Children

Psalm 127:3; Exodus 21:15,17; Deuteronomy 21:18-21; Exodus 13:13; Deuteronomy 21:17; 1 John 2:1,12-13,18,28; 1 John 2:1,12,28; 1 John 2:13,18; Romans 9:26-27; 2 Corinthians 3:7,13; Galatians 3:7,26; Ephesians 2:2; Ephesians 5:6; Colossians 3:6; 1 Thessalonians 5:5; Hebrews 11:22; Hebrews 12:5; Revelation 2:14; Revelation 7:4; Revelation 12:5; Revelation 21:12; Acts 4:27,30; Acts 4:25
David proclaimed, “Lo, children are an heritage of Jehovah: and the fruit of the womb is his reward” (Psa. 127:33Lo, children are an heritage of the Lord: and the fruit of the womb is his reward. (Psalm 127:3)). Women in the East had a great desire for children, as may be seen by Sarah, Rachel, and Leah giving their handmaids to their husbands that they might have children by them, and this ever characterized the women of Israel afterward.
The law commanded children to honor their parents, and if a son smote or cursed his parents he was put to death (Ex. 21:15,1715And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death. (Exodus 21:15)
17And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death. (Exodus 21:17)
). Parents were to teach the law to their children, and to chastise them when needed, and if a son was disobedient and contumacious the men of the city were to stone such a one (Deut. 21:18-2118If a man have a stubborn and rebellious son, which will not obey the voice of his father, or the voice of his mother, and that, when they have chastened him, will not hearken unto them: 19Then shall his father and his mother lay hold on him, and bring him out unto the elders of his city, and unto the gate of his place; 20And they shall say unto the elders of his city, This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he will not obey our voice; he is a glutton, and a drunkard. 21And all the men of his city shall stone him with stones, that he die: so shalt thou put evil away from among you; and all Israel shall hear, and fear. (Deuteronomy 21:18‑21)). The first born was claimed by God, and had to be redeemed (Ex. 13:1313And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break his neck: and all the firstborn of man among thy children shalt thou redeem. (Exodus 13:13)); and the eldest son inherited a double portion of his father’s possessions (Deut. 21:1717But he shall acknowledge the son of the hated for the firstborn, by giving him a double portion of all that he hath: for he is the beginning of his strength; the right of the firstborn is his. (Deuteronomy 21:17)).
Metaphorically we meet with “children of Zion,” “children of Belial,” “children of the devil,” often referring to their moral character.
In the New Testament various Greek words are translated children in the AV. Thus in 1 John 2:1, 12-13,18,281My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: (1 John 2:1)
12I write unto you, little children, because your sins are forgiven you for his name's sake. 13I write unto you, fathers, because ye have known him that is from the beginning. I write unto you, young men, because ye have overcome the wicked one. I write unto you, little children, because ye have known the Father. (1 John 2:12‑13)
18Little children, it is the last time: and as ye have heard that antichrist shall come, even now are there many antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last time. (1 John 2:18)
28And now, little children, abide in him; that, when he shall appear, we may have confidence, and not be ashamed before him at his coming. (1 John 2:28)
“little children” occurs; and though correct, yet there is a difference in the words. 1 John 2:1,12,281My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: (1 John 2:1)
12I write unto you, little children, because your sins are forgiven you for his name's sake. (1 John 2:12)
28And now, little children, abide in him; that, when he shall appear, we may have confidence, and not be ashamed before him at his coming. (1 John 2:28)
refer to all Christians as God’s children; but 1 John 2:13,1813I write unto you, fathers, because ye have known him that is from the beginning. I write unto you, young men, because ye have overcome the wicked one. I write unto you, little children, because ye have known the Father. (1 John 2:13)
18Little children, it is the last time: and as ye have heard that antichrist shall come, even now are there many antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last time. (1 John 2:18)
refer to young children or babes as a class, in contrast to young men and fathers. Again, in many places where the word is νιός, and should be translated “sons,” the AV has “child” or “children” ( Rom. 9:26-2726And it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people; there shall they be called the children of the living God. 27Esaias also crieth concerning Israel, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved: (Romans 9:26‑27); 2 Cor. 3:7,137But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away: (2 Corinthians 3:7)
13And not as Moses, which put a vail over his face, that the children of Israel could not stedfastly look to the end of that which is abolished: (2 Corinthians 3:13)
; Gal. 3:7,267Know ye therefore that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham. (Galatians 3:7)
26For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus. (Galatians 3:26)
; Eph. 2:22Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience: (Ephesians 2:2); Eph. 5:66Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience. (Ephesians 5:6); Col. 3:66For which things' sake the wrath of God cometh on the children of disobedience: (Colossians 3:6); 1 Thess. 5:55Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness. (1 Thessalonians 5:5); Heb. 11:2222By faith Joseph, when he died, made mention of the departing of the children of Israel; and gave commandment concerning his bones. (Hebrews 11:22); Heb. 12:55And ye have forgotten the exhortation which speaketh unto you as unto children, My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of him: (Hebrews 12:5); Rev. 2:1414But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication. (Revelation 2:14); Rev. 7:44And I heard the number of them which were sealed: and there were sealed an hundred and forty and four thousand of all the tribes of the children of Israel. (Revelation 7:4); Rev. 12:55And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne. (Revelation 12:5); Rev. 21:1212And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel: (Revelation 21:12)); besides often in the Gospels and Acts. See SON. Again, in Acts 4:27,3027For of a truth against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together, (Acts 4:27)
30By stretching forth thine hand to heal; and that signs and wonders may be done by the name of thy holy child Jesus. (Acts 4:30)
the word is παῖς, which is as often translated “servant” as “child,” the word signifying both. In these verses it would be much better to translate “thy holy servant Jesus”; David is also called “servant” in Acts 4:2525Who by the mouth of thy servant David hast said, Why did the heathen rage, and the people imagine vain things? (Acts 4:25).