Urim and Thummim

Leviticus 8:8; Numbers 27:21; Deuteronomy 33:8; 1 Samuel 28:6; Ezra 2:63; Nehemiah 7:65; Exodus 28:30
The signification of these Hebrew words is “lights” and “perfections.” They were distinct from the gems on the breastplate, for Moses put the breastplate upon Aaron, “also he put in [or ‘on’] the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim” (Lev. 8:88And he put the breastplate upon him: also he put in the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim. (Leviticus 8:8)). It is clear that God answered questions by means of the Urim and Thummim (Num. 27:2121And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall ask counsel for him after the judgment of Urim before the Lord: at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation. (Numbers 27:21); Deut. 33:88And of Levi he said, Let thy Thummim and thy Urim be with thy holy one, whom thou didst prove at Massah, and with whom thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah; (Deuteronomy 33:8); 1 Sam. 28:66And when Saul inquired of the Lord, the Lord answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by Urim, nor by prophets. (1 Samuel 28:6)). On the return of the Jews from Babylon some, who claimed to be priests but could not show their genealogy, were not allowed to eat of the holy things until there should stand up a priest with Urim and Thummim, and an answer be obtained from God. This great privilege has never yet been restored (Ezra 2:6363And the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and with Thummim. (Ezra 2:63); Neh. 7:6565And the Tirshatha said unto them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and Thummim. (Nehemiah 7:65)).
It may be remarked that there is no record as to the construction of the Urim and Thummim, nor of their form. The first mention of them is in Exodus 28:3030And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the Lord: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the Lord continually. (Exodus 28:30): “Thou shalt put in [or ‘on’] the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth in before the Lord,” as if God had given them to Moses, and had merely to tell him what to do with them—if indeed they were material things; but what they were, and how the answers were given, is not revealed. When Israel is restored, Christ Himself will take the place of the ancient Urim and Thummim.