Concise Bible Dictionary: A

Table of Contents

1. A א (Aleph)
2. Aaron
3. Aaronic Priesthood
4. Aaronites
5. Ab
6. Ab
7. Abaddon
8. Abagtha
9. Abana
10. Abarim
11. Abba
12. Abda
13. Abdeel
14. Abdi
15. Abdiel
16. Abdon
17. Abednego
18. Abel
19. Abel
20. Abel-beth-maachah
21. Abel-maim
22. Abel-meholah
23. Abel-mizraim
24. Abel-shittim
25. Abel, the Great
26. Abez
27. Abi
28. Abi-Albon
29. Abia, Abiah
30. Abiasaph
31. Abiathar
32. Abib
33. Abida, Abidah
34. Abidan
35. Abiel
36. Abiezer
37. Abiezrite
38. Abigail
39. Abihail
40. Abihu
41. Abihud
42. Abijah
43. Abijam
44. Abilene
45. Abimael
46. Abimelech
47. Abinadab
48. Abinoam
49. Abiram
50. Abishag
51. Abishai
52. Abishalom
53. Abishua
54. Abishur
55. Abital
56. Abitub
57. Abiud
58. Abjects (Nekeh)
59. Abner
60. Abomination
61. Abomination of Desolation
62. Abraham
63. Abraham's Bosom
64. Abram
65. Absalom
66. Absolution
67. Abyss
68. Accad
69. Acceptable year of the Lord
70. Acceptance
71. Accho
72. Accursed
73. Accuser, The
74. Aceldama
75. Achaia
76. Achaicus
77. Achan, Achar
78. Achaz
79. Achbor
80. Achim
81. Achish
82. Achmetha
83. Achor, Valley of
84. Achsa, Achsah
85. Achshaph
86. Achzib
87. Acre
88. Acts of Pilate
89. Acts of the Apostles
90. Adadah
91. Adah
92. Adaiah
93. Adalia
94. Adam
95. Adam
96. Adam, the Last
97. Adamah
98. Adamant, Shamir
99. Adami
100. Adar
101. Adar
102. Adbeel
103. Addan
104. Addar
105. Adder
106. Addi
107. Addon
108. Ader
109. Adiel
110. Adin
111. Adina
112. Adino
113. Adithaim
114. Adjuration
115. Adlai
116. Admah
117. Admatha
118. Adna
119. Adnah
120. Adonai
121. Adoni-bezek
122. Adoni-zedec
123. Adonijah
124. Adonikam
125. Adoniram
126. Adoption
127. Adoraim
128. Adoram
129. Adoration
130. Adrammelech
131. Adramyttium
132. Adria
133. Adriel
134. Adullam
135. Adullamite
136. Adultery
137. Adummim
138. Advent, Second
139. Adversary, The
140. Advocate, the (παρἀκλητος)
141. Aelia Capitolina
142. Aeneas
143. Aenon
144. Affinity
145. Affliction
146. Afternoon
147. Agabus
148. Agag
149. Agagite
150. Agar
151. Agate
152. Age (αἰών)
153. Age of Man
154. Agee
155. Agrippa
156. Agrippa II
157. Ague
158. Agur
159. Ah, Aha
160. Ahab
161. Aharah
162. Aharhel
163. Ahasai
164. Ahasbai
165. Ahasuerus
166. Ahava
167. Ahaz
168. Ahaziah
169. Ahban
170. Aher
171. Ahi
172. Ahiah
173. Ahiam
174. Ahian
175. Ahiezer
176. Ahihud
177. Ahijah
178. Ahikam
179. Ahilud
180. Ahimaaz
181. Ahiman
182. Ahimelech
183. Ahimoth
184. Ahinadab
185. Ahinoam
186. Ahio
187. Ahira
188. Ahiram, Ahiramites
189. Ahisamach
190. Ahishahar
191. Ahishar
192. Ahithophel
193. Ahitub
194. Ahlab
195. Ahlai
196. Ahoah, Ahohites
197. Aholah
198. Aholiab
199. Aholibah
200. Aholibamah
201. Ahumai
202. Ahuzam
203. Ahuzzath
204. Ai, Hai
205. Aiah
206. Aiath
207. Aija
208. Aijalon
209. Aijeleth Shahar
210. Ain
211. Air
212. Ajah
213. Ajalon, Aijalon
214. Akan
215. Akkub
216. Akrabbim
217. Al-taschith
218. Alabaster
219. Alameth
220. Alammelech
221. Alamoth
222. Alemeth
223. Alexander
224. Alexander the Great
225. Alexandria
226. Alexandrians
227. Algum Trees, Almug Trees
228. Aliah, Alvah
229. Alian, Alvan
230. Allegory
231. Alleluia
232. Alliance
233. Allon
234. Allon-bachuth
235. Almighty
236. Almodad
237. Almon
238. Almon-diblathaim
239. Almond, Almond Tree
240. Alms
241. Almug
242. Aloes, Lign-Aloes
243. Aloth
244. Alpha
245. Alphaeus
246. Altar
247. The Altar of Incense
248. The Brazen Altar
249. Altar to the Unknown God
250. Alush
251. Alvah
252. Alvan
253. Amad
254. Amal
255. Amalek, Amalekites
256. Amam
257. Amana
258. Amariah
259. Amasa
260. Amasai
261. Amashai
262. Amasiah
263. Amaziah
264. Ambassador
265. Ambassage
266. Amber
267. Ambush, Ambushment
268. Amen
269. Amethyst
270. Ami
271. Aminadab
272. Amittai
273. Ammah
274. Ammi
275. Ammiel
276. Ammihud
277. Amminadab, Aminadab
278. Amminadib
279. Ammishaddai
280. Ammizabad
281. Ammon, Ammonites, Children of Ammon
282. Amnon
283. Amok
284. Amon
285. Amorites
286. Amos
287. Amos, Book Of
288. Amoz
289. Amphipolis
290. Amplias
291. Amram
292. Amramites
293. Amraphel
294. Amzi
295. Anab
296. Anah
297. Anaharath
298. Anaiah
299. Anak, Anakim
300. Anamim
301. Anammelech
302. Anan
303. Anani
304. Ananiah
305. Ananias
306. Anath
307. Anathema
308. Anathoth
309. Anchor
310. Ancient of Days
311. Andrew
312. Andronicus
313. Anem
314. Aner
315. Anethothite, Anetothite, Antothite
316. Angels
317. Angle
318. Aniam
319. Anim
320. Animals, Clean and Unclean
321. Anise
322. Anklet
323. Anna
324. Annas
325. Annunciation, The
326. Anointed, The
327. Anointing
328. Ant
329. Anti-Lebanon
330. Antichrist
331. Antinomians
332. Antioch in Pisidia
333. Antioch in Syria
334. Antiochus
335. Antipas
336. Antipatris
337. Antitype
338. Antonia
339. Antothijah
340. Antothite
341. Anub
342. Ape
343. Apelles
344. Apharsachites, Apharsathchites
345. Aphek
346. Aphekah
347. Aphiah
348. Aphik
349. Aphrah
350. Aphses
351. Apocalypse
352. Apocrypha
353. Apollonia
354. Apollos
355. Apollyon
356. Apostasy
357. Apostle
358. Apostolic Fathers
359. Apothecary (Raqach)
360. Appaim
361. Apparel
362. Appeal
363. Appearing of Christ
364. Apphia
365. Appii Forum
366. Apple, Apple Tree
367. Apple of the Eye
368. Apron
369. Aquila
370. Ar
371. Ara
372. Arab
373. Arabah
374. Arabia
375. Arabians
376. Arad
377. Arah
378. Aram
379. Aram
380. Aramaic
381. Aramitess
382. Aran
383. Ararat
384. Araunah
385. Arba, Arbah
386. Arbathite
387. Arbite
388. Arch
389. Archangel
390. Archelaus
391. Archery
392. Archevites
393. Archi
394. Archippus
395. Archite
396. Arcturus
397. Ard
398. Ardon
399. Areli, Arelites
400. Areopagite
401. Areopagus, or Mars Hill
402. Aretas
403. Argob
404. Aridai
405. Aridatha
406. Arieh
407. Ariel
408. Arimathaea
409. Arioch
410. Arisai
411. Aristarchus
412. Aristobulus
413. Ark of Bulrushes
414. Ark of God
415. Ark of Noah
416. Arkite
417. Arm
418. Armageddon
419. Armenia
420. Armoni
421. Armor
422. Armorbearer
423. Armory
424. Arms
425. Army
426. Arnan
427. Arnon
428. Arod, Arodi, Arodites
429. Aroer
430. Aroerite
431. Arpad, Arphad
432. Arphaxad
433. Arrows
434. Artaxerxes
435. Artemas
436. Artemis
437. Artificer
438. Artillery
439. Aruboth
440. Arumah
441. Arvad
442. Arvadite
443. Arza
444. Asa
445. Asahel
446. Asahiah, Asaiah
447. Asaph
448. Asareel
449. Asarelah
450. Ascension
451. Asenath
452. Aser
453. Ash
454. Ashan
455. Ashbea
456. Ashbel, Ashbelites
457. Ashchenaz
458. Ashdod
459. Ashdoth-pisgah
460. Ashdothites
461. Asher, Aser
462. Asherite
463. Ashes
464. Ashima
465. Ashkelon, Askelon
466. Ashkenaz, Ashchenaz
467. Ashnah
468. Ashpenaz
469. Ashriel
470. Ashtaroth, Ashtoreth
471. Ashtaroth, Astaroth
472. Ashterathite
473. Ashteroth Karnaim
474. Ashtoreth
475. Ashur
476. Ashurites
477. Ashvath
478. Asia
479. Asiarchs
480. Asiel
481. Askelon
482. Asnah
483. Asnapper
484. Asp
485. Aspatha
486. Asriel, Asrielites
487. Ass
488. Assembly
489. Asshur
490. Asshurim
491. Assir
492. Assos
493. Assur
494. Assurance
495. Assyria
496. Assyrian
497. Astaroth
498. Astonied
499. Astrologer
500. Asuppim
501. Asyncritus
502. Atad
503. Atarah
504. Ataroth
505. Ataroth-adar, Ataroth-addar
506. Ater
507. Athach
508. Athaiah
509. Athaliah
510. Atheist
511. Athenians
512. Athens
513. Athlai
514. Atonement
515. Atonement, Day Of
516. Atroth
517. Attai
518. Attalia
519. Augustus
520. Augustus Band
521. Augustus Caesar
522. Aul
523. Author
524. Authority
525. Ava
526. Aven
527. Avenger, Avenger of Blood
528. Avim, Avites
529. Avith
530. Awl
531. Ax, Axe
532. Azal
533. Azaliah
534. Azaniah
535. Azarael, Azareel
536. Azariah
537. Azaz
538. Azaziah
539. Azbuk
540. Azekah
541. Azel
542. Azem
543. Azgad
544. Aziel
545. Aziza
546. Azmaveth
547. Azmon
548. Aznoth-tabor
549. Azor
550. Azotus
551. Azriel
552. Azrikam
553. Azubah
554. Azur
555. Azzah
556. Azzan
557. Azzur

A א (Aleph)

Aleph is the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet. In numerals it stands for 1, and with two points, א, 1,000. A (alpha) the first letter in the Greek alphabet. The small letter with a dash after (α´), stands for 1. (For this letter as a name of Christ see ALPHA.)

Aaron

Eldest son of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi. We first read of him when Moses was excusing himself from being sent to deliver Israel from Egypt because he was “slow of speech.” Jehovah declared that his brother Aaron who was coming to meet him could speak well and should be his spokesman. Aaron accompanied Moses in his interviews with Pharaoh, and with his rod some of the miraculous plagues were called forth. He with Hur held up the hands of Moses on the Mount when Israel fought with Amalek (Ex. 17:12). Aaron with his two sons Nadab and Abihu with seventy of the elders, went with Moses into the mount where “they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness” (Ex. 24:9-10). When Moses retired higher into the mount, he left Israel in the charge of Aaron and Hur (Ex. 24:14).
Aaron, alas, had not the stability of his brother, but at the request of the people, and apparently without a protest, made for them the golden calf: he also built an altar before it, and made proclamation of a feast to Jehovah on the morrow. He was thus engaged while God was directing Moses respecting the tabernacle and its offerings, and declaring that Aaron and his sons were to be the appointed priests. Their appointment stood, showing how marvelously God’s grace abounds over sin, and that none are chosen because of their inherent goodness. Aaron with Miriam (priest and prophetess) spake against Moses, with whom as mediator God had established His covenant for Israel in sovereign mercy (Ex. 34:27); and to whom God spake “mouth to mouth” at that time. Their excuse was that he had married an Ethiopian woman (sign of the same sovereign grace that goes out to Gentiles who have no claim to it). Aaron humbled himself and interceded for Miriam (Num. 12). Aaron also sinned with Moses at the waters of Meribah, and was not allowed to enter the promised land (Num. 20:10-29). He was stripped of his robes, which were put on Eleazar his son, and he died and was buried on Mount Hor. Viewed officially, Aaron is a striking type of Christ. In his consecration he was clothed with the priestly garments, with the breastplate, the miter and the crown, and then was anointed with oil, type of the Holy Spirit. It was only in connection with his sons that there was any washing spoken of, or any sacrifice, even as Christ identified Himself with the priestly company, His brethren (Ex. 29:4, 10, 19-20; Heb. 2:11-13).

Aaronic Priesthood

The first thought in priesthood is that those appointed might minister to the Lord in the priests’ office, that they might be a company in nearness to and in communion with the Lord. God had said of Israel that He had brought them to Himself, and redemption had been accomplished; but the people, having placed themselves under law, could not be in nearness, and needed the priesthood to maintain their relations with God, and to help them by the way. The high priest was appointed that he might offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins, and might exercise forbearance towards the ignorant and the erring (Heb. 5:1-2). The priest was to teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the Lord had spoken (Lev. 10:11). He was the messenger of the Lord of hosts (Mal. 2:7). He offered up the sacrifices, and blessed the people (Lev. 9). He daily offered incense and attended to the lamps of the candlestick. Minute instructions were given by God respecting everything the priest had to do, nothing being left for his own individual devising. Ample provision was made for the priests in portions of the sacrifices being given to them and by the first-fruits. After the death of Nadab and Abihu, Aaron was allowed to enter the holiest of all only once a year, and then not without blood (Lev. 16:1-2). Whenever he officiated in the sanctuary in his garments of glory and beauty, the people were also presented, for in his breastplate and on the shoulder-pieces were the names of the children of Israel. Proper priestly work for the people was not to work out redemption for them, but to maintain their relations with God.
See MELCHISEDEC.

Aaronites

The descendants of Aaron (1 Chron. 12:27; 1 Chron. 27:17).

Ab

See MONTHS.

Ab

This word, signifying “father, source, origin,” is much used in compound proper names: as Ab-salom, “father of peace”; it is also used in female proper names, as Ab-igail, “source of joy,” though some retain the word “father” in females’ names, as “the father’s joy.” Fürst gives also to Ab the meanings of “freshness, strength, fruit”; but in proper names he often takes Ab to signify God; as Abijah, “God is Jah.” See NAMES.

Abaddon

In Revelation 9:11 this name is shown to be the same as Apollyon, “the destroyer,” who is described as “the angel of the bottomless pit.” Perhaps it is not so much one of the names of Satan, as his character personified. It occurs six times in the Old Testament, in three of which it is associated with hell (sheol) (Job 26:6; Prov. 15:11; Prov. 27:20); once with death: “Destruction and Death say” (Job 28:22); and once with the grave (Psa. 88:11). In all these passages, and in Job 31:12, it is translated “destruction.”

Abagtha

One of the eunuchs that served Ahasuerus (Esther 1:10). In the LXX (Septuagint) different names are given for these seven eunuchs, namely, Aram, Bazan, Tharrha, Barazi, Zatholtha, Abataza, and Tharaba.

Abana

One of the rivers of Damascus, which the proud Naaman declared were better than all the waters of Israel (2 Kings 5:12); the other is Pharpar. These are probably the rivers now called Barada and Awaj; Barada being supposed to be Abana. This is the Chrysorrhoas of the ancients. Robinson says, “it rises in the high plain south of Zebdany on Anti-Lebanon, and rushes in a south-easterly course down the mountain till it issues at Mezzeh from its chasm upon the plain. Here it turns eastward, and flowing along the north wall of the city takes its way across the plain to the two northern lakes. It is a deep, broad, rushing mountain stream; and although not less than nine or ten branches are taken from it, some of them quite large, for the supply of the city and the plain, yet it still flows on as a large stream, and enters the middle lake by two channels.” It is judged that this river furnishes water to 14 villages, and 150,000 inhabitants. In the Arabic version Abana is translated Barda, which goes to confirm the conjecture that Barada is the Abana of Scripture.

Abarim

Probably the chain of mountains that lie beyond or to the east of the Dead Sea and the lower Jordan (Num. 33:47-48). Deuteronomy 32:49-50 shows that mount Nebo was connected with Abarim and that it was over against Jericho and also that it was where Moses viewed the land and died (Num. 27:12-13). Deuteronomy 3:27 connects this with Pisgah so that Pisgah and Nebo apparently formed part of Abarim, in the land of Moab. Abarim is translated “passages” (Jer. 22:20).

Abba

The Greek form is ἀββᾶ “father”: it is the same as Ab in Hebrew, but was pronounced Abba in the time of our Saviour. It occurs three times in the New Testament, and is always followed by “father,” and translated Abba Father; that is, the “abba” is transcribed and not translated: if it were translated it would be “Father Father.” In the Greek it stands thus: ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ the “Abba” being Aramaic, and the “Father” Greek. In the Old Testament Ab was not restricted in its use to children. Elisha used it toward Elijah; servants applied it to their masters (see 2 Kings 2:12; 5:13; 6:21). Jehovah asked, “Hath the rain a father?” (Job 38:28). In the New Testament it appears to be used in a stricter sense of relationship: “Ye have received the Spirit of adoption [or sonship], whereby we cry, Abba Father,” (Rom. 8:15); and “because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying, Abba Father” (Gal. 4:6). The only other instance is when the Lord thus addresses His Father (Mark 14:36); and the Spirit in the hearts of believers puts the very words He used into their lips. It has been suggested that in the two words the Jew and the Gentile each say “Father” in his own language — the Aramaic being then spoken by the Jews, and Greek the language of the Gentiles in Palestine and many other places. God had been revealed in the Old Testament as Jehovah, the Almighty, but it was reserved for New Testament times for Him to be made known to believers in the relationship of Father (compare John 20:17).

Abda

1. Father of Adoniram (1 Kings 4:6).
2. Son of Shammua (Neh. 11:17): apparently called OBADIAH the Son of Shemaiah in 1 Chronicles 9:16.

Abdeel

Father of Shelemiah (Jer. 36:26). The name is omitted by the LXX (Septuagint).

Abdi

1. Father of Kish, a Levite (2 Chron. 29:12).
2. Son of Malluch, a Levite (1 Chron. 6:44).
3. One who had taken a strange wife (Ezra 10:26).

Abdiel

Son of Guni, of the family of Gad (1 Chron. 5:15).

Abdon

1. The tenth judge of Israel: he succeeded Elon, and ruled eight years (Judg. 12:13, 15).
2. Son of Shashak. (1 Chron. 8:23).
3. Son of Jehiel, of Gibeon (1 Chron. 8:30; 1 Chron. 9:35-36).
4. Son of Micha (2 Chron. 34:20): the same as ACHBOR.
5. City in the tribe of Asher, one of the four given to the Gershonites (Josh. 21:30; 1 Chron. 6:74). Probably the same as Hebron in the list of the cities of Asher in Joshua 19:28. According to Gesenius, Abdon is read here in twenty Hebrew manuscripts instead of Hebron, though most of the ancient versions favor Hebron. This is not the well-known Hebron which is in Judah’s lot. Abdon is identified with Abdeh, 33° 3' N, 35° 9' E.

Abednego

The Chaldee name, signifying “servant of Nego,” given to Azariah, one of Daniel’s companions. Refusing to worship Nebuchadnezzar’s golden image, he was cast into the fiery furnace; but was miraculously delivered by his God (Dan. 1:7; 3:1-30).

Abel

The second Son of Adam. The name Hebel given him by his mother, signifying breath “or vanity,” possibly originated in her disappointment at Cain not proving to be the promised Redeemer. In process of time the great difference in the two brothers was manifested by Abel offering to God a slain animal, while Cain brought the fruit of his own labor from the cursed ground, ignoring the facts that in the fall of Adam life had been forfeited and the ground cursed. Abel presented a sacrifice in the way of faith through a slain firstling of the flock (Heb. 11:4). He thus obtained a witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts (compare Matt. 23:35). Thus early were brought out in clear lines the two seeds: one born of God, and the other of that “wicked one” (1 John 3:12). Abel is a type of Christ, as Cain is that of the Jew. As the Jews broke the law against both God and their neighbor, so Cain disregarded God’s judgment on man, and slew his brother. In Cain is also exemplified the religion of the natural man, who, disregarding his distance from God, thinks he can approach at any time and with any form of worship.

Abel

The name, signifying “meadow,” given to several places, which are distinguished by the other names appended. The name “Abel” stands alone in 1 Samuel 6:18; for which see “ABEL, THE GREAT”; and in 2 Samuel 20:14, 18, for which see “ABEL-BETH-MAACHAH.”

Abel-beth-maachah

A city of importance in the extreme North of Palestine in the lot of Naphtali or Manasseh: it is mentioned with Ijon and Daniel. In 2 Samuel 20:15 it is called “Abel of BETH-MAACHAH” and the wisdom of its rulers was said to be proverbial (2 Sam. 20:18). It was here that Sheba took shelter from Joab, but was put to death by the inhabitants. It was taken with other cities by Benhadad (1 Kings 15:20), and subsequently by Tiglath-pileser (2 Kings 15:29), when its inhabitants were carried away captive to Assyria. It is called ABEL-MAIM in 2 Chron. 16:4. This has been identified with Abl, 33° 15' N, 35° 34' E.

Abel-maim

See ABEL-BETH-MAACHAH.

Abel-meholah

City in the Jordan valley, mentioned with Beth-shean (1 Kings 4:12). To the border of this place Gideon pursued the Midianites (Judg. 7:22). From here Elisha was called to be a prophet (1 Kings 19:16). Its site is identified by Major Conder with Ain Helweh, 32° 19' N, 35° 30' E.

Abel-mizraim

This signifies, with the Hebrew points, “meadow of the Egyptians”; but “mourning of the Egyptians” if read without or with different points. The context in Genesis 50:11 indicates “mourning” as a part of the name. It was the threshing floor of Atad “beyond Jordan.” This would seem to place the seven days’ mourning on the east of Jordan, before the body was carried into Canaan, for interment (compare Gen. 50:12-13). But some hold that Moses by “beyond Jordan” signifies the west because of his standpoint being on the east. The inhabitants of the land being called Canaanites also points to the west; and it is remarkable that Jerome uses a similar expression in “trans-Jordanem,” and then states that ATAD, which is the same place, was between the Jordan and Jericho. It is not identified.

Abel-shittim

The last encampment of the Israelites on the east of Jordan (Num. 33:49). It was nearly opposite to Jericho. Josephus says (Ant. 4. 8, 1) it was the same as Abila, a place full of palm trees. There are groves of Acacias (as the name implies) still in the neighborhood. It is more often called SHITTIM. Identified with Kefrein, 31° 51' N, 35° 39' E.

Abel, the Great

The AV (KJV) has “the Great [stone of] Abel” (1 Sam. 6:18). Delitzsch believes that this is not a proper name and that Abel is a mistake for eben, “a stone,” the final m being put instead of l: and if so it would be simply “the great stone,” which is also mentioned in verses 14 and 15. This is the rendering adopted by the LXX (Septuagint) and the Targum.

Abez

A town of Issachar only mentioned in Joshua 19:20. It has been identified with el-Beida, 32° 43” N, 35° 9' E.

Abi

See ABIJAH, No. 4.

Abi-Albon

One of David’s mighty men (2 Sam. 23:31); he is called ABIEL in 1 Chron. 11:32.

Abia, Abiah

1. One of Samuel’s sons, a judge in Israel, who took bribes and perverted judgment. The Israelites gave this as their reason for wanting a king (1 Sam. 8:2; 1 Chron. 6:28).
2. Wife of Hezron (1 Chron. 2:24).
3. Son of Becher a Benjamite (1 Chron. 7:8).
4. Son of Rehoboam, the son of Solomon. (1 Chron. 3:10; Mat. 1:7). See ABIJAH, No. 1.
5. One of the courses of priests (Luke 1:5). See ABIJAH, No. 3.

Abiasaph

Levite, one of the sons of Korah, and the head of one of the families of the Korhites (Ex. 6:24). In 1 Chronicles 6:37; 9:19 there is EBIASAPH, a son of Korah, who is probably the same. The Ebiasaph of 1 Chronicles 6:23 is apparently a great grandson of Korah.

Abiathar

Son of Ahimelech the high priest. He escaped from the slaughter of the priests executed by Doeg at the command of Saul (1 Sam. 22:18,20). He became an adherent of David, and was acknowledged as high priest; but becoming involved in Adonijah’s rebellion he was deprived of the priesthood by Solomon and sent to dwell in the city of Anathoth which belonged to the sons of Aaron (1 Kings 2:26; 1 Chron. 6:60). In 1 Kings 4:4, Abiathar is named with Zadok as priests (not the priests); though deposed, Abiathar was still a priest. There is a difficulty in 2 Samuel 8:17 and 1 Chronicles 18:16 where Ahimelech (or Abimelech) the son of Abiathar is named as priest with Zadok in the time of David. Some suppose that the names should be transposed, and that Abiathar is meant; but this Ahimelech may have been a son of the above — named Abiathar (it not being at all unusual to name a son after his grandfather) and for some reason he is mentioned in these passages as priest instead of his father. He may have been a more worthy man than his father, who was thrust out of the priesthood for his own sin, though it fulfilled the prophecy concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh (1 Sam. 2:31-36; 1 Kings 2:27). Our Lord in Mark 2:26 speaks of Abiathar as high priest, in connection with David eating the showbread, doubtless because he afterward attained to that office.

Abib

See MONTHS.

Abida, Abidah

One of the sons of Midian (Gen. 25:4; 1 Chron. 1:33).

Abidan

Son of Gideoni: head of a house of the tribe of Benjamin at the Exodus (Num. 1:11; 2:22; 7:60,65; 10:24).

Abiel

1. Father of Kish and of Ner and grandfather of Saul and of Abner. That this is the most probable genealogy is confirmed by Ner being said to be Saul’s uncle (1 Sam. 9:1; 14:50-51); though in 1 Chronicles 8:33; 9:39, Saul is said to be the son of Kish, the son of Ner. This Ner may have been an earlier ancestor; and here Abiel is not named at all. It was not unusual to leave out many names in the genealogies.
2. One of David’s mighty men (1 Chron. 11:32); he is called Abi-Albon in 2 Samuel 23:31.

Abiezer

1. Son of Gilead, a descendant of Manasseh (Josh. 17:1-2), most probably the same is alluded to in Numbers 26:30, under the contracted form of JEEZER. Abiezer became a family name: Gideon blew a trumpet, and Abiezer was gathered after him (Judg. 6:34; 8:2).
2. One of David’s mighty men (2 Sam. 23:27; 1 Chron. 11:28; 27:12).
3. Son of Hammoleketh, and nephew of Gilead (1 Chron. 7:18).

Abiezrite

One of the family of Abiezer, No. 1. (Judg. 6:11, 24; 8:32).

Abigail

1. The Carmelitess who became the wife of David after the death of her churlish husband Nabal. This gracious woman humbled herself, confessed the “iniquity” of her husband, and appeased David. She showed wonderful faith in recognizing the counsels of God as resting upon David, and called him “lord” whilst in rejection and being hunted by Saul (1 Sam. 25:14-42). By Abigail David had a son named Chileab (2 Samuel 3:3); but called Daniel in 1 Chronicles 3:1.
2. A sister or half sister of David: she was the mother of Amasa by a man named Ithra or Jether, described both as an Israelite and an Ishmaelite (2 Sam. 17:25; 1 Chron. 2:16-17). See JETHER.

Abihail

1. Daughter of Eliab, and wife of Rehoboam, king of Judah (2 Chron. 11:18).
2. Father of Zuriel, chief of the Levitical family of Merari (Num. 3:35).
3. Wife of Abishur (1 Chron. 2:29).
4. Son of Huri, of the family of Gad (1 Chron. 5:14).
5. Father of queen Esther, and uncle of Mordecai (Esther 2:15; 9:29).

Abihu

Abihu and Nadab, sons of Aaron, with seventy of the elders of Israel, were invited to ascend with Moses, where they saw God and did eat and drink (Ex. 24:1,9-11). They were consecrated to minister to the Lord as priests, yet on the first occasion of their exercising the priesthood for Israel they offered strange fire, which the Lord had not commanded, and were smitten by fire from God (Lev. 10:1-2). Immediately before this we read that “there came a fire out from before the Lord and consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat.” That fire was never to go out, and doubtless the fire Abihu should have used was the fire that was upon the brazen altar, as is ordained in Leviticus 16:12. We read elsewhere that everything was to be done “as the Lord commanded Moses”; but of this which Nadab and Abihu did, it expressly says it was not commanded; therefore it was sin, and God was dishonored. Their death followed, and Aaron and his other sons were not to leave the tabernacle nor mourn for the dead (Num. 26:60-61; 1 Chron. 24:1-2). The case of Nadab and Abihu should teach us that not every kind of worship is acceptable to God; “they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth” (John 4:24); mere outward worship will not do and it must be according to what God has revealed. If separated from the sacrifice of Christ it is but the energy of nature, and is offensive to God.

Abihud

Son of Bela, and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:3).

Abijah

1. Son and successor of Rehoboam, king of Judah. He began to reign in the eighteenth year of Jeroboam, king of Israel (B.C. 958) and reigned three years. He walked in the sin of his father Rehoboam, but for David’s sake he was placed on the throne, that, as Jehovah had said, David might have “a light alway before me in Jerusalem”(1 Kings 11:36; 15:4). “There was war between Abijah and Jeroboam,” and Abijah by a patriotic address to Israel sought to recover the ten tribes. This could not be; for the rupture in the kingdom had been brought about by God on account of their wickedness. Nevertheless Abijah trusted in Jehovah while he did not fail to rebuke Israel touching the golden calves they had erected. God smote Jeroboam and all Israel, and there fell 500,000 chosen men of Israel. Abijah also took the cities of Bethel, Jeshanah, and Ephrain; and Jeroboam was not able to recover strength all the days of Abijah (2 Chron. 13). In the above war Israel had 800,000 chosen men, and Judah 400,000. These numbers, together with the number slain, have been much called in question by critics, who say they ought to be 80,000 and 40,000, and 50,000 slain; which numbers are to be found in some of the early Latin copies and also in some early copies of Josephus. But the numbers in the Hebrew scriptures must have the preference: and what is there improbable in the numbers when we compare them with the number of men “that drew sword” when David last numbered the people? (1 Chron. 21:5). Israel had 1,100,000; Judah had 470,000 and this was without Levi and Benjamin, who were not counted. This was about fifty years before the battle, ample time (notwithstanding the loss at the pestilence that followed the numbering) for a large increase. In 2 Samuel 24:9, the number of fighting men in Israel is given as only 800,000. It is supposed that this does not include the standing army, which according to 1 Chronicles 27:1, amounted to 24,000 x 12 = 288,000, which with its officers would be about 300,000, and this added to 800,000 = 1,100,000. On the other hand, the fighting men of Judah are in Samuel said to be 500,000. David may have had 30,000 with him at Jerusalem, from whence Joab went out, which may be here included, but which are not included in 1 Chronicles 21:5.
Abijah “waxed mighty and married fourteen wives”; which may have been a snare to him (2 Chron. 13:1-22). He is called ABIJAM in 1 Kings 14:31; 15:1-8; and ABIA in 1 Chronicles 3:10 and Matthew 1:7.
2. Son of Jeroboam I., king of Israel. His mother disguised herself and went to Ahijah the prophet to inquire whether her child should recover from his sickness. Jehovah revealed to the prophet who it was that came to him, and he told out to the mother the heavy judgment that should befall her husband and his house; but because there was “some good thing toward the Lord God of Israel” in Abijah, he should come to his grave peacefully. In mercy he was taken from the coming judgment. As his mother came to the threshold of the door the child died (1 Kings 14:1-17).
3. Descendant of Eleazar who gave his name to the eighth of the twenty-four courses of priests (1 Chron. 24:10). The same is called ABIA in Luke 1:5.
4. Daughter of Zechariah and mother of Hezekiah (2 Chron. 29:1): contracted into ABI in 2 Kings 18:2.
5. One or more of the priests who returned from the captivity, one of whom sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:7; 12:4, 17).

Abijam

See ABIJAH, No. 1.

Abilene

The district over which Lysanias was tetrarch (Luke 3:1). Abila was its chief city. Josephus speaks of this as “Abila of Lysanias” to distinguish it from other cities of the same name. It was described by ancient writers as eighteen miles from Damascus on the way to Heliopolis or Baalbek, and Robinson reached its site in six hours, on the eastern slope of the Anti-Libanus. The center of the district of Abilene lies about 33° 35' N, 36° 5' E. Its extent is not known: it is probable that its limits varied at different times.

Abimael

Descendant of Joktan (Gen. 10:28; 1 Chron. 1:22).

Abimelech

1. King of Gerar, who, believing Sarah to be Abraham’s sister, took her into his harem, but being warned by God he returned Sarah, calling Abraham her brother, as a rebuke (Gen. 20).
2. A similar thing happened with Isaac and Rebecca under another king of the same name — the name being a title of the kings of the Philistines, as Pharaoh was that of the kings of Egypt (Gen. 26:1-16).
3. Son of Gideon by a Shechemite concubine. He induced the men of Shechem to choose him as ruler and then slew 70 of his brethren. Jotham alone escaped, who pronounced a curse upon the murderers. This was fulfilled by many of the men of Shechem being killed, and Abimelech being mortally wounded by a piece of a millstone cast upon him by a woman at the attack upon Thebez. (See Judg. 8:31; 9; 2 Sam. 11:21).
4. Priest in the time of David (1 Chron. 18:16): also called AHIMELECH in 2 Samuel 8:17. See ABIATHAR.

Abinadab

1. A man at Kirjath-jearim, at whose house the ark remained for many years after it had been returned by the Philistines. The twenty years referred to in 1 Samuel 7 no doubt give the time that elapsed before the repentance of Israel led them to lament after Jehovah. The ark abode in Abinadab’s house long after this, however, and was not removed till the early part of David’s reign (2 Sam. 6; 1 Chron. 13:7).
2. One of the sons of Jesse (1 Sam. 16:8; 17:13).
3. One of Saul’s sons who was killed with his brethren at Saul’s last battle with the Philistines (1 Sam. 31:2).
4. Father of one of Solomon’s twelve officers who provided victuals for the king and his household (1 Kings 4:11).

Abinoam

Father of Barak. (Judg. 4:6,12; 5:1,12).

Abiram

1. A Reubenite, son of Eliab, who rose in the conspiracy headed by Korah against Moses and Aaron, and who perished by the judgment of God (Num. 16); see KORAH.
2. Eldest son of Hiel, the Bethelite. Hiel laid the foundation of Jericho in Abiram his first-born, and thus fulfilled the first part of the prophecy by Joshua. A signal instance of how even the Israelites disregarded the word of Jehovah (Josh. 6:26; 1 Kings 16:34).

Abishag

The Shunammite damsel who cherished David in his old age (1 Kings 1:3,15). After David’s death, his son Adonijah asked to have Abishag for wife, for which Solomon put him to death (1 Kings 2:17-23).

Abishai

Son of David’s sister Zeruiah, and brother of Joab. He was one of David’s officers and served him many years. He accompanied David into Saul’s camp while he slept (1 Sam. 26:6-9). With Joab he slew Abner (2 Sam. 3:30). In his zeal for David he asked permission to slay Shimei (2 Sam. 16:9; 19:21). In the rebellion of Absalom he commanded a third of David’s army (2 Sam. 18:2). He rescued David from Ishbibenob the giant (2 Sam. 21:17). He was captain of the second three of David’s mighty men, and slew three hundred men (2 Sam. 23:18). To him is attributed the slaughter of eighteen thousand Syrians or Edomites in the valley of salt (1 Chron. 18:12; 2 Sam. 8:13).

Abishalom

Father of Maachah, wife of Rehoboam and mother of Abijam, king of Judah (1 Kings 15:1-2,10). But in 2 Chronicles 11:20 we read that Maachah was the daughter of Absalom; therefore Abishalom appears to be a fuller way of writing Absalom, and refers to the son of David. See ABSALOM.

Abishua

1. Son of Phinehas (son of Eleazar), and father of Bukki (1 Chron. 6:4-5,50; Ezra 7:5). Josephus says that Abishua was high priest after Phinehas (Antiquities 8:1,3).
2. Son of Bela, and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:1,4).

Abishur

One of the sons of Shammai (1 Chron. 2:28-29).

Abital

One of David’s wives (2 Sam. 3:4; 1 Chron. 3:3).

Abitub

Son of Shaharaim and Hushim (1 Chron. 8:8,11).

Abiud

Son of Zorobabel, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus (Matt. 1:13); not mentioned in the Old Testament.

Abjects (Nekeh)

This word occurs only in Psalm 35:15. The root signifies “to smite,” and Horsley translates “smiters were gathered together against me.” The LXX, “Plagues were plentifully brought against me.” Hengstenberg retains “abjects,” and says, “the smitten are men of the lowest grade, the poorest,” whom the Psalmist said “I knew not.” He thinks Job 30:1, the following, is “a strikingly coincident parallel passage.”

Abner

The Son of Ner, Saul’s uncle; Abner was consequently Saul’s cousin (1 Sam. 14:51). He was Saul’s “captain of the host” when David slew Goliath, and he presented David to Saul (1 Sam. 17:55,57). He was with Saul when David took away the spear and cruse of water while they slept: for which David reproached him, saying he was worthy of death because he had not more faithfully guarded his master (1 Sam. 26:5-16). After the death of Saul (apparently about 5 years after), Abner made Ish-bosheth king over Israel; but this did not include Judah over which David was king (2 Sam. 2:8-10). In one of the conflicts between the two houses Abner was overcome, and Asahel, Joab’s brother, “light of foot as a wild roe,” pursued Abner. Abner cautioned him twice, and then slew him (2 Sam. 17-23). This act of self-defense was afterward made the plea for Abner’s death. Saul had had a concubine named Rizpah, and this woman Abner took; for which he was reproached by Ish-bosheth (who probably thought it was a prelude to his seizing the kingdom). This so incensed Abner that he revolted from his master and made overtures to David. David demanded that Abner should bring with him Michal, Saul’s daughter, David’s former wife. This he accomplished, and he and the men with him were well received by David, who made a feast for them. But Joab, who was absent, was angry when he heard of it, probably jealous lest the command of the army should be divided between himself and Abner. He sent messengers for Abner’s return, and then, under the pretense of privately communing with him, smote him, professedly to avenge the death of his brother Asahel. David was much grieved at this murder, and followed the bier and fasted till the sun went down. He rehearsed on the occasion the following dirge:
“Died Abner as a fool dieth?
Thy hands were not bound,
Nor thy feet put into fetters:
As a man falleth before wicked men, so fellest thou.”
David further said that in Abner’s death a prince and a great man had fallen, and that Jehovah would avenge his death. This last was accomplished, according to David’s dying injunction, by the direction of King Solomon, and Joab was slain by Benaiah. Yet doubtless the holy government of God was fulfilled in the death of Abner. Personal pique turned him round to David, and yet he knew well, while upholding the house of Saul, that David was God’s anointed king.

Abomination

The word “abomination” is used in the O.T. in reference to any iniquity as viewed by a holy God. It also designates what was unfit to be presented in the service of God, such as an animal with any sort of blemish being brought as a sacrifice; the price of a dog being put into the treasury, etc. (Deut. 17:1; 23:18). The divine service became itself an abomination to God when it had fallen into a mere outward observance or was in association with iniquity (Isa. 1:13; Prov. 28:9). But idolatry was the special thing that was declared to be an abomination to Jehovah. The idols themselves are thus designated: (2 Kings 23:13; Isaiah 44:19); and Ezekiel 8 shows the idolatry that was carried on in secret, and the greater “abomination,” of bringing it actually into the inner court of the Lord’s house, between the porch and the altar! The word is but seldom used in the New Testament and applies then to wickedness in general.

Abomination of Desolation

This exact expression occurs only in Matt. 24:15 and Mark 13:14, referring to what had been revealed to Daniel 12:11, where it is connected with the great tribulation (ver. 1) spoken of by the Lord in those Gospels. Daniel 9:27 shows that the time of the abomination is in the last half of the last of the seventy weeks named in Daniel 9:24. The person who makes a covenant with the Jews in those days and afterward breaks it, we know to be the head of the future Roman empire. See SEVENTY WEEKS. Of this person an image will be made, and the people will be constrained to worship it (Rev. 13:14-15); but we do not read that it will be carried into the future temple; whereas our Lord says that the abomination will stand in the holy place. On the other hand we read that the Antichrist “exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he, as God, sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God” (2 Thess. 2:4). The “abomination of desolation” is evidently connected with the trinity of evil spoken of in Revelation 13, and will be the work of Satan, the Roman beast, and the false prophet. It will end in dire desolation. The desolator is the Assyrian (Isa. 8:7-8; Isa. 28:2,18), the northern king who will then hold the territory of Assyria (Dan. 11:40).

Abraham

Son of Terah and grandson of Nahor, the seventh descendant from Shem. His name was at first ABRAM, “father of elevation”; but was altered by God into ABRAHAM, “father of a multitude.” In this name (Abraham) the blessing of the Gentiles is secured by God. The family dwelt in Ur of the Chaldees, and were idolaters (Jos. 24:2). Abraham was the first to receive a definite call from God to leave not only the idolatrous nation to which his ancestors belonged, but to leave his kindred and his father’s house and to go into a land that God would show him. God would bless him and make him a blessing, and bless all who blessed him and would curse all who cursed him (Gen. 12:1-3). He thus became the depositary of God’s promise and blessing. Abraham at first only partially obeyed the call: he left Ur and went to dwell at Haran, in Mesopotamia (Charran in Acts 7:4), but with his father and kindred; and did not enter Canaan until the death of his father. When in the land, God promised that unto his seed He would give the land. Abraham built an altar, and called upon the name of Jehovah. A famine occurring in the land, Abraham went to sojourn in Egypt, and for want of faith he called Sarai his sister and she was taken into the house of Pharaoh, but the Lord protected her, and Abraham with his wife was sent away with a rebuke. When near Bethel he could again call on the name of the Lord. He had now become so rich in cattle that disputes arose between his herdmen and those of Lot, and Abraham asked Lot to choose where he would sojourn, if he went to the right Abraham would go to the left; and they separated. Again Jehovah declared that as far as Abraham’s eye could reach in all directions the land should belong to his seed.
The next recorded event is that Lot was taken prisoner and carried to the north. Abraham pursued the enemy and recovered all. He refused to take even a thread of the spoil from the king of Sodom: he would not be made rich from such a source; but he was blessed by Melchisedec, king of Salem, the priest of the most high God, who brought forth bread and wine: to whom Abraham gave tenths of all. See MELCHISEDEC. God now revealed Himself to Abraham as His shield and exceeding great reward.
When Abraham lamented to God that he had no son, God declared that he should have a son, and that his seed should be as the stars of the heaven for multitude. Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness. This is the first time that faith is spoken of. Still he asked whereby should he know that his seed should possess the land, and was told to take a heifer, a she goat, and a ram, all of three years old, a turtle dove and a young pigeon. These he divided in the midst, except the birds, and laid them one against another. When the sun went down a smoking furnace and a burning lamp passed between the pieces: type of the fire that consumes the dross, and a light for the path. The same day God made a covenant with Abraham that to his seed should the land be given from the river of Egypt to the great river Euphrates (compare Jer. 34:18-19): it had been ratified in death, a type of Christ. When Abraham had fallen into a deep sleep, he was informed that his seed should be in a strange land, and be afflicted 400 years (Genesis 15). See ISRAEL IN EGYPT.
Abraham had believed that God would give him a son, but now he waits not God’s time, and at Sarai’s suggestion he associates with Hagar, a bondmaid, and Ishmael is born (Gen. 16) — a figure of the law, that is, man’s attempt to possess the blessing by his own effort.
God now reveals Himself to Abraham as the “Almighty God,” a name which signifies that all resource is in God Himself. God “talked with him,” and made a covenant with him according to that name. It is now that his name is changed from Abram, because he was to be a father of many nations. Abraham was to walk before the Almighty God and be perfect, and was to keep the covenant by having all the males circumcised (a figure of no confidence in the flesh), which he at once put into practice. Sarai’s name was altered to Sarah, for she was to be a princess, and should have a son.
Abraham entertained three visitors: on two leaving him the third is spoken of as the Lord who asks, “shall I hide from Abraham the thing which I do?” According to John 15:14-15, this gives the key to Abraham being called “the friend of God” (2 Chron. 20:7; Isa. 41:8; James 2:23). God opened His mind to him, and Abraham was emboldened to plead for the righteous in Sodom.
Abraham’s faith again fails him and at Gerar he once more calls Sarah his sister, which might have led to sin had not God protected her, and Abraham is again rebuked.
Isaac is born, and conflict ensues between that which is a type of the flesh and the Spirit: Hagar and her son Ishmael are cast out (Gen. 21; compare Gal. 4:22-23). God then tried the faith of Abraham by telling him to offer up his son Isaac for a burnt offering. Abraham obeyed, and, but for the intervention of the angel of the Lord, would have killed his son, believing “that God was able to raise him up even from the dead.” After the death and resurrection in figure of Isaac, the unconditional promise is confirmed to Abraham that in his seed — which is Christ — should all the nations of the earth be blessed (Gen. 22:18; Gal. 3:14-18). If any are Christ’s, they are Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to promise (Gal. 3:29). The promise is sure to all the seed, “not only to that which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all” (Rom. 4:16).
Abraham was by faith so much a stranger (Heb. 11:9) that, on the death of Sarah, he had to buy a piece of ground of the children of Heth, to secure a sepulcher in the land (Gen. 23). He was so careful that Isaac should not marry one of the daughters of the Canaanites that he sent his servant (Eliezer perhaps) to his own kindred to seek a bride for Isaac, being convinced that God would send His angel and prosper the mission, which resulted in Rebecca being the wife of Isaac (Gen. 24).
Abraham had another wife, Keturah, and concubines by whom he had sons; but to these he gave gifts and sent them eastward, so that Isaac and his seed might peacefully dwell in the promised land. Abraham died at the age of 175, and was buried with Sarah.
The history of Abraham in Genesis divides itself into three parts:
Gen. 12-14, his public walk and testimony, as called of God.
Gen. 15-21, his private and domestic history with God, illustrating the growth of soul.
Gen. 22-25. give in type a prophetical outline of events: namely, the sacrifice of Christ; the setting aside of Israel for a time; the call of the bride; and the final settlement of the nations in blessing in the end of the days.
The nation of Israel was descended from Abraham, and we know how zealously they contended for the relationship, though alas, they had not and have not the same faith. Still the land was given to them, and when God’s set time comes they will surely be brought back to their “fatherland” and after trial and discipline will be blessed therein.
Abraham being the father of Ishmael and the other sons sent into the East it is not to be wondered at that he is a personage of universal fame in that immense quarter of the world, and that there are numerous traditions concerning him. It can hardly be doubted that their relationship to Abraham will yet be found in their favor during the millennium when the promise that his seed should be “as the sand of the sea shore” will have its fulfillment.
To the Christian the life of this patriarch is worthy of the deepest attention, in view of, the varied manifestations whereby God revealed Himself to him, whether in the formation of his character under those manifestations, or in the Christian’s connections with him in the way of faith, or with respect to the unconditional promises made to him as to the possession of the land of Palestine both in the past and in the future.

Abraham's Bosom

Abraham their forefather was believed by the Jews to be in the highest place of happiness, and their writings show that “to be with Abraham” and to be in his bosom were terms they used to express the highest security and happiness. Our Lord therefore used an expression that was well understood by His hearers and needed no explanation (Luke 16:23). It stands in contrast to hell, or hades, and was therefore figurative of heaven.

Abram

See ABRAHAM.

Absalom

The third son of David, by Maacah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur. He was remarkable for his beauty and his luxuriant hair (2 Sam. 14:25-26). Because of his putting his half-brother Amnon to death he fled from his father and remained at Geshur three years. By the instigation of Joab, Absalom was recalled, but not admitted into the presence of his father until a later period. This reconciliation was effected at the expense of righteousness, and without any repentance on Absalom’s part — a total contrast to God’s ministry of reconciliation (2 Cor. 5:18-20). It was declared to David that his successor was not yet born (2 Sam. 7:12). This was told to David by Nathan the prophet, and probably became known to Absalom. Amnon being dead, and perhaps Chileab, his two elder brothers, he might naturally have thought that the throne should have descended to him, and this may have led to his treason. By artful acts of condescension he stole the hearts of the people, and then at Hebron he claimed to be king, and met with much encouragement. The rebellion was so strong that David fled from Jerusalem. Absalom entered the city and was joined by Amasa and Ahithophel. The latter advised Absalom to go in publicly to the concubines of David who were left at Jerusalem, that all hopes of a reconciliation might be abandoned — though this had been foretold as a punishment to David (2 Sam. 12:11). By the advice of Hushai, the further counsel of Ahithophel of an immediate pursuit was set aside, and David had time to collect an army, and reach a place of safety. A war followed, and Absalom, in riding through a wood, was caught by his head in the branches of an oak, and was there put to death by Joab. David’s grief was extreme, but he was recalled to his duties by Joab. We read that Absalom had three sons and a daughter, 2 Samuel 14:27, yet that because he had no son left he raised up a pillar in the king’s dale, to keep his name in remembrance: it was called ABSALOM’S PLACE or monument (2 Sam. 18:18). A building in the valley of the Kedron partly rock-hewn, is called Absalom’s tomb; but it can have nothing to do with the above pillar unless it has been much added to with comparatively modern architecture. Josephus says that in his day there was an object called Absalom’s “pillar” about 2 stadia from Jerusalem. Apparently Absalom is called ABISHALOM in 1 Kings 15:2; compare 2 Chronicles 11:21.

Absolution

See FORGIVENESS.

Abyss

See BOTTOMLESS PIT.

Accad

Nimrod’s kingdom embraced Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh in the land of Shinar (Gen. 10:10). The ruins of Accad cannot now be identified with certainty. In the Assyrian inscriptions however a city is named Akkad, which was doubtless the same, and there is a remarkable mound, some 50 miles N.NW. of Babylon, about 33° 25' N, 44° 15' E, called Akker-koof, and known to the Arabs as Akker-i-Nimrood or Tell-Nimrood. It is about 400 feet in circumference and 125 feet high, composed of sun-dried bricks, reeds, bitumen. Some believe this to have been the ancient Accad; but others think it must have been farther south.
“The Accadians had been the inventors of the pictorial hieroglyphics, which afterward developed into the cuneiform or wedge-shape system of writing. They had founded the great cities of Chaldea, and had attained to a high degree of culture and civilization.” — Dr. Sayce. An inscription has been found showing the Accadian transition from the hieroglyphic to the wedge-shape letters; and others with the latter interlined with the Babylonian or Assyrian dialect. The Accadian was the principal dialect spoken by the primitive inhabitants of Babylonia, and in which some of their ancient legends are inscribed. It became eventually the learned language of the kingdom, as Latin became in the West.

Acceptable year of the Lord

The Lord Jesus at the beginning of His ministry entered into the synagogue at Nazareth, and on the prophecy by Isaiah being handed to Him read from Isaiah 61, the passage, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord” — leaving off in the middle of a sentence, for the next words are, “and the day of vengeance of our God” (Luke 4:18-19; Isa. 61:1-2). The Lord added, “This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears.” The vengeance will be executed for the deliverance of Israel in a coming day; but when our Lord spoke there was the fullest grace for his hearers: it was the acceptable year of Jehovah. There may be an allusion to the year of Jubilee (type of the millennium) when servants were liberated, debts canceled, and when family possessions were restored to their original owners. But the grace vouchsafed by the Lord brought lasting blessings for their souls.

Acceptance

This means being “brought into favor.” As God is holy, and man is a sinner, he can only be brought into acceptance by means of a Mediator, the Lord Jesus Christ. To effect this the Lord had to die, to vindicate the justice of God, and atone for the sins of those who believe. In Him risen and glorified the believer is brought into favor according to the value before God of Christ’s person and work, wherefore the apostle says, “to the praise of the glory of His grace wherein He hath made us accepted in the beloved” (Eph. 1:6). It is then a fact that the Christian is accepted or brought into favor in the Lord Jesus Christ; compare Romans 5:2. How far his spirit and conduct is acceptable or wellpleasing to God is entirely a different question. 2 Corinthians 5:9 should read “We labor that whether present or absent we may be acceptable to him.” Being accepted we should be zealous that in all things our ways may be well-pleasing to God.

Accho

A seaport in the Mediterranean, about 30 miles south of Tyre. It was assigned to Asher, but it was one of the places they failed to possess. It is mentioned in the O.T. only in Judges 1:31. After the dismemberment of the Macedonian empire, Accho could not fail to excite attention in the numerous contests that took place during the Era of the Ptolemies: by one of whom it was gained and was called PTOLEMAIS. By this latter name it is frequently referred to in the books of Maccabees and by Josephus. In Acts 21:7 also we read that Paul sailed to Ptolemais. It was made a Roman colony by the emperor Claudius and named Colonia Claudii Caesaris. It was besieged and taken by the Crusaders, who called it ACRE and ST. JEAN D’ACRE on account of the knights of St. John of Jerusalem. In 1799 it was held by the English against Napoleon, who was defeated. Notwithstanding all these changes it retains its ancient name, and is still called Akka or Accho. An ancient coin gives the name in Greek letters AKE. It lies in the north of the bay of Acre, 32° 55' N, 35° 4' E, but there is not sufficient depth of water for ships: they however find shelter on the opposite side of the bay near Haifa under Mount Carmel. The area on which Accho stands is small, and is little more than a fortress in the sea. Massive fortifications guard the city toward the east, and on the land side there is a double rampart. The population has been given at about 5,000, of which 2,250 males are Muslims and Druzes, and about 800 Christians and Jews. The chief exports are grain and cotton. A railway is now (1894) in course of construction from Akka to Haifa, and thence to Damascus, which will no doubt much increase the trade of the place.

Accursed

See ANATHEMA.

Accuser, The

ὁ κατήγορος. A title given to Satan when he is cast down to the earth, because he had accused the brethren before God day and night (Rev. 12:10; compare Zech. 3:1).

Aceldama

The word Ακελδαμἀ, “field of blood,” is Aramaic expressed in Greek letters, the word being differently spelled in different MSS. The field was bought with the money paid to Judas for betraying his Lord but which he in despair could not keep. In that sense he bought the field, Acts 1:18-19); whereas it was really purchased by the chief priests (Matt. 27:6-8; compare Zech. 11:12). The traditional spot is on the slope of the hill south of Jerusalem, where there is a ruined structure, long used as a charnel-house. It is some 20 feet deep, with a few decaying bones at the bottom. Tradition says that the bodies were thrown into it, and that the soil possessed the power to consume them in 24 hours. Shiploads of the earth were carried away to form European burial grounds in the time of the Crusades. The soil being cretaceous would favor the decomposition of the bodies.

Achaia

This with Macedonia embraced the whole of Greece in the New Testament; but with the poets Achaia often referred to the whole of Greece. Under the Romans it was divided into two districts, Achaia being a senatorial province. Tiberias united the two districts into an imperial province under procurators; but Claudius again restored it to the senate under a proconsul, so that Luke was correct in calling Gallio a proconsul (ἀνθὐπατος) or deputy (Acts 18:12; 19:21; Rom. 15:26; 1 Cor. 16:15).

Achaicus

A Christian who, with Stephanas and Fortunatus, visited Paul at Ephesus, by whom the apostle was refreshed in spirit (1 Cor. 16:17). The subscription to the epistle states that it was sent to Corinth by the above three and Timotheus.

Achan, Achar

Son of Carmi, of the tribe of Judah, who on the fall of Jericho kept some of its spoil, against the express command of Jehovah, hence called the “accursed thing,” and was stoned to death with his family, and with his possessions burned with fire (Josh. 7:1). Called ACHAR, in 1 Chronicles 2:7. All Israel were punished until the sin was discovered and avenged: showing in type that there cannot be evil in an assembly of Christians without all being involved.

Achaz

See AHAZ.

Achbor

1. An Edomite, the father of Baal-hanan (Gen. 36:38-39; 1 Chron. 1:49).
2. Son of Michaiah, and servant of Josiah (2 Kings 22:12, 14; Jer. 26:22; Jer. 36:12): called ABDON, the son of Micah, in 2 Chronicles 34:20.

Achim

Son or descendant of Sadoc, and father of Eliud: the name occurs only in Matthew 1:14.

Achish

1. The Philistine king of Gath with whom David twice took shelter from Saul. The first time the servants of Achish reminded him that of David it had been said that he had slain his ten thousands. When David heard this he was afraid and feigned himself mad, and Achish sent him away (1 Sam. 21:10-15). Psalm 34 was composed on this occasion, as we learn from its heading, in which Achish is called Abimelech. This has given occasion for critics to doubt its authenticity. But “Abimelech” was used as a title rather than a proper name of the kings of the Philistines, as Pharaoh was of the kings of Egypt. The second occasion was when David’s heart failed him, and he said, “I shall now perish one day by the hand of Saul.” Achish dealt well with David, gave him Ziklag to dwell in, and would have had him go to war with him against Israel, saying, “I will make thee keeper of my head forever” (1 Sam. 27; 1 Sam. 28:2). The lords of the Philistines however objected, and Achish begged David to return. See DAVID.
2. Another king of Gath, to whom the servants of Shimei fled, which led to Shimei’s death (1 Kings 2:39-40).

Achmetha

This reads in the margin, “Ecbatana, or, in a coffer” (Ezra 6:2). The LXX does not treat it as a proper name: the passage there reads “And there was found in the city (πὀλει), in the palace, a volume.” The Vulgate has “Et inventum est in Ecbatanis.” Apparently history alludes to two cities named Ecbatana: one associated with the ruins at Talcht-i-Suleiman, 36° 28' N, 47° 18' E; the other identified with the modern Hamadan, 34° 48' N, 48° 26' E, anciently the summer residence of Persian kings, and where the records of the kingdom were apparently kept. This is most probably the Achmetha of scripture. Travelers state that the Jews exhibit a tomb in their charge in the midst of the city, which is the reputed tomb of Mordecai and Esther.

Achor, Valley of

Achor signifies “trouble,” and was the place where Achan was stoned for having troubled Israel by taking the accursed thing (Josh. 7:26). The valley was between Jericho and Ai, on the border of the tribe of Judah. Identified with Wady Kelt, 31° 50' N, 35° 24' E. It will be a door of hope to Israel — putting away evil from among themselves, national self-judgment — in the future, when they call to mind that it was there that God’s judgment began to fall on them, followed by blessing: so the tribulation of the latter day will usher in blessing (Hos. 2:15; Isa. 65:10).

Achsa, Achsah

Daughter of Caleb, whom he promised as wife to him who should take Kirjath-sepher. Othniel, nephew of Caleb, took it, and Achsa became his wife. At her request for springs of water Caleb gave her the upper springs and the nether springs for the quickening of dry ground (Josh. 15:16-19; Judg. 1:12-15; 1 Chron. 2:49). The springs are symbolical of Christ in glory, and the Holy Spirit here, object and power of life with God.

Achshaph

A city on the border of Asher’s lot. It is named between Beten and Alammelech (Josh. 19:25). Its king was among the thirty and one kings slain by the children of Israel, he having risen with others to oppose the division of the land (Josh. 11:1; Josh. 12:20). It has been identified with Kefr Yasif, 32° 57' N, 35° 10' E.

Achzib

1. City of Judah (Josh. 15:44; Mic. 1:14): probably the same that is called elsewhere CHEZIB and perhaps CHOZEBA. Identified with Ain Kezbeh, 31° 42' N, 35° E.
2. City in the lot of Asher, but from which the inhabitants were not driven out (Josh. 19:29; Judg. 1:31). Identified with ez-Zib, a town on the Mediterranean coast, 33° 3' N, 35° 6' E.

Acre

This word, as a measure of land, occurs twice in the Authorized version. In 1 Sam. 14:14, the word is maanah, “a furrow,” reading in the margin “half a furrow of an acre.” In Isaiah 5:10 it is tsemed, “a pair, or yoke.” The “acre” was as much as a yoke of oxen would plow in a day. The Latin etymology is similar: thus jugum, a yoke; jugerum, an acre. The Roman acre contained 28,800 square feet (being 240 feet in length by 120 in breadth), which is less than two-thirds of an English acre, which contains 43,560 square feet. “The Egyptian land measure,” says Wilkinson, “was the aroura, or antra, a square of 100 cubits, covering an area of 10,000 cubits It contained 29,184 square English feet (the cubit being full 20.5 inches) and was little more than three quarters of an English acre.” What the Jewish acre exactly contained we have no means of ascertaining: it is not included in the usual lists of weights and measures as a definite measure of land. The passage in Isaiah 5:10: “ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath” clearly refers to a time of great dearth which Jehovah would send upon Israel in judgment.

Acts of Pilate

See PILATE.

Acts of the Apostles

The introduction to this book compared with the introduction to the gospel by Luke makes it plain that the two were written by the same person. The Acts ends with the two years’ imprisonment of the apostle Paul at Rome: it could not therefore have been written before the end of that time, and was probably written very soon afterward or it would have given the issue of Paul’s trial. This would place the date about A.D. 63.
The “Acts” forms a link between the Gospels and the Epistles, as the ascension of Christ formed a link between the Gospels and the Acts. It occupies a sort of transition time, for though the church was soon formed, the doctrine of the church was not made known until Paul’s epistles. The title, “Acts of the Apostles,” might have led us to expect a more general account of the labors of all the Twelve; but their mission in the ways of God is superseded by that of Paul, both as minister of the gospel of the glory of Christ, and of the church. A wise selection of the fruits of apostolic energy has been made, verifying some things stated in the Gospels, and forming an indispensable introduction to the Epistles.
After the ascension of the Lord, and the choosing an apostle to fill the place of Judas, the first great event recorded is the day of Pentecost. The Lord had said, “I will build my church,” (Matt. 16:18); and the descent of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost is the answer to the question, when did the incorporation of the church begin? 1 Corinthians 12:13 proves that it was by the gift of the Holy Spirit, though, as it has been said, the doctrine of the church was not revealed till afterward.
Ananias was charged with lying to the Holy Spirit, by whom God was then dwelling in the church. Our Lord had promised that on His departure He would send them another Comforter, the Holy Spirit, to abide with and be in them. This also was fulfilled at Pentecost. Peter, Stephen and the other present at the same time were full of the Holy Spirit (compare Acts 4:31).
After this another call was made to Israel to receive Jesus as the Christ. They had killed the Prince of life, but God had raised Him from the dead, and now in mercy and on the ground of their ignorance one more appeal was made to them to repent and be converted that their sins might be blotted out, and that God might send again Jesus Christ who was then in heaven. The rulers however were grieved that they preached by Jesus the resurrection from among the dead, and commanded Peter and John not to speak or teach in the name of Jesus. Stephen, being accused before the Sanhedrim, rehearsed the history of Israel from the beginning, and charged them with resisting the Holy Spirit, as their fathers had done. The indictment of Israel as man in the flesh, and the exposure of his enmity to God led to the final sin of rejecting the glorified Christ, expressed by the stoning of Stephen who, calling upon the Lord not to lay the sin to their charge, exemplified the life of Christ in his body.
This ends the first phase of the acts of the Holy Spirit, and clears the way for the going out of the gospel and the revelation of the truth of the church. The persecution that followed led to the spread of the gospel. Philip preached Christ to the Samaritans and many believed. Peter went from Jerusalem, laid his hands upon them and they received the Holy Spirit. Peter was then used at Caesarea in opening the door to the Gentiles (answering to his having the keys of the kingdom committed to him, Matt. 16:19), and they also received the Holy Spirit.
In the meantime Saul had been converted, and immediately preached that Jesus was the Son of God. The churches had rest, and walking in the fear of the Lord and comfort of the Holy Spirit, were multiplied (Acts 9:31). Herod Agrippa however soon began to persecute the church; he killed James the brother of John, and put Peter into prison, who was however miraculously delivered. Herod died a miserable death; and the word of God grew and multiplied (Acts 12). This ends the phase of the church’s history in connection with the remnant of Israel.
Antioch, instead of Jerusalem, now became a center of evangelization, independent of apostolic authority, yet without breaking the unity of the Spirit by forming a separate church. Barnabas and Saul are separated to the work by the Holy Spirit, and with John Mark take a missionary journey.
Certain persons from Judea insisting at Antioch that the Gentile converts must be circumcised or they could not be saved, the question was referred to the church at Jerusalem. In their decision they could say, “It seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things: that ye abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication: from which if ye keep yourselves ye shall do well. Fare ye well” (Acts 15:28-29).
Paul with Silas took a second missionary journey, extending to Europe and returned to Antioch (Acts 18:22). From thence Paul went a third journey. (For the particulars of these journeys and from whence Paul wrote some of his epistles, see the article PAUL.) It may be noted that while at Ephesus, because of the opposition of the Jews in the synagogues, Paul separated the disciples and they met in a building distinct from the synagogue, commencing a further development of the church’s history (Acts 19:9).
At the close of the third missionary journey Paul, led by deep spiritual affection for his nation, but forbidden by the Spirit in whose energy the ministry entrusted to him had hitherto been carried out, went up to Jerusalem, where he was arrested. The rest of the book details his trials and danger from the Jews; his journey to Rome, where he calls together the chief of the Jews, to whom he preaches Jesus. We read no more of any of his labors, and the Acts leaves him a prisoner.
The book embraces a period of about thirty years: the mystery of the church, and the gospel of the glory committed to Paul, as well as the state of the assemblies must be gathered from the Epistles. During the above period Paul wrote the two epistles to the Thessalonians, the two to the Corinthians, to the Galatians, Romans, Colossians, Philemon, Ephesians, and Philippians.

Adadah

Town in the most southern part of Judah’s possessions (Josh. 15:22), identified by some with Adadah in the desert S.E. of Beersheba.

Adah

1. One of the two wives of Lamech, and the mother of Jabal and Jubal (Gen. 4:19-20, 23).
2. One of the wives of Esau, daughter of Elon the Hittite, and thus a daughter of Canaan: she bare to Esau his first-born son Eliphaz, who became the father of seven of the dukes of Edom (Gen. 36:2, 4, 15-16). See BASHEMATH.

Adaiah

1. Father of Jedidah and grandfather of Josiah, king of Judah (2 Kings 22:1).
2. Son of Ethan, a Gershonite (1 Chron. 6:41).
3. One of the sons of Shimhi (1 Chron. 8:21).
4. Son of Jeroham (1 Chron. 9:12).
5. Father of Maaseiah, a “ captain of hundreds” (2 Chron. 23:1).
6-7. Two who had married strange wives (Ezra 10:29, 39).
8. One whose descendants returned from exile and dwelt in Jerusalem (Neh. 11:5).
9. One who returned from exile, and did the work of the house of the Lord (Neh. 11:12).

Adalia

Son of Haman, slain and hanged (Esther 9:8,13).

Adam

The first man. The name is supposed to be derived from Adamah, earth, or red earth, agreeing with the fact that “the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground” (Gen. 2:7). He differed from all other creatures, because God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, by which man became a living soul. He differed also in being made after the image and likeness of God: he was God’s representative on earth, and to him was given dominion over all other living things, and he gave them names. He was placed in the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it, showing that occupation was a good thing for man even in innocence. God said also that it was not good for man to be alone, so He caused him to sleep, took from him a rib, and of this builded a woman. Adam called her Isha for she was taken out of Ish, man: the two being a type of Christ and the church, in the closest union (compare Eph. 5:31-32).
Adam and Eve were permitted to eat of all the trees of the garden except the tree of the knowledge of good and evil: of the which if they ate, in the same day they should die. Eve, being beguiled by Satan, ate of that tree; and at her suggestion, though not deceived as Eve was, Adam also took of it. Their eyes were at once opened, they knew they were naked, and hid themselves from God. They were transgressors, had fallen from their state of innocence, and acquired a conscience, and with it the sense of their own evil and guilt. When questioned by God, Adam laid the blame on Eve, ungratefully saying, “the woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.” The ground was then cursed for Adam’s sake: in sorrow he should eat of it all his life: thorns and thistles should be produced, and in the sweat of his face he should eat bread.
God made for Adam and Eve coats of skins and clothed them, foreshadowing the need for a vicarious sacrifice, and the righteousness that could only come to them through death. They were driven from the garden, and Cherubim with a flaming sword prevented them re-entering, lest they should eat of the tree of life and live forever in their sin.
Adam did not beget a son until after his fall; hence all mankind are alike fallen creatures (Acts 17:26; Rom. 5:18-19; 1 Cor. 15:22). Adam lived 930 years and begat sons and daughters. We have no details of the life of Adam as a fallen man. Viewed typically as head of a race he stands in marked contrast to Christ, the last Adam.

Adam

A town near the Jordan, named only in Joshua 3:16, which should read “a heap very far off, by [or at] Adam, the city that is beside Zaretan.” The waters of death were heaped at Adam as if to teach the death of the first man at the passage of the Jordan. Adam is identified with ed Damieh, 32° 7' N, 35° 33' E. If this is correct, the waters were piled up some 20 miles from where the Israelites crossed. See JORDAN.

Adam, the Last

In contrast to the first man, Adam, who was made a living soul, the last Adam, the Lord Jesus Christ, was a life-giving Spirit: the first was natural; the second spiritual: the first man was of the earth, earthy; the second Man was out of heaven (1 Cor. 15:45-47). Everything committed to man having failed in Adam, Christ as last Adam becomes the head of a new and redeemed race. He is the last Adam because there will be no other: every man must come under one of these two headships: the first Adam, man; or the last Adam, Christ (compare 1 Cor. 15:22; Psa. 8:3-9; Heb. 2:6-9).

Adamah

One of the fenced cities in the lot of Naphtali (Josh. 19:36). It has been associated with Damieh, 32° 45' N, 35° 27' E; but this would appear to be in Zebulun’s lot.

Adamant, Shamir

(Ezek. 3:9; Zech. 7:12). Though once translated diamond (Jer. 17:1), it is used symbolically of extreme hardness, “harder than a flint.” The word is translated “briars” and signifies any sharp point: hence a diamond point, or anything hard.

Adami

Place on the borders of Naphtali (Josh. 19:33). Some early writers say it was afterward called Damin. It is identified with Adamah, 32° 38' N, 35° 32' E.

Adar

See MONTHS.

Adar

Place on the southern border of Palestine, in the lot of Judah (Josh. 15:3). In Numbers 34:4 it is called HAZAR-ADDAR. It is unknown.

Adbeel

Son of Ishmael and one of the “twelve princes according to their generations” (Gen. 25:13; 1 Chron. 1:29). There is no trace of a nation bearing this name, nor of any place named after him.

Addan

One of the places from which certain persons returned to the land, who “could not show their father’s house and their seed, whether they were of Israel” (Ezra 2:59). In the parallel passage in Nehemiah 7:61, it is ADDON.

Addar

Son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:3). The same as Aim in Genesis 46:21 and Numbers 26:40.

Adder

There are four words thus translated.
1. akshub (Psa. 140:3). This word occurs but once, and simply compares the wicked to adders who have poison under their lips. It cannot be identified.
2. pethen (Psa. 58:4; Psa. 91:13, reading in the margin of both asp). The wicked are compared to the deaf adder that stoppeth her ears. There is an old tradition that the adder sometimes laid one ear in the dust and covered the other with its tail; but they have no external ears: that all known adders can hear is well attested by those called serpent charmers, though some species are more easily attracted than others. The above name is held to point to the deadly Cobra. The same Hebrew word is translated asp in Deuteronomy 32:33; Job 20:14,16; Isaiah 11:8, simply pointing to it as poisonous or dangerous.
3. tsiphoni. This is only once translated adder in the text (Prov. 23:32), but is four times translated cockatrice, in Isaiah 11:8; 14:29; 59:5, referring to its poison, and Jeremiah 8:17 to the fact that it will not be charmed, but will bite. This is supposed to be the yellow viper of Palestine, which lurks in dens, and whose poison is deadly. It is said to resist the arts of the serpent charmers. The cockatrice was a fabulous creature, and was perhaps adopted by the translators to designate some unknown deadly snake.
4. shephiphon (Gen. 49:17). This is identified with the Cerastes, or horned viper, so called because of having two short horns on its head. It is a small destructive snake, rarely more than two feet long. It is called in the margin an arrow-snake. It lies in holes or ruts and darts upon an animal passing: and this well agrees with the above text, where Dan is compared to “an adder in the path that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward” typical of apostasy and the power of Satan.

Addi

Descendant of Cosam in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus (Luke 3:28). The name cannot be traced in the Old Testament.

Addon

See ADDAN.

Ader

Son of Beriah, a descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:15).

Adiel

1. Descendant of Simeon (1 Chron. 4:36).
2. Priest, son of Jahzerah (1 Chron. 9:12).
3. Father of Azmaveth (1 Chron. 27:25).

Adin

One or more whose descendants returned from exile (Ezra 2:15; Ezra 8:6; Neh. 7:20; Neh. 10:16).

Adina

Reubenite, one of David’s captains (1 Chron. 11:42).

Adino

“The Tachmonite that sat in the seat, chief among the captains; the same was Adino the Eznite” (2 Sam. 23:8). In 1 Chronicles 11:11 the chief of the captains is Jashobeam an Hachmonite, or son of Hachmoni, margin. The passage in Samuel reads in the margin “Joshebbassebet the Tachmonite, head of the three.” It is difficult to reconcile the two passages. Some think that Jashobeam and Joshebbassebet are the same name — one being varied by the copyist. Those who take the passage in Samuel to be incorrect, make “Adino the Eznite” not a proper name, but he swung his spear. Furst takes Adino to be a proper name, and so does the LXX. The two passages may refer to different persons. It will be noted that Jashobeam is said to have killed three hundred men, and Adino killed eight hundred. The former also is named in connection with David’s coming into power, and the latter in connection with the last words of David. Jashobeam may therefore have died and Adino become chief in his place. That the two passages are not meant for lists of the first three at the same period seems evident by Shammah, one of the three, being named in Samuel only.

Adithaim

Town in the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:36). It cannot be identified.

Adjuration

A solemn charge by one in authority to another to speak the truth under the obligation of an oath, as when Ahab adjured Micaiah (1 Kings 22:16), and when the high priest adjured our Lord (Matt. 26:63). Also binding a person under a curse to do or not to do the thing enjoined, as in Joshua 6:26; 1 Samuel 14:24 (compare also Mark 5:7; Acts 19:13). Also a solemn charge, as in 1 Thessalonians 5:27, in the margin.

Adlai

Father of Shaphat, one of David’s chief shepherds (1 Chron. 27:29).

Admah

One of the cities in the plains of Jordan destroyed with Sodom and Gomorrah (Deut. 29:23). It was subject to Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, but its king revolted. In the war that followed all were carried away including Lot, but Abraham pursued and recovered all (Gen. 10:19; 14:8). Jehovah, when speaking of His fierce anger against Ephraim said, “How shall I make thee as Admah?” (Hos. 11:8).

Admatha

One of the seven princes of Persia and Media (Esther 1:14).

Adna

1. One of the sons of Pahath-moab who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:30).
2. A priest of the family of Harim (Neh. 12:15).

Adnah

1. One of the captains of thousands, of the tribe of Manasseh, who joined David in Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:20).
2. The chief of the captains of thousands in the reign of Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 17:14).

Adonai

See GOD.

Adoni-bezek

King of Bezek, as the name implies, a Canaanitish city. He was taken captive by Judah, and they cut off his thumbs and great toes. He confessed that this was a righteous judgment upon him, because he had done the same to seventy kings, whom he made to gather their food under his table (Judg. 1:5-7).

Adoni-zedec

The Canaanitish king of Jerusalem. Hearing of the destruction of Ai, he called four kings to his aid to punish Gibeon for making peace with Israel. Gibeon sent to Joshua for help and the five kings were overcome. They took shelter in a cave but were taken from thence, and, after the captains of Israel had placed their feet on their necks, they were slain (Josh. 10:1-27). Letters from Adonizedec entreating the king of Egypt to send soldiers to defend him from the Abiri (Hebrews) have been found among the Tell Amarna Tablets (see under EGYPT). These letters give a vivid account, from a Canaanitish point of view, of the wars which took place when Joshua took possession of the land.

Adonijah

1. Fourth son of David by Haggith, born at Hebron (2 Sam. 3:4). He was apparently the oldest of David’s sons at the close of David’s life, and may have supposed that he would succeed to the throne; but without consulting his father he said, “I will be king,” and both Joab and Abiathar helped him. David at once proclaimed Solomon as king. Adonijah ran in fear to the horns of the altar, but Solomon promised if he showed himself a worthy man he should not be hurt. He afterward asked to have as wife Abishag, with whom David had shared his bed. According to Herodotus (3.68) this was in eastern countries considered as a pretension to the crown, which agrees with Solomon saying, “Ask for him the kingdom also,” and explains also the advice given by Ahithophel to Absalom, to go in publicly to his father’s wives. Adonijah was at once put to death (1 Kings 2:19-25).
2. Levite in the time of Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 17:8).
3. One who sealed the covenant in Nehemiah 10:16.

Adonikam

One or more whose descendants returned from exile (Ezra 2:13; Ezra 8:13; Neh. 7:18).

Adoniram

Chief over the tribute in the days of Solomon (1 Kings 4:6; 5:14). In David’s time ADORAM was over the tribute (2 Sam. 20:24), and in the days of Rehoboam also a person of this name was over the tribute (1 Kings 12:18), which Gesenius and others take to be a contracted form of Adoniram, and to refer to the same person. Apparently the Adoram mentioned in 1 Kings 12:18 is called HADORAM in 2 Chronicles 10:18. All Israel stoned him to death at the revolt of the ten tribes. If Adoniram held office from David to Rehoboam it would embrace a long period; still it may be the same throughout, or father and son.

Adoption

The word is υιοθεσἰα, the adoption of sons, or the placing of persons in the position of sons, with all the privileges attaching thereto. Examples of this in a natural way are seen in the Old Testament in Moses being an adopted son of the daughter of Pharaoh (Ex. 2:10), and Esther being adopted by her cousin Mordecai (Esther 2:7). In a higher sense, Israel was the adopted son of God. Moses was instructed to say to Pharaoh, “Thus saith Jehovah, Israel is my son, even my firstborn” (Ex. 4:22; compare also Deut. 14:1; Isa. 43:6). So that Paul, when enumerating the privileges of Israel, could say that to them pertained the adoption (Rom. 9:4). In a much higher sense, since redemption has been wrought, those who believe in the Lord Jesus Christ are in the new creation sons by adoption, and the Spirit of God’s Son is given them so that they can call God, Abba Father, and not only be sons but know and enjoy the relationship with all its blessed privileges (Gal. 4:5-6). The Christian receives the spirit of adoption, the Holy Ghost bearing witness with his spirit that he is a child of God. Not that he enters into the full blessedness of being God’s son until the future; for we who have the first-fruits of the Spirit groan within ourselves waiting for the adoption — the redemption of our body (Rom. 8:15-23). All this is certain as to believers, for having been chosen in Christ Jesus they have been predestinated unto adoption by Jesus Christ to Himself according to the good pleasure of His will (Eph. 1:4-5).

Adoraim

Fortified city built by Rehoboam (2 Chron. 11:9). It is identified with Dura, a large village which lies to the west of Hebron, 31° 31' N, 35° 1' E.

Adoram

See ADONIRAM

Adoration

This word does not occur in the Authorized Version, but there are several attitudes described that form part of the outward acts of adoration which may be well considered under this title, leaving inward adoration to the article on WORSHIP. The homage given may be to God, to the Lord Jesus, to an idol, or by one man to another.
1. Bowing, bowing down. “O come, let us worship and bow down” (Psa. 95:6). It was forbidden to be paid to images (Ex. 20:5), but was often done (Num. 25:2). Joseph’s brethren bowed down before him (Gen. 42:6).
2. Kneeling, bowing the knee.
a) To God (Isa. 45:23; Eph. 3:14).
b) To the Lord Jesus every knee shall bow, even those under the earth (Phil. 2:10); it was done in mockery (Mark 15:19); and in sincerity (Matt. 17:14).
c) To Joseph (Gen. 41:43).
3. Falling down before. Demanded by Nebuchadnezzar in honor of his image (Dan. 3:5); requested by Satan at the temptation of our Lord (Matt. 4:9); paid to the Lord when an infant by the wise men, and often in the Gospels (Matt. 2:11; Mark 5:33; Luke 5:8; John 11:32); and in heaven by the elders to God and the Lord Jesus (Rev. 4:10; 5:8,14; 19:4).
4. Kissing. In idolatry (1 Kings 19:18; Hos. 13:2). To the sun and moon by kissing the hand Job 31:26-27). (Tacitus, Hist. 3.24, says that in Syria they salute the rising sun; and that this was done by kissing the hand.) All the above actions are portrayed on ancient monuments. The word worship in the Authorized Version of the New Testament often signifies homage, such as one man gives to another in authority, or to one he wishes to honor, rather than worship in the sense which that word now conveys.

Adrammelech

1. The god of the Sepharvites, to whom they burnt their children, placed in one of the houses of the high places among the Samaritans (2 Kings 17:31). A sort of Adar-Mars, for example, sun-god, who was regarded as a destroying being (Furst).
2. One of the sons of Sennacherib who smote his father with the sword and then fled to the land of Armenia, 2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38.

Adramyttium

The place to which the ship belonged in which Paul sailed as a prisoner (Acts 27:2). It lies in Mysia, Asia Minor, 39° 35' N, 27° 2' E. Its present name is Adramyt, and it is still a seaport town.

Adria

The Adriatic Sea, wherein Paul was driven up and down and afterward shipwrecked (Acts 27:27). The term Adriatic is now confined to the sea that lies between Italy and Dalmatia and Albania; but formerly it had a wider signification and included that part of the Mediterranean which was bounded by Sicily, Italy, Greece and Africa. The difference is of importance inasmuch as Malta (Melita) where Paul was shipwrecked is not within the present Adriatic Sea, though it is within that which was formerly called so. Attention to this would have prevented objectors calling in question Paul’s being shipwrecked at Malta.

Adriel

Son of Barzillai, the Meholathite to whom Merab, Saul’s daughter, was given to wife, after having been promised to David (1 Sam. 18:19). She bare Adriel five sons, and these were given up to death to avenge the Gibeonites because Saul had slain some of them. In 2 Samuel 21:8 these are said to be the “sons of Michal [or Michal’s sister, margin] the daughter of Saul, whom she brought up for Adriel.” These were doubtless the sons of Merab and not of Michal: translators are agreed that it should be translated “bare to Adriel,” as it reads in the margin, and not “brought up.” It seems therefore most probable that the name Michal is here the mistake of an early copyist, and the passage should read, “the five sons of Merab the daughter of Saul, whom she bare unto Adriel”; or it might originally have stood, “the five sons of the daughter of Saul whom she bare to Adriel,” and someone unadvisedly added Michal in the margin which afterward found its way into the text.

Adullam

One of the royal cities of Canaan, afterward part of Judah’s lot (Josh. 12:15; 15:35). It was rebuilt or fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chron. 11:7); and was dwelt in by some who returned from exile (Neh. 11:30; Mic. 1:15). Identified with Aid-el-ma, a name similar to Adullam, 31° 39' N, 35° 0' E. More interest attaches to the cave of Adullam than to the city, because of its having been a stronghold of David. In the locality of the place named above there are limestone cliffs, in which are extensive excavations, one of which may have been David’s Cave of Adullam. This is in the low country and all David’s house went down from the hills of Bethlehem to him (1 Sam. 22:1). The traditional site is a cave in the Wady Khureitun on the east part of Judah. It is approached by a narrow footpath (now partly blocked up by a fallen rock) which could easily be defended, and the cave is very large. Both this and other caves near where the city of Adullam was located are by different travelers strongly advocated as the true site. The Cave of Adullam has become a proverbial expression for a refuge in distress, because there gathered to David, besides his relatives, “every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented,” or bitter of soul, and he became their captain (1 Sam. 22:1-2; 2 Sam. 23:13; 1 Chron. 11:15). David was God’s anointed king, and the prophet Gad went to him, and Abiathar the priest; so that with that outcast company were God’s prophet, priest, and king, though all the outward forms of worship were elsewhere: typical of the Lord Jesus in His rejection. When on earth the outward forms were not with Him; and now that He is in glory His virtual rejection is still as complete even by some in Christendom.

Adullamite

An inhabitant of Adullam (Gen. 38:1, 12, 20).

Adultery

This was forbidden in the ten commandments; but neither there nor anywhere else is the sin defined. It seems clear, that as far as the man was concerned, if he had intercourse with a woman unless it was with a married woman, he would not be charged with adultery, though he himself might be married; indeed how could he be when he was allowed more wives than one, as well as concubines and slaves? If he committed adultery with a married woman or with one betrothed, both were to be put to death (Deut. 22:22-24). With the woman it was stricter, she must have no intercourse with any man but her husband. If a man was jealous of his wife there was the ordeal of the bitter waters provided to test her innocence (Num. 5:11-31). But we do not read that any man or woman was stoned for adultery, nor that any woman drank the bitter waters. We know from the New Testament that Moses had, because of the hardness of their hearts, allowed a certain looseness, and a man could divorce his wife for any cause, which was easier than bringing a suspected wife to trial. It may be that the men themselves had not good consciences, like those who brought the adulterous woman to the Lord in John 8:3. We have a dreadful picture of guiltiness in Judges 19, and Jeremiah charges Israel with being “as fed horses in the morning, every one neighed after his neighbor’s wife,” which loudly called for judgment (Jer. 5:8; 13:27). The Lord declared that a man morally committed adultery (or fornication) in his heart if he lusted after a woman. Adultery had also a typical meaning. Israel had been espoused to Jehovah, but instead of being a faithful wife she had sought other lovers. “With their idols have they committed adultery” (Ezek. 23:37). So the false church, who has Jezebel in her midst, the Lord will cast her “and them that commit adultery with her into great tribulation, except they repent of their deeds” (Rev. 2:22).

Adummim

The sides of a ravine that formed the border between the lots of Judah and Benjamin, and is called the going up to or ascent of Adummim (Josh. 15:7; 18:17). It lies in the road between Jerusalem and Jericho, and agrees with the parable of the good Samaritan in being a descent from Jerusalem, and was until lately a dangerous road, infested with robbers. It is identified with Talat ed-Dumm, 31° 49' N, 35° 21' E.

Advent, Second

This is simply the second coming of the Lord Jesus Christ to this earth, which naturally implies that He has already been here once. “Now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself... and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin [or apart from sin] unto salvation” (Heb. 9:26-28). The second advent therefore is clearly a scriptural expression. Scripture speaks of many momentous and solemn events connected with the second coming of Christ which will be found under the different headings connected with this subject.
There are two aspects of the coming of the Lord Jesus which should never be confounded, namely, His coming for His saints, and His coming with His saints. These events may be thus illustrated. Suppose a large town or province revolted from allegiance to its sovereign, and refused to acknowledge his authority. After many warnings the sovereign raises an army to punish the rebels; but he knows that in that city there are many true subjects who loyally acknowledge his title and claims. When approaching the city he secretly calls out all those loyal ones, who gladly go out to meet him. He storms the city, and entering with those that have already joined him, he punishes the rebellious, and rewards those that had been faithful. Now, as the coming of the sovereign would be a day of joyful deliverance to one class, so it would be followed by judgment on the others. We find both these aspects of the coming of the Lord Jesus plainly revealed in the scripture. 1 Thessalonians 4:15-18 speaks of Christ coming for His saints to their everlasting joy; and Jude 14-15 speaks of Christ coming to execute judgment on His enemies. Another distinction to be noticed is that when Christ comes for His saints, including both the living and the dead, He will not actually come to the earth for them. The above passage in First Thessalonians says that the saints will be caught up in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. This is often called the rapture. It will be a meeting far too sacred for the eyes of the wicked to behold — it will be in the clouds. No separation will ever take place: those that are thus caught up will be forever with the Lord. But the important aspect of the Resurrection and Rapture of the saints is, that it is God’s answer in those that believe to the all — glorious worth of His own Son.
This is the bright hope of the Christian. There is no event revealed in scripture that must take place before the Rapture of the saints. They should, therefore, be expecting the return of the Lord at any moment to fetch all His saints away together (John 14:1-3; Thess. 1:9-10).
In other scriptures it is revealed that there will be an interval between the Rapture (the catching away of the saints), and the Lord’s coming to the earth. For instance, in 2 Thessalonians 2 we learn that the day of the Lord cannot come till the Antichrist is revealed, because the Lord is going to destroy that wicked one when He comes. Then in Revelation 13 we find that the Antichrist will co-operate with another beast, the head of the future Roman empire; and in Daniel 9 that this latter power will make a covenant with Israel and will break the covenant in the midst of the week: all which intimates that this apparent triumph of wickedness will spread over at least seven years, otherwise spoken of as the last week of the seventy weeks of Daniel. (See SEVENTY WEEKS.)
That the Lord Jesus will actually come to the earth is plainly revealed in Acts 1:11: “This same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.”
“His feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east” (Zech. 14:4). “The Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple....but who may abide the day of his coming?” (Mal. 3:1-2).
For the events connected with the Second Advent see APPEARING; DAY OF THE LORD; JUDGMENT; KINGDOM; MILLENNIUM.

Adversary, The

Satan, the adversary, stood up against Israel and provoked David to number Israel (1 Chron. 21:1; compare 2 Sam. 24:1). He also opposed Joshua the high priest (Zech. 3:1). “Your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour” (1 Peter 5:8). In Revelation 12:10 he is also called the accuser of the brethren. It is one of the names or characters of Satan: he is not only the tempter of man, but he is also the positive enemy, the adversary of all, seeking to devour whom he may, and to distress and lead astray those he is not permitted to destroy. See SATAN.

Advocate, the (παρἀκλητος)

This word signifies one who takes up the cause of another, 1 John 2:1. The same Greek word is translated “Comforter” in John 14:16,26; John 15:26; John 16:7. From this we learn that the word applies both to the Lord Jesus and to the Holy Spirit. “If any man sin we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous.” This applies to Christ in the glory. He is not an advocate for the unconverted, but for the Christian if he should sin; and it is with the Father, for the one who sins is a son. Sin breaks the communion, and the advocacy of Christ is to restore it. He is the Paraclete in heaven, who takes up the cause of the saint, and the Holy Spirit is the same on earth to secure the spiritual welfare of God’s people. See HOLY SPIRIT.

Aelia Capitolina

The name given by the Roman emperor Hadrian to a city he raised on the ruins of Jerusalem about A.D. 136. He refused to let any Jews enter the city and sought to stamp out the very name of Jerusalem. Temples were erected to Capitoline Jupiter and to Phrygian Astarte. The city bore the above name for centuries.

Aeneas

A man at Lydda who had kept his bed eight years. He was healed by Peter, who said, “Jesus Christ maketh thee whole” (Acts 9:33-35). This was followed by the remarkable fruit that “all that dwelt at Lydda and Saron saw him and turned to the Lord.”

Aenon

Place where John was baptizing, because there was much water there (John 3:23). It was near SALIM.

Affinity

In relationship by marriage, the principal point of interest is the degrees of relationship within which marriage was forbidden. Thus a woman must not marry two brothers, unless her husband had died without issue, when the brother was required to raise up seed to the deceased. Apparently a man might by the law of Moses marry his deceased wife’s sister; but not the second in the lifetime of the first(Lev. 18:18), though Jacob before the Law was given had two sisters for wives at the same time. Near relatives may not marry (Lev. 18). Many codes respecting the degrees of affinity have been made by nations, more or less in agreement with the law of Moses. See MARRIAGE.

Affliction

In fallen humanity man is born to trouble as the sparks fly upward. Besides the afflictions of man in body, mind, and estate, there are also the oppressions they suffer one from another. In some parts of the earth slavery still exists and in more enlightened parts the rich oppress the poor (James 2:6). Man is very ready to attribute all such things to the Creator, forgetting that God made man upright and God declared that everything that He had made, including man, was very good. It is sin that has brought in the misery, and man, by becoming the willing servant of Satan, has put himself into the hands of his enemy.
Besides the afflictions incident on fallen humanity, there are afflictions that fall specially upon the Christian. There are those he may have to suffer for righteousness’ sake as well as for Christ’s sake. Another class of afflictions which the Christian has to bear is inflicted directly from the hand of God for his good. See CHASTENING.

Afternoon

This occurs but once in the AV (KJV) and is the translation of words which signify “the day declined,” as it reads in the margin (Judg. 19:8).

Agabus

A prophet who came from Jerusalem to Antioch, and foretold a famine “throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar” (Acts 11:28). He also foretold that Paul would be bound at Jerusalem and delivered to the Gentiles; which also came to pass (Acts 21:10). In the former passage it is said that Agabus “signified by the Spirit” that there should be great dearth; and in the latter he said, “Thus saith the Holy Ghost,” plainly showing that the prophetic spirit in man was under the immediate guidance of the Holy Spirit, who now dwells in the Christian, to explain to him what was given to the prophets.

Agag

King of the Amalekites whom Saul should have killed, but whom he spared. Samuel slew him, declaring that as Agag’s sword had made women childless so his mother should now be childless (1 Sam. 15:8-33). The name also occurs in Numbers 24:7, where Balaam said of Israel “his king shall be higher than Agag.” It is supposed that Agag was the common title of the kings of the Amalekites, as Pharaoh was that of the Egyptians.

Agagite

Haman was the son of Hammedatha the Agagite (Esther 3:1-10; Esther 8:3, 5; Esther 9:24). Furst says the Gentile name “of Haman is therefore explained by Josephus τὸ γένος Ἀμυλεκίτες, and so too by Jewish tradition.” That is, that Haman was an Amalekite. This explains why Mordecai refused to bow down before Haman. He was of that race with which Jehovah had sworn to have war forever, and which Saul was directed to utterly exterminate (Ex. 17:16; Deut. 25:19; 1 Sam. 15:3).

Agar

See HAGAR.

Agate

1. kadkod, ἴασπις: from the root to strike fire, and hence a “sparkling gem, ruby” (Gesenius). “A shining, sparkling precious stone, probably a carbuncle, so called from its red sparkling color” (Furst). It occurs but twice: Isaiah. 54:12, “I will make thy windows of agates.” This might be thought to signify that the agate was transparent, and that the windows were to be glazed with agates; but windows were not then glazed. Others translate the word minarets, pinnacles, battlements, and instead of agates many prefer rubies. The other passage is Ezekiel 27:16: “Syria was thy merchant for coral, the agate”; they came from Damascus. The Revised Version and others again translate “rubies” which well agrees with the signification of the word.
2. shebo, ἀχάτης, achates, Vulgate, from to burn, to glow (Fürst) . “A composite stone formed of quartz, chalcedony, cornelian, flint, jasper, and therefore glittering with different colors” (Delitzsch). Bochart traces the word to a root signifying “to be spotted.” This gem has been described as a semipellucid, uncrystallized variety of quartz; it is found in parallel or concentric layers of various colors, and presents different tints in the same specimen. It is generally translated “agate.” It was the stone chosen for the second place in the third row of the breastplate of the high priest (Ex. 28:19; Ex. 39:12).

Age (αἰών)

A period of time marked off by that which distinguishes it from other periods, as the Patriarchal age, the Apostolic age. Though these terms do not occur in scripture, many allusions are made to the different ages. Thus we speak of the Antediluvian age, and scripture speaks of the same period as the “old world,” for example, the ordered scene which God did not spare (2 Peter 2:5). The “Patriarchal age” embraces the time from the call of Abraham to the release from Egypt and the giving of the law. “From Adam to Moses” excluding both, is an epoch when men’s sins could not be classed as transgressions, seeing there was no definite law such as was given to Adam, or such as was administered by Moses (Rom. 5:13-14). Again, from Moses to Christ formed a definite period: “the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ” (John 1:17); “the law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it” (Luke 16:16). The time when Christ was on earth is in John’s first epistle repeatedly called “the beginning”: the beginning of Christianity, though it is not called an age. We may also distinguish the period of the Church (from the day of Pentecost until the Rapture of the saints), though it is separated from recognized times and seasons. Our Lord not only spoke of the age in which He was on earth, but referred some events to the end or “completion of the age” (Matt. 13:39-40, 49). The disciples also asked what would be the sign of that completion (Matt. 24:3). Our Lord also spoke of the “coming age,” when His own should receive life eternal (Luke 18:30; compare also Matt. 12:32; Eph. 1:21; Eph. 2:7). God’s kingdom is a “kingdom of all ages” (Psa. 145:13, margin). Eternity, in reference to the glory of God, to the blessing of the saved, and to the punishment of the wicked, is again and again called the “age of ages,” often translated “forever and ever”: all being consummated in the eternal state. The Greek word is αίών throughout, though often translated “world” in the AV (KJV).

Age of Man

From Adam to Noah men lived much longer than in the period that followed. Adam lived 930 years, Noah 950, and Methuselah 969, the longest recorded. After the flood, Shem lived 600 years, but no one after him reached 500. In Peleg is another decline, he lived 239 years; Abraham only 175 years. We can easily understand why God caused people in the early age of the earth to live so much longer than afterward. God said to Adam “Be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth” (Gen. 1:28). He also said the same to Noah after the flood (Gen. 9:1, 7). When the earth became more and more peopled the life of man was shortened. The only intimation of what may perhaps now be called the normal longevity of man is in Psalm 90:10, and yet it is a lament for his short and troubled life: “The days of our years are threescore years and ten; and if by reason of strength they be fourscore years, yet is their strength labor and sorrow: for it is soon cut off, and we fly away.” This is remarkable as being, according to the heading, “A prayer of Moses the man of God,” for of Moses we read that he lived 120 years, and “his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated” (Deut. 34:7); but the Psalm was prophetic both for ours and future times, and Moses leads short-lived man to the eternity of God (Psa. 90:2). In the thousand years of the millennium apparently no one will die but the wicked, and one at a hundred years of age will be called a child: the days of God’s people will be as the days of a tree, and they will, when the curse is removed, long enjoy the work of their hands (Isa. 65:20-22).

Agee

The Hararite, father of Shammah, one of David’s mighty men (2 Sam. 23:11).

Agrippa

Grandson of Herod the Great. His early years were passed as a spendthrift and a wanderer, but at length being at Rome he contrived to win the favor of Caligula, who on coming to the throne in A.D. 37 declared Agrippa to be the successor of Philip the Tetrarch, who had died three years previously. By preferring charges against Antipas, who had married his sister Herodias, Agrippa got this prince deposed and banished, and in A.D. 39 he succeeded him in the territories of Galilee and Perna. He was still a guest of Caligula at Rome when that tyrant was cut off in A.D. 41, and having used his influence in the election of Caligula’s successor Claudius, this emperor not only confirmed the previous grants, but added those of Judea, Samaria, and Abilene, so that his possessions were nearly identical with those of his grandfather Herod the Great. He was in these possessions when we read of him in the New Testament as Herod the king (Acts 12). He killed James the brother of John with the sword, and because he saw it pleased the Jews he seized Peter also. This happened about A.D. 43, and within a year the king, allowing himself to be called a god, was smitten by the Almighty and died a miserable death. The account given by Josephus as to Agrippa’s administrative qualities, his exertions for the Jews whilst at Rome, and his desires to strengthen and embellish Jerusalem, may be true; but his seizing the apostles to please the Jews stamps him as one unfitted to rule, while his overweening pride in the last scene of his life made him the just object of the wrath of Him who will not give His glory to another.

Agrippa II

Son of Agrippa I. Being only 17 years old at his father’s death, the emperor Claudius sent him to rule over the principality of Chalcis in the slopes of Lebanon until he should come of age. He had been brought up at the court of Rome, and was attached to the Romans. At the age of 21 Claudius gave him the tetrarchies of Trachonitis, Abilene, and other parts of the North East of Palestine. Nero afterward gave him various cities. He is introduced in Acts 25:26, as king Agrippa, before whom Paul made his defense. Paul said of him that he was expert in all customs and questions which were among the Jews. The things concerning Christ’s death had not been done in a corner, and the king knew of them. Paul knew also that he believed the prophets. Agrippa said, “Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian.” Paul, like a true evangelist, desired that Agrippa and all that heard him should be altogether such as he was, save his bonds. Agrippa had a long reign, and used his influence when the Jews were in rebellion against the Romans, to induce them to submit. While appealing to them at Gamala he was wounded by a stone cast from a sling. He survived the destruction of Jerusalem and died A.D. 100.

Ague

Burning (Lev. 26:16). See FEVER.

Agur

Son of Jakeh, and author of the sayings in Prov. 30, which he spake unto Ithiel and Ucal. It was thought by many of the Fathers that this was a symbolical name for Solomon; but this is very improbable, as his father’s name is given, and Solomon is described in the same book as son of David. The above names are omitted by the LXX.

Ah, Aha

“An exclamation of joy, of terror, or of mockery” (Fürst) (Psa. 35:25; 40:15; Isa. 44:16; Jer. 22:18; Ezek. 25:3).

Ahab

1. Son and successor of Omri, king of Israel. He married Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Zidonians, and under her influence became an idolater, and led Israel into the worship of Baal. Of him it is said, there was none like him in very abominably following idols. It was chiefly in his reign that Elijah the Tishbite labored, and he testified for Jehovah against the apostasy and corruption of the king. The trial of fire from heaven is an especial instance of this, which was followed by the death of 450 of the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:19-40), but there was no repentance in the king. Ahab made two attacks on Benhadad king of Syria and was helped by God so that he obtained the victory; on the second occasion instead of destroying Benhadad (whom the Lord had doomed to destruction) he made a treaty with him.
Ahab coveted the vineyard of Naboth, but on his refusal to part with the inheritance given by God to his fathers, Jezebel caused his death and bade Ahab take possession of the vineyard. Elijah met him there and declared that dogs should lick his blood where they had licked the blood of Naboth. The dogs should also eat Jezebel, and Ahab’s house should be cut off. Ahab humbled himself before God, and the full end of his house was delayed till his son’s days. After this Ahab made another attack upon Syria, and his 400 prophets foretold that he would be successful; and he, though warned of his danger by the prophet Micaiah, went into battle accompanied by Jehoshaphat king of Judah, his ally. He disguised himself, but an arrow, shot at a venture, smote him between the joints of his armor, and he was wounded to death, and the prediction of Elijah came literally to pass (1 Kings 21:22). Grace had lingered over this poor idolater, for he was an Israelite; but he died impenitent, and his whole house was soon to perish (2 Kings 9:7-10). The judgment of God fell on the apostate king who had seized the inheritance of God’s people.
2. A false prophet among the captives of Babylon who prophesied a lie, and was roasted in the fire by Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 29:21-22).

Aharah

Third son of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:1). See AHIRABI.

Aharhel

Son of Harum, of the Tribe of Judah (1 Chron. 4:8). The LXX Has Rechab, the Son of Jarin.

Ahasai

A priest, the son of Meshillemoth (Neh. 11:13).

Ahasbai

Father of Eliphelet (2 Sam. 23:34).

Ahasuerus

1. Father of Darius, incidentally named in Daniel 9:1. It is supposed that the word Ahasuerus is an appellative, or official title, as Pharaoh was in Egypt, and that the person referred to is the Cyaxares of history, king of Media.
2. Persian king to whom the enemies of the Jews made their accusation against those in Judah and Jerusalem (Ezra 4:6). He is supposed to be Cambyses, son of Cyrus.
3. Persian king who “reigned from India even unto Ethiopia,” and took the Jewish maiden Esther to be his queen. He is held to have been Xerxes, son of Darius Hystaspis. This was in the seventh year of his reign, the year when he returned from his unsuccessful expedition against Greece. His rash conduct in repudiating his queen because she would not violate the decorum of her sex, and his giving up the whole of the Jewish people to the pride of Haman, agrees with his folly in scourging the sea and putting the engineers to death because a storm injured the bridge they had made. See ESTHER. For the succession of the Persian kings see PERSIA.

Ahava

Place or river near which Ezra rested 3 days prior to his journey from Babylon to Jerusalem (Ezra 8:15, 21, 31). It has been thought to be the same as AVA and IVAH, and to be identified with Hit on the Euphrates, 33° 35' N, 42° 50' E.

Ahaz

1. King of Judah (B.C. 742-727), son and successor of Jotham (apparently the same as ACHAZ in Matt. 1:9). He erected molten images for Baalim, made his children pass through the fire, and gave himself up to open idolatry (2 Kings 16:2-20; 2 Chron. 28:2-27). Being harassed and weakened by Pekah king of Israel, Rezin king of Damascus, and others, he called to his aid Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, to whom he gave the treasures of Jerusalem; who after dispersing those who warred against Ahaz, himself distressed him and made him tributary. This brought the great desolator of Israel, the Assyrian, into the land. Ahaz displaced the altar of burnt offering by one made like an altar he had seen at Damascus when on a visit to Tiglath-pileser. Isaiah was prophet in the days of Ahaz, but the king heeded not his instructions. The house of David was ripening for judgment: 120,000 were slain in one day and 200,000 women and children were carried to Samaria, but were released by means of Oded a prophet. God’s mercy lingered over Judah, and to Ahaz was the sign given that “a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel” (Isa. 7:14). Though all was failing in Judah as well as in Israel, God had One in prospect through whom blessing would be finally secured. Both in Kings and Chronicles it states that Ahaz was 20 years old when he began to reign, and he reigned 16 years; Hezekiah his son was 25 years old when he succeeded Ahaz. Apparently there is an error in the ages given: either Ahaz was older, or Hezekiah was not so old, for he would have been born when his father was 11 years of age. In one Hebrew MS, the LXX, 25 years is given in the Chronicles as the age of Ahaz.
2. Son of Micah (1 Chron. 8:35).

Ahaziah

1. Son of Ahab and Jezebel. He reigned over Israel two years (B.C. 837-6) and did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, it being remarked of him that he walked in the way of his mother as well as of his father and of Jeroboam. He was a worshipper of Baal; and having injured himself by falling through a lattice he sent to inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron. Elijah met the messengers on their road, and turned them back with a message to Ahaziah, reproaching him with his impiety, and telling him he should not recover from his sickness. Ahaziah, on finding by the description the messengers gave that it was Elijah, sent a captain and fifty men to seize him. Elijah called down fire from heaven and they were consumed. Another fifty were sent and they also were consumed. The captain of the third fifty begged Elijah to spare their lives, which he did, and he went with them and delivered the message to Ahaziah. The prediction was verified and he died. The history of this king presents a sad picture of the state of idolatry and wickedness into which Israel had fallen, while professing to be God’s people (1 Kings 22:49, 51-53; 2 Kings 1:1-18; 2 Chron. 20:35).
2. Son of Jehoram and Athaliah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, therefore nephew of the above. He succeeded his father as king of Judah, and reigned one year (B.C. 885). He did wickedly, his mother being his counseller to his destruction. He formed an alliance with Joram king of Israel and went with him against Hazael king of Syria. Joram was wounded and went to Jezreel to be healed. Ahaziah afterward went to visit Joram, and God caused his death by Jehu when he cut off the house of Ahab (2 Kings 8:24-29; 2 Kings 9:16-29; 2 Chron. 22:1-9). He is called AZARIAH in 2 Chronicles 22:6, and JEHOAHAZ in 2 Chronicles 21:17. “In proper names,” says Fürst, “those of cognate senses were often interchanged.” In 2 Kings 8:26 he is said to be 22 years old when he began to reign; but in 2 Chronicles 22:2 it says he was 42. The latter is doubtless a mistake of some copyist, for his father was only 40 years old when he died (2 Chron. 21:5, 20). The Syriac and Arabic copies read 22 in both passages.

Ahban

Son of Abishur of the tribe of Judah (1 Chron. 2:29).

Aher

Descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 7:12).

Ahi

1. Son of Abdiel, a descendant of Gad (1 Chron. 5:15).
2. Son of Shamer, a descendant of Asher (1 Chron. 7:34).

Ahiah

1. Son of Ahitub, and priest in the days of Saul (1 Sam. 14:3, 18).
2. Son of Shisha, and a scribe or secretary to Solomon (1 Kings 4:3).
3. Descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:7).

Ahiam

Son of Sharar (Sacar, 1 Chron. 11:35), the Hararite, 2 Samuel 23:33, one of David’s mighty men.

Ahian

Son of Shemidah, a descendant of Manasseh (1 Chron. 7:19).

Ahiezer

1. Son of Ammishaddai, and one of the princes of the tribe of Dan (Num. 1:12; Num. 2:25; Num. 7:66,71; Num. 10:25).
2. Benjamite, chief of the armed men that flocked to David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:3).

Ahihud

1. Son of Shelomi, and prince of the tribe of Asher, chosen to arrange the division of the land (Num. 34:27).
2. Descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:7).

Ahijah

1. Prophet called the Shilonite, who foretold to Jeroboam that he should be king over ten of the tribes (1 Kings 11:29-31). God revealed to him that the wife of Jeroboam was coming in disguise to know if their son Abijah would live, and Ahijah had to tell her the dire judgments that should fall upon Jeroboam and his house (1 Kings 14:2-18; 1 Kings 15:29; 2 Chron. 9:29; 2 Chron. 10:15).
2. Father of King Baasha, of the house of Issachar (1 Kings 15:27, 33; 1 Kings 21:22; 2 Kings 9:9).
3. One of the sons of Jerahmeel (1 Chron. 2:25).
4. The Pelonite, one of David’s valiant men (1 Chron. 11:36).
5. Levite, who was over the treasures of the house of God in the time of David (1 Chron. 26:20).
6. One who with Nehemiah sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:26).

Ahikam

Son of Shaphan the scribe, and one of those sent by Josiah to Huldah the prophetess to inquire of the Lord as to the book of the law that had been found (2 Kings 22:12-22). He also served under Jehoiakim and shielded Jeremiah from death when he prophesied against the nation. He was father of Gedaliah whom Nebuchadnezzar made governor of the land (Jer. 26:24; Jer. 40:5-16; Jer. 41:1-16).

Ahilud

Father of Jehoshaphat the “recorder” of David and Solomon (2 Sam. 8:16; 2 Sam. 20:24; 1 Kings 4:3,12; 1 Chron. 18:15), and father of Baana, one of Solomon’s commissariat officers (1 Kings 4:12).

Ahimaaz

1. Father of Ahinoam, wife of Saul (1 Sam. 14:50).
2. Son of Zadok the priest (2 Sam. 15:27,36). When Absalom revolted and David had to flee from Jerusalem, Zadok continuing true to David, returned to the city, and Ahimaaz, and Jonathan son of Abiathar, remained at En-rogel; to whom Zadok sent word of the counsel of Ahithophel and of Hushai by a wench, and they hastened to David with the news. But a lad having seen the transaction, messengers were sent in pursuit. The spies however reached a house in Bahurim, and were hid in a well, corn being spread over the covering. Their pursuers were told that they had gone on their way. So they having searched for them in vain returned to Jerusalem. The spies then hastened to David, and reached him in safety (2 Sam. 17:17-21). On the defeat and death of Absalom, Ahimaaz begged that he might run with the news to David. Joab at first refused; but after Cushi had started, he allowed Ahimaaz to go also; who, being swift of foot, reached David first and told him of the defeat of Absalom, but let Cushi tell of his death (2 Sam. 18:19-29). We have no evidence of Ahimaaz succeeding to the priesthood. He may have died before his father.
3. An officer of Solomon in Naphtali who married Basmath, daughter of Solomon (1 Kings 4:15).

Ahiman

1. One of the three sons of Anak who dwelt in Hebron when the spies went up (Num. 13:22); and who were driven out by Caleb and slain by Judah (Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).
2. A porter, of the children of Levi (1 Chron. 9:17).

Ahimelech

1. Priest at the time the ark was at Nob. He received David when fleeing from Saul, gave him the shewbread and the sword of Goliath. This being reported to Saul by Doeg the Edomite, Ahimelech and the other priests were put to death, Abiathar alone escaping (1 Sam. 21:1-8; 1 Sam. 22:9-20; Psa.52 title).
2. Son of Abiathar (2 Sam. 8:17); called ABIMELECH in 1 Chronicles 18:16. See ABIATHAR.
3. A Hittite, companion of David when persecuted by Saul (1 Sam. 26:6).

Ahimoth

Son of Elkanah, of the house of Kohath (1 Chron. 6:25).

Ahinadab

Son of Iddo, and one of Solomon’s commissariat officers at Mahanaim (1 Kings 4:14).

Ahinoam

1. Daughter of Ahimaaz and wife of Saul (1 Sam. 14:50).
2. David’s wife, a woman of Jezreel. She accompanied David in his flight from Saul; and, while residing at Ziklag, was taken captive when the city was burned by the Amalekites; but was recovered (1 Sam. 25:43; 1 Sam. 27:3; 1 Sam. 30:5,18). She was with David when he came to the kingdom and while at Hebron bare to David, Amnon his first-born (2 Sam. 2:2; 2 Sam. 3:2; 1 Chron. 3:1).

Ahio

1. Son of Abinadab, and who with his brother Uzzah drove the cart on which was the ark of God when Uzzah was struck dead (2 Sam. 6:3-4; 1 Chron. 13:7).
2. Son of Beriah, a descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:14).
3. Son of Jehiel, descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:31; 1 Chron. 9:37).

Ahira

Son of Enan, and captain of the tribe of Naphtali (Num. 1:15; Num. 2:29; Num. 7:78,83; Num. 10:27).

Ahiram, Ahiramites

Son of Benjamin, and his descendants (Num. 26:38). Ahiram is perhaps the same as Ehi in Genesis 46:21, and the same as AHARAH in 1 Chronicles 8:1.

Ahisamach

Father of Aholiab, of the tribe of Dan (Ex. 31:6; Ex. 35:34; Ex. 38:23).

Ahishahar

Son of Bilhan, a descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 7:10).

Ahishar

A prince over the household of Solomon (1 Kings 4:6).

Ahithophel

A Gilonite, grandfather of Bathsheba, and a very wise counselor of David, of whom it is said that all his counsel was “as if a man had inquired at the oracle of God.” He joined in the rebellion of Absalom, and advised him to go in publicly to David’s concubines, and to let him make an immediate attack on David. The latter counsel not being followed, and a preference being given to the advice of Hushai, who was acting for David, Ahithophel returned to his house, set his household in order, and hanged himself (2 Sam. 15:12-34; 2 Sam. 16:15-23; 2 Sam. 17:1-23; 2 Sam. 23:34). He has generally been taken as foreshadowing Judas of the New Testament (compare Psa. 41:9; Psa. 55:12).

Ahitub

1. Son of Phinehas, and grandson of Eli (1 Sam. 14:3; 1 Sam. 22:9, 11-12, 20).
2. Son of Amariah, and father of Zadok (2 Sam. 8:17; 1 Chron. 6:7-8, 52; 1 Chron. 18:16).
3. Son of another Amariah, and father of another Zadok, several generations later than No. 2. (1 Chron. 6:11-12; Ezra 7:2).
4. Father of Meraioth, and “ruler of the house of God” (1 Chron. 9:11; Neh. 11:11).

Ahlab

City in Canaan, the inhabitants of which Asher failed to drive out (Judg. 1:31). It has been identified with el-Jish, 33° 2' N, 35° 26' E.

Ahlai

1. Daughter of Sheshan (1 Chron. 2:31).
2. Father of Zabad (1 Chron. 11:41).

Ahoah, Ahohites

Grandson of Benjamin, and founder of the Ahohites (2 Sam. 23:9, 28; 1 Chron. 8:4; 1 Chron. 11:12, 29; 1 Chron. 27:4).

Aholah

Ezekiel uses this name, signifying “her own tent or tabernacle,” for a symbolical harlot to represent Samaria, upon whom he charges gross profligacy: only to be exceeded by Aholibah, her yet more guilty sister Jerusalem. The prophet was charged to declare unto them their abominations, which he goes on to describe, and their predicted destruction (Ezek. 23:4-44).

Aholiab

Son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, “an engraver, and a cunning workman and an embroiderer,” in whom God put wisdom, that he might take the oversight with Bezaleel of the formation of the tabernacle (Ex. 31:6; Ex. 35:34; Ex. 36:1-2; Ex. 38:23).

Aholibah

A symbolical harlot to represent Jerusalem: sister to Aholah, symbolical of Samaria. Jerusalem is said to exceed Samaria in her profligacy. She was warned without success, and her downfall was predicted. The name signifies “my tent or tabernacle is in her” (Ezek. 23:4-44).

Aholibamah

1. One of the wives of Esau: she was the daughter of Anah, daughter of Zibeon the Hivite. She bare to Esau “duke Jeush, duke Jaalam, duke Korah” (Gen. 36:2-25). See BASHEMATH.
2. A duke of Edom (Gen. 36:41; 1 Chron. 1:52).

Ahumai

Son of Jahath, of the family of the Zorathites (1 Chron. 4:2).

Ahuzam

Son of Naarah, wife of Ashur (1 Chron. 4:6).

Ahuzzath

Friend of Abimelech, king of the Philistines, who came with him to make a covenant with Isaac (Gen. 26:26).

Ai, Hai

1. Royal city of Canaan. It was known to Abraham, who pitched his tent between Hai and Bethel (Gen. 12:8). It was conquered by Joshua — after a repulse because of the sin of Achan — by a stratagem; it was burnt and made a “heap” (Josh. 7:2-5; Josh. 8:1-29; Josh. 10:1- 2). It was near Bethel, in Benjamin’s lot, and apparently rebuilt, for it is mentioned in Ezra 2:28 and Nehemiah 7:32. It is probable that the AIATH of Isaiah 10:28 and the AIJA of Nehemiah 11:31 are the same as Ai, by the places named in association with them. In the district there are ruins scattered along the narrow summit of a ridge, and a depression among the rocky heights well suited for an ambuscade such as Joshua employed. The ruins are called Haiyan, 31° 55' N, 35° 16' E. Travelers say that when on the spot, the Biblical narrative of the capture of Ai can be vividly realized.
2. City of the Ammonites, unknown (Jer. 49:3).

Aiah

1. A son of Zibeon (1 Chron. 1:40): called AJAH in Genesis 36:24.
2. Father of Rizpah, Saul’s concubine (2 Sam. 3:7; 2 Sam. 21:8,10-11).

Aiath

Isaiah 10:28. See AI.

Aija

Nehemiah 11:31. See AI.

Aijalon

See AJALON.

Aijeleth Shahar

This occurs in the title of Psalm 22 and signifies “the hind of the morning” (margin). May not its reference be to the resurrection of the Lord after the cross? The Targum explains it as signifying “the morning oblation of the lamb.” If this is correct, the offering of the lamb stands in strong contrast to “the bulls of Bashan” roaring like a lion, and “the dogs” that compassed the patient victim in the Psalm. Modern critics see nothing more in the words than the name of some tune to which the Psalm was set.

Ain

The word ain signifies an “eye,” or a “fountain”; it is often used as a prefix, and signifies a fountain of living water in distinction from a well, cistern or tank. It is mostly represented by the prefix EN.
1. Ain, a fountain in the extreme north. There is a fountain still called Ain el-Asy, ten miles S.W. of the ancient Riblah (Num. 34:11).
2. One of the Levitical cities in the south. It was originally given to Judah but afterward allotted to Simeon (Josh. 15:32; Josh. 19:7; Josh. 21:16; 1 Chron. 4:32). In 1 Chronicles 6:59 the margin intimates that ASHAN is the same as AM as a Levitical city, although in 1 Chronicles 4:32 AM and Ashan are both mentioned.

Air

1. ἀήρ, the fluid that we breathe, and which surrounds the earth. There are two remarkable references to the air: one, that at the Rapture of the saints the raised dead and the living will be caught up into the clouds, and will meet the Lord in the air (1 Thess. 4:17), in the same sphere in which the Lord disappeared at His ascension. The other is that Satan is called the prince of the power of the air (Eph. 2:2), doubtless referring to the permeating character of the air, which we not only breathe, but it fills our houses and enters everywhere. When the air is tainted with malaria it permeates everywhere and poisons everything; so Satan has such power that his poisonous spirit morally contaminates everything in the world, of which he is the god.
2. οὐρανός, literally “heaven,” translated “air” only in reference to the birds and fowls (Matt. 8:20).

Ajah

See AIAH.

Ajalon, Aijalon

1. Levitical city of the Kohathites. It was in the lot of Dan (Josh. 21:24); but being a border city it is also connected with Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:13); or with Ephraim (1 Chron. 6:69); or with Judah and Benjamin, when Rehoboam fortified the city (2 Chron. 11:10). It was taken by the Philistines in the reign of Ahaz (2 Chron. 28:18). THE VALLEY OF AJALON is the place where Joshua, when pursuing the Amorites, bade the sun and the moon stand still (Josh. 10:12). The city is identified with the modern Yalo, 31° 51' N, 35° 1' E.
2. Place in Zebulun where Elon one of the judges of Israel was buried Judg. 12:12.

Akan

Son of Ezer, a descendant of Esau (Gen. 36:27). Same as JAAKAN and JAKAN

Akkub

1. One of the sons of Elioenai, a descendant of David (1 Chron. 3:24).
2. A “porter” in the companies of the children of Levi (1 Chron. 9:17), whose descendants returned from exile (Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45; Neh. 11:19; Neh. 12:25).
3. One of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:45).
4. One who “caused the people to understand the law” on the return from exile (Neh. 8:7).

Akrabbim

Ascent or mountain pass at the south of the Dead Sea, which formed the border of Palestine, and was also the “coast” of the Amorites (Num. 34:4; Judg. 1:36). Also called MAALEH-ACRABBIM in Joshua 15:3. Supposed to be some miles south of the Dead Sea, but the spot has not been identified.

Al-taschith

Two Hebrew words untranslated in the titles of Psalm 57, Psalm 58, Psalm 59, and Psalm 75, reading in the margin “destroy not,” and thus rendered in the LXX. The general thought is that reference is made to some air to which these Psalms were sung. The words, however, may have been taken from what David said in 1 Samuel 26:9, “Destroy him not.”

Alabaster

A valuable calcareous spar, a hydro-sulphate of lime, used by the ancients for making vessels to hold valuable ointments. It is probable that “breaking” the box means breaking the seal, to open the box (Matt. 26:7; Mark 14:3; Luke 7:37).

Alameth

Son of Becher, a descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 7:8).

Alammelech

City on the border of Asher (Josh. 19:26).

Alamoth

Translated by the LXX, ἐπὶ ἀλαιμώθ, and “in nablis arcana cantabant,” (Vulgate), in 1 Chronicles 15:20; ὑπὲρ τῶν κρυφίων, “pro arcanis” (Psalm 46, title). The meaning of the word is unknown, and this ignorance is confirmed by the efforts to translate the word in the versions. The word is supposed to be derived from “a virgin,” and may therefore signify soprano voices.

Alemeth

1. Benjamite city assigned to the priests (1 Chron. 6:60). Called ALMON in Joshua 21:18. Identified with Almit, 31° 49' N, 35° 16' E.
2. Descendant of Jonathan, son of Saul (1 Chron. 8:36; 1 Chron. 9:42).

Alexander

1. Son of Simon, the Cyrenian who was compelled to carry the cross of the Lord (Mark 15:21).
2. One of the leaders among the Jews when Peter and John were arrested (Acts 4:6).
3. A Jew at Ephesus who sought to address the crowd in the theater (Acts 19:33).
4. One in the church who having made shipwreck of faith was by Paul delivered unto Satan that he might learn not to blaspheme (1 Tim. 1:20).
5. The coppersmith who did Paul much evil, and of whom Timothy was warned (2 Tim. 4:14). He may have been the same as No. 4.

Alexander the Great

This conqueror is not mentioned by name in scripture, but his kingdom is certainly referred to in prophecy, principally in Daniel, some 200 years before he was born. It is first spoken of as a part of the great image seen in a dream by Nebuchadnezzar; it is foreshadowed by the belly and thighs, which are of brass, a depreciation in the character of the kingdom in comparison with the empires of Babylon and of the Medes and Persians, though it was larger in extent: it “shall bear rule over all the earth” (Dan. 2:32,39). It is also compared to a leopard which had four heads and four wings of a fowl. The leopard is distinguished for its blood-thirstiness and tearing its prey: this indeed magnifies the contrast in the millennium when it will lie down with the kid (Isa. 11:6). Also remarkable for its swiftness of action: “their horses also are swifter than the leopards” (Hab. 1:8). These characteristics exactly agree with the character and actions of Alexander. The four heads and four wings refer to the extension of the kingdom to the four winds of heaven, as it was divided among four of his generals after his death (Dan. 7:6). Again in Daniel 8, where the kingdom of Media and Persia is compared to a ram, Greece is compared to a he goat, with a great horn, which is its first king, Alexander (Dan. 8:21). Here again we get his character, described: so swift that “he touched not the ground,” he rushed against the ram with “choler,” cast him to the ground and stamped upon him (Dan. 8:5-8). In Zechariah 6:2-3 the four great monarchies are alluded to, and the third, the kingdom of Greece, is compared to a chariot with white horses.
Alexander the Great, son of Philip II and Olympias, was born at Pella, B.C. 356; became king of Macedon on the assassination of his father in 336; subdued the Greeks in 335; defeated the Persians, 334; took Tyre; conquered Syria and Egypt, and founded Alexandria, 332; defeated Darius in 331; conquered Parthia, Media, Bactria, and invaded India, 330-324, sought fresh conquests, but died at Babylon in 323. These dates show the rapidity of his conquests, agreeing with the above scriptures. As to his cruelty let one instance suffice: at the capture of Tyre, which then belonged to Persia, provoked by the long resistance and valiant defense, 8,000 of the inhabitants were massacred, 2,000 being crucified: of the rest, except those who escaped by sea, 30,000 were sold into slavery, the king and the chief magistrates were spared, doubtless as trophies. This was the work of the “leopard” of scripture. While besieging Tyre Alexander sent to demand the submission of the Jews; but was told they were faithful vassals of Darius. After the conquest of Gaza, the conqueror marched to Jerusalem. The high priest Jaddua, being warned of God in a vision, hung the city with garlands and went forth in his robes with the other priests and the people in white to meet the king. On seeing these Alexander was arrested, fell to the ground and then embraced the high priest. In reply to an astonished courtier, Alexander said he did not worship the priest, but the name on his frontlet, and explained that he had seen in a vision a figure resembling this very priest, who told him to conquer Persia. He granted the Jews in Palestine, Media and Babylonia the free enjoyment of their laws and exemption from tribute during the Sabbatical year. Such is a rapid sketch of how prophecy and history agree. The empire of Greece had thus to do with God’s ancient people the Jews, and formed a link in the chain of kingdoms until the Messiah Himself appeared and laid the foundation for His kingdom that shall endure forever.

Alexandria

The city which Alexander the Great built with the object of its being the capital of the western empire. It was founded in B.C. 332, and was completed by the Ptolemies, who added to its wealth and splendor. It became very populous and a place of great commerce. Learning was cultivated and a famous library was collected. It was there that the translation of the LXX was made which supplied the many Jews who resided there with the Old Testament in Greek, a language with which most of them were familiar. The city is identified with the modern well-known city of the same name, on the Mediterranean. It is only alluded to in the New Testament as being the birthplace of Apollos, who became companion of Paul (Acts 18:24); and as the city to which certain ships belonged or from whence they sailed (Acts 27:6; Acts 28:11). Tradition relates that the apostle Mark was the first to introduce Christianity into Alexandria. The church there occupied an important position in after years, but not always to its credit.

Alexandrians

The Jews of Alexandria, who had a synagogue at Jerusalem (Acts 6:9).

Algum Trees, Almug Trees

By comparing 1 Kings 10:11 with 2 Chronicles 9:10-11, it is clear that the two names refer to the same tree; it came from the same place, Ophir, and was used for the same purposes, namely, pillars or props, terraces or stairs, harps and psalteries. 2 Chronicles 2:8 presents a difficulty, for it seems to say that algum trees came from Lebanon, and the same trees could scarcely be indigenous to places so dissimilar as Lebanon and Ophir. In the last passage the several trees sent by Huram may be named together without meaning that they were all cut from Lebanon. It is supposed that the sandal wood is referred to. Josephus describes this wood as peculiar pine, not like those called pine in his days: to the sight it was like the wood of the fig tree, but whiter and more shining (Ant. 8. 7. 1).

Aliah, Alvah

One of the dukes of Edom (Gen. 36:40; 1 Chron. 1:51).

Alian, Alvan

A Horite, a descendant of Seir (Gen. 36:23; 1 Chron. 1:40).

Allegory

The word ἀλληγορέω, occurs only in Galatians 4:24. The passage does not mean that Abraham having two sons was an allegory: it was history, but that history had an allegorical application, which Paul, by the Holy Ghost, fully explains. The Greek word signifies “to speak otherwise,” and an allegory is a description of one thing under the image of another.

Alleluia

The word ἀλληλούϊα occurs in the LXX, answering to the Hebrew word halal in the Psalms translated “praise ye the Lord.” It is an ascription of praise to God. In Revelation 19:1, 3, 4, 6 the praise is heard in heaven: through mercy the saint learns to raise his Hallelujah on his way thither.

Alliance

On the Israelites entering into Canaan they were forbidden to make any league with the people of the land, they were not to show them any mercy, nor to make any marriages with them (Deut. 7:2-3); and later, when Joshua was about to die, he said to them, that with the nations that were still left they were to make no marriages, nor to go in unto them. If they did, God would drive out no more of the nations, and they would be snares and traps unto them, and scourges in their sides and thorns in their eyes (Josh. 23:12-13). Joshua and the princes of Israel were, alas, deceived by the Gibeonites, and without seeking counsel of God they made a covenant with them (Josh. 9:3-21). The failure of the Israelites in this particular (compare Ezra 9; Ezra 10; Neh. 13) is typical of the church making alliances with the world which have so sadly dimmed and destroyed the testimony which should have been borne by a heavenly people.

Allon

The word allon is held to signify a strong and hardy tree, especially “the oak,” as the word is translated in several passages.
1. Place in Naphtali (Josh. 19:33), or perhaps it may read, “from the oak at Zaanannim,” referring to some well-known old tree.
2. Chief of a family descended from Simeon (1 Chron. 4:37).

Allon-bachuth

Name given to the oak, beneath which Deborah, Rebekah’s nurse, was buried (Gen. 35:8).

Almighty

The learned are not agreed as to the derivation of the word shaddai and its signification: some giving it as “all bountiful,” others “all sufficient,” “all mighty” This is not at all surprising, for any name of God must be above mere human learning or definition, yet it was the ground of faith to those who had the revelation. The name first occurs in Genesis 17:1: God said to Abraham “I am the Almighty God.” This links it with the Patriarchs: it is the name by which God was known to them; and except to them, and in Job where it occurs very often, it is seldom found in the Old Testament The title “the Almighty” without the name of God being added, occurs first in Jacob’s address to his twelve sons before he died: the blessings upon Joseph were to be by “‘the Almighty,’.... blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lieth under, blessings of the breasts and of the womb” (Genesis 49:25). Balaam uses the name in Numbers 24:4: Naomi also in her lamentations (Ruth 1:20-21). (See also Psa. 68:14; Psa. 91:1; Isa. 13:6; Ezek. 1:24; Ezek. 10:5; Joel 1:15).
In the New Testament the name Lord Almighty occurs in 2 Corinthians 6:18 in a quotation from Jeremiah, and a few times in the Revelation, but only once as “the Almighty” in Revelation 1:8: “I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.” On the whole it is clear that the name was one of special relationship with the Patriarchs as that of Jehovah was with Israel. This is plainly declared: “I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob by the name of God Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was I not known to them” (Ex. 6:3). That of Father is now the revealed name of God by which Christians know Him, being brought by the work of Christ and through the operation of the Spirit into the relationship of children, and of sons. (See John 20:17; John 3:1; Gal. 4:4-5).
The name Almighty will appear again when God works out his purposes in power and judgment. It was revealed in connection with promises made in time, as Father is in connection with eternal counsels. The four living creatures cry day and night “Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come” (Rev. 4:8). (See also Revelation 21:22).

Almodad

Son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem (Gen. 10:26; 1 Chron. 1:20).

Almon

Joshua 21:18. See ALEMETH.

Almon-diblathaim

Numbers 33:46-47. One of the latest encampments of the children of Israel. The one after Dibon-gad, which has been identified with Dhiban, in the north border of Moab, 31° 30' N, 35° 48' E.

Almond, Almond Tree

The tree and its fruit are represented by the same word. It is derived from a root signifying “to hasten,” which is appropriate, seeing it is the first tree to break out into blossom, as a forerunner of spring. The meaning is confirmed by Jeremiah 1:11-12, where the prophet saw an almond tree, and Jehovah said, “Thou hast well seen: for I will hasten my word to perform it.” The bowls of the golden candlestick were to be made like almonds (Ex. 25:33-34; Ex. 37:19-20). Aaron’s rod budded, blossomed, and yielded almonds in one night (Num. 17:8): beautiful type of the coming of the Lord Jesus out of His grave perfect for His priestly functions. In Ecclesiastes 12:5, when everything seems to be decaying, instead of “the almond tree shall flourish,” it may be translated “the almond tree shall be despised”; others say, “cause loathing”; others prefer to compare the almond tree to the white head of an old man hastening to the grave.

Alms

Offerings given to the poor. It was righteous to do so: hence, giving to the poor is called righteousness (Psa. 112:9; 2 Cor. 9:9). In the law provision was made for the poor (Ex. 23:11; Lev. 19:10). It is declared that the poor would never cease out of the land; and if not relieved and they cried to the Lord, it would be accounted a sin against those who should have aided them (Deut. 15:7-11). On the other hand, we read that “he that hath pity upon the poor lendeth to the Lord, and that which he hath given will he pay him again” (Prov. 19:17). In the New Testament the same thing is enforced. We are exhorted to do good unto all men, especially unto them of the household of faith (Gal. 6:10). “He that soweth sparingly shall reap also sparingly....the Lord loveth a cheerful giver”; and whole chapters were written to stir up the saints to give liberally to the poor in Judaea. “It is more blessed to give than to receive.”

Almug

See ALGUM.

Aloes, Lign-Aloes

The passages where aloes are mentioned clearly show that it was a highly odoriferous tree or wood, but it cannot be identified with certainty (Num. 24:6; Psa. 45:8; Prov. 7:17; Song of Sol. 4:14). The ἀλόη was one of the perfumes which Nicodemus brought with which to embalm the body of our Lord (John 19:39). The common aloes being of a disagreeable odor makes the identification of the above more difficult. The agallochum is the aloe-wood of more recent times.

Aloth

Place or district of Asher; perhaps the same as some unknown place called “Baaloth,” which the LXX reads here, and the Vulgate, “Baaloth,” which the LXX reads here, and the Vulgate, “Baloth” (1 Kings 4:16). The AV (KJV) treats the B as a prefix, the RV has “Bealoth.”

Alpha

The first letter of the Greek Alphabet, and which also signifies the numeral 1. A title or character of God and of Christ, which points to His eternity as “the beginning,” “the first,” the I AM (Rev. 1:8; Rev. 21:6; Rev. 22:13). “I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end,” or “the first and the last”; which is similar to a passage in Isaiah 41:4: “I Jehovah, the first, and with the last; I am He.”

Alphaeus

1. The father of one of the apostles named James (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13).
2. Father of Levi (or Matthew) the apostle (Mark 2:14).

Altar

A structure on which to offer sacrifices to God: imitated by the heathen in honor of their false gods. The first altar we read of was built by Noah on leaving the ark, on which he offered burnt offerings of every clean beast and clean fowl (Gen. 8:20). Abraham, Isaac and Jacob also built altars to the Lord: these would have been constructed of stone or earth, but it is remarkable that we seldom read of their offering sacrifices on them. At times it is simply said they built an altar unto the Lord and at other times they built an altar and called upon the name of the Lord. The altars appear to have been erected as places of drawing near to God, of which sacrifice was the basis.
Moses was told that in all places where God recorded His name they should build an altar of wood or of stone and offer thereon sheep and oxen for burnt offerings and peace offerings; but such altars if made of stone were not to be made of hewn stone; for had they lifted up a tool upon it, it would have been defiled (Ex. 20:25-26). There must be nothing of man’s handiwork in approaching to God: a principle, alas, grossly violated in the professing church of God! It is added, “neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness be not discovered thereon.” Man’s contrivance is here forbidden, for in divine things anything of his only manifests the utter shamelessness of that which springs from fallen nature (compare Col. 2:20-23). When the tabernacle was made, minute instructions were given to Moses, and he was to make everything as had been shown him in the mount.

The Altar of Incense

The altar of incense was made of shittim wood, overlaid with pure gold (Ex. 30:1-5; Ex. 37:25-28). It was in length and in breadth 1 cubit, and in height 2 cubits. In Solomon’s temple this altar was made of cedar overlaid with gold, but its size is not given. In the temple described by Ezekiel the altar of incense is 2 cubits in length, and 3 cubits in height (Ezek. 41:22). The Altar of Incense is also called the GOLDEN ALTAR. Its situation was in the holy place, with the golden candlestick and the table of shewbread.
On this altar holy incense was to be burnt both morning and evening, typical of the Lord Jesus being a perpetual sweet savor to God. It was by the side of this altar that the angel appeared to Zacharias when he announced the conception and birth of John the Baptist (Luke 1:11).

The Brazen Altar

The brazen altar was to be made of shittim wood overlaid with brass, whence its name; it was to be 3 cubits high and 5 cubits on each side (Ex. 27:1-8). In the temple built by Solomon this altar was made of brass, and was 10 cubits high and 20 cubits in length and breadth (same size as the holiest of all) (2 Chron. 4:1). (See Ezekiel 43:13-17 for the altar in the future temple.) The brazen altar was also called “the altar of burnt offering”; on it a fire was constantly burning (Lev. 6:9), and on it the offerings were consumed, that is, on the “grate” that was placed in its midst. It had horns at each of its corners, on which the blood of the sin offering was placed. There men fled for refuge and caught hold of the horns for safety (1 Kings 1:50-51; compare Ex. 21:14). The position of the brazen altar arrested the offerer as he entered the court, and pointed out that the only way of access to the Lord was by a sacrifice. Death must take place ere fallen man could enter the dwelling place of God.
In the New Testament the principle is brought out, that to eat of a sacrifice manifests communion with the altar on which the sacrifice is made. So that one cannot drink the Lord’s cup and the cup of demons, nor partake of the Lord’s table and of the table of demons (1 Cor. 10:18-21).
To the Hebrew believers it was said, “We have an altar whereof they have no right to eat which serve the tabernacle” (Heb. 13:10). This refers to the sin-offering, whose blood was carried into the holiest, the flesh of which was not eaten, but burnt without the camp. Jesus had suffered without the gate, and hence to be in company with Him, believers were instructed to quit the camp; that is, to leave Judaism. As still serving the tabernacle they had no right to the Christian’s altar.
In the Revelation there is the golden altar in heaven, and much incense ascends with the prayers of the saints; but fire from the brazen altar is east upon the earth, and it is followed by judgments (Rev. 8:3-5; compare also Revelation 9:13). And John heard the altar say (as the passage should read) “Yea, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments” (Rev. 16:7); this is no doubt the brazen alter (compare Rev. 6:9 and Isa. 6:6).

Altar to the Unknown God

Whatever the origin of this inscription on the altar at Athens, it afforded the apostle Paul an admirable thesis for his discourse to the idolatrous Athenians. It was this very God he had come to reveal to them (Acts 17:23).

Alush

The station of the Israelites before Rephidim (Num. 33:13-14); not identified.

Alvah

See ALIAH.

Alvan

See ALIAN.

Amad

Town on the border of Asher (Josh. 19:26). It has been identified with el-Amud, 33° 2' N, 35° 8' E.

Amal

Son of Helem, a descendant of Asher (1 Chron. 7:35).

Amalek, Amalekites

There is a difficulty connected with these names, seeing that we read of Amalekites in Genesis 14:7, some hundred years before Amalek, the son of Eliphaz and grandson of Esau, was born (Gen. 36:12). Whether all we read of the tribe after this refers to the descendants of Esau, or whether the more ancient people were amalgamated with them, is not known.
The tribe became numerous and warlike. The first we read of them is that they attacked Israel soon after they had passed the Red Sea. They were conquered, and God declared “I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven”; not that they were at once destroyed, but the Lord swore He would have “war with Amalek from generation to generation” (Ex. 17:8-16). They dwelt in the south of the land (Num. 13:29), and Balaam called them “the first of the nations,” but predicted that they should perish forever (Num. 24:20).
When the Israelites, who, alas, disbelievingly agreed with the spies who had brought up the evil report of the land, were told they should all fall in the wilderness, they then said they would go up and possess it; but they were smitten by the Amalekites and the Canaanites. Several times in the period of the Judges war was made against them. Saul, as anointed king over the Lord’s people, was bidden to destroy them utterly; but failed to answer to the Lord’s vindication of His people: it was Samuel who cut Agag their king to pieces (1 Sam. 14:48; 1 Sam. 15:1-33). In the early days of David he attacked the Amalekites (1 Sam. 27:8); and again when they burned Ziklag and carried away the women and children, including David’s two wives, he recovered all, and sent of the spoil to the elders of Israel (1 Sam. 30:1-31). David dedicated their silver and gold unto Jehovah (2 Sam. 8:12). In the days of Hezekiah the rest of the Amalekites were smitten by the sons of Simeon (1 Chron. 4:41-43). Among the nations confederated for Israel’s destruction in Psalm 73, are the Amalekites.
We thus find that Amalek was the first to attack Israel, and continued an enemy ever ready to molest them when they were weak even until the days of Hezekiah, and they are found in the hostile confederacy at the close of their history: an apt type of Satan as the enemy of God’s people.

Amam

City in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:26); not identified.

Amana

Probably one of the peaks of the Anti-lebanon range, or a mountain near (Song of Sol. 4:8). The LXX reads “from the top of Faith.”

Amariah

1. Son of Meraioth of the tribe of Levi (1 Chron. 6:7,52).
2. Son of Azariah of the tribe of Levi (1 Chron. 6:11; Ezra 7:3).
3. Son of Hebron, a descendant of Kohath (1 Chron. 23:19; 1 Chron. 24:23).
4. Chief priest in the time of Jehoshaphat king of Judah (2 Chron. 19:11).
5. One of the Levites in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chron. 31:15).
6. One who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:42).
7. Priest who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:3).
8. One whose descendants dwelt in Jerusalem after the return from exile (Neh. 11:4).
9. Priest who had returned with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:2,13).
10. An ancestor of Zephaniah the prophet (Zeph. 1:1).

Amasa

1. Son of Ithra, or Jether, by David’s sister Abigail, whom Absalom in his revolt made captain of his army. David forgave him and promised him the command of the army, but he was treacherously slain by Joab. David left it to his son Solomon to revenge this act (2 Sam. 17:25; 2 Sam. 19:13; 2 Sam. 20:4-12; 1 Kings 2:5,32; 1 Chron. 2:17).
2. An Ephraimite who resisted the bringing into Samaria prisoners from Judah (2 Chron. 28:12-15).

Amasai

1. One or more descendants of Kohath (1 Chron. 6:25, 35; 2 Chron. 29:12).
2. Chief of the captains of those who resorted to David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:18).
3. Priest who helped to bring up the ark from the house of Obed-edom (1 Chron. 15:24).

Amashai

Priest who dwelt at Jerusalem after the return from exile (Neh. 11:13).

Amasiah

Son of Zichri, who willingly offered himself to the Lord in the time of Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 17:16).

Amaziah

1. Son of Jehoash, or Joash, king of Judah, and who succeeded to the throne: he reigned 29 years (B.C. 839-810). He walked well at the commencement of his reign. He made war on the Edomites; 10,000 were slain, and 10,000 cast down from the top of the rock. But he brought back the gods of the children of Seir, and bowed down to them, whereby he fell under God’s displeasure. He provoked a war with the king of Israel but was defeated, the treasures of Jerusalem were taken, and part of the city wall broken down. He was slain at Lachish whither he had fled from a conspiracy (2 Kings 14:1-23; 2 Chron. 25:1-28).
2. Descendant of Simeon (1 Chron. 4:34).
3. Son of Hilkiah, a descendant of Merari (1 Chron. 6:45).
4. Israelite who was priest of the idol set up in Bethel (Amos 7:10-14).

Ambassador

There are three Hebrew words thus translated, signifying “an interpreter,” “a messenger.” They were not, as in modern times, residents in foreign lands, but were officers sent from one sovereign to another with any message of importance, or to negotiate matters of mutual interest. The men from Gibeon pretended to be ambassadors come from a distance to make an alliance with Israel (Josh. 9:4). Ambassadors came from Babylon to visit Hezekiah (2 Chron. 32:31); and from the king of Egypt to Josiah (2 Chron. 35:21). Such persons represented the kings who sent them, and, whatever the message, were usually treated with due respect. David severely resented the insult offered to the messengers sent by him in kindness to Hanun, king of the children of Ammon (2 Sam. 10:1-14). In 2 Samuel 9 the kindness of God was accepted; here kindness was rejected. In the New Testament the apostles were ambassadors for Christ to a guilty world, to beseech their hearers to be reconciled to God (2 Cor. 5:20 and Eph. 6:20); and judgment will fall on those who obey not the gospel (2 Thess. 1:8; 1 Peter 4:17).
(

Ambassage

Simply the persons sent as ambassadors, with attendants, and usually with presents (Luke 14:32).

Amber

This probably refers, not to the mineral now called “amber,” which is highly electric, as its Greek and Latin names imply ἥλεκτρον, electrum; but to a mixed metal, such as the ancients described as composed of four parts of gold and one of silver. The Hebrew word is chashmal, and is associated with fire, and refers simply to its color and brightness (Ezek. 1:4, 27; Ezek. 8:2).

Ambush, Ambushment

A stratagem used in war of placing warriors in secret places, from which they can issue forth when least expected. Palestine with its many ravines and caves was well suited for such tactics. (Josh. 8:2-22; 2 Chron. 13:13; 2 Chron. 20:22; Jer. 51:12).

Amen

A strong assertion of affirmation and assent. The first time we read of its use was when a woman was supposed to have been unfaithful to her husband and was made to drink the bitter water. The priest pronounced a curse upon her if she had been guilty, and the woman had to answer Amen, Amen (Num. 5:22). So when the priest upon mount Ebal rehearsed the various curses, it was appended to each “And all the people shall say, Amen” (Deut. 27:14-26).
When David declared that Solomon should be his successor, Benaiah said “Amen: the Lord God of my lord the king say so too” (1 Kings 1:36). So when David brought up the ark, and delivered a psalm of thanksgiving, all the people said, Amen, and praised the Lord (1 Chron. 16:36; compare also Neh. 5:13; Neh. 8:6).
In one instance the exclamation does not signify more than “may it be.” Hananiah prophesied falsely that within two full years all the vessels of the Lord’s house would be returned from Babylon; Jeremiah said “Amen, the Lord do so”; though he knew it was a false prophecy he could well hope that such a thing might be (Jer. 28:6).
At the end of each of the first four books of the Psalms Amen is added. (Psalm 41:13; Psalm 72:19; Psalm 89:52; Psalm 106:48). In these instances it is not another acquiescing in what is said, but the writer adds Amen at the end, signifying “may it so be,” and three times it is repeated.
The Hebrew word is always translated “Amen,” except twice in Isaiah 65:16, where it is rendered “truth.” “He who blesseth himself in the earth, shall bless himself in the God of “truth”; and he that sweareth in the earth, shall swear by the God of ‘truth.’” And in Jeremiah 11:5, where it is translated “So be it,” God declared that He would perform the oath that He had sworn, and the prophet answered, “So be it, O Lord.” A cognate Hebrew word signifies “to believe”; it is used in Genesis 15:6.
In the New Testament it is often added to the ascription of praise and to benedictions, as in Hebrews 13:21, 25. (As a response see 1 Cor. 14:16; Rev. 5:14; Rev. 7:12; Rev. 22:20). There is another way in which the word is used, as in 2 Cor. 1:20, “Whatever promises of God [there are], in him is the yea [the confirmation] and in him the Amen [the verification] for glory to God by us.” And that Christ is the verification of all the promises is so true that He Himself is called “the Amen.” “These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God” (Rev. 3:14). As there are responses in heaven, as seen in some of the above texts, so there should be responses on earth in the assemblies of the saints, and not simply a hearing of prayer and praise. It is the word constantly used by the Lord, and translated “verily.”

Amethyst

A precious stone in the third row of the breastplate of the high priest (Ex. 28:19; Ex. 39:12); and the twelfth stone in the foundations of the wall of the heavenly Jerusalem (Rev. 21:20). This gem is not definitely identified. It may be the purple variety of corundum, known as the oriental amethyst, or the transparent amethystine quartz which contains oxide of manganese and alumina. The Hebrew word is achlamah which is translated ἀμέθυστος in the above two passages in Exodus by the LXX, who also have the same in Ezekiel 28:13, where there is nothing in the Hebrew.

Ami

One of the servants of Solomon, whose posterity returned from exile (Ezra 2:57); called Amon in Nehemiah 7:59.

Aminadab

See AMMINADAB.

Amittai

Father of Jonah the prophet, of the tribe of Zebulon. (2 Kings 14:25; Jonah 1:1).

Ammah

Hill to which Joab pursued Abner and Abishai, it was “before Giah by the way of the wilderness of Gibeon” (2 Sam. 2:24).

Ammi

Name applied to Israel figuratively. It signifies “my people,” and is used with the negative in Lo-ammi, “not my people” (Hos. 1:9).

Ammiel

1. Chief man of the tribe of Dan sent to search the land (Num. 13:12).
2. Father of Machir of Lo-debar (2 Sam. 9:4-5; 2 Sam. 17:27).
3. Father of Bath-shua (or Bathsheba) David’s wife (1 Chron. 3:5). Called ELIAM in 2 Samuel 11:3.
4. Levite, son of Obed-edom, a porter of the tabernacle (1 Chron. 26:5).

Ammihud

1. Ephraimite chief, father of Elishama (Num. 1:10; 1 Chron. 7:26).
2. Simeonite chief, father of Shemuel (Num. 34:20).
3. Chief of Naphtali, father of Pedahel (Num. 34:28).
4. Father of Talmai, king of Geshur (2 Sam. 13:37).
5. Descendant of Pharez (1 Chron. 9:4).

Amminadab, Aminadab

1. Prince of the tribe of Judah, father of Naashon, Naasson, or Nahshon, and of Elisheba wife of Aaron (Ex. 6:23; Num. 1:7; Num. 2:3; Num. 7:12; Num. 10:14; Ruth 4:19; 1 Chron. 2:10; Matt. 1:4; Luke 3:33).
2. Levite, son of Kohath (1 Chron. 6:22).
3. Son of Uzziel, a Levite, who assisted to bring up the ark from the house of Oded-edom (1 Chron. 15:10-11).

Amminadib

In the margin “my willing people” is read, which translation is preferred by others and it is probable that no proper name is alluded to (Song of Sol. 6:12).

Ammishaddai

A Danite, father of Ahiezer, who was captain of the tribe in the time of Moses. (Num. 1:12; Num. 2:25; Num. 7:66,71; Num. 10:25).

Ammizabad

Son of Benaiah, chief captain in David’s army (1 Chron. 27:6).

Ammon, Ammonites, Children of Ammon

Ben-ammi was the son of Lot by his youngest daughter. “The same is the father of the children of Ammon” (Gen. 19:38). His descendants were neighbors to Israel between the Arnon and the Jabbok on the east, and had much to do with Israel. God had bidden Moses not to touch the Ammonites, nor was their land to be possessed by Israel: it had been given to the children of Lot. Their city was Rabbath-ammon, perhaps their only city, as they were a nomadic people. None of the nation were to be allowed to enter the congregation of Israel to the tenth generation, that is, forever (Deut. 23:3; Neh. 13:1). With Amalek they assisted the king of Moab against Israel, and Jericho fell into their hands (Judg. 3:13). Israel served their gods, and God gave them up on both sides of the Jordan to serve the Ammonites. On Israel crying to Jehovah the children of Ammon were defeated under Jephthah. In the early days of Saul’s reign they besieged Jabesh-gilead, and would only make peace on the condition that the right eyes of the inhabitants should be thrust out, in order that it might be a reproach on Israel; but Saul hastened to their aid, and routed the Ammonites (1 Sam. 11:1-11; 1 Sam. 12:12). Their gold and silver taken in battle were dedicated by David to Jehovah. Their king insulted David’s servants sent to show kindness to him, as the world refuses the kindness of God’s king, and brings judgment upon it (2 Sam. 10:1-10; 2 Sam. 11:1; 2 Sam. 12:26-31).
On the other hand, Shobi, of Rabbah, brought provisions when David fled from Absalom (2 Sam. 17:27), and Zelek, an Ammonite, was one of David’s thirty valiant men. Solomon loved some of their women, and the mother of his son Rehoboam was Naamah an Ammonitess (1 Kings 14:21, 31). They molested Israel with varied success until the days of Jehoiakim (2 Kings 24:2). Lot being the father of both Moab and Ammon, it is not surprising that the Moabites were often linked with the Ammonites in their attacks upon Israel. Hatred of God’s people united them in one common desire to cut them off from being a nation (Psalm 83:4-8). Tobiah, an Ammonite, was a troublesome adversary to the Jews on their return from captivity. (Neh. 2:10,19; Neh. 4:3,7). Nevertheless the Jews intermarried with this nation, thus mixing “the holy seed” with the people of the land. (Ezra 9:1-2; Neh. 13:23-25).
The whole history supplies us with instruction as to the imperative necessity of keeping separate from the contaminations of the world in order to walk with God, and be blessed by Him.
When the king of the north, in a future day, shall enter into “the glorious land,” Edom, Moab, and Ammon shall escape his hand (Dan. 11:41); they are reserved to be subdued by Israel, whom they seduced and persecuted in by-gone ages (Isa. 11:14).
Milcom and Molech were the gods of the Ammonites: to the worship of which Solomon had been seduced by his strange wives (1 Kings 11:5,7).

Amnon

1. Eldest son of David by Ahinoam: he was slain by Absalom for the violence done to his sister Tamar (2 Sam. 3:2; 2 Sam. 13:1-29; 1 Chron. 3:1).
2. Son of Shimon (1 Chron. 4:20).

Amok

Priest who returned with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:7,20).

Amon

1. The governor of Samaria in the time of Ahab (1 Kings 22:26; 2 Chron. 18:25).
2. Son and successor of Manasseh, king of Judah. He reigned but 2 years (B.C. 643-2). He did evil in the sight of the Lord, and served the idols which his father had set up. His servants conspired against him, and slew him in his own house (2 Kings 21:18-25; 1 Chron. 3:14; 2 Chron. 33:20-25; Jer. 1:2; Jer. 25:3; Zeph. 1:1; Matt. 1:10).
3. Nehemiah 7:59. See AMI.

Amorites

A people descended from Canaan, son of Ham (Gen. 10:16). They dwelt in the mountains, as their name signifies, and were apparently at times in the mountains both east and west of the Jordan (Num. 13:29; Josh. 5:1; Judg. 1:34-36; Judg. 10:8; 1 Kings 4:19). Being the most dominant and the most corrupt people or tribe they sometimes represent the Canaanites generally (Gen. 15:16; 1 Kings 21:26). When Abraham was at Hebron some confederated with him (Gen. 14:13). A remnant out of the Gentile nations was thus associated with the heir of promise, though Lot (a type of Israel after the flesh) had separated from him.
When Israel approached the promised land, they were in the east, and refused to let Israel pass; but they were overcome, their cities taken, and the people slain, with Sihon their king (Num. 21:21-26; Deut. 2:24; Amos 2:9-10). Some must have escaped, for we read of them later, and one of the controversies Jehovah had with Israel was for worshipping their gods (Ezra 9:1-2). Solomon made them tributary. (1 Kings 9:20-21; 2 Chron. 8:7-8). The Gibeonites were a remnant of the Amorites (2 Sam. 21:2). After this nothing is heard of them. The low state of Jerusalem (Judah) by nature is described by stating her origin, her father being an Amorite and her mother a Hittite, but God in grace had compassion upon her in her degradation, and raised her into great glory; though, alas, she was shamefully unfaithful (Ezek. 16:3-43.

Amos

One of the minor Prophets, a native of Tekoa in Judah, possibly the father of the prophet Isaiah. He told Amaziah, “I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet’s son; but I was an herdman and a gatherer of sycamore fruit: and the Lord took me as I followed the flock, and the Lord said to me, Go, prophesy unto my people Israel” (Amos 7:14-15). His language indicates an acquaintance with things that would be familiar to one leading an agricultural life (compare Amos 2:13; Amos 3:12; Amos 4:9; Amos 5:8; Amos 6:12; Amos 7:1-2). He tells us that his prophecy was given in the days of Uzziah king of Judah and of Jeroboam II, son of Joash, king of Israel, two years before the earthquake; or at least began at that time, Amos 1:1. For about 25 years these two kings were contemporaneous (B.C. 810-785).

Amos, Book Of

Though Amos and Hosea were prophets at the same time, and both prophesied of the sins of Israel, there is much difference in the style of the two. Hosea is more fervent, stirred with righteous indignation at the sins of the people; whereas with Amos there is great calmness in declaring God’s judgments. Hosea’s prophecy is confined to the sins of Judah and Israel, whereas Amos tells of the judgments that should fall upon some of the surrounding nations that had molested Israel, especially upon those that retained any part of the land that had been promised to Abraham; and then he recounts the sins, not only of Judah to which he himself belonged, but also of Israel, indeed there is more concerning the latter than the former. In the heading we have the words, “The Lord will roar from Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem”; which are also in Joel 16; thus, as it were, taking up the theme where Joel leaves off.
In the first two chapters there are eight short denunciations of judgments, introduced by the words “for three transgressions and for four.” Three witnesses were adequate testimony; four is the cup running over, of which the four quarters of the earth can testify. The judgments are against
1. Syria under its chief city Damascus. 2. The Philistines under Gaza. 3. Tire. 4. Edom. 5. Ammon. 6. Moab. 7. Judah. 8. Israel.
Amos 3 speaks of both Judah and Israel, “the whole family,” thus counting it as one, though division had come in: then follows the momentous statement that this family was the only one God had known — had taken into relationship — therefore God would punish them for their iniquities: showing that responsibilities are measured by the privileges enjoyed. Though judgments would come there would be a remnant left, as when a shepherd recovers from a lion “two legs or a piece of an ear” — a small remnant indeed! (Amos 3:12).
Amos 4 is against Israel, and especially because they had oppressed the poor. God had brought minor judgments upon them, such as
1. Scarcity, “cleanness of teeth.”
2. Want of rain, which was sent on one city but not on another.
3. Blasting and mildew.
4. Pestilence and a stink, their young men being slain with the sword.
5. They were overthrown as Sodom and Gomorrah, some being saved as firebrands out of the burning. After each judgment is added the result, “Yet have ye not returned unto me, saith the Lord,” ending with “Prepare to meet thy God, O Israel....the Lord, the God of hosts is his name.”
Amos 5 Israel is still denounced, but is exhorted to seek the Lord. Some desired the day of the Lord, but that will be very dark and with judgment. Such was their wickedness that God hated and despised their assemblies and their offerings: indeed they had turned to idolatry.
Amos 6 denounces those that are at ease in Zion, living in luxury and pleasure, in a false self-confidence notwithstanding all the warnings that had been given.
Amos 7, Amos 8 and Amos 9 are visions, and their applications. Amos 7 exhibits the patience of Jehovah. The prophet interceded for Jacob, and Jehovah repented of the evil he was bringing on them; still judgment must follow. The declaration of the doom of the high places was distasteful to Amaziah the priest of the king’s false religion at Bethel, who was dwelling at ease. He bade Amos flee to Judah. But Amos replied that he had been no prophet, nor prophet’s son, but only a herdman, and Jehovah had sent him. Judgments should fall upon Amaziah and Israel should go into captivity. Amos 8 again denounces Israel especially for self-ease and oppression of the poor.
Amos 9. None could escape the eye and judgment of God. He would destroy them from off the face of the earth, but not utterly: a remnant should be saved (Amos 9:9). Amos 9:11-15 speak of restoration and blessing. The plowman shall overtake the reaper; the mountains shall drop wine. The captives shall return. God will plant them upon their land and they shall no more be pulled up. Promises still to be fulfilled, for no such things have yet been. May God hasten them in His own time!

Amoz

Father of the prophet Isaiah (2 Kings 19:2; Isa. 1:1). Perhaps the same as the prophet Amos.

Amphipolis

City of eastern Macedonia, almost surrounded by the river Strymon, hence its name. Paul and Silas passed through it in going to Philippi (Acts 17:1). It is now called Jeni-keni, “new town.”

Amplias

Christian at Rome, greeted by Paul as “my beloved in the Lord” (Rom. 16:8).

Amram

1. Levite, father of Aaron, Moses and Miriam (Ex. 6:18,20).
2. Son of Dishon, a descendant of Seir (1 Chron. 1:41). Called HEMDAN in Genesis 36:26.
3. Son of Bani (Ezra 10:34).

Amramites

Branch of the Kohathite family, descended from Amram, father of Aaron, Moses and Miriam (Num. 3:27; 1 Chron. 26:23).

Amraphel

King of Shinar, in the time of Abram (Gen. 14:1,9).

Amzi

1. Son of Bani, a descendant of Merari (1 Chron. 6:46).
2. Son of Zechariah (Neh. 11:12).

Anab

City mentioned with Debir and Hebron in the mountains of Judah, where the Anakims dwelt (Josh. 11:21; Josh. 15:50). It retains the same name, 31° 24' N, 34° 56' E.

Anah

1. Daughter of Zibeon, a Hivite (Gen. 36:2,14,18).
2. Son of Seir the Horite (Gen. 36:20,25,29; 1 Chron. 1:38,41).
3. Son of Zibeon, son of Seir (Gen. 36:24; 1 Chron. 1:40).

Anaharath

Town in Issachar (Josh. 19:19). Identified with enNaurah, 32° 37' N, 35° 23' E.

Anaiah

1. One who stood beside Ezra when he read the law to the people (Neh. 8:4).
2. One who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:22).

Anak, Anakim

Son of Arba, and his descendants. They were men of great stature, or giants. The Israelites who went to spy the land called themselves grasshoppers in comparison. They dwelt in southern Palestine, Hebron being especially mentioned as their city, which was given to Caleb after the Anakim had been destroyed by Joshua, except that a remnant escaped and retired to the cities of Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod (Num. 13:22,28,33; Deut. 1:28; Deut. 2:10-11, 21; Deut. 9:2; Josh. 11:21-22; Josh. 14:12,15; Josh. 15:13-14; Josh. 21:11; Judg. 1:20).

Anamim

Descendants of Mizraim (the Hebrew has the article) (Gen. 10:13; 1 Chron. 1:11).

Anammelech

One of the gods of Sepharvaim, whose worship was introduced by the colonists into Samaria. It was considered to be the female power of the sun, as Adrammelech was the male (2 Kings 17:31).

Anan

One who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:26).

Anani

One of the sons of Elioenai, descendant of David (1 Chron. 3:24).

Ananiah

1. Grandfather of Azariah who returned from exile (Neh. 3:23).
2. Town occupied by the Benjamites on their return from exile (Neh. 11:32). It has been identified with Beit Hannina, 31° 50' N, 35° 12' E.

Ananias

1. High priest before whom Paul appeared, and who commanded him to be smitten on the mouth, to whom Paul said, “God shall smite thee, thou whited wall” (Acts 23:2-3; Acts 24:1). He was elevated to the office by Herod king of Chalcis (A.D. 48). He was sent to Rome to answer a charge of oppression, but returned. He was deposed before Felix left the province. When Menahem besieged Jerusalem, Ananias took refuge in an aqueduct, but was dragged forth and killed by the daggers of the assassins.
2. Husband of Sapphira, who with her had agreed to sell their possession, keep back part of the money, and present the remainder to the church as though it were the whole. He was charged with lying to the Holy Spirit, and fell down dead. His wife, saying the same thing, also met with a like punishment. The solemn judgment upon them evinced the fact that the Holy Spirit was really a divine person in the assembly, whose presence must in no way be ignored. “Great fear came upon all the church” (Acts 5:1-11).
3. Disciple at Damascus, who, being instructed by the Lord, found out Saul and laid his hands upon him that he might receive sight and be filled with the Holy Spirit. Ananias had naturally hesitated because of the character of the man he was to visit; but the Lord revealed to him that the persecuting Saul was a chosen vessel to Him to bear His name (Acts 9:10-17; Acts 22:12).

Anath

Father of Shamgar (Judges 3:31; Judges 5:6).

Anathema

This is a Greek word untranslated in 1 Corinthians 16:22: it occurs also in Romans 9:3; 1 Corinthians 12:3; Galatians 1:8-9 and is uniformly translated “accursed.” The solemn passage in 1 Corinthians 16 is “If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be accursed, Maranatha (the Lord cometh).” In Galatians it is said that if any person or even an angel from heaven preached any other gospel than that which they had received, let him be accursed. Two solemn denunciations relating to the person of the Lord Jesus and the gospel of God.
The word ἀνάθεμα was used for any votive offering in a heathen temple, which could not be redeemed; hence anything devoted. In the New Testament it is devoted to God’s curse, destruction.

Anathoth

1. Benjamite, son of Becher (1 Chron. 7:8).
2. One of the chiefs of the people who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:19).
3. City assigned to the priests in the territory of Benjamin, where Abiathar the high priest had his own fields, and where Jeremiah was born: its inhabitants persecuted the prophet. Identified with Anata, 31° 49' N, 35° 15' E. (Josh. 21:18; 1 Kings 2:26; 1 Chron. 6:60; Ezra 2:23; Neh. 7:27; Neh. 11:32; Isa. 10:30; Jer. 1:1; Jer. 11:21,23; Jer. 29:27; Jer. 32:7-9).

Anchor

The anchors used by the ancients were in shape somewhat like the modern ones, as may be seen on some of the coins. When Paul was on his way to Rome, four anchors were needed to hold the ship (Acts 27:29-30,40). The anchor is used metaphorically for the hope set before the Christian; it enters into that within the veil, and is sure and steadfast. It was a great thing for the Hebrew believers to have their eyes turned to heaven; the anchor of their hope was there; no matter what storms they might meet with, the realization of their hope was certain if set on Christ (Heb. 6:19).

Ancient of Days

A title of God used by Daniel, alluding to His eternity. It cannot be separated from Christ; for in Dan. 7 the Lord is called both the Ancient of Days and the Son of Man, yet the Son of Man came to the Ancient of Days to receive dominion, glory, and a kingdom (Dan. 7:9,13,22). He is both God and man; compare Revelation 1 and 5.

Andrew

Native of Bethsaida, brother of Simon Peter, and a fisherman: he became one of the twelve apostles. He had been a disciple of John, but hearing him say “Behold the Lamb of God!” he followed Jesus. He at once found his brother Simon and told him that he had found the Messiah. There is little recorded of Andrew; he was one of the four who asked the Lord privately when the destruction of the temple should take place, and what would be the sign when the things spoken of should be fulfilled. After revealing that various judgments were coming the Lord added “But of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father” (Mark 13:3-4, 32). The Lord, as the Servant-Prophet (which is the character given by the Spirit in Mark) did not know the day. Tradition says that Andrew labored in Scythia, Greece and Asia Minor, and that he was crucified at Patrae in Achaia, on a cross of this form, X, which cross has since borne his name (Matt. 4:18; Luke 6:14; John 1:40, 44; Acts 1:13).

Andronicus

Kinsman of Paul at Rome, who with Junia were his fellow prisoners, and of whom he said they were in Christ before him (Rom. 16:7).

Anem

City of Issachar, assigned to the Levites (1 Chron. 6:73). This name is not found in the lists in Joshua 19 and 21, but EN-GANNIM is mentioned instead. Identified with Jenin, 32° 28' N, 35° 18' E.

Aner

1. Amorite confederate with Abraham against Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:13,24).
2. A town of Manasseh, west of the Jordan assigned to the Levites (1 Chron. 6:70). Identified with Ellar, about 35° 6' N, 32° 22' E.

Anethothite, Anetothite, Antothite

Inhabitants of Anathoth (2 Sam. 23:27; 1 Chron. 11:28; 1 Chron. 12:3; 1 Chron. 27:12).

Angels

The Hebrew word malac and Greek word, ἄγγελος, signify “messenger.”
1. It is used for the mystic representation of the divine presence, as in Genesis 31:11-13. “The angel of God” spake unto Jacob saying, “I am the God of Bethel.” “The angel of Jehovah” spake to Hagar and said, “I will multiply thy seed exceedingly that it shall not be numbered for multitude” (Gen. 16:7-11). “The angel of Jehovah” spake to Abraham saying, “By myself have I sworn” (Gen. 22:11, 15-16). Three “men” drew near to Abraham’s tent. One said Sarah should have a son: at which Sarah laughed, and Jehovah said, “Wherefore did Sarah laugh?” Two of the three left, and were called “angels” at the gate of Sodom, while Jehovah, the third, talked with Abraham (Gen. 18:1-33; compare also Ex. 3:2, 6-15; Num. 22:22-35). Jacob, in blessing the sons of Joseph, said, “The Angel which redeemed me from all evil bless the lads” (Gen. 48:16). It is generally believed that it was the second person in the Trinity who appeared as a man in the Old Testament It is no doubt the same who is called “the mighty angel” in Revelation 10:1-3.
2. The intelligent spiritual beings who are constantly referred to in scripture as God’s messengers both as carrying good tidings and as executors of God’s judgments. We know little of their nature: “of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire” (Heb. 1:7); and man is described as being a little inferior to the angels (Psalm 8:5; Heb. 2:7). There are apparently gradations in rank among them, described as principalities and powers, of which Christ as Man is now the head (Col. 2:10). Twice we meet with “archangel:” an archangel’s voice will accompany the rapture of the church (1 Thess. 4:16); and Michael the “archangel” contended with Satan about the body of Moses (Jude 9). He with his angels will fight with the dragon and his angels and cast them out of heaven (Rev. 12:7-8). Gabriel is the only other name of an angel revealed to us: he appeared to Daniel, to Zacharias, and to Mary; he said that he stood in the presence of God (Dan. 8:16; Dan. 9:21; Luke 1:19,26).
Though we are unconscious of the presence of angels we know that they are ministering spirits sent forth to minister for them who shall inherit salvation (Heb. 1:14; compare Psa. 34:7); and we read also that they ministered to the Lord when He was here (Matt. 4:11; Mark 1:13; Luke 22:43). There are “myriads” of these angels (Matt. 26:53; Heb. 12:22; Rev. 5:11); and they are described as “mighty,” “holy,” “elect” (2 Thess. 1:7; Mark 8:38; 1 Tim. 5:21): they do not marry (Mark 12:25). We are not told when they were created, but doubtless they are referred to as “the sons of God” who shouted for joy when God created the earth (Job 38:4-7).
The law was given by their ministry (Acts 7:53; Gal. 3:19; Psa. 68:17); and they had to do with proclaiming the birth of the Savior (Luke 2:8-14); and they attended at the resurrection (Matt. 28:2; John 20:12). Angels are not the depositaries of the revelation and counsels of God. They desire to look into the things testified by the Spirit of Christ in the prophets, and now reported by the apostles in the power of the same Spirit (1 Peter 1:12). The world to come is not to be put in subjection to them, but to man in the person of the Son of man (Heb. 2:5-8); and the saints will judge angels (1 Cor. 6:3). It is therefore only a false humility that would teach the worshipping of angels (Col. 2:18). When John fell down to worship the angel in the Revelation, being overpowered by reason of the stupendous things revealed, he was on two occasions restrained from worshipping his “fellow servant” (Rev. 19:10; 22:9).
In Psalm 8:5 the word is elohim, “God”; the name of God being given to the angels as His representatives (compare Psalm 82:6). In Psalm 68:17 it is shinan, “repetition”; reading “even thousands upon thousands.” In Psalm 78:25 it is abbir, “mighty” (“every one did eat the bread of the mighty,” margin).
3. FALLEN ANGELS. 1. We read of angels who “kept not their first estate,” but left their own habitation, and are kept in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day (Jude 6). God spared not the angels who sinned (2 Peter 2:4). The nature of their sin may be referred to in Genesis 6:2. Their punishment and that of Sodom and Gomorrah is held up as a warning against fleshly indulgence, and despising government (2 Peter 2:10; Jude 6-8). 2. Besides the above which are kept in chains we read of angels connected with Satan. The great dragon and his angels will be subdued by Michael and his angels, and be cast out of heaven (Rev. 12:9). The lake of fire, or Gehenna, has been specially prepared for the devil and his angels, though, alas, man will also be cast therein (Matt. 25:41). Abaddon or Apollyon is the name of the angel of “the bottomless pit” (Rev. 9:11), that is, the “abyss,” not hell, which, as seen above, is the place of punishment. Isaiah 14:12-16 and Ezekiel 28:14-19 may throw some light on the fall of Satan, but whether the fall of those called his “angels” was brought about by the same cause and at the same time is not revealed. Scripture is quite clear that all of them will be overcome and eternally punished.
4. The term “angel” is used metaphorically for a mystical representative. When Peter was delivered from prison, and knocked at the door, those who had been praying for his release said, “It is his angel” (Acts 12:15). They supposed Peter was still in prison, and that the one at the door was his representative, his spirit personified, perhaps with very vague ideas of what they really meant. In Revelation 2-3, the addresses to the seven churches are made to the angel of each. It signifies the spirit and character of the assembly personified in its mystical representative, each one differing from the others, according to the state of the assembly. The messages, though addressed to churches existing at the time, no doubt set forth the state of the church in its varied phases ever since apostolic times down to its entire rejection as the responsible witness for Christ at the close of the dispensation.

Angle

Fishing was very common in Egypt, not only with the net, but with the line and hook (Isa. 19:8); and the same were used by the Israelites, for nets are often referred to, and the fish that had the piece of money in its mouth was caught with a hook (Matt. 17:27). In Habakkuk 1:15 the same things are referred to symbolically for the catching of men for captivity. The apostles of the Lord were made fishers of men.

Aniam

Son of Shemidah, of the tribe of Manasseh (1 Chron. 7:19).

Anim

City of Judah in the mountains (Josh. 15:50). Identified with Ghuwein, 31° 21' N, 35° 2' E.

Animals, Clean and Unclean

The first time we read of clean and unclean animals is when Noah went into the ark: he was instructed to take seven pairs of each of the clean beasts and clean fowls and only two of the unclean; we have no instructions as to how Noah distinguished them, but it shows that in early days there was a distinction between the clean and unclean. Those called clean were doubtless clean for sacrifice, and not for food, as nothing is said of man eating animal food till after the flood, and then “every moving thing” was given for food. When Noah came out of the ark he offered of every clean beast and every clean fowl for burnt offerings (Gen. 7:2; Gen. 8:20).
With Israel it was different. What animals were to be offered are distinctly specified, and what animals might be eaten as clean and what might not be eaten as unclean are given in detail. Of beasts the clean were those that divided the hoof and chewed the cud: those that had only one of these distinguishing marks were unclean. Of the fishes those only were to be eaten which had fins and scales. Of the fowls a list is given of those that must not be eaten, and of the winged crawling things, that go on all fours, only those which have legs above their feet to leap with might be eaten. The locust, the bald locust, the beetle, and the grasshopper, each after his kind, might be eaten (probably four species of locust); but all other flying, creeping, or swarming things, which have four feet were unclean. Every “creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth” was unclean; whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all fours, or hath a multitude of feet, among all creeping things, was unclean. These directions are respecting what might or might not be eaten. Those that were not to be eaten were to be regarded as an abomination, and if the dead bodies of any such fell upon any vessel or garment it rendered it unclean, and anyone who touched their carcass must wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening (Lev. 11; Deut. 14:3-20). These animals in their habits and instincts were used of God to teach His people as to habits and ways of the flesh that were unclean in His sight.
We know from other scriptures that the animals described here as unclean are not really so, but good as creatures of God; yet they were by Israel to be regarded as unclean and an abomination. The unclean are mostly those that are flesh-eating.
The particulars given of the unclean have doubtless symbolical meanings. They are principally these:
1. Dividing the hoof and chewing the cud may point to a steady patient walk (as the camel or the ox), and the digesting or meditating upon what is received (compare Psa. 1:1-2; Prov. 12:27).
2. Everything that creepeth upon the earth was unclean: the earth is under the curse because of sin, and there must be a moral rising above it.
3. The fish must have fins and scales: the fins enable a fish to rise in the water, to direct its course, and to avoid danger, and the scales are its protection. To escape the pollutions of the world a circumspect walk is needed and also having on the protection which God has provided.
It is clear from scripture that the prohibition of certain creatures as unclean affected Israel only, and the vision given to Peter manifests that this restriction is done away in Christ. It is plainly declared that “every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused if it be received with thanksgiving; for it is sanctified by the word of God [as in Gen. 9:3] and prayer” (1 Tim. 4:4-5).

Anise

Probably ἄνηθον refers to the common “dill,” which is different from the ἄνισον, the “anise.” Both the plant and seed were and still are used as a condiment in the east, and are found in the modern materia medica. The Pharisees were careful to pay tithes of such things while they omitted the weightier matters of the law (Matt. 23:23).

Anklet

The Hebrew word ekes signifies “fetter” or “ankle band.” It is translated “tinkling ornaments” for the feet in Isaiah 3:18, as part of the dress of the haughty daughters of Zion, who liked to make a tinkling noise when they walked; but God would bring to naught all such adornings. The same Hebrew word is translated “stocks” in Proverbs 7:22.

Anna

A prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of Asher, who gave thanks when the infant Jesus was presented in the temple (Luke 2:36). She was one of the godly who looked for redemption in Israel.

Annas

High priest, appointed in A.D. 7 by Cyrenius, or Quirinus, governor of Syria. In the reign of Tiberius he was deposed, and was followed at short intervals by Ismael, Eleasar son of Ananus or Annas, Simon, and Joseph Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas (Luke 3:2; John 18:13, 24; Acts 4:6). It is supposed that Annas was called high priest by courtesy, having once held the office: the Lord was taken to him first, perhaps as being the father-in-law of Caiaphas. Josephus relates that the five sons of Annas became high priests, and under the last, also named Annas, James the Lord’s brother was martyred (Antiquities 20. 9, 1).

Annunciation, The

The supposed time of the visit of the angel Gabriel to Mary when he announced God’s purpose of grace towards her. It was in “the sixth month,” which, by comparing with Luke 1:36, appears to date from his visit to Zacharias (Luke 1:26-38). It was superstitiously made one of the festivals of the professing church, and falls on March 25, also called Lady-day.

Anointed, The

Mashiach, the anointed, is an official title in the Old Testament of those who were to rule for God (1 Sam. 12:3,5; 1 Sam. 26:9,11,16; 2 Chron. 6:42; Isa. 45:1). In the New Testament the title is restricted to the Lord Jesus ὁ χριστός the Christ — as the One anointed, not with oil, but with the Holy Spirit by God the Father. This had been predicted in Psalm 45:7, of which John the Baptist was the witness (Mark 1:10; John 1:32-34; compare also Acts 10:38). He was called God’s anointed by Hannah (1 Sam. 2:10), and by David (Psa. 2:2). Daniel spoke of Messiah the Prince, and that He would be cut off and have nothing (Dan. 9:25-26). The Samaritans as well as the Jews expected this anointed One, the Christ; and when He appeared souls were brought into living intercourse with Him, and owned Him as the promised One (John 1:41; John 4:25). In these two passages the Lord is called “Messias,” the word being simply the Greek form of the Hebrew word mashiach. In other places a translation is used and He is called ὁ χριστός, “the Christ,” the anointed One. See CHRIST.

Anointing

There are several Hebrew words thus translated, but some of them occur but once, as
1. In Psalm 23:5, “Thou anointest my head with oil,” signifying made fat, the oil used plentifully.
2. Psalm 92:10, “I shall be anointed with fresh oil,” from “to pour over,” “overflow with” oil.
3. Isaiah 10:27, “the yoke shall be destroyed because of the anointing” (text obscure).
4. Zechariah 4:14, “these are the two anointed ones,” lit. “sons of oil” (compare Rev. 11:4).
5. suk, “to anoint the body after washing,” like ἀλείφω in the New Testament, is commonly used for the practice among the orientals of anointing the body, or its parts, for comfort, appearance, friendliness, healing, or burial. For the ordinary toilet (compare Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam. 12:20; 2 Chron. 28:15; Matt. 6:17). To neglect this was a sign of mourning (2 Sam. 14:2; Dan. 10:3). As an act of courtesy (compare Luke 7:46; John 12:3); the sick were also anointed (Mark 6:13; James 5:14); also the dead body (Mark 14:8; Mark 16:1). One of the punishments on Israel was that the olives should not yield oil for the anointing (Deut. 28:40; Mic. 6:15).
6. mashach, χρἰς, “to spread over, to anoint” for an office. Kings were anointed: Saul, David, Solomon, Joash, Jehu, and Hazael are examples. Prophets were anointed; for Psalm 105:15 should read “anointed ones”; and compare 1 Kings 19:16. Special oil made according to God’s directions was used for the anointing of the priests (Ex. 30:30; Ex. 40:13). With the same oil the tabernacle and its vessels were anointed (Ex. 40:9-10). The meat offering was anointed with oil (Lev. 2:1,4), typical of the pure humanity of the Lord Jesus, and of His being sealed by the Holy Spirit. The cleansed leper was anointed with oil (Lev. 14:17-18).
Whether this last anointing refers to persons or things and whether the oil is that specially prepared or common oil, the sanctification and power of the Holy Spirit is invariably typified thereby. Anointing with oil for consecration to office is not now enjoined on believers, for they are anointed with the Holy Spirit, and are also priests to God. John reminds even the babes in Christ that they have an unction from the Holy One, and the anointing (the same word, χρισμα) abideth in them (1 John 2:20,27). Thus, as in the Old Testament, the kings, prophets, and priests were anointed as set apart for God, so the Christian is by the Holy Spirit sanctified for God, both as to his position and service. See THE ANOINTED.

Ant

There are several species of ants, but to which of these the Proverbs refer is not known: the Hebrew word nemaiah is said to be from a root signifying “to crowd together,” which applies to all ants. Buxtorf traces it from the root “to eat.” This insect is held up as a practical reproof to the sluggard; the scripture says that it provides its meat in the summer, and gathereth its food in the harvest. (Prov. 6:6; Prov. 30:25). Skeptics take exception to this, because ants are held to be carnivorous and they could not lay up such food in summer; but there is abundance of evidence to prove that they lay up grain in the summer, and if it becomes damp they bring it out into the sun and dry it. Another point worthy of note is that they have “no guide, overseer, or ruler,” and yet no one can watch this insect without seeing that they are “exceeding wise:” each one finds what his particular work is, and diligently does it — a profitable lesson for the saints of God to learn.

Anti-Lebanon

See LEBANON.

Antichrist

The name ἀντἰχριστος signifies an opposer of Christ. It is used only by John in his first and second epistles, though those opposed to Christ are referred to by others under different names. It is important to distinguish between an antichrist and the antichrist. John says, “as ye have heard that antichrist shall come, even now are there many antichrists”; whereas “he is the antichrist that denieth the Father and the Son” (1 John 2:18,22). He is the consummation of the many antichrists. To deny Jesus Christ come in the flesh is the spirit or power of the antichrist, but it eventuates in a departure from the special revelation of Christianity: “they went out from us” (1 John 2:19; 1 John 4:3; John 1:7). Now this clears the ground at once of much that has obscured the subject. For instance, many have concluded that Popery is the antichrist, and have searched no farther into the question, whereas the above passage refutes this conclusion, for Popery does not deny the Father and the Son; and, in Revelation 17-18, Popery is pointed out as quite distinct from “the false prophet,” which is another name for the antichrist. It is fully granted that Popery is antichristian, and a Christ dishonouring and soul-deceiving system; but where God has made a distinction we must also do so. Besides Popery there were and there are many antichrists, which, whatever their pretensions, are the enemies of Christ, opposers of the truth, and deceivers of man.
As to the Antichrist, it should be noticed that John makes another distinction between this one and the many. He speaks of the many as being already there, whereas the one was to come; and if we turn to 2 Thessalonians 2:3-12 we read of something or someone that hinders that wicked or lawless one being revealed, although the mystery of iniquity was already at work. Now there has been no change of dispensation since this epistle was written, and John wrote much later, from which we learn that the revelation of the antichrist is still future, though doubtless the mystery of iniquity is getting ripe for his appearing; that which hindered and still hinders the manifestation of the antichrist is doubtless the presence of the Holy Spirit on earth. He will leave the earth at the rapture of the saints.
This passage in Thessalonians gives us further particulars as to this MAN OF SIN. His coming is after the working of Satan, that is, he will be a confederate of Satan, and be able to work signs and lying wonders with all deceit of unrighteousness in them that perish. Those that have refused the truth will then receive the lie of this wicked one. We get further particulars in Revelation 13:11-18, where the antichristian power or kingdom is described as a beast rising out of the earth, having two horns as a lamb, but speaking as a dragon. Here again we read that he will do great wonders, making fire come down from heaven, with other signs or miracles.
In the description in Thessalonians he opposeth himself against all that is called God or that is worshipped, and sits down in the temple of God, and sets forth himself as God. The Jews will receive him as their Messiah, as we read in John 5:43. In the above passage in the Revelation this counterfeit of Christ’s kingdom is openly idolatrous. He directs the dwellers on the earth to make an image of the beast (named in Revelation 13:1, the future head of the resuscitated Roman empire) to which image he gives breath, that it should speak, and persecutes those who will not worship the image. He also causes all to receive a mark on their hand or their forehead that they may be known to be his followers; and that none else should be able to buy or sell. We thus see that in the Revelation the antichristian power called also “the false prophet” will work with the political head, and with Satan — a trinity of evil — not only in deceiving mankind, but also, in Revelation 16:13-16, gathering together by their influence the kings of the earth to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. The three are cast into the lake of fire. (Rev. 19:20; Rev. 20:10).
In the Old Testament we get still another character of this wicked one. In Daniel 11:36-39 he is called “king.” Here he exalts himself and speaks marvelous things against the God of gods. He will not regard the God of his fathers (pointing out that he will be a descendant of Israel, probably from the tribe of Dan, compare Gen. 49:17), nor “the desire of women” (That is the Messiah, of whom every Jewess hoped to be the mother): he exalts himself above all. Here again he is an idolater, honoring a god that his fathers knew not. In Zechariah 11:15-17 he is referred to as the foolish and idol shepherd, who cares not for the flock, in opposition to the Lord Jesus the good Shepherd.
This man of sin will “do according to his own will” — just what the natural man ever seeks to do. In contrast to this the blessed Lord was obedient, and came not to do His own will. May His saints be ever on the watch against the many false prophets in the world, 1 John 4:1, and be loyal to their absent Lord, behold His beauty in the sanctuary, and reproduce Him more down here in their earthen vessels.

Antinomians

Strictly, those opposed to the inculcation of good works from a perverted view of the doctrines of grace; but the term is also falsely applied to those who know themselves free through the death of Christ from the law as given by Moses (Rom. 7:4; Gal. 2:19). One has but to read carefully the epistle to the Galatians to see that for Gentile believers to place themselves under the law is to fall from grace; and Paul exhorted them to be as he was, for he was (though a Jew by birth) as free from the law by the death of Christ as they were as Gentiles. They had not injured him at all by saying he was not a strict Jew (Gal. 4:12); in other words, they may have called him an antinomian, as others have been called, whose walk has been the most consistent. To go back to the law supposes that man has power to keep it. For a godly walk the Christian must walk in the Spirit, and grace teaches that, “denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world” (Titus 2:12). On the other hand, there have been, and doubtless are, some who deny good works as a necessary fruit of grace in the heart: grace, as well as everything else, has been abused by man. See LAW.

Antioch in Pisidia

A Roman colony of Phrygia in Asia Minor, founded by Seleucus Nicator. Its ruins are now called Yalobatch or Yalowaj. Paul’s labor here was so successful that it roused the opposition of the Jews and he was driven to Iconium and Lystra; but he returned with Silas (Acts 13:14; Acts 14:19-21; 2 Tim. 3:11).

Antioch in Syria

This is memorable in the annals of the church as the city where the disciples were first called Christians, where an assembly of Gentiles was gathered, and from which Paul and his companions went forth on their missionary journeys, and to which they twice returned. It formed a center for their labors among the Gentiles, outside the Jewish influence which prevailed at Jerusalem; yet the church in this city maintained its fellowship with the assembly at Jerusalem and elsewhere (Acts 6:5; Acts 11:19-30; Acts 13:1; Acts 14:26; Acts 15:22-35; Acts 18:22; Gal. 2:11).
Antioch was once a flourishing and populous city, the capital of Northern Syria, founded by Seleucus Nicator (B.C. 300), in honor of his father Antiochus. It was afterward adorned by Roman emperors, and was esteemed the third city. It was eventually the seat of the Roman proconsul of Syria. It stood on a beautiful spot on the river Orontes, where it breaks through between the mountains Taurus and Lebanon. It is now called Antakia, 36° 12' N, 36° 10' E. It has suffered from wars and earthquakes, and is now a miserable place. Comparatively few antiquities of the ancient city are to be found, but parts of its wall appear on the crags of Mount Silpius.

Antiochus

There were several kings bearing this name who ruled over Syria, and though they are not mentioned by name in scripture, some of their actions are specified. These are so clear and definite that skeptics have foolishly said that at least this part of the prophecy of Daniel must have been written after the events! The Greek kingdom, the third of the four great empires, was, on the death of Alexander the Great, divided among his four generals, and this resulted principally in a series of kings who ruled in Egypt bearing the general name of PTOLEMY, and are called in scripture “Kings of the South”; and another series, called “Kings of the North,” who bore the general name of either SELEUCUS or ANTIOCHUS. Both the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae began eras of their own, and some of the kings of each era had to do with Palestine and the Jews. The following is a list of the kings, with the dates when they began to reign, noticing the principal events that were prophesied of them in Daniel 11.
B.C.
320 Ptolemy I, Soter. He takes Jerusalem. Era of the Ptolemies begins.
312 SELEUCUS I, Nicator. He retakes Palestine. Era of the Seleucidce begins.
283 Ptolemy II, Philadelphus. The Old Testament translated into Greek.
280 ANTIOCHUS I, Soter.
261 ANTIOCHUS II, Theos. He was at war with Ptolemy, but peace was restored on condition that Antiochus should put away his wife Laodice and marry Berenice the daughter of Ptolemy. This was done, but on the death of Philadelphus he restored Laodice; but she, fearing another divorce, poisoned her husband, and then caused the death of Berenice and her son (see Dan. 11:6).
247 Ptolemy III, Euergetes. He revenged his sister’s death, being “a branch of her roots”; and carried off 40,000 talents of silver, “Shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north,” and carry away their precious vessels of silver and gold (Dan. 11:7-9).
246 SELEUCUS II, Callinicus.
226 SELEUCUS III, Ceraunus.
223 ANTIOCHUS III, the Great.
222 Ptolemy IV, Philopater. War between Ptolemy and Antiochus. Ptolemy recovers Palestine (Dan. 11:10-12).
205 Ptolemy V, Epiphanes (5 years old). Antiochus seized the opportunity of the minority of the king to regain the country (Dan. 11:16). He also joined with Philip of Macedonia to capture other portions of the dominions of Ptolemy. But Rome was now growing in power, and on being appealed to by Egypt for protection, Antiochus was told he must let Egypt alone. In the meantime an army from Egypt had retaken Palestine; but Antiochus, on his return, again obtained the mastery there. Wishing to extend his dominions in the west he proposed that Ptolemy should marry his daughter Cleopatra, that she might serve her father’s ends, but she was faithful to her husband. Daniel thus speaks of it: “He shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her, but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him” (Dan. 11:17). Antiochus took many maritime towns, but after many encounters he was compelled by Rome to quit all Asia on that side of Mount Taurus, give up his elephants and ships of war and pay a heavy fine. Antiochus had great difficulty in raising the money, and on attempting to rob a temple at Elymais he was killed (Dan. 11:18-19).
187 SELEUCUS IV, Philopator, succeeded. His principal work was the raising of money to pay the war-tax to Rome. He ordered Heliodorus to plunder the temple; but Heliodorus poisoned him. He was thus “a raiser of taxes,” and was “destroyed neither in anger, nor in battle” (Dan. 11:20). Heliodorus seized the crown but was destroyed by Antiochus IV.
181 Ptolemy VI, Philometor. He was a minor, under his mother and tutors.
175 ANTIOCHUS IV, Epiphanes. He was not the rightful heir. He “obtained the kingdom by flatteries.” He called himself Epiphanes, which is “illustrious”; but he was such “a vile person” that people called him Epimanes, “madman” (Dan. 11:21-24). He invaded Egypt and was at first successful (Dan. 11:25-26). The two kings entered into negotiations, though neither of them was sincere in what they agreed to: their hearts were to do mischief, and they “tell lies at one table” (Dan. 11:27). Then Antiochus returned to his land with great riches: his heart was “against the holy covenant,” and he entered Jerusalem and even into the sanctuary and took away the golden altar, the candlestick, the table of shewbread, the censers of gold, and the other holy vessels and departed. “At the appointed time he shall return and come toward the South” (Dan. 11:29); but he was stopped by Rome; “ships of Chittim,” ships from Macedonia, came against him; and in great anger he returned and vented his wrath on Jerusalem.
He sent an army there with orders to slay all the men and sell the women and children for slaves. This was to a certain extent carried out. The walls were also thrown down and the city pillaged and then set on fire. He then decreed that the Jews should forsake their religion and all should worship the heathen gods. To ensure this at Jerusalem with the few that still clung to the place, an image of Jupiter Olympius was erected in the temple and on an altar sacrifices were offered to this god. This was in B.C. 168 on the 25th of the month Chisleu. Daniel relates “They shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate” (Dan. 11:31; compare also Dan. 8:9-12 where “the little horn” refers to Antiochus Epiphanes).
Bleek, Delitzsch, and others consider that in Daniel 8:14, the 2,300 “evening, morning,” margin, refer to the daily sacrifice, which is spoken of in Daniel 8:11-13; and that by 2,300 is meant 1,150 days; compare also Daniel 8:26. The dedication of the temple was on the 25th of Chisleu, B.C. 165, and the desecration began sometime in the year 168.
Daniel 11:32(b),33-35 refer to the change that soon took place under Judas Maccabeus and his brothers, commencing B.C. 166, and in 165 the temple was re-dedicated. In B.C. 164 ANTIOCHUS V, Eupator succeeded to the throne; and in 162 DEMETRIUS SOTER; but they were not powerful against Judea, and in B.C. 161 an alliance was made by Juda with Rome. The historical notices in Daniel end at Daniel 11:35.
It will be seen by the above that the records of history agree perfectly with the prophecy, as faith would expect them to do. It is only unbelief that has any difficulty in God foretelling future events. Without doubt some of the acts of Antiochus Epiphanes are types of the deeds of the future king of the North — referred to in other prophecies as “the Assyrian” — in respect to the Jews and Jerusalem.

Antipas

1. A Christian of Pergamos, who was martyred (Rev. 2:13).
2. Son of Herod the Great, but not called Antipas in the New Testament. See HEROD.

Antipatris

The town to which Paul was taken in the night from Jerusalem on his way to Caesarea (Acts 23:31). It was built by Herod the Great in a well-watered spot surrounded by a wood, and named after his father. At Ras el-Ain, 32° 6' N, 34° 56' E, are ruins which are held to mark the spot. This is 5 or 6 miles nearer Jerusalem than Kefr Saba, which some associate with Antipatris, because Josephus says it was called Kapharsaba before its name was altered by Herod. The former place being nearer to Jerusalem removes the difficulty that some have felt as to the distance of Antipatris being too far to reach in a night; this reduces it to about 36 miles, and it would be even less by cross roads.

Antitype

The word antitype does not occur in the AV (KJV), but the Greek word a ἀντίτυπον occurs in Hebrews 9:24, translated “figures,” and in 1 Peter 3:21, translated “like figure.” It is that which answers to a type, as a wax impression answers to a seal: if the device is sunk, the impression will be raised, or vice verSam. To take a simple but beautiful example, a lamb was offered up for a burnt offering both morning and evening under the law; and in the New Testament we read, “Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.” It is plain that the morning and evening lamb in Israel were types, and the death of the Lord Jesus was the antitype. In Hebrews 9:23, the “heavenly things” are the type, and “holy places” (Heb. 9:24), the antitype, or what corresponded to the pattern. In 1 Peter 3:21, eight souls were saved through water, of which baptism is the figure, or what answers to it. Doubtless there are many other antitypes in the New Testament, but every antitype must have a type to which it corresponds, though the correspondence may not lie on its surface. Where scripture is silent as to types and antitypes the teaching of the Holy Spirit is needed, or grievous error may result in associating two things together which have no spiritual connection, though names and words may seem to correspond.

Antonia

A tower or fortress built by Herod the Great near the temple at Jerusalem in which he placed a guard to watch over the approaches to the sacred edifice. Josephus (Wars 5. 5, 8) says it was situated “at the corner of two cloisters of the court of the temple; of that on the west, and that on the north; it was erected upon a rock fifty cubits in height, and was on a great precipice.” Where this precipice was is not known, for it is a much disputed question upon what part of the temple area the temple was built. There is a tower, now called Antonia, on the N. W. angle, and there are indications of a similar one having stood on the S. E. angle.

Antothijah

A descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:24).

Antothite

See ANETHOTHITE.

Anub

Son of Coz, of the posterity of Judah (1 Chron. 4:8).

Ape

The ape is not indigenous to Palestine; they were brought in the days of Solomon, with gold, silver, ivory and peacocks by the ships of Tarshish. The word goph may signify any of the monkey tribe. (1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chron. 9:21).

Apelles

A Christian of Rome saluted by Paul as “approved in Christ” (Rom. 16:10).

Apharsachites, Apharsathchites

Some unknown Assyrian tribe sent as colonists to Samaria under Asnapper (Ezra 4:9; Ezra 5:6; Ezra 6:6).

Aphek

1. Royal city of the Canaanites, the king of which was killed by Joshua (Josh. 12:18); probably the same as APHEKAH in Joshua 15:53. Not identified.
2. City in the north border of Asher, from which in the time of Joshua the inhabitants were not expelled. (Josh. 13:4; Josh. 19:30): called APHIK in Judges 1:31. Identified with Afka at the foot of the Lebanon between Baalbek and Byblus.
3. Place where the Philistines encamped when Israel was defeated (1 Sam. 4:1).
4. Where the Philistines encamped when Saul and Jonathan were killed (1 Sam. 29:1). Perhaps the same as No. 3.
5. City, the wall of which falling killed 27,000 of the Syrians (1 Kings 20:26,30; 2 Kings 13:17). It is identified with Fik, 32° 47' N, 35° 41' E, on the great road between Damascus and Jerusalem.

Aphekah

See APHEK.

Aphiah

A “mighty man of power,” an ancestor of Saul (1 Sam. 9:1).

Aphik

See APHEK

Aphrah

The margin of Micah 1:10 explains the name as “house of dust,” so that there is a play upon the word dust: “in the house of dust roll thyself in the dust.” The LXX read “the house in derision.” It may refer to OPHRAH in Joshua 18:23 and 1 Samuel 13:17, a city in the tribe of Benjamin.

Aphses

Head of the eighteenth course of priests for service in the temple (1 Chron. 24:15).

Apocalypse

Another name for the REVELATION, being its Greek title άποκάλυΨις.

Apocrypha

The name given to those Books which were attached to the MSS copies of the LXX, but which do not form a part of the canon of scripture. The term itself signifies, “hidden,” “secret,” “occult”; and, as to any pretense of being a part of scripture, they must be described as “spurious.” There are such writings connected with both the Old and the New Testament, but generally speaking the term “Apocrypha” refers to the Old Testament (for those connected with the New Testament, see APOSTOLIC FATHERS). The Old Testament books are:
1. I Esdras.
2. II Esdras.
3. Tobit.
4. Judith.
5. Chapters of Esther, not found in the Hebrew nor Chaldee.
6. Wisdom of Solomon.
7. Jesus, son of Sirach; or Ecclesiasticus; quoted Ecclus.
8. Baruch, including the Epistle of Jeremiah.
9. Song of the Three Holy Children.
10. The History of Susanna.
11. Bel and the Dragon.
12. Prayer of Manasseh.
13. I Maccabees.
14. II Maccabees.
The Council of Trent in A.D. 1546, professing to be guided by the Holy Spirit, declared the Apocrypha to be a part of the Holy Scripture. The above fourteen books formed part of the English Authorized Version of 1611, but are now seldom attached to the canonical books. Besides the above there are a few others, as the III, IV and V Maccabees, book of Enoch, etc., not regarded by anyone as a part of scripture. It may be noticed
1. That the canonical books of the Old Testament were written in Hebrew (except parts of Ezra and Daniel which were in Chaldee); whereas the Apocrypha has reached us only in Greek or Latin, though Jerome says some of it had been seen in Hebrew.
2. Though the Apocrypha is supposed to have been written not later than B.C. 30, the Lord never in any way alludes to any part of it; nor do any of the writers of the New Testament, though both the Lord and the apostles constantly quote the canonical books.
3. The Jews did not receive the Apocrypha as any part of scripture, and to “them were committed the oracles of God.”
4. As some of the spurious books were added to the LXX Version (the Old Testament in the Greek) and to the Latin translation of the LXX, some of the early Christian writers were in doubt as to whether they should be received or not, and this uncertainty existed more or less until the before mentioned Council of Trent decided that the greater part of the Apocrypha was to be regarded as canonical. Happily at that time the Reformation had opened the eyes of many Christians to the extreme corruption of the church of Rome, and in rejecting the claims of that church they were also freed from its judgment as to the Apocryphal books.
5. The internal evidences of the human authorship of the Apocrypha ought to convince any Christian that it can form no part of holy scripture.
Expressions of the writers themselves show that they had no thought of their books being taken for scripture. There are also contradictions in them such as are common to human productions. Evil doctrines also are found therein: let one suffice: “Alms doth deliver from death, and shall purge away all sin” (Tobit 12. 9). The value of holy scripture as the fountain of truth is such that anything that might in any way contaminate that spring should be refused with decision and scorn. Some parts of the Apocryphal books may be true as history, but in every other respect they should be refused as spurious. Nor can it be granted that we need the judgment of the church, could a universal judgment be arrived at, as to what is to be regarded as the canon of scripture. The Bible carries its own credentials to the hearts and consciences of the saints who are willing to let its power be felt.

Apollonia

City of Macedonia, in the district of Mygdonia, some 28 miles from Amphipolis and 35 from Thessalonica, through which Paul and Silas passed (Acts 17:1).

Apollos

A convert from Alexandria, an eloquent man and mighty in the scriptures, who, when only knowing the baptism of John, taught diligently the things of Jesus. At Ephesus he was taught more perfectly by Priscilla and Aquila. He labored at Corinth, following the apostle Paul, who could hence say, “I have planted, Apollos watered,” and subsequently he greatly desired Apollos to revisit Corinth. His name is associated with that of Paul in connection with the party spirit at Corinth, which the apostle strongly rebuked; but from his saying he had “transferred these things to himself and to Apollos,” it would appear that the Corinthians had local leaders, under whom they ranged themselves, whom he does not name; and that he taught them the needed lesson, and established the general principle by the use of his own name and that of Apollos rather than the names of their leaders (Acts 18:24; Acts 19:1; 1 Cor. 1:12; 1 Cor. 3:4-22; 1 Cor. 4:6; 1 Cor. 16:12; Titus 3:13).

Apollyon

The Greek translation of the Hebrew name ABADDON, which signifies “destroyer.” He is king of the locusts of the bottomless pit, and ruler over the destroying agents that proceed from thence: it is one of the characters of Satan (Rev. 9:11).

Apostasy

Though the word “apostasy” does not occur in the AV (KJV), the Greek word occurs from which the English word is derived. In Acts 21:21, Paul was told that he was accused of teaching the Jews who were among the Gentiles to apostatize from Moses. Paul taught freedom from the law by the death of the Christ and this would appear to a strict Jew as apostasy. The same word is used in 2 Thessalonians 2:3, where it is taught that the day of the Lord could not come until there came “the apostasy,” or the falling away from Christianity in connection with the manifestation of the man of sin. See ANTICHRIST.
Though the general apostasy there spoken of cannot come till after the saints are taken to heaven, yet there may be, as there has been, individual falling away. See, for instance, Hebrews 3:12; Hebrews 10:26,28, and the epistle of Jude. There are solemn warnings also that show that such apostasy will be more and more general as the close of the present dispensation approaches (1 Timothy 4:1-3). Now a falling away necessarily implies a position which can be fallen from, a profession has been made which has been deliberately given up. This is, as scripture says, like the dog returning to his vomit, and the sow to her wallowing in the mire. It is not a Christian falling into some sin, from which grace can recover him; but a definite relinquishing of Christianity. Scripture holds out no hope in a case of deliberate apostasy, though nothing is too hard for the Lord.

Apostle

The Greek word; ἁπόστολος signifies “a messenger,” “one sent,” and is used in this sense for any messenger (2 Cor. 8:23; Phil. 2:25); and as “one sent” (John 13:16). It is also used in a much higher and more emphatic sense, implying a divine commission in the one sent, first of the Lord Himself and then of the twelve disciples whom He chose to be with Him during the time of His ministry here. The Lord in His prayer in John 17:18 said, “As thou hast sent me into the world, even so have I also sent them into the world.” He was the Sent One, and in Hebrews 3:1 it is written “Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Jesus.” They were to consider this One who had been faithful, and who was superior to Moses, to the Aaronic priests, and to angels, and was in the glory. The ordering of a dispensation depended on the apostolic office as divinely appointed.
Apostles, The Twelve. The Lord appointed these “that they should be with Him, and that He might send them forth to preach, and to have power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out demons,” and also to carry out the various commissions given by Christ on earth. It will be seen by the lists that follow that Lebbaeus, Thaddaeus and Judas are the same person; and that Simon the Canaanite (Cananæan) and Simon Zelotes are the same; Peter is also called Simon; and Matthew is called Levi.
Matthew 10:2-4. Mark 3:16-19. Luke 6:14-16. Acts 1:13.
1. Peter and 1. Peter. 1. Simon. 1. Peter
2. Andrew. 3. James. 2. Andrew. 3. James.
3. James and 4. John. 3. James. 4. John.
4. John. 2. Andrew. 4. John. 2. Andrew.
5. Philip and 5. Philip. 5. Philip. 5. Philip.
6. Bartholomew. 6. Bartholomew. 6. Bartholomew 7. Thomas.
7. Thomas and 8. Matthew. 8. Matthew. 6. Bartholomew.
8. Matthew. 7. Thomas. 7. Thomas. 8. Matthew.
9. James and 9. James. 9. James. 9. James.
10. Lebbaeus. 10. Thaddaeus. 11. Simon Zelotes. 11. Simon Zelotes.
11. Simon the Cananaean 11. Simon C. 10. Judas. 10. Judas.
12. Judas Iscariot. 12. Judas Iscariot. 12. Judas Iscariot.
Peter is always named first; he with James and John was with the Lord on the mount of transfiguration and also with the Lord at other times, though no one apostle had authority over the others: they were all brethren and the Lord was their Master. Judas Iscariot is always named last. In Matthew the word “and” divides the twelve into pairs, perhaps corresponding to their being sent out two and two to preach. Bartholomew and Simon Zelotes are not mentioned after their appointment except in Acts 1.
When the Lord sent the twelve out to preach He bade them take nothing with them, for the workman was worthy of his food: and on their return they confessed that they had lacked nothing. Their mission was with authority as the sent ones of the Lord; sicknesses were healed and demons cast out; and if any city refused to receive them it should be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgment than for that city (Matt. 10:5-15).
They received a new mission from the Lord as risen (see Luke 24; John 20). And before the ascension the apostles were bidden to tarry at Jerusalem until they were endued with power from on high. This was bestowed at the descent of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost. They are also viewed first among the gifts with which the church was endowed by the Head of the body when He ascended up on high (Eph. 4:8-11). These gifts were for “the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ.” The mystery hitherto hid in God was now revealed to His holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit, namely, that the Gentiles should be joint heirs, and a joint body, and partakers of His promise in Christ Jesus (Eph. 3). Paul was the special vessel to make known this grace. His apostleship occupies a peculiar place, he having been called by the Lord from heaven, and being charged with the gospel of the glory. See PAUL.
On the death of Judas Iscariot, Matthias, an early disciple, was chosen in his place, for there must be (irrespective of Paul, who, as we have seen, held a unique place) twelve apostles as witnesses of His resurrection (Acts 1:22; Rev. 21:14); as there must still be twelve tribes of Israel (James 1:1; Rev. 21:12). At the conference of the church in Jerusalem respecting the Gentiles “the apostles” took a prominent part, with the elders, Acts 15. How many apostles remained at Jerusalem is not recorded: we do not read of “the twelve” after Acts 6. Tradition gives the various places where they labored, which may be found under each of their names. Scripture is silent on the subject, in order that the new order of things committed to Paul might become prominent, as the older things connected with Judaism vanished away (compare 2 Peter 3:15-16).
There were no successors to the apostles; to be apostles they must have “seen the Lord” (Acts 1:21-22; 1 Cor. 9:1; Rev. 2:2). The foundation of the church was laid, and apostolic work being complete the apostles passed away, there remain however, in the goodness of God, such gifts as are needed “till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ” (Eph. 4:12-13).

Apostolic Fathers

This designation is applied to the early Christian writers, who had known the apostles, or had known those who had been acquainted with them.
1. BARNABAS;
2. CLEMENT;
3. HERMAS; are supposed to be the persons so named in the New Testament: see under their respective names.
4. POLYCARP, Bishop of Smyrna. He wrote an epistle to the Philippians about A.D. 125.
Irenaeus says Polycarp was “instructed by the apostles, and was brought into contact with many who had seen Christ.” He died a martyr’s death. An ancient letter gives a particular account of his martyrdom.
5. IGNATIUS, Bishop of Antioch. Seven epistles are supposed to have been written by him, but they have been grossly interpolated; eight or nine others are wholly spurious. He was a martyr.
6. PAPIAS, Bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia. He is said to have heard the apostle John. Various writings are attributed to him, but of which only fragments remain. He also died a martyr.
7. An unknown author of an eloquent and interesting epistle to Diognetus.
Nearly all the above writings are very different from the scripture except where that is quoted. There is a deep dark line of demarcation between them and the writings which are inspired. Some of them however are found at the end of some of the Greek Testaments and were formerly read in the churches. Happily all these are now eliminated from any association with the New Testament Besides the above there are six apocryphal “Gospels,” a dozen “Acts,” four “Revelations,” the “Passing away of Mary.”

Apothecary (Raqach)

This term is not used in scripture in the modern sense of a compounder of drugs for medicine; but in that of a compounder of ointments, such as would now be called a “perfumer,” as it is rendered in the margin of Exodus 30:25, where the holy anointing oil is an ointment compounded “after the art of the apothecary.” The same was said of the holy incense (Ex. 30:35; Ex. 37:29). Asa was buried in a tomb filled with sweet odors and spices prepared by the apothecaries’ art (2 Chron. 16:14; compare also Neh. 3:8). Spices were also carried to the tomb of the Lord to embalm His body.

Appaim

Son of Nadab, of the tribe of Judah (1 Chron. 2:30-31).

Apparel

See GARMENTS

Appeal

It would appear from the arrangements made by Moses that some of the judges were accounted as judges of appeal, but that Moses himself, as having the mind of God, was the ultimate judge (Ex. 18:13-26). It is not probable, when the kingdom was established, that all causes were tried at Jerusalem; but only cases of appeal from the tribal judges; and it was such that Absalom alludes to in 2 Samuel 15:2-3; see also Deuteronomy 16:18. It is evident from Deuteronomy 17:8-12 that the mind of God was to be sought where He put His name, if the matter was too hard for the judges. The Jewish writers say that before and after the time of Christ on earth, appeals could be carried through the various courts to the Grand Sanhedrim at Jerusalem.
In the case of Paul appealing to Caesar, it was not an appeal from a judgment already given, as is the case in what is now called an appeal; but Paul, knowing the deadly enmity of the Jews, and the corruption of the governors, elected to be judged at the court of Caesar, which, as a Roman, he had the right to do (Acts 25:11). There is One who “cometh to judge the earth: with righteousness shall he judge the world, and the people with equity” (Psa. 98:9).

Appearing of Christ

This is to be distinguished from Christ coming for His saints, though intimately connected with it, for He will bring them with Him. “When Christ, who is our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory” (Col. 3:4). Here it is the manifestation of Christ with His own, to be followed by the setting up of His kingdom and the apportionment of rewards to His saints (2 Cor. 5:10). The Lord’s servant is exhorted by His appearing and His kingdom to preach the word (2 Tim. 4:1-2). The saints will be associated with Christ in His judgments at His appearing (Jude 14-15). Christ will execute judgment on the Beast and the False Prophet and the western powers. Also on the Assyrian and the eastern powers that will oppress the Jews. The Jews and the ten tribes will be restored to their land in blessing, ushering in the Millennium. See ADVENT, SECOND.

Apphia

Probably the wife of Philemon, whom Paul addresses in that epistle (Phil. 2).

Appii Forum

Station on the Appian Way, the main road from Rome to the Bay of Naples, where brethren went to meet Paul though 43 miles from Rome (Acts 28:15). The road was 18 to 22 feet wide, and parts of the ancient paving stones may still be seen. It was constructed by Appius Claudius, hence its name.

Apple, Apple Tree

This is generally supposed to refer to the citron but apples grow in Palestine, and the Arabic name for the apple (tuffuh) differs little from the Hebrew word, tappuach. Others believe the quince is alluded to, which is fragrant and of a golden color. (Song of Sol. 2:3,5; Song of Sol. 7:8; Song of Sol. 8:5: Joel 1:12). In Prov. 25:11 “a word fitly spoken” is like some elegant device, as “apples of gold in pictures [or baskets] of silver.”

Apple of the Eye

1. ishoit. Gesenius says this word signifies “little man” and then “the little man of the eye”; that is, “the pupil of the eye in which, as in a mirror, a person sees his own image reflected in miniature.” He says “this pleasing image is found in several languages.” It is the part of the eye specially to be guarded: God preserved His own as the apple of His eye (Deut. 32:10; Psa. 17:8). His law should be kept as a precious thing (Prov. 7:2).
2. babah, the black or pupil of the eye, or, as others, “the gate of the eye.” To touch God’s people is touching the apple of His eye (Zech. 2:8).
3. bath, daughter. The sense is, Let not the apple (the daughter) of thine eye cease to shed tears (Lam. 2:18). In all places “the apple of the eye” is a beautifully figurative expression for that which must be tenderly cherished as a most choice treasure.

Apron

The word chagorah signifies “anything girded on.” When Adam and Eve had sinned they discovered that they were naked, and sewed fig-leaves together and made aprons (Gen. 3:7); but were soon conscious that this did not cover their nakedness, for when God called to them they owned that they were naked, and hid behind the trees. This teaches that nothing that man can devise can cover him from the eye of God. God clothed Adam and Eve with coats of skins; it was through death, typical of Christ Himself. In Acts 19:12 the word is σιμικἰωθιυν, and occurs but that once; it signifies a narrow apron or linen covering.

Aquila

A converted Jew of Pontus, husband of Priscilla, whom Paul first met at Corinth (Acts 18:2). He and Paul worked together as tent-makers. Aquila and Priscilla had been driven from Rome as Jews by an edict of the emperor Claudius. They traveled with Paul to Ephesus, where they were able to help Apollos spiritually (Acts 18:18-26). They were still at Ephesus when Paul wrote 1 Corinthians (16:19); and were at Rome when the epistle to the saints there was written, in which Paul said they had laid down their necks for his life, and that to them all the churches, with Paul, gave thanks (Rom. 16:3-4). In Paul’s last epistle he still sends his greeting to them (2 Tim. 4:19).

Ar

A chief city in the Moabite territory. In Jerome’s time it was called Areopolis. It is identified with Rabba, 31° 19' N, 35° 38' E, about 10 miles from the Dead Sea (Num. 21:15, 28; Isa. 15:1). In other passages the name Ar appears to include the land of the Moabites (Deut. 2:9,18,29).

Ara

Son of Jether, of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:38).

Arab

City in the hill country of Judah (Josh. 15:52). Identified with er-Rabiyeh, 31° 26' N, 35° 2' E.

Arabah

This occurs as a proper name only once in the AV (KJV) where it should read “the Arabah” (Josh. 18:18); but it occurs in many other passages where it is translated “a plain” or “the plain,” and is also translated “desert,” “wilderness.” It refers to the plain situated between two series of hills that run from the slopes of Hermon in the north to the Gulf of Akaba in the far south. It is in this plain that the Jordan runs, and in which is the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, also called “the Sea of the Plain.” About 7 miles south of the Dead Sea the plain is crossed by some hills: all north of this is now called el-Ghor, but the plain south of it retains the name of the Wady-el-Arabah. This latter part is about 100 miles in length, and the northern part about 150, so that for nearly 250 miles this wonderful plain or valley extends.
It might naturally be thought that the Jordan had at some time, after running into the Dead Sea, continued to run south until it poured itself into the Gulf of Akaba. But this is not probable, for the Dead Sea is nearly 1,300 feet below the sea, and the southern part is from end to end higher than the Ghor. The width of the Arabah is in some parts about 15 miles, but further south not more than 3 or 4. The southern end is also called the Wilderness of Zin, and it was in this part of the Arabah that a good deal of the wanderings of the people of Israel took place, before they turned to the east and left the plain on their left.
There can be no doubt that scripture uses the name “Arabah” for the whole of the plain, both north and south. The northern part is referred to in Deuteronomy 3:17; Deuteronomy 4:49; Joshua 3:16; Joshua 12:3; Joshua 18:18: and the southern part in Deuteronomy 1:1; Deuteronomy 2:8. In other passages, especially in the prophetic books, the plain in general may be alluded to. It extends nearly due north and south, but bears toward the west before it reaches the Gulf.

Arabia

A very large country is embraced by this name, lying south, south-east, and east of Palestine. It was of old, as it is now by the natives, divided into three districts.
1. Arabia Proper, being the same as the ancient Arabia Felix, embraces the peninsula which extends southward to the Arabian Sea and northward to the desert.
2. Western Arabia, the same as the ancient Arabia Petra, embraces Sinai and the desert of Petra, extending from Egypt and the Red Sea to about Petra.
3. Northern Arabia, which joins Western Arabia and extends northward to the Euphrates (1 Kings 10:15; 2 Chron. 9:14; Isa. 21:13; Jer. 25:24; Ezek. 27:21; Gal. 1:17; Gal. 4:25). See ARABIANS.

Arabians

We read that Abraham sent the sons of Keturah and of his concubines “eastward, to the east country” (Gen. 25:6). There were also the descendants of Ishmael and those of Esau. Many of these became princes, and there can be no doubt that their descendants still hold the land. There are some who call themselves Ishmaelite Arabs, and in the south there are still Joktanite Arabs. We read of Solomon receiving gifts or tribute from the kings of Arabia, 1 Kings 10:15. So did Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 17:11); but in the days of Jehoram they attacked him, plundered his house, and carried away his wives and some of his sons (2 Chron. 21:17; 2 Chron. 22:1). They were defeated by Uzziah (2 Chron. 26:7).
During the captivity some Arabians became settlers in Palestine and were enemies to Nehemiah (compare Neh. 2:19; Neh. 4:7; Neh. 6:1). Among the nations that had relations with Israel, and against whom judgment is pronounced are the Arabians (Isa. 21:13-17; Jer. 25:24). And doubtless they will be included in the confederacies that will be raised against God’s ancient people when Israel is again restored to their land (Psa. 83).
In the New Testament “Arabians” were present on the day of Pentecost, but whether they were Jews or proselytes is not stated (Acts 2:11).

Arad

1. A royal city of the Canaanites, in the south, near Mount Hor, whose king fought against Israel, but who was by the help of God destroyed, both he and his people (Num. 21:1-3; Num. 33:40; Josh. 12:14; Judg. 1:16). (In the two passages in Numbers read “the Canaanite king of Arad.”) It is identified with Tell Arad, 31° 17' N, 35° 7' E.
2. Son of Beriah, a descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:15).

Arah

1. Son of Ulla, a descendant of Asher (1 Chron. 7:39).
2. Father of a family who returned from exile (Ezra 2:5; Neh. 7:10).
3. A Jew whose grand-daughter married Tobiah the Ammonite, who greatly hindered the building of the city (Neh. 6:18).

Aram

1. Son of Shem (Gen. 10:22-23; 1 Chron. 1:17).
2. Son of Kemuel, Abraham’s nephew (Gen. 22:21).
3. Son of Shamer, of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:34).
4. Son of Esrom, and father of Aminadab (Matt. 1:3-4; Luke 3:33); called RAM (Ruth 4:19; Chron. 2:9-10).
5. Place in the land of Gilead, east of the Jordan, which Jair captured (1 Chron. 2:23).

Aram

This is the name of a large district lying north of Arabia, north-east of Palestine, east of Phenicia, south of the Taurus range, and west of the Tigris. It is generally supposed that the name points to the district as the “Highlands,” though it may be from Aram the son of Shem, as above. The word occurs once untranslated in Numbers 23:7, as “Aram” simply, from whence Balaam was brought, “out of the mountains of the east”; but it is mostly translated Syria or Syrian. Thus we have —
1. ARAM-DAMMESEK (2 Sam. 8:5), translated “Syrians of Damascus,” embracing the highlands of Damascus including the city.
2. ARAM-MAACHAH (1 Chron. 19:6), translated “Syria-maachah,” a district on the east of Argob and Bashan.
3. ARAM-BETH-REHOB (2 Sam. 10:6), translated “Syrians of Beth-rehob” (compare Judg. 18:28), a district in the north, near Dan.
4. ARAM-ZOBAH (2 Sam. 10:6,8), translated “Syrians of Zoba,” a district between Hamath and Damascus, but not definitely recognized.
5. ARAM-NAHARAIM signifying “Aram of two rivers” (Gen. 24:10; Deut. 23:4; Judg. 3:8; 1 Chron. 19:6), translated “Mesopotamia.” The two rivers are the Euphrates and the Tigris. The district would be the highlands from whence the rivers issue to the plain, and the district between the two rivers without extending to the far south.

Aramaic

This word occurs 2 Kings 18:26; Ezra 4:7; and Isaiah 36:11, where it is translated “the Syrian language” or “tongue”; also in Daniel 2:4, where it is “Syriack.” Aramaic is the language of Aram, and embraces the language of Chaldee and that of Syria. Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Syria were its proper home. The first time we meet with it in scripture is in Genesis 31:47, where Laban called the heap of witness “Jegar-sahadutha,” which is Chaldee; whereas Jacob gave it a Hebrew name, “Galeed.” In 2 Kings 18:26 and Isaiah 36:11 the heads of the people asked Rab-shakeh to speak to them in Aramaic that the uneducated might not understand what was said. In Ezra 4:7 the letter sent to Artaxerxes was written in Aramaic, and interpreted in Aramaic, that is, the copy of the letter and what follows as far as Ezra 6:18 is in that language and not in Hebrew. So also is Ezra 7:12-26.
In Daniel 2:4 the Chaldeans spoke to the king in Aramaic, the popular language of Babylon, and what follows to the end of Daniel 7 is in that language, though commonly called Chaldee. This must not be confounded with the “learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans” in Daniel 1:4, which is the Aryan dialect and literature of the Chaldeans, and probably the ordinary language which Daniel spoke in the court of Babylon. Jeremiah 10:11 is a verse in Aramaic.
This language differs from the Hebrew in that it avoids the sibilants. Where the Hebrew has ז z, ש sh, צ tz, the Aramaic has ? d, ? n, ? th, and ? t. Letters of the same organ are also interchanged, the Aramaic choosing the rough harder sounds. The latter has fewer vowels, with many variations in the conjugation of verbs, etc.
When the ten tribes were carried away, the colonists, who took their place, brought the Aramaic language with them. The Jews also who returned from Babylon brought many words of the same language. And, though it doubtless underwent various changes, this was the language commonly spoken in Palestine when our Lord was on earth, and is the language called HEBREW in the New Testament, and is the same as the Chaldee of the Targums. In the ninth century the language in Palestine gave way to the Arabic, and now Aramaic is a living tongue only among the Syrian Christians in the district around Mosul.

Aramitess

A female belonging to Aram (1 Chron. 7:14).

Aran

Descendant of Seir the Horite (Gen. 36:28; 1 Chron. 1:42).

Ararat

A kingdom which was called upon by God, in conjunction with Medes, Persians, and others, under one captain, Cyrus, to punish Babylon in revenge of Israel (Jer. 51:27). It is identified with Urartu or Urardhu of the Assyrian inscriptions, a district in Armenia, in which is Mount Ararat, on some part of which the ark of Noah rested (Gen.s 8:4). The mount is situate 39° 45' N, 44° 28' E, and its extreme height is about 17,000 feet above the sea, covered with perpetual snow. Objection has been taken to its great height, but it may not have been on its highest part that the ark rested.

Araunah

The Jebusite from whom David purchased the place on which to build the altar of the Lord (2 Sam. 24:16-24). Called ORNAN in 1 Chronicles 21:15-28. In Samuel it is stated that David bought the threshing floor and the oxen for fifty shekels of silver. He there built an altar, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings, without anything being said of his building a house for the Lord on the spot: whereas in Chronicles David gave to Ornan 600 shekels of gold by weight for the place. In 2 Chronicles 3:1-2 we learn that the threshing floor was on Mount Moriah, and that the site was prepared by David for the temple, which was built by Solomon. Doubtless therefore “the place” included a much larger area than was needed for David’s altar, and perhaps included the homestead of Araunah. This no doubt formed a part of what is now called the Temple area, or Mosque enclosure, in the S. E of Jerusalem, but on what part of that area the temple was built is not known.

Arba, Arbah

Father of Anak, head of the Anakim, who were also giants (Numb. 13:33). Their city was Hebron (Gen. 35:27; Josh. 14:15; Josh. 15:13; Josh. 21:11). The “city of Arba” is elsewhere called KIRJATH-ARBA, which was afterward called HEBRON.

Arbathite

Native of the northern Arabah, or el-Ghor (2 Sam. 23:31; 1 Chron. 11:32).

Arbite

Designation of Paarai, one of David’s mighty men (2 Sam. 23:35).

Arch

The word elam occurs only in Ezekiel 40:21-36, and in the AV (KJV) is translated “arch”; but this is judged not to be its meaning, though it is not at all certain as to what it really refers. In the margin it reads, “galleries” or “porches,” elsewhere “vestibule,” and again “projection.”

Archangel

See ANGEL.

Archelaus

Son of Herod the Great by Malthace, a Samaritan. He succeeded his father as Ethnarch of Idumea, Judaea, Samaria, and the maritime cities of Palestine. From his known oppressive character Joseph feared to bring back the infant Jesus into his territory, and turned aside to Galilee, which was under the jurisdiction of his brother Antipas (Matt. 2:22). He reigned 10 years. Josephus relates that soon after his accession he put to death 3,000 Jews; eventually for his tyranny to the Jews and the Samaritans he was deposed and banished to Vienne in Gaul.

Archery

See ARMS.

Archevites

People removed from Assyria to Samaria. They joined in the petition to Artaxerxes against the Jews (Ezra 4:9). The origin of the name is unknown.

Archi

City on the border of Ephraim (Josh. 16:2). Identified with Ain Arik, 31° 54' N, 35° 8' E.

Archippus

A Christian teacher at Colosse, whom Paul calls his fellow soldier, and exhorts to fulfill his ministry (Col. 4:17; Philem. 1:2).

Archite

The designation of Hushai, David’s friend. (2 Sam. 15:32; 2 Sam. 16:16; 2 Sam. 17:5, 14; 1 Chron. 27:33).

Arcturus

The word ash or aish has always been a difficult one to translate, the versions differing much; but it is now pretty well agreed that the allusion is not to the star known as Arcturus, but to the constellation known as the Great Bear; his “sons” are supposed to be the stars in the tail of the bear. In the northern hemisphere this constellation is seen all the year round, with its apparent ceaseless motion around the north star, which none but the mighty God can guide (Job 9:9; Job 38:32). It is translated “the Bear” in the RV.

Ard

1. Son of Benjamin (Gen. 46:21).
2. Son of Bela, son of Benjamin (called ADDAR in 1 Chron. 8:3), whose descendants are ARDITES (Num. 26:40).

Ardon

Son of Caleb, son of Hezron (1 Chron. 2:18).

Areli, Arelites

Son of Gad, and his descendants (Gen. 46:16; Num. 26:17).

Areopagite

One connected with the court of Areopagus at Athens, where Dionysius heard Paul and “clave to him and believed” (Acts 17:34).

Areopagus, or Mars Hill

The hill of Ares, or Mars. Here was held the highest and most ancient and venerable court of justice in Athens for moral and political matters. It was composed of those who had held the office of Archon unless expelled for misconduct. Paul, who had been disputing daily in the market place, was conducted by some of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers to Mars’ Hill, not for any judicial purpose, but doubtless that they might hear him more quietly. Here he delivered his address respecting God, so suited to the heathen philosophers who heard him, and which was not without its fruit (Acts 17:19). The Greek words are Areios-pagos, but are translated Mars’ Hill in Acts 17:22. The court was situated on a rocky hill opposite the west end of the Acropolis. Sixteen stone steps still lead up to the spot.

Aretas

The common appellation (like Pharaoh for Egyptian kings) of the Arabian kings of the northern part of Arabia. The deputy of Aretas in Damascus sought to arrest Paul (2 Cor. 11:32). This king, who was father-in-law to Herod Antipas, made war against him for divorcing his daughter, and defeated him. Vitellius, governor of Syria, was ordered to take Aretas dead or alive; but Tiberius died before this was accomplished. Caligula, who succeeded to the empire, banished Antipas. He made certain changes in the East, and it is supposed that Damascus was detached from the province of Syria and given to Aretas.

Argob

1. A district lying to the south of Damascus and which formed a part of Bashan, where the giants resided. It had at one time 60 cities, which were ruled over by Og. Its name signifies “stony,” and it forms a remarkable plateau of basalt, which rises some 30 feet above the surrounding fertile plain, and extends 22 miles N. and S. and 14 miles E. and W., the boundary line being marked by the Bible word chebel, which signifies “as by a rope.” Og was conquered by Moses, and Jair of Manasseh took the fortified cities, and it became a part of Manasseh’s lot. Later it was called Trachonitis, and is now known as el-Lejah. There are many houses still in the district which, because of their massive proportions, are supposed to have been built by the giants (Deut. 3:3-4, 13-14; 1 Kings 4:13).
2. One, apparently in the service of Pekahiah, killed by Pekah (2 Kings 15:25).

Aridai

Son of Haman, slain and hanged (Esther 9:9).

Aridatha

Son of Haman, slain and hanged (Esther 9:8).

Arieh

One, apparently in the service of Pekahiah, killed by Pekah (2 Kings 15:25).

Ariel

1. Symbolical name of Jerusalem, signifying “Lion of God,” probably in reference to the lion being the emblem of Judah (Isa. 29:1-2, 7). In the margin of Ezekiel 43:15, the altar is called the “lion of God”; but the word is slightly different and is translated by some the “hearth of God,” the place for offering all sacrifices to God.
2. One whom Ezra sent to Iddo at Casiphia (Ezra 8:16).
3. In 2 Samuel 23:20 and 1 Chronicles 11:22, we read that Benaiah slew two “lion-like men,” which some prefer to translate “two [sons] of Ariel.” The Hebrew is literally “two lions of God.”

Arimathaea

The city of Joseph, the “honorable counselor,” who was permitted by Pilate to take down the body of the Lord and bury it in his own new tomb (Matt. 27:57; Mark 15:43; Luke 23:51; John 19:38). It has not been identified, but has been supposed to be the same as Ramah, the birth-place of Samuel.

Arioch

1. King of Ellasar in the East (Gen. 14:1,9).
2. Captain of Nebuchadnezzar’s guard (Dan. 2:14-15,24-25).

Arisai

Son of Haman the Agagite, slain and hanged (Esther 9:9).

Aristarchus

A Macedonian of Thessalonica, companion of Paul on several journeys and on his way to Rome. Paul once calls him “my fellowprisoner” (Acts 19:29; Acts 20:4; Acts 27:2; Col. 4:10; Philem. 1:24).

Aristobulus

A resident at Rome whose household Paul saluted (Rom. 16:10).

Ark of Bulrushes

The little boat or cradle in which Moses was placed by his mother. It was made of bulrushes, or rather paper-reeds or papyrus which grew in the river Nile. It was daubed with slime and with pitch, that is, most probably first covered with wet earth or clay, and then with bitumen (Ex. 2:3,5). Some of the heathen writers speak of the papyrus-woven craft of the Nile. God answered the faith of the parents, and Moses was drawn out of the water to be the savior of His people.

Ark of God

This is also called “ARK OF THE COVENANT,” “ARK OF THE TESTIMONY,” and “ARK OF JEHOVAH.” The sacred chest belonging to the Tabernacle and the Temple. It was made of shittim wood, overlaid within and without with pure gold. It was 2.5 cubits long, 1.5 cubits in breadth, and the same in height, with a crown or cornice of gold. On each side were rings of gold in which were inserted the staves by which it was carried. Its lid, on which were the two cherubim made wholly of gold, was called the MERCY-SEAT. The ark was typical of Christ, in that it figured the manifestation of divine righteousness (gold) in man; the mercy-seat was Jehovah’s throne, the place of His dwelling on earth. In the ark were placed the two tables of stone (the righteousness demanded by God from man), and afterward the golden pot that had manna, and Aaron’s rod that budded. For the place of the ark and the manner of its being moved see the TABERNACLE.
In the first journey of the children of Israel from Mount Sinai the ark of the covenant went before them to “search out a resting place for them,” type of God’s tender care for them. When the ark set forward Moses said, “Rise up, Lord, and let thine enemies be scattered”; and when it rested he said, “Return, O Lord, unto the many thousands of Israel” (Num. 10:33-36). When they arrived at Jordan, the ark was carried by the priests 2000 cubits in front of the host that they might know the way they must go (Josh. 3:3-4), and the ark remained on the shoulders of the priests in the bed of the river, until all had passed over (Josh. 3:17). This typifies association with Christ’s death and resurrection.
The ark accompanied them in their first victory: it was carried by the priests around Jericho. It is only in the power of Christ in resurrection that the saint can be victorious. The tabernacle was set up at Shiloh, and doubtless the ark was placed therein (Josh. 18:1), though it may have been carried elsewhere. In Eli’s days when Israel was defeated they fetched the ark from Shiloh that it might save them, but they were again defeated, and the ark, in which they had placed their confidence instead of in Jehovah, was seized by the Philistines (1 Sam. 5:1). When put into the house of their god Dagon the idol fell down before it on two occasions, and on the second was broken to pieces. Subsequently it was taken from Ashdod to Gath, and from Gath to Ekron, and the people were smitten by the hand of God in each city.
After seven months a new cart was made, to which two milch kine were yoked, and the ark sent back to the Israelites with a trespass offering to the God of Israel. The kine, contrary to nature, went away from their calves, and went direct to Beth-shemesh, for it was God who restored the ark. There God smote the men of the place for looking into the ark. It was then taken to Kirjath-jearim and placed in the house of Abinadab (1 Sam. 6; 1 Sam. 7:1-2). See ABINADAB.
In after years David fetched the ark from thence on a new cart, but the ark being shaken, Uzzah put forth his hand to steady it, and was smitten of God. This frightened David and the ark was carried aside to the house of Obed-edom. The law had directed how the ark was to be carried, and the new cart was following the example of the Philistines; Uzzah disregarded God’s plain direction and heeded not the sacredness of that which represented the presence of God. David however, hearing that God had blessed the house of Obed-edom, again went for the ark, and now it was carried by the Levites according to divine order, and with sacrifices and rejoicing it was placed in the tabernacle or tent that David had pitched for it (2 Sam. 6).
When Solomon had built the temple, the ark was removed thither, and the staves by which it had been carried were taken out: the ark had now found its resting place in the kingdom of Solomon, whose reign is typical of the millennium. It is significant too that now there were only the two tables of stone in the ark (1 Kings 8:1-11); the manna had ceased when they ate of the old corn of the land, which is typical of a heavenly Christ; and the witness of Aaron’s rod was no longer needed now they were in the kingdom. The wilderness circumstances, in which the manna and the priesthood of Christ were so necessary, were now passed. These are both mentioned in Hebrews 9:4, for there the tabernacle, and not the temple is in contemplation.
No further mention is made of the ark: it is supposed to have been carried away with the sacred vessels to Babylon, and to have never been returned: if so there was no ark in the second temple nor in the temple built by Herod, nor do we read of the ark in connection with the temple described by Ezekiel. In Revelation 11:19 the ark of God’s covenant is seen in the temple of God in heaven: symbol here of the resumption of God’s dealings with His earthly people Israel.

Ark of Noah

The vessel constructed by the command of God, by which Noah and his household and some of every living creature of the earth were saved when the world was destroyed by the flood. Precise instructions were given by God as to the construction of the ark. It was to be made of gopher wood, a kind known at the time, but which cannot now be identified with certainty; and it was to be pitched within and without with pitch, or bitumen, to make it water-tight.
Its proportions were to be 300 cubits long, 50 cubits broad, and 30 cubits high. If the cubit be taken at 18 inches, its length would have been 450 feet, its breadth 75 feet and its height 45 feet. If the cubit used had been 21 inches, the dimensions would be one-sixth larger.
A window was to be made to the ark (Gen. 6:16). The word tsohar signifies “a place of light” and was probably placed in the roof, and may have served in some way for ventilation as well as for giving light. Another word for window is used in Genesis 8:6 (challon) which could be opened from the inside. This word is used for the windows or casements of houses, and would give ventilation. In Genesis 6:16, after speaking of the window, it says, “and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above”; it is a question whether this refers to the size of the window or whether the word “it” refers to the ark. It has been said that the feminine suffix, which is rendered “it” cannot refer to the word window, which is masculine: so that it is possible the cubit refers to the roof; that the middle of the roof should be raised, giving a cubit for the pitch of the roof. A door was to be made in the side of the ark; and the ark was to be divided into three stories. “Rooms,” or “nests” (margin) are also mentioned (Gen. 6:14).
Such is the description given us of the form of the ark. It was by faith Noah prepared the ark, by which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is by faith (Heb. 11:7). It is thus referred to in 1 Peter 3:20-21, “into which few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water: which figure also now saves you, [even] baptism, not a putting away of [the] filth of flesh, but [the] demand as before God of a good conscience, by [the] resurrection of Jesus Christ.”
It may just be added that the form of the ark was not intended for navigation amid storms and billows, but it was exactly suited for the purpose for which it was constructed. A ship for freight was once made in like proportions, to be used in quiet waters, and was declared to be a great success.
Various questions have been raised as to the veracity of the Bible account of the Deluge, for which see FLOOD.

Arkite

Tribe descended from Canaan, son of Ham; it probably resided in Arca, in the north of Phoenicia, about 15 miles north of Tripoli, now called Tell Arka (Gen. 10:17; 1 Chron. 1:15).

Arm

The member of the body which is capable of lifting burdens and defending the person: it is used symbolically for the power and strength of God on behalf of His saints (Ex. 15:16; Psa. 77:15; Isa. 51:9; Isa. 53:1). The arm of Jehovah is often spoken of in the Old Testament It redeemed (Ex. 6:6); gathers His own (Isa. 40:11); and rules for Him (Isa. 40:10), as in the kingdom. It is a holy arm (Isa. 52:10; Psa. 98:1); and it is a glorious arm (Isa. 63:12). The arm of the Lord is revealed to souls where there is repentance and faith in the report which God sends (Isa. 53:1; Rom. 10:16). It is to be trusted in even by the isles of the Gentiles, that is, by sinners everywhere in creation (Isa. 51:5).

Armageddon

The Hebrew name of the place where the kings of the earth and of the whole world will be gathered together to make war against the Lord Jesus in the great day of Almighty God (Rev. 16:16). There seems to be an allusion to the great battle field of Palestine in the Esdraelon, and to the Megiddo mentioned in Judges 5:19, 1 Kings 4:12 and 2 Kings 23:29-30. The word itself is translated “the mountain of slaughter,” and may be used symbolically for the destruction that will surely fall upon the enemies of the Lord Jesus.

Armenia

This name occurs in the AV (KJV) in 2 Kings 19:37 and Isaiah 37:38, as the place to which two sons of Sennacherib fled after killing their father; but in both these passages the Hebrew word is Ararat. Armenia occurs in the LXX in the passage in Isaiah. Armenia lies west of the Caspian Sea, and extends northward of 38° N. lat. It is now partly in the Russian and partly in the Turkish empires.

Armoni

Son of Saul and Rizpah, hanged by the Gibeonites (2 Sam. 21:8).

Armor

None of the Hebrew words translated “armor” refer definitely to what is understood now by armor worn on the person. Saul armed David with his “armor” (1 Sam. 17:38), but the word used is also translated “clothes,” and it may refer to Saul’s warrior-dress. The articles named are somewhat more definite.
1. Saul put on David a HELMET of “brass.” These were raised a little above the head, as may be seen by some of the sculptures from Nineveh (1 Sam. 17:38; Ezek. 23:24); the word is goba. Another word, koba, meaning the same, is found in 1 Samuel 17:5; 2 Chronicles 26:14; Isaiah 59:17; Jeremiah 46:4; Ezek. 27:10; and Ezekiel 38:5.
2. COAT OF MAIL. Saul put on David a “Coat of Mail,” shiryon (1 Sam. 17:5, 38). This word is translated HABERGEON in 2 Chronicles 26:14 and Nehemiah 4:16, which also signifies “coat of mail,” and there is a similar word in Job 41:26. It was made of brass scales fastened together. The weight of Goliath’s coat of mail was 5,000 shekels.
3. GREAVES. The giant wore Greaves of brass upon his legs (1 Sam. 17:6). The word is mitschah, and occurs nowhere else.
4. TARGET. He had a target of brass between his shoulders (1 Sam. 17:6): the word is kidon, and is elsewhere translated both “shield” and “spear.” In this case it was probably a small spear carried between the shoulders.
5. SHIELD. A shield was carried before him. This was a tsinnah, a shield of large size to protect the whole body, with a large boss in the center rising to a point which could be used as a weapon. It is employed figuratively for God’s protecting care of His people (Psa. 5:12; Psa. 91:4). The same word is translated BUCKLER (Psa. 35:2; Ezek. 23:24; Ezek. 26:8).
Another word is used for a smaller shield, magen, and this is the word which occurs most commonly in the Old Testament, especially in the Psalms, referring to God’s protection (Psa. 28:7; Psa. 33:20; Psa. 84:11; Psa. 119:114). The same word is translated BUCKLER (2 Sam. 22:31; 1 Chron. 5:18; Song of Sol. 4:4; Jer. 46:3).
The word shelet is translated “shield,” but is also applied to shields of gold (2 Sam. 8:7), and those suspended for ornament (Ezek. 27:11). It occurs also in 2 Kings 11:10; 1 Chronicles 18:7; 2 Chronicles 23:9; Song of Solomon 4:4 and Jeremiah 51:11.
In the New Testament “armor” is used symbolically.
1. ὅπλα, in contrast to “the works of darkness” we are exhorted to put on “the armor of light” (Rom. 13:12). Paul and his fellow-laborers commended themselves as God’s ministers by the “armor, or arms, of righteousness on the right hand and on the left” (2 Cor. 6:7).
2. παναπλἰα, “whole armor.” One stronger than Satan takes away all his “armor” (Luke 11:22). The Christian is exhorted to put on the “whole armor of God,” the panoply, that he may stand in the evil day in his conflict with the spiritual powers of wickedness in the heavenlies (Eph. 6:11, 13). See BREASTPLATE, HELMET, etc.

Armorbearer

An attendant on a warrior, filling a place of trust and honor. When Saul loved David he made him his armorbearer (1 Sam. 16:21). On Saul being wounded, his armorbearer refused to kill him; but when Saul was dead the armorbearer fell upon his sword and died also (1 Sam. 31:5).

Armory

In Nehemiah 3:19 the word is nesheq, also translated “armor.” In Song of Solomon 4:4 it is talpiyyoth, “armory” or heap of swords. In Jeremiah 50:25 it is otsar, signifying “treasury.”

Arms

The offensive arms found in the Old Testament are
1. The SWORD, for which several Hebrew words are used:
1. barag, often translated “lightning”; it is “glittering sword” in Job 20:25.
2. chereb, a sword, as laying waste. It is the word commonly used in the Old Testament for sword (everywhere indeed except in the references given here under the other words): it was a straight tapering weapon, with two edges and a sharp point (Psalm 149:6; Isa. 14:19). It is used metaphorically for keen and piercing words, as in Psalm 57:4 and Psalm 64:3.
3. retsach, an undefined slaying weapon, translated “sword” only in Psalm 42:10.
4. shelach, a missile of death, as a dart (Job 33:18; Job 36:12; Joel 2:8).
5. pethichoth, from “to open,” is translated “drawn sword” in Psalm 55:21.
2. SPEARS.
1. chanith, thus named as being flexible: it is the word mostly used for the spear (1 Sam. 13:19; Psalm 57:4). It is this weapon that will be beaten into pruning hooks (Isa. 2:4; Mic. 4:3).
2. kidon, a smaller kind of lance, or javelin (Josh. 8:18, 26; Job 41:29; Jer. 6:23).
3. tselatsal, harpoon (Job 41:7).
4. qayin, lance (2 Sam. 21:16).
5. romach, spear used by heavy-armed troops, the iron head of a spear (Judg. 5:8). The pruning hooks are to be beaten into spears in the time of God’s judgments (Joel 3:10).
3. BOW, from which arrows are discharged, gesheth, generally made of wood, but sometimes of steel or brass (Job 20:24). It is constantly found in the Old Testament from Genesis to Zechariah. It is used to express punishment from God (Lam. 2:4; Lam. 3:12); and of men to show their power to injure (Psalm 37:14- 15). “A deceitful bow” expresses a man who fails just when his aid is most needed, as when a bow breaks suddenly (Psa. 78:57; Hos. 7:16).
4. The SLING, by which stones are discharged, Bela. It was by means of this that David smote Goliath (1 Sam. 17:40, 49-50). Of the Benjamites there were 700 men lefthanded; “every one could sling stones at an hair breadth, and not miss” (Judg. 20:16). (In Proverbs 26:8 occurs another word for sling, margemah, but the passage is considered better translated “as he that putteth a precious stone in a heap of stones,” as in the margin.)
5.ENGINES,” with which Uzziah shot arrows and great stones (2 Chron. 26:15).

Army

It must be remembered that Israel were the hosts of Jehovah, keeping His charge and fighting His battles (Ex. 12:41; Josh. 5:14). It appears that all who reached the age of twenty years were contemplated as able to bear arms (Num. 1:3); and they marched and encamped in 4 divisions of 3 tribes each, with a captain over every tribe. The subdivisions were into thousands and hundreds (Num. 31:14), and into families (Josh. 7:17). There were also trumpet calls (Num. 10:9, compare 1 Cor. 14:8), and all the appearance of careful organization. Until the time of the kings this natural or tribal organization seems to have been usual, but in the time of Saul there was a body guard (1 Sam. 13:2), and a captain of the host (1 Sam. 17:55). In David’s days those heroes who were with him in the cave of Adullam formed the nucleus of his “mighty men” (2 Sam. 23:8-39). They were devoted to the service of God’s king. David afterward organized a monthly militia of 24,000 men under 12 captains (1 Chron. 27:1-15).
The general gradation of ranks was into privates; “men of war”; officers; Solomon’s “servants”; captains or “princes”; and others variously described as head captains, or knights or staff officers; with rulers of his chariots and his horsemen (1 Kings 9:22). It may be noticed that horses having been forbidden (Deut. 17:16), it was not until Solomon’s time that this was organized, though David had reserved horses for a hundred chariots from the spoil of the Syrians (2 Sam. 8:4). Solomon, trading with Egypt (1 Kings 10:28-29), enlarged their number until the force amounted to 1,400 chariots, and 12,000 horsemen (1 Kings 10:26; 2 Chron. 1:14). Every able man being a soldier gave David the immense army of 1,570,000 men that “drew sword” (1 Chron. 21:5). After the division, Judah under Abijah had an army of 400,000 “valiant men,” and Israel at the same time of 800,000 “chosen men.” Afterward Asa had 580,000 “mighty men of valor”; and Jehoshaphat, who had waxed great exceedingly, had as many as 1,160,000 men, besides those left in the fenced cities (2 Chron. 17:14-19).
In the New Testament a few references are made to the Roman army. A “Legion” was a body that contained within itself all the gradations of the army. It might be called under the empire, in round numbers, a force of not more than 6,000 men. Every legion at times contained 10 cohorts of 600 each; every cohort 3 maniples of 200; and every maniple 2 centuries of 100: hence the name of centurion or commander of 100 men, as found in Acts 10:1,22. Each legion was presided over by 6 chiefs, χιλίαρχος, each commanding 1,000 men, mostly translated “chief captain,” as in Acts 21:31-37; it is “high captain” in Mark 6:21; and “captain” in John 18:12 and Revelation 19:18. A cohort, σπεῖρα, is translated “band” in Acts 10:1; 21:31. A “quaternion” embraced 4 soldiers (Acts 12:4).
The head quarters of the Roman troops was at Cæsarea, with a cohort at Jerusalem; but at the time of the feast, when, alas, the mutinous disposition of the Jews was sure to appear, additional troops were present in the city but without their standards of the eagle, which were especially obnoxious to the Jews. Though the Romans were God’s rod to punish them, their stiff necks could not bow, nor receive the punishment as from Jehovah.

Arnan

Descendant of David (1 Chron. 3:21).

Arnon

Ravine or wady with its mountain torrent, which formed the border between Moab and Ammon, now known as Wady Mojib. It has sources both north and south which unite, and its stream running nearly east and west, rushes through a deep ravine and falls into the Dead Sea at about its center north and south (Num. 21:13-28; Num. 22:36; Deut. 2:24, 36; Judg. 11:13-26; Isa. 16:2: Jer. 48:20).

Arod, Arodi, Arodites

Son of Gad, and his descendants (Gen. 46:16; Num. 26:17).

Aroer

1. City “before Rabbah,” that is, near Rabbath Ammon; in the valley of the Jabbok, built or rebuilt by the tribe of Gad (Num. 32:34; Josh. 13:25; 2 Sam. 24:5).
2. Moabite city on the north bank of the Arnon (Deut. 2:36; Josh. 13:9, 16; Judg. 11:26; 2 Kings 10:33). Identified with Arair, 31° 27' N, 35° 43' E.
3. District near Damascus (Isa. 17:2).
4. City in Judah, S.E. of Beersheba (1 Sam. 30:28). Identified with Ararah, 31° 11' N, 34° 56' E.

Aroerite

Designation of Hethan, father of two of David’s captains (1 Chron. 11:44).

Arpad, Arphad

Fortified city near Hamath (2 Kings 18:34; 2 Kings 19:13; Isa. 10:9; Isa. 36:19; Isa. 37:13; Jer. 49:22).

Arphaxad

Son of Shem, born two years after the flood, from whom Abraham descended (Gen. 10:22,24; Gen. 11:10-13; 1 Chron. 1:17-18,24). Stated as the father of Cainan in Luke 3:36. See CAINAN.

Arrows

With the bow, a common weapon of the ancients. We know not of what wood the arrows of the Israelites were made. Apparently the arrows were sometimes poisoned (Job 6:4; Psa. 120:4; Num. 24:8; Deut. 32:23). Arrows are used metaphorically for the judgments of God (Psa. 38:2; Psa. 45:5); also for anything sharp and painful, as smiting by the tongue (Jer. 9:8).

Artaxerxes

1. Persian king, identified as the magian impostor who pretended to be Smerdis the brother of Cambyses. When appealed to by the adversaries of the Jews, he stopped the building of the temple. He was slain after a reign of eight months (Ezra 4:7-8,11,23).
2. Another Persian king, identified as Artaxerxes Longimanus (B.C. 474-434), son of Xerxes, the Ahasuerus of Esther. He greatly favored both Ezra and Nehemiah; he beautified the temple or bore the expense of its being done (Ezra 7:27), and under his protection the wall of the city was finished (Ezra 6:14; Ezra 7:1-21; Ezra 8:1; Neh. 2:1; Neh. 5:14; Neh. 13:6). It was in the 20th year of this king that the command to build the city was given, from which began the dates of the prophecy of the Seventy weeks of Daniel, which is fixed by Usher and Hengstenburg at B.C. 454-5. For the succession of the Persian kings see PERSIA.

Artemas

Companion of Paul at Nicopolis (Titus 3:12).

Artemis

Name of the heathen goddess Diana, as given in the Greek of Acts 19:24-35: she was regarded as presiding over the productive and nutritive powers of nature.

Artificer

A general name for skilled artizans, whether in metal, stone, or wood. Tubal-cain was the first named as an artificer in brass and iron. Jubal was the father of all such as handled, or invented and made, the harp and the organ. Cain also built a city (Gen. 4:17, 21-22). In the above we see the application of the arts by man at a distance from God to promote their own welfare in independence of God. In after times the spirit of wisdom was given to Bezaleel for the work of the tabernacle in “all manner of workmanship” (Ex. 35:31: Compare also 1 Chron. 29:5; 2 Chron. 34:11). It would seem that the Jews never afterward lost this skill, as the remains of the walls of Jerusalem indicate. Nebuchadnezzar carried off all the craftsmen (same word as artificers) and smiths from Jerusalem (2 Kings 24:14), and he may have made use of their skill to adorn Babylon.

Artillery

A general term for tools, armor, etc. In 1 Samuel 20:40 it refers to the bow and arrows Jonathan had used.

Aruboth

The third commissariat district of Solomon, probably the rich corn-growing country in the Shephelah or low hills of Judah (1 Kings 4:10).

Arumah

City or district apparently near Shechem, the abode of Abimelech (Judg. 9:41). Identified with el-Ormeh, 32° 9' N, 35° 19' E.

Arvad

Island on the Phoenician coast: now called Ruad, about 34° 50' N. (Eze. 27:8,11).

Arvadite

Family name of one of the sons of Canaan (Gen. 10:18; 1 Chron. 1:16): doubtless connected with the island of Arvad.

Arza

Steward of Elah, king of Israel (1 Kings 16:9).

Asa

1. Great grandson of Solomon and king of Judah (B.C. 955-914). “Asa did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, as did David his father.” He removed the idols his fathers had made (1 Kings 15:11), and he deposed Maachah, his mother, or perhaps grandmother, from being queen because she favored idolatry. On the country being invaded by the Ethiopians with a million troops and 300 chariots, he cried to the Lord, who fought for him, and the enemy was smitten. He was counseled by Azariah not to forsake the Lord, which led to the spoil being offered to God, and to the king and his people entering into a covenant to seek the Lord.
Subsequently Asa was threatened by Baasha king of Israel who began to build Ramah, a fortified city only a few miles from Jerusalem. To stop this Asa paid a large sum of money to Benhadad king of Syria to invade Israel. This was for the time successful: the building of Ramah was stopped, and Asa carried away the stones thereof and built Geba and Mizpah.
This recourse for aid to the king of Syria, who was an idolater, was very displeasing to God, and the king was rebuked by Hanani the seer. While Asa trusted in the Lord he had deliverance, but having relied on the king of Syria, he should have war all his days. Asa, alas, did not humble himself, but put Hanani in prison, and oppressed some of the people. He was disciplined in his person, for he was diseased in his feet, and the disease increased exceedingly; yet he sought not the Lord, but to the physicians (perhaps these were healers by magic arts in connection with idolatry, on which God’s blessing could not be asked) and he died after a reign of 41 years (1 Kings 15; 2 Chron. 14-16; Matt. 1:7-8).
2. A Levite, the father of Berechiah (1 Chron. 9:16).

Asahel

1. Nephew of David, being son of his sister Zeruiah; he was a valiant man and one of David’s captains; was slain by Abner while pursuing him (2 Sam. 2:18-32; 2 Sam. 3:27, 30; 1 Chron. 11:26; 1 Chron. 27:7).
2. Levite sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the law in the cities of Judah (2 Chron. 17:8).
3. Levite in Hezekiah’s time, an overseer of tithes, etc. (2 Chron. 31:13).
4. Father of Jonathan who returned from exile (Ezra 10:15).

Asahiah, Asaiah

1. An officer sent by Josiah to Huldah the prophetess after the book of the law had been found (2 Kings 22:12, 14; 2 Chron. 34:20).
2. Descendant of Simeon (1 Chron. 4:36).
3. Descendant of Merari (1 Chron. 6:30).
4. A Shilonite who became a dweller in Jerusalem (1 Chron. 9:5).
5. Descendant of Merari who assisted in bringing up the ark from Obed-edom’s house (1 Chron. 15:6, 11, possibly the same as No. 3).

Asaph

1. A leader of the choir in David’s time, and once called a “seer” (2 Chron. 29:30). He was descended from Gershom the Levite (1 Chron. 6:39; 1 Chron. 15:17,19; 1 Chron. 16:5,7,37). Twelve psalms are attributed to him, namely, Psalm 50, Psalm 73-83. His office seems to have been hereditary (Ezra 2:41; Ezra 3:10; Neh. 7:44).
2. Father of Joah recorder to Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18,37; Isa. 36:3,22).
3. A Levite, whose descendants dwelt in Jerusalem after the exile (1 Chron. 9:15).
4. A Korhite, whose posterity were porters in the tabernacle in the time of David (1 Chron. 26:1).
5. An officer, probably a Jew, controller of the forests of king Artaxerxes in Judaea (Neh. 2:8).

Asareel

Son of Jehaleleel, a descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 4:16).

Asarelah

Son of Asaph appointed by David to the service of song (1 Chron. 25:2). Supposed by some to be the same as JESHARELAH in 1 Chronicles 25:14, as noted in the margin; and by others to be the same as AZAREEL in 1 Chronicles 25:18.

Ascension

This term is constantly applied to the return of the Lord Jesus Christ to heaven from whence He came (John 3:13). Leading His eleven apostles out as far as Bethany, on the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives, in the act of blessing them He ascended up to heaven, and a cloud hid Him from their sight (Mark 16:19; Luke 24:50-51; Acts 1:9). The ascension of the Lord Jesus is a momentous fact for His saints: the One who bore their sins on the cross has been received up in glory, and sits on the right hand of God.
As forerunner He has entered into heaven for the saints, and has been made a high priest forever after the order of Melchisedec (Heb. 6:20). His ascension assured, according to His promise, the descent of the Holy Spirit, which was accomplished at Pentecost (John 16:7: Acts 1:4,8; 2:1-47). As ascended He became Head of His body the church (Eph. 1:22), and gave gifts to men, among which gifts are evangelists who preach to the world, and pastors and teachers to care for and instruct the saints (Psa. 68:18; Eph. 4:8-13).
His ascension is a demonstration through the presence of the Holy Spirit that sin is in the world and righteousness in heaven, for the very One they rejected has been received by the Father into heaven (John 16:10). The ascension is also a tremendous fact for Satan: the prince of this world has been judged who led the world to put the Lord to death; and in His ascension He led captivity captive, having broken the power of death in which men were held (Eph. 4:8), for He had in the cross spoiled principalities and powers and made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it (Col. 2:15).
Above all, the ascension is a glorious fact for the blessed Lord Himself. Jehovah said unto Him, “Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool” (Psalm 110:1). He has taken His place as man where man never was before, and He is also glorified with the glory which He had before the world was, besides the glory which He graciously shares with His saints (John 17:5,22).

Asenath

Daughter of Poti-pherah, priest of On, wife of Joseph, and mother of Manasseh and Ephraim (Gen. 41:45,50; 46:20).

Aser

See ASHER.

Ash

The particular tree pointed out by the Hebrew word Oren is not known (Isa. 44:14). The LXX and the Vulgate call it “pine.”

Ashan

1. Levitical city in Judah (Josh. 15:42; 1 Chron. 6:59): not identified.
2. City in Simeon (Josh. 19:7; 1 Chron. 4:32). See AIN.

Ashbea

A family apparently descended from Shelah who “wrought fine linen” (1 Chron. 4:21).

Ashbel, Ashbelites

Son of Benjamin and family descended from him (Gen. 46:21; Num. 26:38; 1 Chron. 8:1).

Ashchenaz

See ASHKENAZ.

Ashdod

One of the five chief cities of the Philistines. It was assigned to Judah, but was not subdued by them, and thus became a thorn in their sides (Num. 33:55). It was to this city that the ark was taken by the Philistines, and where Dagon their fish-god fell before it (1 Sam. 5:1-7). Uzziah broke down its wall, and built cities near it (2 Chron. 26:6). It was on the high road from Palestine to Egypt, which doubtless led Sargon king of Assyria to take it by his general, about B.C. 714 (Isa. 20:1). Herodotus records that Psammetichus, king of Egypt, besieged it for 29 years. Jeremiah speaks of Ashdod as one of the places which was made to drink of the fury of God (Jer. 25:15-20). The Maccabees destroyed the city, but Gabinius rebuilt it at the time of the conquest of Judna by the Romans (B.C. 55), and it was afterward assigned on the death of Herod the Great to his sister Salome. It was situated about 3 miles from the Mediterranean, and midway between Gaza and Joppa. It is now called Esdud or Esdood, 31° 46' N, 34° 40' E, and is wretched in the extreme, though lying in a fertile plain. It is called in the New Testament AZOTUS, where Philip was found after baptizing the eunuch (Acts 8:40). Its inhabitants are referred to as ASHDODITES, ASHDOTHITES (Josh. 13:3; Neh. 4:7).

Ashdoth-pisgah

This is once translated “springs of Pisgah,” pointing it out as a place from whence water issued, being the sides of the mountain called Pisgah, or it may apply to the range of mountains on the east of the Dead Sea, of which Pisgah was a part (Deut. 3:17; Deut. 4:49; Josh. 12:3; Josh. 13:20). It lies due east of the north end of the Dead Sea, and is now called Ayun Musa.

Ashdothites

See ASHDOD.

Asher, Aser

Eighth son of Jacob by Zilpah, Leah’s handmaid (Gen. 30:13). The signification of the name as in the margin is “happy.” His posterity formed one of the twelve tribes. Its portion in the land was in the extreme north, extending northward from Mount Carmel. It was bounded on the east by Naphtali, and on the south east by Zebulon. It was doubtless intended that their west border should have been the Great Sea, but we read that they did not drive out the inhabitants of Accho, Zidon, Ahlab, Achzib, Helbah, Aphik and Rehob; but the Asherites dwelt among the Canaanites (Judg. 1:31-32). This left a tract of land on the sea coast unoccupied by Asher.
When Jacob called his sons about him to tell them what should befall them in the last days, he said of Asher, “Out of Asher his bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties” (Gen. 49:20). When Moses ordained that certain of the tribes should stand on Mount Gerizim to bless the people, and certain others on Mount Ebal to curse, Asher was one of those chosen to stand on the latter (Deut. 27:13). And when Moses blessed the tribes before he died, he said of Asher, “Let Asher be blessed with children; let him be acceptable to his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil. Thy shoes shall be iron and brass; and as thy days, so shall thy strength be” (Deut. 33:24-25).
In Jacob’s prophecy as to this tribe there is depicted the future blessing of all Israel after the salvation of the Lord has come in, announced at the close of Dan’s apostasy. In Deuteronomy, what is future also as to Israel, is probably presented, but connected rather with the government of God in His hands who is King in Jeshurun.
When Deborah and Barak went to the war they had to lament in their song that Asher abode by the sea coast, and came not to their aid (Judg. 5:17); but when subsequently the Midianites and the Amalekites invaded the land Asher responded to the call of Gideon (Judg. 6:35; Judg. 7:23). At the secession of the ten tribes Asher became a part of Israel, and very little more is heard of this tribe. When Hezekiah proclaimed a solemn passover and sent invitations to the cities of Israel as well as to Judah, though many laughed the messengers to scorn, divers of Asher humbled themselves and came to Jerusalem (2 Chron. 30:11).
When numbered at Sinai there were 41,500 able to go forth to war, and when near the promised land they were 53,400; but when the rulers of the tribes are mentioned in the time of David, Asher is omitted (Num. 1:41; Num. 26:47; 1 Chron. 27:16-22). The tribe is twice referred to in the New Testament as ASER. In Revelation 7:6, twelve thousand of Asher will be sealed, and in Luke 2:36, Anna a prophetess, of the tribe of Asher, gave thanks in the temple at the birth of the Saviour. Asher is one of the tribes still to come into blessing, and have a portion in the land (Ezek. 48:2-3). See THE TWELVE TRIBES.

Asherite

One of the tribe of Asher (Judg. 1:32).

Ashes

Ashes, mostly from burnt wood, were used as a sign of sorrow or mourning, either put on the head (2 Sam. 13:19), or on the body with sackcloth (Esther 4:1; Jer. 6:26; Lam. 3:16; Matt. 11:21; Luke 10:13); or strewn on a couch on which to lie (Esther 4:3; Isa. 58:5; Jonah 3:6). To eat ashes expresses great sorrow (Psa. 102:9); and to be reduced to them is a figure of complete destruction (Ezek. 28:18; Mal. 4:3); to feed on them tells of the vanities with which the soul may be occupied (Isa. 44:20). “Dust and ashes” was the figure Abraham used of himself before Jehovah (Gen. 18:27); and Job said he had become like them by the hand of God (Job 30:19). For the ashes of the Red Heifer see HEIFER.

Ashima

An idol introduced into Samaria by the colonists sent from Hamath by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:30).

Ashkelon, Askelon

One of the five principal cities of the Philistines. It fell to the lot of Judah, who took Askelon and the coasts thereof (Judg. 1:18), but they did not really subdue it, for it was in the hands of the Philistines when Samson, with the Spirit of the Lord upon him, slew thirty men in the city and took their spoil (Judg. 14:19), and that it remained so we see from 1 Samuel 6:17, and 2 Samuel 1:20. The judgments of God were denounced against this city (Jer. 25:20; Jer. 47:5,7; Amos 1:8; Zech. 9:5); and the remnant of Judah should dwell there (Zeph. 2:4,7).
The city was situated on the sea coast, midway between Gaza and Ashdod: it is now called Askulan or Askalan, 31° 40' N. In modern times the city was held by the Crusaders, and within its walls Richard of England held his court: the walls which this king aided with his own hands to repair may, it is thought, still be traced, and masses of masonry and broken columns of granite still lie about. By the Mahometan geographers it was called the Bride of Syria.

Ashkenaz, Ashchenaz

Son of Gomer, the son of Japheth, and his descendants, who settled in the vicinity of Armenia (Gen. 10:3; 1 Chron. 1:6; Jer. 51:27).

Ashnah

1. Town in the west of Judah near Dan (Josh. 15:33). Identified. with Hasan, 31° 47' N, 34° 59' E.
2. Town in the low hills of Judah, probably to the S. W. of Jerusalem (Josh. 15:43).

Ashpenaz

Prince of the eunuchs under Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:3).

Ashriel

Descendant of Manasseh (1 Chron. 7:14). See ASRIEL.

Ashtaroth, Ashtoreth

Goddess of the Phoenicians and Zidonians, worshipped by Israel after the death of Joshua, and by Solomon. Ashtaroth was the chief female goddess and Baal the chief male god, and they are often named together. Josiah destroyed the emblems of her worship as introduced by Solomon (Judg. 2:13; Judg. 10:6; 1 Sam. 7:3-4; 1 Sam. 12:10; 1 Sam. 31:10; 1 Kings 11:5,33; 2 Kings 23:13). Ashtaroth is often called ASTARTE, which is her name in the Greek, and Istar or Ishtar in the Assyrian.

Ashtaroth, Astaroth

City of Bashan in the kingdom of Og, on the east of the Jordan. It was given to the half-tribe of Manasseh and afterward devoted to the Levites (Deut. 1:4; Josh. 9:10; Josh. 12:4; Josh. 13:12,31; 1 Chron. 6:71): apparently the same as BEESH-TERAH in Joshua 21:27. Identified with Tell Ashtarah, 32° 50' N, 36° 1' E.

Ashterathite

Designation of Uzzia, one of David’s valiant men (1 Chron. 11:44).

Ashteroth Karnaim

City of the Rephaims who were smitten by Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:5). Identified with Tell Ashary, 32° 46' N, 36° 1' E.

Ashtoreth

See ASHTAROTH.

Ashur

Son of Hezron and father of Tekoa (1 Chron. 2:24; 1 Chron. 4:5).

Ashurites

Probably the same as the Asherites, of the tribe of Asher, who were among the subjects of Ishbosheth (2 Sam. 2:9). In “the company of the Ashurites” in Ezekiel 27:6, it is doubtful whether a proper name is intended, it is translated variously (see margin).

Ashvath

Son of Japhlet of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:33).

Asia

This term in the New Testament does not refer to the portion of the earth now called Asia, nor does it include the whole of Asia Minor; but applies simply to the western part of Asia Minor, which was bequeathed to Rome by Attalus III. Philometor, king of Pergamus or king of Asia, B.C. 133. The province, with Ephesus as its capital, included Caria, Lydia, and Mysia, which were anciently called Doris, Ionia, and AEolis. It was governed by a proconsul. In Acts 2:9-10 “Asia” does not include Cappadocia, Pontus, Phrygia, and Pamphylia, which are all included in Asia Minor. Again, in Acts 16:6, Phrygia and Galatia are distinct from Asia (see also 1 Peter 1:1). It will be seen in the map that all the seven churches of Asia, mentioned in the Revelation, are in the above named district. As Paul labored in other parts of Asia Minor, and there being frequent intercourse between the various places and Ephesus, it may be that a wider area is in some passages referred to as “Asia,” as in Acts 19:10, 26-27.

Asiarchs

The word is Ἀσιαρχῶν, “chiefs of Asia.” They were officers chosen annually by the cities in the Roman province of Asia. They had charge of the public games and religious festivals (Acts 19:31). There were similar officers in other districts, as Syriarchs for Syria. Some of the Asiarchs were friends of Paul and begged him not to endanger himself in the theater: tumultuous mobs could not always be controlled.

Asiel

Father of Seraiah, of the tribe of Simeon (1 Chron. 4:35).

Askelon

See ASHKELON.

Asnah

Father of some of the Nethinim, who returned from Babylon (Ezra 2:50).

Asnapper

One called “great and noble” who brought colonists from Assyria to Samaria (Ezra 4:10).

Asp

The word is pethen: it has been identified with the naja haje, a snake that has the power of expelling its deadly poison to some distance, which has caused the Dutch colonists at the Cape to call them the spitting snake. Its “cruel venom” is used symbolically to describe the wine of the wicked (Deut. 32:33; compare. Rom. 3:13), and the inward misery of those who are secretly wicked (Job 20:14,16). In the millennium a child will play harmlessly at its hole (Isa. 11:8).

Aspatha

Son of Haman, slain and hanged (Esther 9:7).

Asriel, Asrielites

Son of Gilead, and his descendants (Num. 26:31; Josh. 17:2).

Ass

In the East the ass takes the place which the horse has among European nations. It is there a much more noble animal, and is declared to be a very intelligent one (compare Isa. 1:3). It is highly valued there and is well treated. It was used for riding both by men and women, and for carrying burdens. Among a man’s property the asses are often enumerated (Gen. 12:16; Job 1:3; Job 42:12; Ezra 2:67; Neh. 7:69). There are five Hebrew words used for the domestic and the wild ass, referring to its strength or to its color.
The “white asses” mentioned in Judges 5:10 are still greatly prized in the East. In some parts the flesh of the ass is highly esteemed for food, but it was forbidden as unclean to the Jews: was however eaten in the dire famine at the siege of Samaria (2 Kings 6:25).
THE WILD Ass is very wild and very swift. It is seldom tamed. It is thus a fit emblem of man’s natural birth (Job 11:12). Jehovah demanded of Job “Who hath sent out the wild ass free? or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass?” (Job 39:5; compare Jer. 2:24; Dan. 5:21).

Assembly

Besides the use of this word for any collecting together, “as the assembly of the wicked,” it has a special reference in the Old Testament to the children of Israel as “the assembly,” whether they were collected together or not. Several Hebrew words are used, some implying “an appointed meeting,” others a “calling together.” “The whole assembly of the congregation” were to eat the passover (Ex. 12:6), though each family ate it in its own house. They accused Moses of having brought them into the wilderness to kill the “whole assembly with hunger,” (Ex. 16:3); so in many places. When they were especially called together to the feasts it is often called a SOLEMN ASSEMBLY, as in Leviticus 23:36; Numbers 29:35; Deuteronomy 16:8; 2 Kings 10:20; 2 Chronicles 7:9; Nehemiah 8:18.
In the New Testament the word is also used for any gathering of people, as at the tumult in Ephesus (Acts 19:32,39,41). In James 2:2 the word “assembly” is really the synagogue, or place of meeting. In Hebrews 12:23 the words “GENERAL ASSEMBLY” should be joined to Hebrews 12:22, reading “and to the innumerable company of angels, the general assembly:” the word “and” dividing the subjects. The Greek word used in Acts 19:32 is ἑκκλησἰα, and this often occurs in the New Testament where it is translated “church.” It signifies “called out,” and the church is a people called out by God to Himself from the mass of mankind. The church may more accurately be designated by the word “assembly.” See CHURCH.

Asshur

In Genesis 10:11 it would appear from the AV (KJV) that a son of Ham named Asshur built Nineveh; and then in Genesis 10:22 and 1 Chronicles 1:17 Asshur is named as the son of Shem. But in the margin of Genesis 10:11 it reads that “he went out into Assyria,” that is, Nimrod went forth into Asshur or Assyria (the Hebrew is the same). This is confirmed by Micah 5:6, where Assyria and Nimrod are associated together. Assyria is traced to Asshur or Assur, a son of Shem. Nimrod came afterward and may have subdued the country, but with what result is not shown.

Asshurim

Sons of Dedan (Gen. 25:3).

Assir

1. Son of Korah (Ex. 6:24; 1 Chron. 6:22).
2. Son of Ebircsaph (1 Chron. 6:23,37).
3. Son of Jeconiah (1 Chron. 3:17).

Assos

Seaport in Mysia, in the west of Asia Minor, on the north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium, 20 miles from Troas (Acts 20:13-14). A glance at a map will show that Paul in walking from Troas to Assos could be there as soon as the ship. The place is now utterly desolate, but with ruins in good preservation, some being of granite.

Assur

Another form of Asshur or Assyria (Ezra 4:2; Psalm 83:8).

Assurance

This word has in the Old Testament a different application from that which it has in the New Testament In the former it is “confidence or trust,” and agrees with the hopes of God’s earthly people in connection with the security in which Israel will dwell when restored to their land, when all their enemies shall have been put down by divine power: the effect of righteousness will be “quietness and assurance forever,” (Isa. 32:17): whereas in their disobedience they should fear day and night and have no assurance of their life (Deut. 28:66).
In the New Testament the Greek word πληροφορἰα implies “full assurance” and refers to eternal salvation. The gospel reaches a soul in power, and in the Holy Ghost and in “much full assurance” (1 Thess. 1:5). We also meet with:
1. the full assurance of faith (Heb. 10:22); the reception of God’s testimony respecting the work of Christ and the glory He now enjoys:
2. the full assurance of hope (Heb. 6:11), issuing in continued diligence of the saints in their work and labor of love: and
3. the full assurance of understanding, (Col. 2:2), for full knowledge in the mystery of God.

Assyria

The great kingdom of Assyria was situated near the river Tigris, having Armenia on the North, Mount Zagros and Media on the east, Babylonia on the south, Syria and the Syrian desert on the west; but its boundaries were doubtless not always the same. Nineveh became its capital. The first allusion to Assyria is found in Genesis 2:14, where we read that one of the rivers of Paradise went “toward the east of Assyria,” or “went eastward to Assyria” (margin).
The name of Assyria appears to have arisen from its first capital, Asshur (now called Kalah Sherghat) on the Tigris. Apparently a monarchy was established there by some from Babylonia, and there were several kings before SHALMANESER I. (about B.C. 1300), whose family kept the throne for six generations until TIGLATH-PILESER I. (about B.C. 1130), who may be said to be the founder of the first Assyrian Empire. He beautified Nineveh and carried his arms in various directions. After him the kingdom became feeble until RIMMON-NIRARI II, B.C. 911, but his victorious career was excelled by his grandson, the great ASSUR-NATSIR-PAL, B.C. 883, who made conquests over the Phoenicians and the “Kaldu” (Chaldeans).
SHALMANESER II. Succeeded (B.C. 858). He carried his arms still farther. We have his conquests told by himself on three monuments in the British Museum, one of which is known as the Black Obelisk. If the names are correctly interpreted he mentions as allied against him Benhadad king of Syria and Ahab king of Israel. These were defeated at the battle of Karkar (B.C. 853). Hazael of Damascus was also defeated; and from Yahua, the son of Khumri, that is, Jehu, whom he incorrectly calls son of Omri king of Israel, he received tribute; but of this scripture says nothing.
The next king who invaded Syria was RIMMON-NIRARI III (B.C. 810). He extended his victories to what he calls, “the shore of the sea of the setting sun,” which is doubtless the Mediterranean, and imposed tribute on the Phoenicians, Israelites, Edomites, Philistines, and the king of Damascus. After this king the power of Assyria waned for a time.
The next king of note was TIGLATH-PILESER II. or III (B.C. 745), who is considered to have founded the second Assyrian kingdom. He consolidated the various dependencies, turbulent populations were removed, and the empire was divided into provinces, each of which paid a fixed annual tribute. In his inscriptions occur the names of Jehoahaz (Ahaz) of Judah; Pekah, and Hoshea of Israel; Reson (Resin) of Damascus; and Hiram of Tire. The name of Merodach-baladan is also found. Hamath was taken and then all Palestine was at his feet. He attacked those on the east of the Jordan, and carried away the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh (1 Chron. 5:26). Ahaz sought his alliance against Rezin the king of Damascus. Rezin was slain and the city taken; and there Ahaz met the king of Assyria (2 Kings 16:1-10; 2 Chron. 28:16-21). He also made himself master of Babylonia; but this afterward gained its independence under Merodach-baladan. Some Assyrian scholars take Tiglath-pileser (whose name appears to have been Pulu) to be the same person as the Pul mentioned in the Bible; but this does not at all agree with the dates of scripture, and in 1 Chronicles 5:26 the names of Pul and Tiglath-pileser are mentioned as of two persons. See PUL.
In B.C. 727 SHALMANESER IV succeeded to the throne. Hoshea king of Israel was subject to him; but on being found in treaty with the king of Egypt, Samaria was besieged (2 Kings 17:3-5).
In B.C. 722 SARGON succeeded, and apparently it was he who captured Samaria. An inscription of his at Khorsabad reads, “I besieged the city of Samaria and carried away 27,280 men who dwelt there into captivity, and took fifty chariots from among them, and ordered the rest to be taken. I set my judges over them, and imposed upon them the tribute of the former kings.” He also placed colonists in Samaria, but it is supposed by the names of the places mentioned from which these were sent, that this was not done immediately. Sargon captured Carchemish, punished the king of Syria, flayed alive the king of Hamath, and then successfully overcame So or Sabako. Sargon is mentioned in Isaiah 20:1 as sending his general to Ashdod, who took it. An inscription also mentions the fall of the city. Sargon defeated Merodach-baladan in Babylonia, but was assassinated in B.C. 705. He was called SHARRU-KENU, that is, “faithful king.”
SENNACHERIB succeeded Sargon his father (B.C. 701). Hezekiah had been tributary; but on his revolting Sennacherib took the fenced cities of Judah, and then Hezekiah sent him the treasures of his own house and the house of the Lord. Still Jerusalem was attacked, and profane speeches made against the God of Israel. Hezekiah humbled himself before God, and the angel of the Lord smote of the Assyrians 185,000. Sennacherib returned to his land and was eventually murdered by two of his sons (2 Kings 18:13; 2 Kings 19:37). In Sennacherib’s own account he says, “Hezekiah himself I shut up like a bird in a cage in Jerusalem, his royal city.... in addition to his former tribute and yearly gifts I added other tribute and the homage due to my majesty, and I laid it upon them.” The above date would clash with the date of Hezekiah, but it is probable that Sennacherib was coregent with his father some nine years before he reigned alone.
A tablet shows Sennacherib sitting on a throne to receive the spoils of the city of Lachish. It is supposed he lived 20 years after he left Palestine before he was assassinated. He says nothing of the loss of his army, and perhaps never recovered the shock.
ESAR-HADDON succeeded (B.C. 681). He is said to have reigned from the Euphrates to the Nile. He also conquered Egypt, and divided it into 20 provinces, governed by Assyrians. According to an inscription he claimed the sovereignty of Babylon, and held his court there. This accounts for him, as king of Assyria, carrying Manasseh captive to Babylon (2 Chron. 33:11). He is mentioned also in Ezra 4:2 as having sent the colonists into Judaea. After reigning about 10 years he associated with him his son the noted ASSUR-BANI-PAL. Egypt was again conquered. He gathered a famous library at Kouyunjik, the terra cotta tablets of which have been preserved. Assur-bani-pal died about B.C. 626. The glory of the Assyrian kingdom was permanently departing, and about B.C. 606 Nineveh was taken and destroyed (Nah. 1-3).
There are many monuments and inscriptions on tablets which the learned are deciphering; but the difficulties of distinguishing the proper names on the Assyrian monuments are shown by M. Joachim Menant, who gives as an instance one sign which may be read kal, rip, clan, or lip, being one of the signs called “polyphones.”
The following list of kings is from Rawlinson, Sayce, and other Assyrian scholars. The early dates are uncertain and several of the later dates do not agree with the usual chronology of scripture.
ASSYRIAN KINGS.
B.C.
Shalmaneser I. 1300
Tiglath-Adar I., his son 1280
Bel-kudur-tsur(Belchad- rezzar) his son 1260
Assur-narara and Nebo-dan 1240
Adar-pal-esar (Adar-pileser) 1220
Assur-dan I., his son 1200
Mutaggil-Nebo, his son 1180
Assur-ris-ilim, his son 1160
Tiglath-pileser I., his son 1140
Assur-bel-kala, his son 1110
Saruas-Rimmon I., his brother 1090
Assur-rab-buri ?
Assur-zalmati ?
Assur-dan II. 930
Rimmon-nirari II., his son 911
Tiglath-Adar II., his son 889
Assur-natsir-pal, his son 883
Shalmaneser II., his son 858
Samas-Rimmon II., his son 823
Rimmon-nirari III., his son 810
Shalmaneser III. 781
Assur-dan III. 771
Assur-nirari 753
Pulu, usurper, Tiglath-pileser II. or III. 745
Ulula (Elulnos) of Tinu, usurper, Shalmaneser IV. 727
Sargon, usurper, 722
Sennacherib of Khabigal, his son 705
Esar-haddon, his son 681
Assur-bani-pal (Sardanapalus) his son 668
Assur-etil-ili-yukinni, his son? 626
Esar-haddon II. (Sarakos) ?
Fall of Nineveh ? 606
The Assyrians were idolaters: from the inscriptions the names of hundreds of gods can be gathered.
The Assyrian language was a branch of the Semitic, and came from the Accadian. It was written in Cuneiform or wedge-shaped characters.
Assyria was used by God as His rod to punish His guilty people Israel, and then, as in other instances, the rod itself, for its pride and wickedness, had to bear God’s judgment. (See Isa. 10:5-19; Isa. 14:25; Ezek. 31:3-17; Nah. 3:18-19; Zeph. 2:13). Some of the passages that speak of the kings of Assyria are prophetic, and refer to the still future, when as “kings of the north” they will again have to do with Israel and will be judged of God. The indignation against Israel ceases in the destruction of the Assyrian. (See Isa. 10:12; Isa. 14:25; Isa. 30:27-33). One remarkable passage speaks of Assyria with Egypt and Israel as being brought into blessing, Isaiah 19:23-25, “Whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance.” We thus see that the Assyrians have a large place in scripture both in the past and in the future, doubtless because they have had, and will yet have, to do with Jehovah’s earthly people, “the Israel of God.” The Assyrian is the over-flowing scourge of God’s anger because of Israel’s connection with idolatry.

Assyrian

See NINEVEH.

Astaroth

See ASHTAROTH.

Astonied

Simply “astonished” (Ezra 9:3-4).

Astrologer

1. In Daniel 1:20; Daniel 2:2, 10, 27; Daniel 4:7; Daniel 5:7, 11, 15 the Hebrew word is ashshaph, signifying “enchanter, magician”; one who practiced occult arts. This word occurs nowhere else.
2. habar shamayinz, one who viewed or divided the heavens, an astrologer, who professed to foretell events by the position of the planets (Isa. 47:13). Babylon was wearied with its various counselors, who doubtless often differed one from another; but it had no other resource, so it turned to its astrologers, star-gazers and so forth. See DIVINATION.

Asuppim

In 1 Chronicles 26:15,17 the Hebrew word is given untranslated; but the same occurs in Nehemiah 12:25, where it is translated “thresholds,” and in the margin “treasuries.” It probably refers to the apartments used as storehouses in the outer temple.

Asyncritus

A Christian at Rome to whom Paul sends salutations (Rom. 16:14).

Atad

Place near the Jordan, where Joseph, his brethren, and the Egyptians made great lamentation at the burial of Jacob. The inhabitants of the land called it ABEL-MIZRAIM (Gen. 50:10-11).

Atarah

Wife of Jerahmeel, and mother of Onam (1 Chron. 2:26).

Ataroth

1. City on the east of the Jordan, built or rebuilt by the children of Gad (Num. 32:3,34). Identified with Attarus, 31° 36' N, 35° 42' E.
2. City on the borders of Ephraim and Manasseh (Josh. 16:2,7).
3. “Ataroth of the house of Joab,” a person or place in connection with the descendants of Caleb (1 Chron. 2:54).

Ataroth-adar, Ataroth-addar

City on the borders of Benjamin and Ephraim (Josh. 16:5; Josh. 18:13). Identified with ed-Dariah, 31° 53' N, 350 4' E.

Ater

1. Ancestor of some of those who returned from exile and dwelt in Jerusalem (Ezra 2:16; Neh. 7:21).
2. Apparently head of one of the families of porters to the temple (Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45).
3. A chief of the people who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:17).

Athach

City in the south of Judah (1 Sam. 30:30).

Athaiah

One who dwelt in Jerusalem (Neh. 11:4).

Athaliah

1. Descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:26).
2. Father of Jeshaiah who returned from exile (Ezra 8:7).
3. Daughter of Jezebel and Ahab, and granddaughter of Omri (compare 2 Kings 8:26 with 2 Kings 8:18), wife of Jehoram king of Judah. She may be said to have introduced the worship of Baal into Judah, and she brought up her son to follow in her evil ways (2 Chron. 22:3). He having been slain by Jehu when he was executing judgment on the house of Ahab, Athaliah usurped the throne and endeavored to destroy all the seed royal. One child, Joash, was concealed in the temple, and after Athaliah had reigned six years, he was anointed king and crowned; Athaliah was taken outside the enclosures of the temple and slain (B.C. 878). The temple and idol of Baal were at once destroyed, and the priest slain. The history is a solemn instance of the danger of an unholy alliance (2 Kings 11:1-20; 2 Chron. 23:12-21).

Atheist

The Greek is ὔθεος, literally “without God,” and so translated in Ephesians 2:12. It is used as a description of Gentiles as such by nature, and true of all the heathen world in their ignorance of God: not, as the term is now used, namely, one who willfully refuses to acknowledge God’s existence.

Athenians

The dwellers in Athens (Acts 17:21-22).

Athens

The chief city of Attica, and the seat of Grecian learning and art. The city was wholly given to idolatry, and the people spent their time in strolling about and asking “what news?” Paul labored alone in Athens, while he waited for Silas and Timothy, and sought to reason with the Jews in their synagogue and in the market daily; then certain philosophers took him to Mars’ Hill, where he delivered his memorable address to polished but heathen hearers. There was some fruit of his labors (Acts 17:15-22; Acts 18:1; 1 Thess. 3:1). Athens was an ancient city, and experienced many changes and different forms of government.
It surrendered to Sulla the Roman general in B.C. 86 and became a part of the Roman empire, but in A.D. 267 it was besieged by the Goths, and in 396 was taken by Alaric, king of the Visigoths. Taken by Mahomet II in 1456, and became the capital of the kingdom of modern Greece in 1833. It gradually lost all its renown, and the houses became roofless and in ruins. In 1834 the Greek king Otho encouraged the rebuilding of the city, and from that date it has again gradually become a populous city.

Athlai

One who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:28).

Atonement

The word “atonement” occurs but once in the New Testament and there it should be “reconciliation,” and the verb in the preceding sentence is so translated: “If when we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.... through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the reconciliation,” καταλλαγή (Rom. 5:10-11). On the other hand, in Hebrews 2:17 the AV (KJV) has “to make reconciliation for the sins of the people:” here it is “propitiation,” ἱλἀσκογαι. If the word atonement is not found in the New Testament, atonement in its true meaning is spoken of continually, as “ransom”; “bearing our sins in his own body on the tree”; “Christ our passover is sacrificed for us”; “Christ.... being made a curse for us”; “He suffered for sins, the just for the unjust”; and, to use the language of faith, “with his stripes we are healed”; “He was delivered for our offenses”; “He was manifested to take away our sins.”
In the Old Testament we have the word “atonement” continually, but “propitiation” not at all; “expiation” twice in the margin (Num. 35:33; Isa. 47:11). But the same word, kaphar, though generally translated by make “atonement,” is employed for “purging” and occasionally for “cleansing,” “reconciling,” “purifying.” The word kaphar is literally “to cover,” with various prepositions with it; the ordinary one is “up” or “upon.” Hence in “atoned for him” or “his sin:” he or his sin is covered up: atonement is made for him or for his sin. Atonement was made upon the horns of the altar: the force is “atonement for.” With the altar of incense, atonement was not made upon it, but for it; so for the holy place, and for or about Aaron and his house: the preposition is al.
The same is used with the two goats. The sins were seen on the sinless goat, and expiation was made in respect of those sins. The how is not said here, but it is by the two goats making really one, because the object was to show that the sins were really laid upon it (that is, on Christ), and the sins carried away out of sight, and never to be found. If we can get our ideas, as taught of God as to the truth, into the train of Jewish thought, there is no difficulty in the al. In either case the difficulty arises from the fact that in English for presents the interested person to the mind; on is merely the place where it was done, as on an altar; whereas the al refers to the clearing away by the kaphar what was upon the thing al which the atoning rite was performed. Clearly the goat was not the person interested, nor was it merely done upon it as the place. It was that on which the sins lay, and they must be cleared and done away. The expiation referred to them as thus laid on the goat. As has been said, the how is not stated here, but the all-important fact defined that they were all carried away from Israel and from before God. The needed blood or life was presented to God in the other, which did really put them away; but did much more, and that aspect is attached to them there. This double aspect of the atoning work is of the deepest importance and interest, the presenting of the blood to God on the mercy seat, and the bearing away the sins. The word kaphar, to make atonement, occurs in (Ex. 29; Ex. 30; Ex. 32; Lev. 1; Lev. 4-10; Lev. 12; Lev. 14-17; Lev. 19; Lev. 23; Num. 5; Num. 6; Num. 8; Num. 15; Num. 16; Num. 25; Num. 28; Num. 29; Num. 31; 2 Sam. 21:3; 1 Chron. 6:49; 2 Chron. 29:24; Neh. 10:33).
A short notice of some other Hebrew words may help. We have nasa, “to lift up,” and so to forgive, to lift up the sins away in the mind of the person offended, or to show favor in lifting up the countenance of the favored person (Psa. 4:6). We have also kasah, “to cover,” as in Psalm 32:1, where sin is “covered”: sometimes used with al, as in Prov. 10:12, “love covereth all sins,” forgives: they are out of sight and mind The person is looked at with love, and not the faults with offense.
But in such words there is not the idea of expiation, the side of the offender is contemplated, and he is looked at in grace, whatever the cause: it may be needed atonement, or simply, as in Proverbs, gracious kindness. We have also salach, “pardon or forgiveness.” Thus it is used as the effect of kaphar, as in Leviticus 4:20. But kaphar has always a distinct and important idea connected with it. It views the sin as toward God, and is ransom, when not used literally for sums of money; and kapporeth is the mercy seat. And though it involves forgiveness, purging from sin, it has always God in view, not merely that the sinner is relieved or forgiven: there is expiation and propitiation in it. And this is involved in the idea of purging sin, or making the purging of sin (ιλάσκεσθυι, ἐξιλάσκεσθαι, ιλυσμὸν ποιεπιν); it is in God’s sight as that by which He is offended, and what He rejects and judges.
There was a piaculum, “an expiatory sacrifice,” something satisfying for the individual involved in guilt, or what was offensive to God, what He could not tolerate from His very nature. This with the heathen, who attached human passions or demon-revenge to their gods, was of course perverted to meet those ideas. They deprecated the vengeance of a probably angry and self-vengeful being. But God has a nature which is offended by sin. It is a holy, not of course a passionate, one; but the majesty of holiness must be maintained. Sin ought not to be treated with indifference, and God’s love provides the ransom. It is God’s Lamb who undertakes and accomplishes the work. The perfect love of God and His righteousness, the moral order of the universe and of our souls through faith, is maintained by the work of the cross. Through the perfect love not only of God, the giver, but of Him, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God, propitiation is made, expiation for sin; its aspect being toward God, while the effect applies to us in cleansing and justifying, though it goes much farther.
Expiation is more the satisfaction itself which is made, the piaculum, what takes the wrath, and is devoted, made the curse, and so substituted for the offender, so that he goes free. And here the noun kopher comes to let light in on the inquiry. It is translated “ransom, satisfaction,” and in 1 Samuel 12:3 a “bribe.” So in Exodus 21:30 a kopher (translated “sum of money”) is laid upon a man to save his life where his ox had killed his neighbor; but in Numbers 35:31 no kopher was to be taken for the life of a murderer; for (Num. 35:33) the land cannot be cleansed, kaphar, but by the blood of the man that shed blood as a murderer. This clearly shows what the force of kopher and of kaphar is. A satisfaction is offered suited to the eye and mind of him who is displeased and who judges; and through this there is purgation of the offense, cleansing, forgiveness, and favor, according to him who takes cognizance of the evil.
A word may be added as to the comparison made between the two birds (Lev. 14:4-7), and the two goats (Lev. 16:7-10). The object of the birds was the cleansing of the leper; it was application to the defiled man, not the kopher, ransom, presented to God. It could not have been done but on the ground of the blood-shedding and satisfaction, but the immediate action was the purifying: hence there was water as well as blood. One bird was slain over running water in an earthen vessel, and the live bird and other objects dipped in it, and the man was then sprinkled, and the living bird let loose far from death, though once identified with it, and was free. The Spirit, in the power of the word, makes the death of Christ available in the power of His resurrection. There was no laying sins on the bird let free, as on the goat: it was identified with the slain one, and then let go. The living water in the earthen vessel is doubtless the power of the Spirit and word in human nature, characterizing the form of the truth, though death and the blood must come in, and all nature, its pomp and vanity, be merged in it. The leper is cleansed and then can worship. This is not the atonement itself towards God, though founded on it, as marked by the death of the bird. It is the cleansing of man in death to the flesh, but in the power of resurrection known in Christ who once died to sin.
So also the Red Heifer (Num. 19:1-22), was not in itself an act of atonement, but of purification. The ground was there laid in the slaying and burning of the heifer. Sin was, so to speak, consumed in it, and the blood was sprinkled seven times before the tabernacle of the congregation. When Christ died sin was, as it were, all consumed for His people by the fire of judgment, and all the value of the blood was before God where He communicated with the people. All that was settled, but man had defiled himself in his journey through the wilderness, and must be cleansed. The witness that sin had been put away long ago by Christ undergoing what was the fruit of sin was brought by the living power of the Holy Spirit and the word, and so he was purified. But the act of purifying is not in itself atonement; for atonement the offering is presented to God. It is a kopher, a ransom, a satisfaction, to meet the infinite, absolute perfection of God’s nature and character, which indeed is there alone brought out. Thereby atonement is made and the very Day of Atonement is called kippurim. The priest made an atonement in respect of the sins; and it had the double aspect of presenting the blood before God within as meeting what He was, and bearing His people’s sins and carrying them away never to be found. We must make the difference of an un-rent veil and repeated sacrifices, and a rent veil and a sacrifice offered once for all. This is taught in the Epistle to the Hebrews.
There is still one case to be noticed, but it was merely a principle confirming the real character of the kaphar, making atonement. In Exodus 30:11-16 it was ordered that when the people were numbered, each, rich or poor, should give half a shekel as a kopher, ransom, for his soul or life. This had nothing to do with sin, but with ransom, that there might be no plague — a recognition that they belonged to God all alike, and could have no human boast in numbers, as David afterward brought the plague on Israel. This was offered to God as a sign of this, and shows what the force of kaphar, making atonement, is.
We have no atonement in connection with the meat offering: we get the perfectness of Christ’s person, and all the elements that constituted it so as man, and there tested by the fire of God, which was even to death, the death of the cross, and all a perfect sweet savor, and perfect in presenting it to God a sweet savor, but no kopher, ransom: for that we must have blood-shedding.
The essence then of atonement is, firstly, a work or satisfaction presented to God according to, and perfectly glorifying, His nature and character about sin by sacrifice; and secondly, the bearing our sins; glorifying God even where sin was and in respect of sin (and thus His love is free to go out to all sinners); and giving the believer, him that comes to God by that blood-shedding, the certainty that his sins are all gone, and that God will remember them no more.

Atonement, Day Of

This was one of the most solemn days in the whole year, being, in common with the Sabbath, the only occasion on which the people were commanded to cease from work entirely. On the day of atonement they were also to afflict their souls, and that by a statute forever (Lev. 16:29-31). The time of the year in which the day fell — the tenth day of the seventh month — is very significant, especially when viewed in connection with the other feasts. See FEASTS.
The rites prescribed for the Day of Atonement are given (Lev. 16; Lev. 23:26-32; Num. 29:7-11). In the first we have a detailed account of the peculiar work appointed for the high priest on that day; in the second, we learn what had been shortly expressed in Leviticus 17, how the people should comport themselves on that day; and in the third we are told of certain sacrifices which were to be offered up besides those spoken of in Leviticus 16. In this passage we learn that the Day of Atonement was a gracious provision in order that the relationship of the people with the holy God who dwelt among them might be maintained.
The points to be noticed are
1. The entrance into the holy place. Aaron, on account of the failure of his sons in the priestly office, could not enter there at all times, but, as the representative of the people, once a year on the Day of Atonement, and he must enter alone. Even then he went in not for communion, but for the cleansing of the defilements of a people among whom God dwelt. He must put on the holy linen garments, and must enter with a cloud of incense and with blood, lest he die. For the contrast to this for the Christian (see Heb. 9:7-12).
2. Aaron must offer sacrifices for himself and his house; a young bullock for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering. Aaron and his sons represent the saints who now form the church as a company of priests, and were thus, in the type, distinct from the people (Israel) as an earthly company who formed the camp.
3. For the congregation two goats were taken for a sin offering, and a ram for a burnt offering. On the two goats the lot was cast, and the one on whom the lot fell was for Jehovah, and was offered as a sin offering. This, as with the bullock for Aaron and his house, was the atonement offering Godward. The other, after being presented before the Lord, was brought forth: on him Aaron laid both his hands and confessed over him “all the iniquities of the children of Israel and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat,” (Lev. 16:21), which was then sent away into the wilderness, a land of forgetfulness. In the two goats we have the two sides of atonement, namely, that which meets the character and holiness of God, and that which meets the need of the sinner as to the removal of his sins. (See ATONEMENT.)
4. Atonement was made for the holy place, for the tabernacle, and for the altar, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel.
The day of Atonement being once a year — once every year, by a perpetual statute — stands in strong contrast to the one perfect sacrifice of the Lord Jesus, by which the believer is perfected in perpetuity. (See Heb. 10:1-18).
The reiterated injunction to afflict their souls in connection with this great day has an important prophetical bearing as to the Lord’s earthly people Israel. If the blowing of trumpets on the first day of the seventh month suggests that testimony from the Lord which shall arouse the nation from their long spiritual slumber, the Day of Atonement points to the moral effect produced in them when they shall look upon Him whom they have pierced, and mourn for Him. They will also at this time learn and confess that He was wounded for their transgressions (Zech. 12:10-14; Isa. 53; Psa. 51).

Atroth

City of Gad (Num. 32:35): it should probably be joined to the next word and read Atroth-shophan, the several places being divided by the word “and.”

Attai

1. Grandson of Sheshan (1 Chron. 2:35-36).
2. Gadite, a man of might, who joined David in his rejection (1 Chron. 12:11).
3. Son of Rehoboam and grandson of Solomon (2 Chron. 11:20).

Attalia

Seaport of Pamphylia, near Perga, visited by Paul and Barnabas (Acts 14:25). It was founded by Attalus king of Pergamus: now called Adalia.

Augustus

Title given to the Roman Emperors after Augustus Caesar, named in Luke 2:1. In Acts 25:21,25 the Augustus or Caesar at that time was Nero.

Augustus Band

The word σπεῖρα signifies “cohort,” the tenth part of a “legion.” This cohort was probably a sort of “King’s Own.”

Augustus Caesar

The first Roman emperor, son of Caius Octavius and Atia, niece of Julius Cesar. He was one of the Triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus, and upon the death of the latter he shared the empire with Antony: but both being too ambitious to share the kingdom, the battle of Actium (B.C. 31), resulted in Caesar’s favor, and he reigned alone: four years later he was confirmed as “emperor,” and “Augustus” in B.C. 27. He became associated with Palestine at the defeat of Antony, whom Herod had supported. He behaved, contrary to expectation, kindly to Herod, confirmed him as king, and added Samaria and Gadara to his dominions. Herod gave unreserved allegiance to Augustus, and built a marble temple to his honor at Caesarea Philippi. The emperor died A.D. 14. The Lord Jesus was born during his reign (Luke 2:1).

Aul

See AWL.

Author

1. ἀρχηγύς; “beginner, leader.” It is “prince” in Acts 3:15 (“author” in the margin), the Lord Jesus is the originator of life. In Hebrews 12:2, the Lord Jesus is the “leader” and completer of faith: He began and finished the whole course. In Heb. 2:10 it is “captain” in the AV (KJV), He was “leader” of their salvation through suffering.
2. αἴτιος, “cause, occasion.” The Lord Jesus became the “author of eternal salvation” (Heb. 5:9).

Authority

See POWER.

Ava

Place subject to Assyria from which colonists were sent to Samaria: possibly the same as AHAVA and IVAH (2 Kings 17:24).

Aven

1. On, or Heliopolis, “House of the Sun,” in northern Egypt, a seat of idolatry: its young men should fall by the sword (Ezek. 30:17). See ON.
2. Used symbolically in that Beth-el,” the house of God,” had become Aven or Beth-aven, that is, “the house of vanity” because of idolatry (Hos. 10:8; compare Hos. 4:15; Hos. 5:8; Hos. 10:5).
3. The Plain of Aven, a place in Syria (Amos 1:5). Not identified.

Avenger, Avenger of Blood

After the flood God gave to Noah the law that “whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed” (Gen. 9:6); and to this day in the East it is considered the solemn duty of the relatives of a slain man to see that his blood is avenged. The law made a distinction between murder and man-slaughter: when a person was killed accidentally the man-slayer could run to a City of Refuge and be protected. God has invested man with governmental authority to carry out this universal command, which was given long before the law by Moses, and which has never been repealed or relaxed. In the New Testament the magistrate bears not the sword in vain, for he is the minister of God for the punishment of evil-doers (Rom. 13).
Under the law of Moses it was enacted “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” (Matt. 5:38; Ex. 21:24). With the Christian it is quite different: having been dealt with in grace, he must act also in grace towards others. The word to him is “Avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine, I will repay, saith the Lord” (Rom. 12:19; Rev. 6:10; Rev. 19:2). Now it is the day of grace; but there is a day of vengeance coming for those that “know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ” (2 Thess. 1:8). The duty of a Christian in not avenging himself in no way clashes with the exercise of the government of God by magistrates, who derive their authority from Him, in repressing and punishing evil.

Avim, Avites

1. A people who once inhabited the villages of Philistia, who were destroyed by the Caphtorims (Deut. 2:23); a remnant being left till the days of Joshua (Josh. 13:3).
2. City belonging to the tribe of Benjamin, not far from Bethel; but the name having the article in the Hebrew may signify a group of villages (Josh. 18:23).
3. A people localized in Samaria by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:31).

Avith

City of Edom in the east of Moab, seat of Hadad the fourth king (Gen. 36:35; 1 Chron. 1:46).

Awl

A piercing instrument, only spoken of as being thrust through the ear: its form is not known (Ex. 21:6; Deut. 15:17).

Ax, Axe

There are seven different Hebrew words translated “ax” or “axe,” with various shades of meaning (Deut. 19:5; Judg. 9:48; 2 Sam. 12:31; 1 Chron. 20:3; Psa. 74:6; Jer. 10:3; Ezek. 26:9; Matt. 3:10: Luke 3:9).

Azal

Not known as a place: in the margin it is not read as a proper name (Zech. 14:5).

Azaliah

Father of Shaphan the scribe (2 Kings 22:3; 2 Chron. 34:8).

Azaniah

Father of Jeshua, who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:9).

Azarael, Azareel

1. One who resorted to David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:6).
2. One in the service of song in the time of David (1 Chron. 25:18). See ASARELAH.
3. Danite ruler in the time of David (1 Chron. 27:22).
4. One who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:41).
5. Son of Ahasai (Neh. 11:13).
6. A Levite-musician (Neh. 12:36).

Azariah

A name common in the priestly family especially of Eleazar.
1. Descendant of Zadok (1 Kings 4:2).
2. Son of Nathan, over the officers (1 Kings 4:5).
3. Son of Amaziah king of Judah. See UZZIAH.
4. Son of Ethan, descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 2:8).
5. Son of Jehu (1 Chron. 2:38-39).
6. Son of Ahimaaz and grandson of Zadok (1 Chron. 6:9).
7. Son of Johanan, descendant of Zadok, apparently the first high priest who ministered in Solomon’s temple (1 Chron. 6:10-11).
8. Son of Hilkiah the high priest in the time of Josiah (1 Chron. 6:13-14; 1 Chron. 9:11; Ezra 7:1).
9. Son of Zephaniah, descendant of Kohath (1 Chron. 6:36).
10. Prophet, son of Oded, sent by God to encourage Asa to seek the Lord (2 Chron. 15:1).
11-12. Two of the sons of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah (2 Chron. 21:2).
13. Son of Jehoram (2 Chron. 22:6): also called AHAZIAH, q. v.
14-15. Two of the captains who aided Jehoiada to place Joash on the throne (2 Chron. 23:1).
16. The high priest who hindered Uzziah king of Judah from burning incense in the temple (2 Chron. 26:17, 20).
17. One of the “heads” of the tribe of Ephraim who objected to the bringing into Samaria the captives from Judah (2 Chron. 28:12).
18. Father of Joel, a Kohathite (2 Chron. 29:12).
19. Son of Jehalelel, a Merarite (2 Chron. 29:12).
20. Priest of the family of Zadok in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chron. 31:10).
21. One mentioned in the genealogy of Ezra (Ezra 7:3).
22. Son of Maaseiah: he repaired a portion of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:23-24).
23. One who returned from exile (Neh. 7:7): supposed, as in the margin, to be the same as SERAIAH in Ezra 2:2.
24. One who assisted in the reading of the law under Ezra (Neh. 8:7).
25. One of the priests who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:2).
26. A prince of Judah who took part in the procession when the wall of Jerusalem was to be purified (Neh. 12:33).
27. Son of Hoshaiah: he charged Jeremiah with prophesying falsely (Jer. 43:2).
28. One carried away with Daniel to Babylon, probably of the seed royal: his name was changed to ABED-NEGO (See Dan. 1:6-19; Dan. 2:17).

Azaz

Father of Bela a chief of the Reubenites (1 Chron. 5:8).

Azaziah

1. A Levite appointed to the musical service on the bringing up of the ark from the house of Obed-edom (1 Chron. 15:21).
2. Father of Hoshea, prince of Ephraim, in David’s time (1 Chron. 27:20).
3. One of the overseers in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chron. 31:13).

Azbuk

Father of Nehemiah, who repaired a part of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:16).

Azekah

City in the plain of Judah with adjacent villages, near Shochoh, the scene of one of Joshua’s victories. It was fortified by Rehoboam, and was in existence at the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s invasion. The Jews inhabited it after the return (Josh. 10:10-11; Josh. 15:35; 1 Sam. 17:1; 2 Chron. 11:9; Neh. 11:30; Jer. 34:7). Identified with Tell Zahariya, 31° 42' N, 34° 55' E.

Azel

Descendant of Saul (1 Chron. 8:37-38; 1 Chron. 9:43-44).

Azem

City on the south of Judah, afterward allotted to Simeon (Josh. 15:29; Josh. 19:3). Supposed to be the same as EZEM. It is not identified.

Azgad

1-2. Two whose descendants returned from exile (Ezra 2:12; Ezra 8:12; Neh. 7:17).
3. One who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:15).

Aziel

Levite in the choral service at the bringing up of the ark from the house of Obed-edom (1 Chron. 15:20): a shortened form apparently of JAAZIEL in 1 Chronicles 15:18.

Aziza

One who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:27).

Azmaveth

1. The “Barhumite,” one of David’s valiant men (2 Sam. 23:31; 1 Chron. 11:33).
2. Son of Jehoadah, descendant of Saul (1 Chron. 8:36; 1 Chron. 9:42).
3. One whose two sons resorted to David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:3).
4. Treasurer of David (1 Chron. 27:25).
5. Village lying on the borders of Judah and Benjamin (Ezra 2:24; Neh. 12:29). Called
BETH-AZMAVETH in Nehemiah 7:28. Identified with Hizmeh, 31° 50' N, 35° 15' E.

Azmon

Place on the south west frontier of Palestine, apparently near the Wady el-Arish, the torrent of Egypt (Num. 34:4-5; Josh. 15:4).

Aznoth-tabor

“Ears or peaks of Tabor.” Landmark on the border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:34). Not identified.

Azor

Son of Eliakim in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus (Matt. 1:13-14).

Azotus

See ASHDOD.

Azriel

1. Head of one of the families of the half tribe of Manasseh (1 Chron. 5:24).
2. Father of Jerimoth (1 Chron. 27:19).
3. Father of Seraiah (Jer. 36:26).

Azrikam

1. Son of Neariah, and descendant of David (1 Chron. 3:23).
2. Son of Azel, a descendant of Saul (1 Chron. 8:38; 1 Chron. 9:44).
3. Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chron. 9:14; Neh. 11:15).
4. Governor of the house of king Ahaz: he was slain when the Israelites and Syrians invaded the land (2 Chron. 28:7).

Azubah

1. Mother of Jehoshaphat the king (1 Kings 22:42; 2 Chron. 20:31).
2. Wife of Caleb, son of Hezron (1 Chron. 2:18-19).

Azur

1. Father of Jaazaniah, prince of the people, against whom Ezekiel prophesied (Ezek. 11:1).
2. Prophet whose son Hananiah withstood Jeremiah (Jer. 28:1).

Azzah

See GAZA.

Azzan

Father of Paltiel, prince of Issachar, chosen to divide the land (Num. 34:26).

Azzur

One who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:17).
Courtesy of BibleTruthPublishers.com. Most likely this text has not been proofread. Any suggestions for spelling or punctuation corrections would be warmly received. Please email them to: BTPmail@bibletruthpublishers.com.