Boyd’s Bible Dictionary:

The Jewish law of retaliation permitted the deprivation of “eye for eye, tooth for tooth”
(Ex. 21:24). The principle of this law was condemned by Christ (Matt. 5:38-42). Teeth used figuratively for the inheritable quality of sin (Ezek. 18:2); “cleanness of teeth” a figure for famine (Amos 4:6); “gnashing of teeth” indicative of rage and despair (Matt. 8:12).

From Manners and Customs of the Bible:

Psalm 58:6. Break their teeth, O God, in their mouth: break out the great teeth of the young lions, O Lord.
This is thought by some to be a continuation of the figure in the preceding verse, and to allude to the custom of snake charmers, who, it is said, often break out the teeth of the serpents they wish to tame, and remove the poisonous gland; though this is not always done, as the preceding note shows.
This interpretation, however, supposes a “mixed figure” in the text: a sudden transition from the serpent’s teeth to the teeth of young lions. Other interpreters therefore suppose that the reference to serpent charming closes with the fifth verse, and that in the sixth verse an allusion is made to an ancient custom of heathen kings, who were in the habit of knocking out the teeth of their prisoners, or of those who had offended them.

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