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King of Assyria, successor to Tiglath-pileser (B.C. 727). He is sometimes called Shalmaneser III, and sometimes IV. He made Hoshea, king of Israel, tributary; but Hoshea revolted, relying on So, king of Egypt. In the ninth year of Hoshea’s reign (B.C. 722), Samaria was taken and the inhabitants were carried away captive (2 Kings 17:3; 2 Kings 18:9). It may be noticed that Shalmaneser’s name is mentioned only in these two passages, afterward the term “the king of Assyria” is employed; and in 2 Kings 18:10 it is said, “at the end of three years they took it.” This leaves room for SARGON, the next king of Assyria, to have finished the siege, and to have carried away the captives. He succeeded to the Assyrian throne in the year B.C. 722, and on his monuments he claims to have taken Samaria in his first year.