Son

Concise Bible Dictionary:

Besides the application of this term to natural generation, it is used metaphorically in scripture. The appellation “son” implies “likeness.” The term is employed thus to mark moral likeness, as of a son to a father, so “a son of Belial” (1 Sam. 25:1717Now therefore know and consider what thou wilt do; for evil is determined against our master, and against all his household: for he is such a son of Belial, that a man cannot speak to him. (1 Samuel 25:17)); “thou son (υἱός) of the devil” (Acts 13:1010And said, O full of all subtilty and all mischief, thou child of the devil, thou enemy of all righteousness, wilt thou not cease to pervert the right ways of the Lord? (Acts 13:10)); “sons of disobedience” (Eph. 5:66Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience. (Ephesians 5:6); Col. 3:66For which things' sake the wrath of God cometh on the children of disobedience: (Colossians 3:6)): also “sons of light” and “sons of day” (1 Thess. 5:55Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness. (1 Thessalonians 5:5)). It is also used to signify physical likeness: strong men are “sons of strength” (2 Kings 2:1616And they said unto him, Behold now, there be with thy servants fifty strong men; let them go, we pray thee, and seek thy master: lest peradventure the Spirit of the Lord hath taken him up, and cast him upon some mountain, or into some valley. And he said, Ye shall not send. (2 Kings 2:16), margin).
The idea of sonship differs somewhat in the case of Christians from that of being “children.” The thought of “children” is more of a generation which is of God. “Now are we the children of God” (1 John 3:22Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is. (1 John 3:2)). “Sons” expresses the height of God’s calling, and properly refers to heaven and glory. It implies intelligently entering into the purpose of God. God is bringing many sons to glory (Heb. 2:1010For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings. (Hebrews 2:10)). Christians are represented as being both children and sons of God. The distinction between these two words is not always clearly maintained in the AV. In Rom. 9:26-2726And it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people; there shall they be called the children of the living God. 27Esaias also crieth concerning Israel, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved: (Romans 9:26‑27); 2 Cor. 3:7, 137But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away: (2 Corinthians 3:7)
13And not as Moses, which put a vail over his face, that the children of Israel could not stedfastly look to the end of that which is abolished: (2 Corinthians 3:13)
; Gal. 3:7, 267Know ye therefore that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham. (Galatians 3:7)
26For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus. (Galatians 3:26)
; Eph. 2:22Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience: (Ephesians 2:2); Eph. 5:66Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience. (Ephesians 5:6); Col. 3:66For which things' sake the wrath of God cometh on the children of disobedience: (Colossians 3:6); 1 Thess. 5:55Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness. (1 Thessalonians 5:5); Heb. 11:2222By faith Joseph, when he died, made mention of the departing of the children of Israel; and gave commandment concerning his bones. (Hebrews 11:22); Heb. 12:55And ye have forgotten the exhortation which speaketh unto you as unto children, My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of him: (Hebrews 12:5); Rev. 2:1414But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication. (Revelation 2:14); Rev. 7:44And I heard the number of them which were sealed: and there were sealed an hundred and forty and four thousand of all the tribes of the children of Israel. (Revelation 7:4); Rev. 12:55And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne. (Revelation 12:5); Rev. 21:1212And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel: (Revelation 21:12) (and often in the Gospels and the Acts) “sons” (υἱός) should be read instead of “children.” On the other hand, in John 1:1212But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name: (John 1:12); 1 Cor. 4:14,1714I write not these things to shame you, but as my beloved sons I warn you. (1 Corinthians 4:14)
17For this cause have I sent unto you Timotheus, who is my beloved son, and faithful in the Lord, who shall bring you into remembrance of my ways which be in Christ, as I teach every where in every church. (1 Corinthians 4:17)
; Phil. 2:15,2215That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world; (Philippians 2:15)
22But ye know the proof of him, that, as a son with the father, he hath served with me in the gospel. (Philippians 2:22)
; 1 Tim. 1:2,182Unto Timothy, my own son in the faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God our Father and Jesus Christ our Lord. (1 Timothy 1:2)
18This charge I commit unto thee, son Timothy, according to the prophecies which went before on thee, that thou by them mightest war a good warfare; (1 Timothy 1:18)
; 2 Tim. 1:22To Timothy, my dearly beloved son: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord. (2 Timothy 1:2); 2 Tim. 2:11Thou therefore, my son, be strong in the grace that is in Christ Jesus. (2 Timothy 2:1); Titus 1:44To Titus, mine own son after the common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour. (Titus 1:4); Philem. 1:1010I beseech thee for my son Onesimus, whom I have begotten in my bonds: (Philemon 10); 1 John 3:1-21Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God: therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not. 2Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is. (1 John 3:1‑2), “children” (τέκνον) should be read instead of “sons.” Both words are employed in the Epistles of Paul, but “τέκνον” only, as regards believers, in the writings of John, except Revelation 21:77He that overcometh shall inherit all things; and I will be his God, and he shall be my son. (Revelation 21:7). See SΟNS OF GOD.