς καιρόν " up to a certain time," " for a season." It is used as to swearing to any one. Mark 9:1010And they kept that saying with themselves, questioning one with another what the rising from the dead should mean. (Mark 9:10), some " kept it to themselves/' Mark 13:2222For false Christs and false prophets shall rise, and shall show signs and wonders, to seduce, if it were possible, even the elect. (Mark 13:22), note, " in order to seduce " the object; in Matthew we find ὥστε πλανῆσαι.
It practically has the sense of against with certain verbs. They " murmured against the disciples," Luke 5:3030But their scribes and Pharisees murmured against his disciples, saying, Why do ye eat and drink with publicans and sinners? (Luke 5:30), they were the objects of their murmur; Luke 20:1919And the chief priests and the scribes the same hour sought to lay hands on him; and they feared the people: for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them. (Luke 20:19), " with them in view." "At " would do in English. Acts 19:38; 23:30; 24:19; 26:1438Wherefore if Demetrius, and the craftsmen which are with him, have a matter against any man, the law is open, and there are deputies: let them implead one another. (Acts 19:38)
30And when it was told me how that the Jews laid wait for the man, I sent straightway to thee, and gave commandment to his accusers also to say before thee what they had against him. Farewell. (Acts 23:30)
19Who ought to have been here before thee, and object, if they had ought against me. (Acts 24:19)
14And when we were all fallen to the earth, I heard a voice speaking unto me, and saying in the Hebrew tongue, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks. (Acts 26:14)
, 1 Cor. 6:11Dare any of you, having a matter against another, go to law before the unjust, and not before the saints? (1 Corinthians 6:1): so Eph. 6:1212For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places. (Ephesians 6:12), but still as the object in view. Thus in Col. 3:1919Husbands, love your wives, and be not bitter against them. (Colossians 3:19), towards would do as well as against, or better. Another use of it, still with the sense of having the other as an objective view, is found 2 Corinthians
6: 14, 15, " fellowship of light with darkness," " concord of Christ with Belial." If I bring one to the other, there is no concord or fellowship, nothing in common. In Eph. 4:1212For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: (Ephesians 4:12), the object is the perfecting of the saints: a result to be attained as a second consequence was ministry and the body. It is to be noted that the individual saint comes first in Ephesians, though the epistle be full of the church. Eph. 5:3131For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they two shall be one flesh. (Ephesians 5:31) is somewhat peculiar," joined to," not" with." He was " to leave father and mother and be joined to her."
The object is distinctly seen in 1 Tim. 4:7, 87But refuse profane and old wives' fables, and exercise thyself rather unto godliness. 8For bodily exercise profiteth little: but godliness is profitable unto all things, having promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come. (1 Timothy 4:7‑8), 2 Tim. 3:16, 1716All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 17That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works. (2 Timothy 3:16‑17), 2 Peter 1:33According as his divine power hath given unto us all things that pertain unto life and godliness, through the knowledge of him that hath called us to glory and virtue: (2 Peter 1:3). In Heb. 1:1313But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool? (Hebrews 1:13), it may be doubtful if to or as to be best, on account of its common use after " speaking," see verse 7, 8. See 1 John 5:16, 1716If any man see his brother sin a sin which is not unto death, he shall ask, and he shall give him life for them that sin not unto death. There is a sin unto death: I do not say that he shall pray for it. 17All unrighteousness is sin: and there is a sin not unto death. (1 John 5:16‑17); we see that object does not mean always mental intention, but πρός in fact, and here James 4:55Do ye think that the scripture saith in vain, The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy? (James 4:5) comes in.
Σύν needs no comment. It is with governing a dative. It is different from μετά in that it is not only accompanying as to being together or near so as to mean after, as we have seen, with the accusative; but association, connection. There is no passage requiring observation. It naturally governs the dative, which is the case of close connection or relationship, as the accusative is of object in view. I add, it is together in something common to both, not mere proximity as μετά.
Ὑπέρ requires more attention: over is its natural meaning; only over, not on-that would be ἐπί. Then with the accusative, which always gives an object or motion, " over in place," that is, beyond; ὑπέρ with the genitive in the moral sense, in which alone it is used in the New Testament, has the sense of for, in favor of, and as " for " also has in English, in the place of, in that place in which another would have been if the one who is there for him had not, or at any rate taking that place when he cannot. Thus, " to pray for, or in favor of," it takes hence the sense of for in general in favoring or having any good (i.e., what is favorable) as an object, 2 Cor. 1:1111Ye also helping together by prayer for us, that for the gift bestowed upon us by the means of many persons thanks may be given by many on our behalf. (2 Corinthians 1:11), "by prayer ὑπέρ ἡμῶν 2 Cor. 1:66And whether we be afflicted, it is for your consolation and salvation, which is effectual in the enduring of the same sufferings which we also suffer: or whether we be comforted, it is for your consolation and salvation. (2 Corinthians 1:6), "for your consolation " ὑπέρ τῆς ὑμῶν παρακλήσεως: Rom. 8:31, 3231What shall we then say to these things? If God be for us, who can be against us? 32He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things? (Romans 8:31‑32), Θεὸς ὑπέρ ἡμῶν: Rom. 1:55By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name: (Romans 1:5) ὑπέρ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ: John 17:1919And for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they also might be sanctified through the truth. (John 17:19), ὑπέρ αὐτών I sanctify myself." Hence it runs into the sense of on our account, as 2 Cor. 5:1212For we commend not ourselves again unto you, but give you occasion to glory on our behalf, that ye may have somewhat to answer them which glory in appearance, and not in heart. (2 Corinthians 5:12), " to glory on our behalf"; so chapter 7: 4, and even into in respect of, but still in the sense of favorable feeling: 2 Cor. 7:4, 7, 144Great is my boldness of speech toward you, great is my glorying of you: I am filled with comfort, I am exceeding joyful in all our tribulation. (2 Corinthians 7:4)
7And not by his coming only, but by the consolation wherewith he was comforted in you, when he told us your earnest desire, your mourning, your fervent mind toward me; so that I rejoiced the more. (2 Corinthians 7:7)
14For if I have boasted any thing to him of you, I am not ashamed; but as we spake all things to you in truth, even so our boasting, which I made before Titus, is found a truth. (2 Corinthians 7:14)
.
All this is sufficiently plain. It is the same in English with " for." The remaining point is that as it descends to what is, " in respect of," so it rises to the sense of " instead of," " in the place of": so, in English, " I could not do it, but he has done it for me." " It is in my favor," but means withal, " in my stead." Its being in my favor does not drop out of the sense, but there is the added idea of its being done in my stead. Thus in 2 Cor. 5:2020Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God. (2 Corinthians 5:20), ὑπέρ Χριστοῦ πρεσβεύομεν, with the context which precedes.
In 1 Peter 3:1818For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: (1 Peter 3:18), " Christ suffered περί ἁμαρτιῶν," so 1 John 2:22And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world. (1 John 2:2); but 1 Peter 4:11Forasmuch then as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise with the same mind: for he that hath suffered in the flesh hath ceased from sin; (1 Peter 4:1), ὑπέρ ἡμῶν, and in 1 Peter 3:1818For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: (1 Peter 3:18), ὑπέρ ἀδίκων. So chapter 2: 21 and often. Nor is it merely on our account, through us, that is διά, 1 Peter 1:2020Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you, (1 Peter 1:20), He has been manifested δι' ήμας; so Christ was περί ἁμαρτίας " a sacrifice for sin," the technical word therefore for the sin offering, Heb. 10:6, 86In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure. (Hebrews 10:6)
8Above when he said, Sacrifice and offering and burnt offerings and offering for sin thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure therein; which are offered by the law; (Hebrews 10:8)
, and Rom. 8:33For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh: (Romans 8:3). But in Heb. 5:11For every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins: (Hebrews 5:1), and 7: 27, we have ὑπέρ ἁμαρτιῶν, also in the former case in the same sentence with ὑπέρ ἀνθρώπων. This is the extreme case noticed of descending to the sense " in respect of." Still it is in the sense of an object which the favor of the actor or efficacy of the instrument would obtain for us. Nor is περί ἁμαρτίας or περί ἁμαρτιῶν and ὑπερ ἁμαρτιών the same thing: περί may be to God, according to the exigency of His righteousness and glory; ὑπέρ ἁμαρτιῶν is always, I apprehend, in view of some one " in whose favor," " to whose advantage," it is done. The cases are 1 Cor. 15:33For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; (1 Corinthians 15:3), Gal. 1:44Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father: (Galatians 1:4)," our " in both cases. Heb. 5:1, 3; 7:27; 9:71For every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins: (Hebrews 5:1)
3And by reason hereof he ought, as for the people, so also for himself, to offer for sins. (Hebrews 5:3)
27Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people's: for this he did once, when he offered up himself. (Hebrews 7:27)
7But into the second went the high priest alone once every year, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and for the errors of the people: (Hebrews 9:7)
, where the connection of the two, persons and errors, is most complete; chapter 10: 12 is the most abstract of all and like περί, but I do not apprehend ὑπέρ ἁμαρτίας is to be found in the New Testament nor would be put. In general it is the object of interest, favor, or action, not merely a subject but an object, and in the heart of the agent, or purpose of the instrument, and hence different from περί or διά.
Ύπό, under, genitive and accusative. The meaning, where not physical, as ὑπὸ τῆς γῆς (in Rev. 5:3, 133And no man in heaven, nor in earth, neither under the earth, was able to open the book, neither to look thereon. (Revelation 5:3)
13And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, Blessing, and honor, and glory, and power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever. (Revelation 5:13)
, it is ὑποκάτω), is " under the influence or effect of," " under the power of," and so the effect of a cause. The accusative, as usual, introducing motion towards an object, at least of thought; thus 1 Cor. 10:99Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents. (1 Corinthians 10:9), ὑπό τών ὄφεων ἀπολέσθαι; Acts 15:44And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received of the church, and of the apostles and elders, and they declared all things that God had done with them. (Acts 15:4) ἀποδέχεσθαι ὑπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας; John 14:2121He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him. (John 14:21), ἀγαπάσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ Πατρός. The reception, the love (flowed from Him), was the effect of an influence coming out from Him; πάσχειν ὑπὸ, which gives its essential force, for it is used with the passive, as we say, " suffer under " a thing or person; Mark 5:2525And a certain woman, which had an issue of blood twelve years, (Mark 5:25), 1 Thess. 2:1414For ye, brethren, became followers of the churches of God which in Judea are in Christ Jesus: for ye also have suffered like things of your own countrymen, even as they have of the Jews: (1 Thessalonians 2:14). 2 Cor. 11:2424Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one. (2 Corinthians 11:24), the sense is this with ἔλαβον. So Heb. 12:33For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds. (Hebrews 12:3), with ὑπομένω. 2 Peter 1:1717For he received from God the Father honor and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. (2 Peter 1:17) is more peculiar; it is the principal thing under the effect or influence of which the other happened, though not absolutely a cause or instrument, which directly is not the force of ὑπό, though it amounts to it in common parlance, as " spoken ὑπό τῶν προφητῶν" the person ὑπό whom being the agent or vessel, which is its very common use; but it is the effect of their action on, or it is under their hand or mind in it, in its being done. There is a receptive passive condition in the person or thing which is ὑπό. Whereas with διά, the person or thing
which acts διά is viewed actively: a man is baptized ὑπό John, tempted ὑπό Satan, loved ὑπό τοῦ Πατρός, surnamed ὑπό the apostles, and hence it is so constantly used with the passive. The most peculiar use in this respect is Rev. 6:88And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth. (Revelation 6:8), ἐν till you come to the beasts; these being distinct agents, it is ὑπό as to them under which men suffer. It may be said of its use in the New Testament that when the sense is passive (when another thing is acted on by what is governed by ὑπό), the word governed is in the genitive: where the sense is active (that is, when the word governed by ὑπό is that under which something is placed or set; and even with the verb substantive, when the sense is being placed there, or no verb of the sense be such), the governed noun is in the accusative. A man set under authority, who is under authority, not acted on by it, but so placed under heaven, that is, when the subject of the sentence is referred to it objectively, then it is the accusative, and it signifies under. When it is acted on by the word governed by ὑπό, the genitive is used, and it signifies by, of, or with, in the same sense as "loved of the Father," " delivered to me of my Father," " vexed with the conversation." The accusative is the relative position towards the governed word (the universal force of the accusative); the genitive a subjected or receptive condition to or from the action of the governed word. The subject of the sentence is the object of the governed word's action. " I am set under authority "; authority would be accusative. It is my relationship to it. So Matt. 8:99For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me: and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it. (Matthew 8:9), "I am directed by authority "; authority would be in the genitive, because I am subjected to its action. Generally, therefore, with the genitive the sentence is passive in form, always in sense. If the governed word be that towards which the subject is in relationship, the form is immaterial; as, " ye are under the law," " under sin." It is accusative. It may be expressed thus-when the subject which is ὑπό is referred to that ὑπό which it is objectively, this latter is in the accusative; when the former is passively under the effect of this latter, this is in the genitive. One is ὑπό τὸν νόμον, τὴν κατάραν. It is his position towards the law, the curse destroyed. In ὑπό τῶν ὄφεων, the destruction is the effect of this latter.
Χωρίς, genitive: without, apart from, " wholly unconnected with," as not in relationship, so as that, as to the subject, it is the same as if it did not exist. But there is no case requiring any particular notice. Compare ἄνευ.