Chronology

Genesis 11:26; Genesis 11:32; Genesis 12:4; Acts 7:4; Exodus 12:40; Galatians 3:17; 1 Kings 6:1; 1 Kings 11:42; Ezekiel 4:4-6; Jeremiah 25:11-12; Jeremiah 29:10; Daniel 9; Genesis 15:16; Judges 10:7-8; Acts 13:19-20; Ezra 1
There are more links of time mentioned in scripture than is generally supposed, forming together an approximate chronology. There is however one great difficulty in the variations of the Hebrew text from the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Septuagint. It is found that there must have been a systematic alteration somewhere, and if the Hebrew text is correct, a period of 100 years has been added to the lives of several, both before the Flood and after it.
HEBREW SAMARITAN SEPTUAGINT
NAMES. Age at birth of son. Rest of life. Whole Life Age at birth of son. Rest of Life Whole Life Age at birth of son Rest of Life Whole life
Adam 130 800 930 130 800 930 230 700 930
Seth 105 807 912 105 807 912 205 707 912
Enos 90 815 905 90 815 905 190 715 905
Cainan 70 840 910 70 840 910 170 740 910
Mahalaleel 65 830 895 65 830 895 165 730 895
Jared 162 800 962 62 785 847 162 800 962
Enoch 65 300 365 65 300 365 165 200 365
Methuselah 187 782 969 67 653 720 167 802 969
1871 7822
Lamech 182 595 777 53 600 653 188 565 753
Noah 500 450 950 500 450 950 500 450 950
To the Flood 100 100 100
TOTAL 1656 1307 2242
From the Flood to the Call of Abraham 427 1017 1247
TOTAL - 2083 2324 3489
The above figures form the basis of what is called the “long chronology” from the LXX, and the “short chronology” from the Hebrew. It will be seen that there are about 1400 years difference from the birth of Seth to the Call of Abraham. It is difficult to see why the Hebrew text should be abandoned; and if it were, what superior claim would the LXX have over the Samaritan Pentateuch?
A summary of the several periods is added, with a few notes and references to the scriptures.
• From Adam to the Flood (Arrived at by adding the ages of the patriarchs, when the sons named were born.) — 1656 years
• From the commencement of the Temple to the division of the kingdom (Solomon reigned 40 years, 1 Kings 11:4242And the time that Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel was forty years. (1 Kings 11:42) and the Temple was begun in his 4th year.) — 37 years
• From the 1st year of Cyrus to the 20th year of Artaxerxes, when the 70 weeks of Daniel commenced (Not given in scripture. Cyrus, 7 years; Cambyses, 7; Pseudosmerdis, 1; Darius, 36; Xerxes, 11; Artaxerxes, 19.) — 81 years
• From the 20th of Artaxerxes to the Era A.D. (From the 20th of Artaxerxes to the crucifixion is, according to Dan. 9, 69 weeks = 483 years; from which deduct 29, the date of the crucifixion: 483-29 = 454). See SEVENTY WEEKS. — 454 years
Total Years — 4004
As to the time of the Judges it appears clear from Judges 10:7-87And the anger of the Lord was hot against Israel, and he sold them into the hands of the Philistines, and into the hands of the children of Ammon. 8And that year they vexed and oppressed the children of Israel: eighteen years, all the children of Israel that were on the other side Jordan in the land of the Amorites, which is in Gilead. (Judges 10:7‑8) that the events recorded did not all follow chronologically: there were oppressions in the west by the Philistines and in the east by the Ammonites in “the same year”; the periods of some of the Judges also being synchronal. The AV of Acts 13:19-2019And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Chanaan, he divided their land to them by lot. 20And after that he gave unto them judges about the space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet. (Acts 13:19‑20), presents a difficulty, but most of the Editors (with MSS א A B C) read “he gave them their land for an inheritance for the space of [or literally in] 450 years; and after that he gave them judges,” and this rendering removes all difficulty. It will be seen by the above that most of the dates affixed to the A. V. are approximately correct: the reign of Artaxerxes is an exception and is incorrect, as may be seen under SEVENTY WEEKS. See JUDGES, KINGS, ANTIOCHUS, and NEW TESTAMENT.
The principal events stand thus:
B.C.
4004 Adam created.
2948 Noah born.
2348 The Flood.
1996 Abraham born.
1921 Call of Abraham.
1896 Isaac born.
1836 Jacob born.
1706 The Israelites enter Egypt.
1491 The Exodus. The law given.
1451 The Israelites cross the Jordan.
1444 The division of the land. (See JUDGES.)
1095 Saul anointed king: the kingdom begins.
1055 David, king.
1015 Solomon, king.
1005 Dedication of the Temple.
975 Division of the kingdom. (See KINGS.)
(776 Era of the Olympiads begins.)
(753 Rome built: era of A.U.C. begins.)
740 Captivity of the two and a half tribes east of the Jordan.
721 End of the kingdom of Israel.
658 Manasseh carried to Babylon.
606 Jerusalem taken: first captivity of Judah.
605 Nebuchadnezzar reigns alone. Time of the Gentiles begins in the first great empire—Babylon.
599 Jerusalem re-taken: the great captivity.
588 Jerusalem re-taken and destroyed.
538 Belshazzar slain: the second great empire commences. The Medes and Persians.
475 Artaxerxes succeeds Xerxes.
455 Artaxerxes commissions Nehemiah to build Jerusalem. The Seventy Weeks of Daniel begin.
336 Alexander the Great, head of the third great empire—The Greek.
323 Death of Alexander the Great: his four Generals divide the kingdom, but it mainly merged into two kingdoms: Egypt, “kings of the south,” and Syria, “kings of the north.” (See ANTIOCHUS.)
191 All Asia Minor on the west of Mount Taurus delivered to Rome.
166 to about 65. The times of the Maccabees. In 166 Jerusalem was recovered and the temple re-dedicated.
65 Rome, the fourth great empire, rapidly gains ascendancy. Syria becomes a Roman province. In 63 Judaea is subjected to Rome. In 30 Egypt becomes a Roman province.
40 Herod is appointed by Rome king of Judaea.
20 Herod begins to re-build the temple.
6 Birth of John the Baptist.
5 Birth of Christ. (See NEW TESTAMENT.)