Boyd’s Bible Dictionary:

(thonging). A common Hebrew punishment. The scourge was made of three lashes of leather or cord. Not more than forty stripes could be administered (Deut. 25:1-3; Matt. 10:17; 23:34). Rods or twigs were also used (2 Cor. 11:25).

Concise Bible Dictionary:

This was a punishment inflicted by the Romans. The culprit was stripped and stretched by cords or thongs on a frame, and beaten with a whip or a rod. From about B.C. 300 Roman citizens were exempt from scourging. Paul availed himself of this privilege when he was about to be “examined” under this punishment (Acts 22:24-29). But he was thrice beaten with rods (2 Cor. 11:25). The Lord was subject to the pain and indignity of scourging (John 19:1).

From Manners and Customs of the Bible:

Matthew 27:26. When he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified.
See also Mark 15:15; John 19:1.
It was customary among the Romans to scourge a condemned criminal before he was put to death. From Luke 23:16, some have doubted whether the scourging of Jesus was a punishment of that character, inasmuch as Pilate there seems desirous to substitute scourging for crucifixion. It is not, however, a question of any practical moment, since the scourging was probably as severe as was usual in the cases of the condemned.
Scourging among the Romans was a more severe punishment than among the Jews. See note on Matthew 10:17 (#656). The scourge was made of cords or thongs of leather, and especially of ox-hide. There was one sort with which slaves were beaten, the use of which was particularly dreadful. It was knotted with bones, or heavy, indented circles of bronze. Sometimes the thongs, two or three in number, terminated in hooks. Such an instrument of torture was called a scorpion. There was no legal limit to the number of blows, as among the Jews; but the unfortunate culprit, bound to a low pillar, so that his bent back might more readily receive the heavy strokes, was beaten with merciless severity, and death was sometimes the result of this cruel punishment. Paul refers to Roman scourging in 2 Corinthians 11:24-25.

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