Zidon, Sidon

Genesis 10:15,19; Joshua 11:8; Joshua 19:28; Judges 1:31; Judges 10:6; 1 Kings 11:1,33; Ezekiel 28:21-24; Joel 3:4-8; Jeremiah 27:3; Genesis 49:13; Isaiah 23:2-12; Jeremiah 25:22; Jeremiah 27:4; Ezekiel 27:8; Zechariah 9:2; Matthew 11:21-22; Matthew 15:21; Acts 12:20; Acts 27:3; Genesis 10:15  •  2 min. read  •  grade level: 9
Eldest son of Canaan, son of Ham, and the city in Phoenicia founded by his descendants (Gen. 10:15, 1915And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, and Heth, (Genesis 10:15)
19And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha. (Genesis 10:19)
). In scripture Tyre is nearly always mentioned first, though it is probable that in early days Zidon had the supremacy, which led to the district of Phoenicia being called Sidon, and the people thereof Zidonians. In Joshua 11:88And the Lord delivered them into the hand of Israel, who smote them, and chased them unto great Zidon, and unto Misrephoth-maim, and unto the valley of Mizpeh eastward; and they smote them, until they left them none remaining. (Joshua 11:8) and Joshua 19:2828And Hebron, and Rehob, and Hammon, and Kanah, even unto great Zidon; (Joshua 19:28), it is called “great Zidon.” It fell to the lot of Asher, but they did not drive out the inhabitants, which led to the Israelites serving the gods of the place (Judg. 1:3131Neither did Asher drive out the inhabitants of Accho, nor the inhabitants of Zidon, nor of Ahlab, nor of Achzib, nor of Helbah, nor of Aphik, nor of Rehob: (Judges 1:31); Judg. 10:66And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the Lord, and served Baalim, and Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria, and the gods of Zidon, and the gods of Moab, and the gods of the children of Ammon, and the gods of the Philistines, and forsook the Lord, and served not him. (Judges 10:6)). Solomon also loved some of their women, and imitated their form of idolatry (1 Kings 11:1,331But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites; (1 Kings 11:1)
33Because that they have forsaken me, and have worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Milcom the god of the children of Ammon, and have not walked in my ways, to do that which is right in mine eyes, and to keep my statutes and my judgments, as did David his father. (1 Kings 11:33)
).
Zidon is denounced by the prophets for destruction. It is charged with being a “pricking brier” to the house of Israel, and a “grieving thorn” around them (Ezek. 28:21-2421Son of man, set thy face against Zidon, and prophesy against it, 22And say, Thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I am against thee, O Zidon; and I will be glorified in the midst of thee: and they shall know that I am the Lord, when I shall have executed judgments in her, and shall be sanctified in her. 23For I will send into her pestilence, and blood into her streets; and the wounded shall be judged in the midst of her by the sword upon her on every side; and they shall know that I am the Lord. 24And there shall be no more a pricking brier unto the house of Israel, nor any grieving thorn of all that are round about them, that despised them; and they shall know that I am the Lord God. (Ezekiel 28:21‑24)). Jehovah says of Zidon, in conjunction with Tyre, that they had taken His gold and silver and pleasant things, and carried them into their heathen temples, and had also sold the children of Judah unto the Grecians, to remove them far from their border (Joel 3:4-84Yea, and what have ye to do with me, O Tyre, and Zidon, and all the coasts of Palestine? will ye render me a recompence? and if ye recompense me, swiftly and speedily will I return your recompence upon your own head; 5Because ye have taken my silver and my gold, and have carried into your temples my goodly pleasant things: 6The children also of Judah and the children of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the Grecians, that ye might remove them far from their border. 7Behold, I will raise them out of the place whither ye have sold them, and will return your recompence upon your own head: 8And I will sell your sons and your daughters into the hand of the children of Judah, and they shall sell them to the Sabeans, to a people far off: for the Lord hath spoken it. (Joel 3:4‑8)). A warning message from Jeremiah was sent to the king of Zidon and neighboring kings, exhorting them to submit to Nebuchadnezzar, who was Jehovah’s servant (Jer. 27:33And send them to the king of Edom, and to the king of Moab, and to the king of the Ammonites, and to the king of Tyrus, and to the king of Zidon, by the hand of the messengers which come to Jerusalem unto Zedekiah king of Judah; (Jeremiah 27:3)). We do not read that Nebuchadnezzar took Zidon, indeed his lengthy siege of Tyre probably enriched Zidon. The city is mentioned in Genesis 49:1313Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon. (Genesis 49:13); Isaiah 23:2-122Be still, ye inhabitants of the isle; thou whom the merchants of Zidon, that pass over the sea, have replenished. 3And by great waters the seed of Sihor, the harvest of the river, is her revenue; and she is a mart of nations. 4Be thou ashamed, O Zidon: for the sea hath spoken, even the strength of the sea, saying, I travail not, nor bring forth children, neither do I nourish up young men, nor bring up virgins. 5As at the report concerning Egypt, so shall they be sorely pained at the report of Tyre. 6Pass ye over to Tarshish; howl, ye inhabitants of the isle. 7Is this your joyous city, whose antiquity is of ancient days? her own feet shall carry her afar off to sojourn. 8Who hath taken this counsel against Tyre, the crowning city, whose merchants are princes, whose trafficers are the honorable of the earth? 9The Lord of hosts hath purposed it, to stain the pride of all glory, and to bring into contempt all the honorable of the earth. 10Pass through thy land as a river, O daughter of Tarshish: there is no more strength. 11He stretched out his hand over the sea, he shook the kingdoms: the Lord hath given a commandment against the merchant city, to destroy the strong holds thereof. 12And he said, Thou shalt no more rejoice, O thou oppressed virgin, daughter of Zidon: arise, pass over to Chittim; there also shalt thou have no rest. (Isaiah 23:2‑12); Jeremiah 25:2222And all the kings of Tyrus, and all the kings of Zidon, and the kings of the isles which are beyond the sea, (Jeremiah 25:22); Jeremiah 27:44And command them to say unto their masters, Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel; Thus shall ye say unto your masters; (Jeremiah 27:4); Ezekiel 27:88The inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were thy mariners: thy wise men, O Tyrus, that were in thee, were thy pilots. (Ezekiel 27:8); Zechariah 9:22And Hamath also shall border thereby; Tyrus, and Zidon, though it be very wise. (Zechariah 9:2).
The destruction of Zidon was remarkable. They revolted from the Persians, but Tennes their king turned traitor and betrayed them. When the place was besieged, many of the citizens went out in submission, but were cruelly butchered. They had burnt their ships that none might escape, and seeing no effectual means of defense, in despair they shut themselves up in their houses, set them on fire, and perished in the flames. This was in B.C. 351. It gradually recovered from this destruction and became again a flourishing town. It is now called Saida, 33° 34' N, a city of some 9000 inhabitants: there are many ruins.
In the Hebrew the name is Tzidon, as in the margin of Genesis 10:1515And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, and Heth, (Genesis 10:15). Sidon is the Greek form of the name.