Ox; Oxen

Concise Bible Dictionary:

Several Hebrew words are translated both Ox, Oxen, and Bull, Bullock. The principal word for “bullock” is par, this is constantly spoken of as offered in the sacrifices (Ex. 29:3-143And thou shalt put them into one basket, and bring them in the basket, with the bullock and the two rams. 4And Aaron and his sons thou shalt bring unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and shalt wash them with water. 5And thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the coat, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breastplate, and gird him with the curious girdle of the ephod: 6And thou shalt put the mitre upon his head, and put the holy crown upon the mitre. 7Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him. 8And thou shalt bring his sons, and put coats upon them. 9And thou shalt gird them with girdles, Aaron and his sons, and put the bonnets on them: and the priest's office shall be theirs for a perpetual statute: and thou shalt consecrate Aaron and his sons. 10And thou shalt cause a bullock to be brought before the tabernacle of the congregation: and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon the head of the bullock. 11And thou shalt kill the bullock before the Lord, by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 12And thou shalt take of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar with thy finger, and pour all the blood beside the bottom of the altar. 13And thou shalt take all the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul that is above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and burn them upon the altar. 14But the flesh of the bullock, and his skin, and his dung, shalt thou burn with fire without the camp: it is a sin offering. (Exodus 29:3‑14)). The same word is used in Psalm 22:1212Many bulls have compassed me: strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round. (Psalm 22:12): “many bulls have compassed me.” The principal words translated “oxen” are:
1. baqar, so called because used for labor, though also offered in sacrifice (Num. 7:3-883And they brought their offering before the Lord, six covered wagons, and twelve oxen; a wagon for two of the princes, and for each one an ox: and they brought them before the tabernacle. 4And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 5Take it of them, that they may be to do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation; and thou shalt give them unto the Levites, to every man according to his service. 6And Moses took the wagons and the oxen, and gave them unto the Levites. 7Two wagons and four oxen he gave unto the sons of Gershon, according to their service: 8And four wagons and eight oxen he gave unto the sons of Merari, according unto their service, under the hand of Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest. 9But unto the sons of Kohath he gave none: because the service of the sanctuary belonging unto them was that they should bear upon their shoulders. 10And the princes offered for dedicating of the altar in the day that it was anointed, even the princes offered their offering before the altar. 11And the Lord said unto Moses, They shall offer their offering, each prince on his day, for the dedicating of the altar. 12And he that offered his offering the first day was Nahshon the son of Amminadab, of the tribe of Judah: 13And his offering was one silver charger, the weight thereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them were full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering: 14One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of incense: 15One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering: 16One kid of the goats for a sin offering: 17And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Nahshon the son of Amminadab. 18On the second day Nethaneel the son of Zuar, prince of Issachar, did offer: 19He offered for his offering one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering: 20One spoon of gold of ten shekels, full of incense: 21One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering: 22One kid of the goats for a sin offering: 23And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Nethaneel the son of Zuar. 24On the third day Eliab the son of Helon, prince of the children of Zebulun, did offer: 25His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering: 26One golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense: 27One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering: 28One kid of the goats for a sin offering: 29And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Eliab the son of Helon. 30On the fourth day Elizur the son of Shedeur, prince of the children of Reuben, did offer: 31His offering was one silver charger of the weight of an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering: 32One golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense: 33One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering: 34One kid of the goats for a sin offering: 35And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Elizur the son of Shedeur. 36On the fifth day Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai, prince of the children of Simeon, did offer: 37His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering: 38One golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense: 39One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering: 40One kid of the goats for a sin offering: 41And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai. 42On the sixth day Eliasaph the son of Deuel, prince of the children of Gad, offered: 43His offering was one silver charger of the weight of an hundred and thirty shekels, a silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering: 44One golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense: 45One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering: 46One kid of the goats for a sin offering: 47And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Eliasaph the son of Deuel. 48On the seventh day Elishama the son of Ammihud, prince of the children of Ephraim, offered: 49His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering: 50One golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense: 51One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering: 52One kid of the goats for a sin offering: 53And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Elishama the son of Ammihud. 54On the eighth day offered Gamaliel the son of Pedahzur, prince of the children of Manasseh: 55His offering was one silver charger of the weight of an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering: 56One golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense: 57One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering: 58One kid of the goats for a sin offering: 59And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Gamaliel the son of Pedahzur. 60On the ninth day Abidan the son of Gideoni, prince of the children of Benjamin, offered: 61His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering: 62One golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense: 63One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering: 64One kid of the goats for a sin offering: 65And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Abidan the son of Gideoni. 66On the tenth day Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai, prince of the children of Dan, offered: 67His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering: 68One golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense: 69One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering: 70One kid of the goats for a sin offering: 71And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai. 72On the eleventh day Pagiel the son of Ocran, prince of the children of Asher, offered: 73His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering: 74One golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense: 75One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering: 76One kid of the goats for a sin offering: 77And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Pagiel the son of Ocran. 78On the twelfth day Ahira the son of Enan, prince of the children of Naphtali, offered: 79His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering: 80One golden spoon of ten shekels, full of incense: 81One young bullock, one ram, one lamb of the first year, for a burnt offering: 82One kid of the goats for a sin offering: 83And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this was the offering of Ahira the son of Enan. 84This was the dedication of the altar, in the day when it was anointed, by the princes of Israel: twelve chargers of silver, twelve silver bowls, twelve spoons of gold: 85Each charger of silver weighing an hundred and thirty shekels, each bowl seventy: all the silver vessels weighed two thousand and four hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary: 86The golden spoons were twelve, full of incense, weighing ten shekels apiece, after the shekel of the sanctuary: all the gold of the spoons was an hundred and twenty shekels. 87All the oxen for the burnt offering were twelve bullocks, the rams twelve, the lambs of the first year twelve, with their meat offering: and the kids of the goats for sin offering twelve. 88And all the oxen for the sacrifice of the peace offerings were twenty and four bullocks, the rams sixty, the he goats sixty, the lambs of the first year sixty. This was the dedication of the altar, after that it was anointed. (Numbers 7:3‑88); 2 Chron. 35:8-128And his princes gave willingly unto the people, to the priests, and to the Levites: Hilkiah and Zechariah and Jehiel, rulers of the house of God, gave unto the priests for the passover offerings two thousand and six hundred small cattle, and three hundred oxen. 9Conaniah also, and Shemaiah and Nethaneel, his brethren, and Hashabiah and Jeiel and Jozabad, chief of the Levites, gave unto the Levites for passover offerings five thousand small cattle, and five hundred oxen. 10So the service was prepared, and the priests stood in their place, and the Levites in their courses, according to the king's commandment. 11And they killed the passover, and the priests sprinkled the blood from their hands, and the Levites flayed them. 12And they removed the burnt offerings, that they might give according to the divisions of the families of the people, to offer unto the Lord, as it is written in the book of Moses. And so did they with the oxen. (2 Chronicles 35:8‑12)).
2. shor, so called from its strength, boldness (Ex. 21:28-3628If an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die: then the ox shall be surely stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit. 29But if the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and it hath been testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death. 30If there be laid on him a sum of money, then he shall give for the ransom of his life whatsoever is laid upon him. 31Whether he have gored a son, or have gored a daughter, according to this judgment shall it be done unto him. 32If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned. 33And if a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit, and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall therein; 34The owner of the pit shall make it good, and give money unto the owner of them; and the dead beast shall be his. 35And if one man's ox hurt another's, that he die; then they shall sell the live ox, and divide the money of it; and the dead ox also they shall divide. 36Or if it be known that the ox hath used to push in time past, and his owner hath not kept him in; he shall surely pay ox for ox; and the dead shall be his own. (Exodus 21:28‑36); Prov. 14:44Where no oxen are, the crib is clean: but much increase is by the strength of the ox. (Proverbs 14:4); Ezek. 1:1010As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle. (Ezekiel 1:10)). In Psalm 22:1212Many bulls have compassed me: strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round. (Psalm 22:12) for “strong [bulls]” the word is abbir, signifying “mighty one,” it is translated “bulls” in Psalm 50:1313Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats? (Psalm 50:13); Psalm 68:3030Rebuke the company of spearmen, the multitude of the bulls, with the calves of the people, till every one submit himself with pieces of silver: scatter thou the people that delight in war. (Psalm 68:30); Isaiah 34:77And the unicorns shall come down with them, and the bullocks with the bulls; and their land shall be soaked with blood, and their dust made fat with fatness. (Isaiah 34:7) and Jeremiah 50:1111Because ye were glad, because ye rejoiced, O ye destroyers of mine heritage, because ye are grown fat as the heifer at grass, and bellow as bulls; (Jeremiah 50:11). The ox is typical of attributive power in patience as found in the living creatures in Ezekiel 1:1010As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle. (Ezekiel 1:10); and in Revelation 4:77And the first beast was like a lion, and the second beast like a calf, and the third beast had a face as a man, and the fourth beast was like a flying eagle. (Revelation 4:7).

From Manners and Customs of the Bible: