Zidon, Sidon

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Eldest son of Canaan, son of Ham, and the city in Phoenicia founded by his descendants (Gen. 10:15, 19). In scripture Tyre is nearly always mentioned first, though it is probable that in early days Zidon had the supremacy, which led to the district of Phoenicia being called Sidon, and the people thereof Zidonians. In Joshua 11:8 and Joshua 19:28, it is called “great Zidon.” It fell to the lot of Asher, but they did not drive out the inhabitants, which led to the Israelites serving the gods of the place (Judg. 1:31; Judg. 10:6). Solomon also loved some of their women, and imitated their form of idolatry (1 Kings 11:1,33).
Zidon is denounced by the prophets for destruction. It is charged with being a “pricking brier” to the house of Israel, and a “grieving thorn” around them (Ezek. 28:21-24). Jehovah says of Zidon, in conjunction with Tyre, that they had taken His gold and silver and pleasant things, and carried them into their heathen temples, and had also sold the children of Judah unto the Grecians, to remove them far from their border (Joel 3:4-8). A warning message from Jeremiah was sent to the king of Zidon and neighboring kings, exhorting them to submit to Nebuchadnezzar, who was Jehovah’s servant (Jer. 27:3). We do not read that Nebuchadnezzar took Zidon, indeed his lengthy siege of Tyre probably enriched Zidon. The city is mentioned in Genesis 49:13; Isaiah 23:2-12; Jeremiah 25:22; Jeremiah 27:4; Ezekiel 27:8; Zechariah 9:2.
The Lord Jesus visited its coasts, and said that it should be more tolerable in the day of judgment for Tyre and Sidon than for the cities in which He had done his mighty works (Matt. 11:21-22; Matt. 15:21; Acts 12:20; Acts 27:3).
The destruction of Zidon was remarkable. They revolted from the Persians, but Tennes their king turned traitor and betrayed them. When the place was besieged, many of the citizens went out in submission, but were cruelly butchered. They had burnt their ships that none might escape, and seeing no effectual means of defense, in despair they shut themselves up in their houses, set them on fire, and perished in the flames. This was in B.C. 351. It gradually recovered from this destruction and became again a flourishing town. It is now called Saida, 33° 34' N, a city of some 9000 inhabitants: there are many ruins.
In the Hebrew the name is Tzidon, as in the margin of Genesis 10:15. Sidon is the Greek form of the name.