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There are four Hebrew words so translated, but they are all apparently from the same root, signifying “strong, hardy,” and are mostly applied to the oak, which lives to a great age. Three species of the Quercus are known in Palestine, the pseudo-coccifera, cegilops, and iafectoria. It is symbolical of strength, and affords shade from the heat of the sun (Gen. 35:8; Josh. 24:26; Isa. 1:29; Isa. 2:13; Ezek. 27:6; Hos. 4:13; Amos 2:9; Zech. 11:2). The word elah is judged to refer to the terebinth (pistacia terebinthus), though generally translated oak (Gen. 35:4; Judg. 6:11,19; 2 Sam. 18:9-14; 1 Kings 13:14; 1 Chron. 10:12; Isa. 1:30; Ezek. 6:13).