Medes, Media

Genesis 10:2; 2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 18:11; Daniel 9:1; Daniel 5:28; Daniel 6:8,12,15; Daniel 8:3; Esther 1:3,14,18; Esther 10:2; Isaiah 13:17; Isaiah 21:2; Jeremiah 25:25; Jeremiah 51:11,28; Daniel 8:20; Acts 2:9; Daniel 5:31
The Hebrew is the same for the two words. This powerful race is traced back to Madai the son of Japheth (Gen. 10:22The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. (Genesis 10:2)). They occupied a large district, having the Caspian Sea on the north-east; Armenia on the north-west; Parthia on the east; Persia on the south; and Assyria on the west. The boundaries no doubt varied at different times owing to the conflicts of the Medes with their neighbors.
The first mention of them is when Shalmaneser took Samaria and carried away the Israelites, placing some of them “in the cities of the Medes” (2 Kings 17:66In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. (2 Kings 17:6); 2 Kings 18:1111And the king of Assyria did carry away Israel unto Assyria, and put them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes: (2 Kings 18:11)). Under Cyaxares (about B.C. 634) a Median empire was founded. He is called Ahasuerus in Daniel 9:11In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans; (Daniel 9:1). He pushed his conquests westward, and was able to overthrow the Assyrian empire. Astyages succeeded Cyaxares, but Cyrus the Persian was rising in power and subdued Astyages, but allowed him to reign as king, and he was probably Darius the Mede of Daniel. The kingdom was called at first that of the “Medes and Persians,” as in Daniel 5:2828PERES; Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians. (Daniel 5:28); and Daniel 6:8,12,158Now, O king, establish the decree, and sign the writing, that it be not changed, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not. (Daniel 6:8)
12Then they came near, and spake before the king concerning the king's decree; Hast thou not signed a decree, that every man that shall ask a petition of any God or man within thirty days, save of thee, O king, shall be cast into the den of lions? The king answered and said, The thing is true, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not. (Daniel 6:12)
15Then these men assembled unto the king, and said unto the king, Know, O king, that the law of the Medes and Persians is, That no decree nor statute which the king establisheth may be changed. (Daniel 6:15)
; but, at a later period, the Persians had the pre-eminence (Compare Dan. 8:33Then I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last. (Daniel 8:3)), and are mentioned first (Esther 1:3,14,183In the third year of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his servants; the power of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, being before him: (Esther 1:3)
14And the next unto him was Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, which saw the king's face, and which sat the first in the kingdom;) (Esther 1:14)
18Likewise shall the ladies of Persia and Media say this day unto all the king's princes, which have heard of the deed of the queen. Thus shall there arise too much contempt and wrath. (Esther 1:18)
). They conquered Babylon and Asia Minor. On the death of Astyages, Cyrus reigned alone. It became the second great empire of the Gentiles. See DANIEL. There were some bearing the name of Medes present at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost. The Medes and Persians are considered to have been branches of the Aryan race and were one in origin, language, religion (Esther 10:22And all the acts of his power and of his might, and the declaration of the greatness of Mordecai, whereunto the king advanced him, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Media and Persia? (Esther 10:2); Isa. 13:1717Behold, I will stir up the Medes against them, which shall not regard silver; and as for gold, they shall not delight in it. (Isaiah 13:17); Isa. 21:22A grievous vision is declared unto me; the treacherous dealer dealeth treacherously, and the spoiler spoileth. Go up, O Elam: besiege, O Media; all the sighing thereof have I made to cease. (Isaiah 21:2); Jer. 25:2525And all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of Elam, and all the kings of the Medes, (Jeremiah 25:25); Jer. 51:11,2811Make bright the arrows; gather the shields: the Lord hath raised up the spirit of the kings of the Medes: for his device is against Babylon, to destroy it; because it is the vengeance of the Lord, the vengeance of his temple. (Jeremiah 51:11)
28Prepare against her the nations with the kings of the Medes, the captains thereof, and all the rulers thereof, and all the land of his dominion. (Jeremiah 51:28)
; Dan. 8:2020The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia. (Daniel 8:20); Acts 2:99Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, (Acts 2:9)). Darius in Daniel 5:3131And Darius the Median took the kingdom, being about threescore and two years old. (Daniel 5:31) is called the MEDIAN.