Anointing

Psalm 23:5; Psalm 92:10; Isaiah 10:27; Zechariah 4:14; Revelation 11:4; Ruth 3:3; 2 Samuel 12:20; 2 Chronicles 28:15; Matthew 6:17; 2 Samuel 14:2; Daniel 10:3; Luke 7:46; John 12:3; Mark 6:13; James 5:14; Mark 14:8; Mark 16:1; Deuteronomy 28:40; Micah 6:15; Psalm 105:15; 1 Kings 19:16; Exodus 30:30; Exodus 40:13; Exodus 40:9-10; Leviticus 2:1,4; Leviticus 14:17-18; 1 John 2:20,27
There are several Hebrew words thus translated, but some of them occur but once, as
2. Psalm 92:1010But my horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of an unicorn: I shall be anointed with fresh oil. (Psalm 92:10), “I shall be anointed with fresh oil,” from “to pour over,” “overflow with” oil.
5. suk, “to anoint the body after washing,” like ἀλείφω in the New Testament, is commonly used for the practice among the orientals of anointing the body, or its parts, for comfort, appearance, friendliness, healing, or burial. For the ordinary toilet (compare Ruth 3:33Wash thyself therefore, and anoint thee, and put thy raiment upon thee, and get thee down to the floor: but make not thyself known unto the man, until he shall have done eating and drinking. (Ruth 3:3); 2 Sam. 12:2020Then David arose from the earth, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came into the house of the Lord, and worshipped: then he came to his own house; and when he required, they set bread before him, and he did eat. (2 Samuel 12:20); 2 Chron. 28:1515And the men which were expressed by name rose up, and took the captives, and with the spoil clothed all that were naked among them, and arrayed them, and shod them, and gave them to eat and to drink, and anointed them, and carried all the feeble of them upon asses, and brought them to Jericho, the city of palm trees, to their brethren: then they returned to Samaria. (2 Chronicles 28:15); Matt. 6:1717But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face; (Matthew 6:17)). To neglect this was a sign of mourning (2 Sam. 14:22And Joab sent to Tekoah, and fetched thence a wise woman, and said unto her, I pray thee, feign thyself to be a mourner, and put on now mourning apparel, and anoint not thyself with oil, but be as a woman that had a long time mourned for the dead: (2 Samuel 14:2); Dan. 10:33I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled. (Daniel 10:3)). As an act of courtesy (compare Luke 7:4646My head with oil thou didst not anoint: but this woman hath anointed my feet with ointment. (Luke 7:46); John 12:33Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with the odor of the ointment. (John 12:3)); the sick were also anointed (Mark 6:1313And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them. (Mark 6:13); James 5:1414Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord: (James 5:14)); also the dead body (Mark 14:88She hath done what she could: she is come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying. (Mark 14:8); Mark 16:11And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him. (Mark 16:1)). One of the punishments on Israel was that the olives should not yield oil for the anointing (Deut. 28:4040Thou shalt have olive trees throughout all thy coasts, but thou shalt not anoint thyself with the oil; for thine olive shall cast his fruit. (Deuteronomy 28:40); Mic. 6:1515Thou shalt sow, but thou shalt not reap; thou shalt tread the olives, but thou shalt not anoint thee with oil; and sweet wine, but shalt not drink wine. (Micah 6:15)).
6. mashach, χρἰς, “to spread over, to anoint” for an office. Kings were anointed: Saul, David, Solomon, Joash, Jehu, and Hazael are examples. Prophets were anointed; for Psalm 105:1515Saying, Touch not mine anointed, and do my prophets no harm. (Psalm 105:15) should read “anointed ones”; and compare 1 Kings 19:1616And Jehu the son of Nimshi shalt thou anoint to be king over Israel: and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room. (1 Kings 19:16). Special oil made according to God’s directions was used for the anointing of the priests (Ex. 30:3030And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office. (Exodus 30:30); Ex. 40:1313And thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy garments, and anoint him, and sanctify him; that he may minister unto me in the priest's office. (Exodus 40:13)). With the same oil the tabernacle and its vessels were anointed (Ex. 40:9-109And thou shalt take the anointing oil, and anoint the tabernacle, and all that is therein, and shalt hallow it, and all the vessels thereof: and it shall be holy. 10And thou shalt anoint the altar of the burnt offering, and all his vessels, and sanctify the altar: and it shall be an altar most holy. (Exodus 40:9‑10)). The meat offering was anointed with oil (Lev. 2:1,41And when any will offer a meat offering unto the Lord, his offering shall be of fine flour; and he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense thereon: (Leviticus 2:1)
4And if thou bring an oblation of a meat offering baken in the oven, it shall be unleavened cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil. (Leviticus 2:4)
), typical of the pure humanity of the Lord Jesus, and of His being sealed by the Holy Spirit. The cleansed leper was anointed with oil (Lev. 14:17-1817And of the rest of the oil that is in his hand shall the priest put upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot, upon the blood of the trespass offering: 18And the remnant of the oil that is in the priest's hand he shall pour upon the head of him that is to be cleansed: and the priest shall make an atonement for him before the Lord. (Leviticus 14:17‑18)).
Whether this last anointing refers to persons or things and whether the oil is that specially prepared or common oil, the sanctification and power of the Holy Spirit is invariably typified thereby. Anointing with oil for consecration to office is not now enjoined on believers, for they are anointed with the Holy Spirit, and are also priests to God. John reminds even the babes in Christ that they have an unction from the Holy One, and the anointing (the same word, χρισμα) abideth in them (1 John 2:20,2720But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things. (1 John 2:20)
27But the anointing which ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach you: but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in him. (1 John 2:27)
). Thus, as in the Old Testament, the kings, prophets, and priests were anointed as set apart for God, so the Christian is by the Holy Spirit sanctified for God, both as to his position and service. See THE ANOINTED.