Bible Handbook: Old Testament

Table of Contents

1. Bible Handbook Old Testament: Preface
2. The Holy Bible
3. Geology and the Scripture Account of Creation
4. The Animal Creation
5. The Botany of the Bible
6. Aromatic Plants
7. Medicinal Plants
8. Food, Condiment, Fruit and Beverage Plants
9. Trees Used for Manufacturing Purposes
10. Various Plants and Flowers
11. Typical and Illustrative Persons
12. Divine Names and Titles
13. Brief Summary of the Foregoing
14. Outlines of the Books of the Old Testament: The First Division of the Old Testament - the Law
15. Genesis: 4000 B.C. - 50 Chapters and 1533 Verses
16. Exodus: 1706 B.C. - 40 Chapters and 1213 Verses
17. Leviticus: 1490 B.C. - 27 Chapters and 859 Verses
18. Numbers: 1490 B.C. - 36 Chapters and 1288 Veses
19. Deuteronomy: 1451 B.C. - 34 Chapters and 959 Verses
20. The Second Division of the Old Testament: The Prophets (Luke 24:44)
21. Joshua: 1451 B.C. - 24 Chapters and 658 Verses
22. Judges: 1425 B.C. - 21 Chapters and 618 Verses
23. Ruth: 1322 B.C. - 4 Chapters and 85 Verses
24. First Samuel: 1171 B.C. - 31 Chapters and 810 Verses
25. Second Samuel: 1056 B.C. - 24 Chapters and 695 Verses
26. First Kings: 1015 B.C. - 22 Chapters and 816 Verses
27. Second Kings: 896 B.C. - 25 Chapters and 719 Verses
28. First Chronicles: 4004 B.C. - 29 Chapters and 842 Verses
29. Second Chronicles: 1015 B.C. - 36 Chapters and 822 Verses
30. Ezra: 536 B.C. - 10 Chapters and 280 Verses
31. Nehemiah: 446 B.C. - 13 Chapters and 406 Verses
32. Esther: 521 B.C. - 10 Chapters and 167 Verses
33. The Lord Hath Afflicted His Zion
34. The Third Division of the Old Testament: The Psalms (Luke 24:44)
35. Job: 1520 B.C. - 44 Chapters and 1070 Verses
36. Psalms: 150 Psalms and 2461 Verses
37. Proverbs: 1000 B.C. - 31 Chapters and 915 Verses
38. Ecclesiastes or the Preacher: 977 B.C. - 12 Chapters and 222 Verses
39. Song of Solomon: 1014 B.C. - 8 Chapters and 117 Verses
40. The Second Division of the Old Testament: The Prophets (Luke 24:44)
41. Isaiah: 760 B.C. - 66 Chapters and 1292 Verses
42. Jeremiah: 629 B.C. - 52 Chapters and 1364 Verses
43. Lamentations of Jeremiah: 588 B.C. - 5 Chapters and 154 Verses
44. Ezekiel: 595 B.C. - 48 Chapters and 1273 Verses
45. Daniel: 607 B.C. - 12 Chapters and 357 Verses
46. Hosea: 785 B.C. - 14 Chapters and 197 Verses
47. Joel: 800 B.C. - 3 Chapters and 73 Verses
48. Amos: 787 B.C. - 9 Chapters and 146 Verses
49. Obadiah: 587 B.C. - 21 Verses
50. Jonah: 862 B.C. - 4 Chapters and 48 Verses
51. Micah: 750 B.C. - 7 Chapters and 105 Verses
52. Nahum: 713 B.C. - 3 Chapters and 37 Verses
53. Habakkuk: 626 B.C. - 3 Chapters and 56 Verses
54. Zephaniah: 630 B.C. - 3 Chapters and 53 Verses
55. Haggai: 520 B.C. - 2 Chapters and 38 Verses
56. Zechariah: 520 B.C. - 14 Chapters and 211 Verses
57. Malachi: 397 B.C. - 4 Chapters and 55 Verses
58. Guide Notes to the Books of the Old Testament
59. The Prophets and Prophecy
60. Outline of the Ways of God
61. Scripture Numeration
62. Collection of Bible Symbols
63. Untranslated Hebrew Words in the Book of Psalms
64. Divisions of the Book of Psalms
65. Biblical Notes
66. The Seven Feasts
67. The Temples
68. Prophetic Notes
69. Words and Expressions Explained
70. The Tabernacle: Its Materials, Vessels, and Coverings
71. Veil of Blue, Purple, Scarlet and Find-Twined Linen: With Cherubim
72. The Burnt Offering: Leviticus 1
73. The Meat Offering: Leviticus 2
74. The Peace Offering: Leviticus 3
75. The Sin Offering: Leviticus 4
76. The Trespass Offering: Leviticus 5 and 6:7
77. Wilderness Defilement: Or the Red Heifer
78. The Thirteen Judges of Israel
79. Sovereigns of the United Kingdom of Israel
80. Sovereigns of the Kingdom of Judah
81. Sovereigns of the Kingdom of Israel
82. Identification of the Nations Noted in Gen. 10
83. Descendants of Japheth
84. Descendants of Ham
85. Descendants of Shem
86. The Holy Land and Its Capital City, Jerusalem
87. Jerusalem
88. Scripture Information Respecting Jerusalem
89. The Ancient Country of Edom
90. Scripture Information Respecting Edom
91. Historical Account of Babylon
92. Scripture Information Respecting Babylon
93. Historical Account of Alexandria
94. Scripture Time, Months and Seasons
95. The Seasons
96. Scripture Weights, Measures and Coins
97. Idols and Idol Worship: With Notes
98. Signs and Wonders in the Land of Egypt
99. Prophetic Blessings of Jacob and Moses: Genesis 49, Deuteronomy 33
100. Translation of the Inscription on the Moabite Stone
101. Chronology and Chronological Tables
102. Biblical and Theological Terms Explained

Bible Handbook Old Testament: Preface

The design of the "Handbook" is to assist the reader in daily study of the Word of God, to promote an enlarged and accurate acquaintance with its separate books and various subjects, and to supply a work for general reference in Biblical Studies. The limits of the book necessarily required brief and concise treatment, and to confine ourselves in the meantime, almost exclusively to the study of the Old Testament. Subjects connected more with the present dispensation are treated in a companion volume upon the New Testament. In the present work it will be found that a considerable range of subjects are introduced, numerous points of interest briefly presented, and a considerable amount of Biblical information imparted in a condensed and suggestive form.
It will be observed that such subjects as the credibility of the facts and truths revealed in the word of God, and the "Historical Argument" for Christianity, which are generally prominent features in such works as the present, are here entirely omitted. An intellectual demonstration of the truths of Holy Scripture, however important in its place, still leaves the conscience untouched, and makes no provision for the wants of the soul. Herein consists the moral value of the Word of God, that it unfolds the thorough ruin of man, evidences his guilt, and reveals a salvation which, while it covers God with glory, meets the deepest need of the sinner in the presence of God. Does not, therefore, the Bible, like the sun, carry its own evidence with it?
The author has repeatedly and earnestly besought the Divine blessing on the work, and has devoted much time and labor in its preparation. He has not hesitated to use freely from others who have labored in the delightful fields of Bible Research, but all direct quotations are inserted as such. Special acknowledgment is due to the author of Hebrew Proper Names, an invaluable book to the Bible student, and which has been of considerable service to us as to others.
That the studies of the reader on the profound themes and in the matchless volume of inspiration be conducted under the direct guidance of the Holy Ghost—without whose efficient teaching all human help is valueless—and that a blessing as rich and abundant may rest upon him as that enjoyed by the writer in the preparation of the book, is the fervent wish and earnest prayer of the author.

The Holy Bible

The Bible is all for the Christian, but not all about him. God in government, or Messiah and the Kingdom, might express the general character of the Old Testament, while God in grace, or Christ and the Church, would characterize the New Testament. Moses, by inspiration of God, opened the canon of divine revelation; Paul completed the subjects of which it treats (Col. 1:25); John closed it with the Revelation. This blessed book is assailed on every hand—its inspiration is openly denied, its Divine authority unblushingly called in question, and its heavenly doctrines made the sport of an unbelieving world. Yet its subjects are grand, momentous, and divine; its themes are heavenly and eternal. It is the Word of God, and therefore it liveth and abideth forever.
Its Title. - The title, "The Holy Bible," now everywhere happily accorded to the whole collection of the sacred writings, was first used in the middle of the fourth century. The titles "Old Testament" and "New Testament" were probably borrowed, the former from 2 Cor. 3:14, and the latter from Matt. 26:28. These expressions originally contemplated the relationships in which the Jews and Christians stood before God—the former before, and the latter after, the work of the cross. They then came to be applied to the books in which these covenants were expressed, hence the "Old Testament" and "New Testament".
Before the Holy Bible was spoken of as such, it was generally termed "The Scriptures," or "The Holy Scriptures.' The Apostles Peter and Paul so speak of the sacred writings (2 Peter 3:16; 2 Tim. 3:15). Philo, a philosopher and
very learned Jew residing at Alexandria, and Josephus, the Jewish historian, equally learned, especially in all matters pertaining to his nation, and residing at Jerusalem, were both unbelievers, but both regarded the Old Testament as of divine origin, terming it "The Sacred Scriptures;" both, moreover, were contemporaries, and flourished in the middle of the first century. Both these scholarly Jews cruelly tampered with the very writings which they regarded as holy; Philo allegorizing almost everything related in them and turning facts into fancies; while Josephus distorted facts and exaggerated whatever would tend to the exaltation of himself and the glory of his nation.
The Truth Gradually Unfolded.-For a period of 4000 years and more, God at "sundry times and in divers manners" successively revealed His mind and will to man. This He did by revelations and communications, orally or otherwise delivered, from Adam to Moses; and then from Moses to the Apostle John (with an interregnum of about 500 years) in writing, thus fixing the truth and giving it a settled and definite form and character. What a mercy to hold in our hands not a but the Word of God! What a blessing to know the absolute certainty of those things whereof we are fully assured!
From Adam to Noah we have a period of more than 1600 years; again, from Noah till Abraham there is a period of about 400 years, and from Abraham till Moses about 500 years. Now carefully observe the facts. Adam lived 930 years (Gen. 5:5), and only died about 56 years before Enoch was translated. Noah, too, could have enjoyed several year's intercourse with Enoch. Thus the man "who walked with God" could have held the hand of Adam with one hand and that of Noah with the other. We thus bridge the first period of the world's history, and certainly the truth could not have suffered in its transmission, as Enoch is commended for his walk, and Noah for his testimony (Heb. 11:5-7). Again, Shem, Noah's second son, the then depository of the truth (Gen. 9:26), was contemporary with Abraham for nearly a century. Thus we have Shem in special relationship with Jehovah, spanning the second and eventful period from the flood till the gracious call of Abraham, to whom further revelations of the truth were made. A new deposit of the truth was committed to Abraham—"to Abraham and his seed were the promises made" (Gal. 3:16); and to each of the "Pilgrim Fathers" of Israel God communicated His mind. Thus we are carried up almost to the days of Moses, when the duration of human life became so curtailed (Psa. 90:10) that it would be impossible to hand down the truth with the certainty that its purity would be maintained, as it would have to flow through so many channels.
Now we come to the written word, and here we would say that this form of communication exceeds by far any other mode of revelation whatever, "for Thou hast magnified Thy Word above all Thy name" (Psa. 138:2). The first mention of a "book" or of "writing" in the Bible is in Ex. 17:14. Moses began writing prior to the promulgation of the law. With certain intervals, the composition of the Old Testament extended through a period of about 1100 years, and was closed by the prophet Malachi. A few years after the death of Christ the books comprising the New Testament were begun with the Gospel of Matthew, and ere the first century of the Christian era closed, and before John the beloved apostle was taken to his Master, the whole of the New Testament was finished and in the hands and keeping of the Christian Church!
The Separate Books, Chapters, Verses, etc.-The first five books of Moses were originally written in one roll or book. The division into separate books and the titles of each are convenient for reference. They are very ancient, moreover, being arranged and titled in the Septuagint the same as in our Bibles. The two books of Samuel, the two books of Kings, and the two books of Chronicles were originally one book each. The separation of those three books into pairs is forced, and to some extent destroys the connection: it would have been better if the original arrangement had been adhered to and sectioned off for the English reader. The division of the Bible into chapters is comparatively a modern arrangement, and still more so into verses. Cardinal Hugo, who lived about the middle of the thirteenth century, proposed to himself the task of preparing a concordance for more easy reference to the Vulgate, the Latin version of the Bible. For this purpose he divided the whole into chapters, which were found so very useful that in all subsequent editions and versions they were incorporated. About two centuries afterward a learned Jewish Rabbi, Mordecai Nathan, in order to assist in the study of the Hebrew Bible, prepared a concordance, and in order probably to simplify his work, he divided the Old Testament into verses, adopting however Hugo's division of chapters. In our English Bibles, therefore, and in all modern versions and translations, we have not only Cardinal Hugo's chapters, but Rabbi Nathan's verses as to the Old Testament. Until the middle of the sixteenth century the whole Bible was divided into chapters, and the Old Testament only into verses. Robert Stephens, the indefatigable French printer and Bible publisher, adopting the Cardinal's chapters and the Rabbi's Old Testament verses, took in hand the New Testament, and divided it into verses, and then published the whole complete about 1551. Some 15 or 16 years afterward an English Archbishop, Parker, undertook to publish the Bible in our own language, with all the chapters and verses. This edition is generally spoken of as the Bishop's Bible. A little more than 40 years after the publication of the Bishop's Bible, our own version as in present use appeared—one, no doubt, capable of critical improvement, but hallowed and endeared to the hearts of many thousands in this and past centuries. The postscripts attached to the epistles should be rejected. They are certainly, some of them at least, very ancient, but also very misleading, and the reader will be safe in rejecting them as they are the work of copyists.
The Languages in which the Bible was Written.-The Bible was originally written in three languages, Hebrew, Syriac, and Greek. The whole of the New Testament was written in the Greek tongue. James wrote in it to the twelve scattered tribes of Israel, Peter to the Jews of the dispersion, and Paul to the Hebrews in Palestine as well as to the Christians in the world's metropolis—Rome.
The Old Testament was written in Hebrew—the oldest of known languages, and perhaps the primitive tongue of man—save certain small portions which God caused to be written in the Syriac language. The sublime strains of Isaiah, the weeping plaints of Jeremiah, and the abrupt, forcible, and striking style and imagery of Ezekiel, could only be fully expressed in Hebrew, the language of the heart, as Greek is that of the mind. The Phoenicians (whose country bordered the Mediterranean, and whose merchant navy carried the rich produce of Persia, Egypt, and even India, to far distant lands, and who are believed to have penetrated even to the coasts of Great Britain) spoke Hebrew. Thus, no doubt, some glimpses of the truth were carried to the heathen of the ancient world. Heber, the last of the fathers before the dispersion, and from whom the name "Hebrew" is derived, is believed to have spoken the Hebrew tongue; if so, it was likely the original language of mankind. The seven nations of Canaan also spoke Hebrew, and Abraham, when he left Mesopotamia, forsook his mother tongue, the Syriac, for that of the Canaanite.
Hebrew died out as a spoken and written tongue soon after the Babylon-captivity. The mass of the people during their exile—70 years—learned the language of their conqueror's, and forgot their own, so that on the return of certain remnants to Jerusalem, the book of the law, which was read in Hebrew, had to be expounded in Syriac (Neh. 8).
About 280 years B. C., the Old Testament was translated into Greek, by order of Ptolemy Philadelphus, King of Egypt, who was desirous, not only of enriching the great Alexandrian library with a copy of the Jewish Scriptures, but also to put the Old Testament into Greek, the then current language, on behalf of the many thousands of Alexandrian Jews who knew nothing of Hebrew. The Alexandrian version of the Old Testament, or Septuagint, as it is generally termed, was in general use in Palestine during the time of Our Lord, and from it, He and the writers of the New Testament repeatedly quoted. The Hebrew text, however, is paramount as an authority, for the chief advantage of the Jews over all others consisted in this, "that to them were committed the oracles of God" (Rom. 3:2), and these written oracles were penned in Hebrew.
The other language used in the writing of the Old Testament is the Syriac, or more generally termed the "Aramean," from Aram, the Bible name of Syria (Gen. 10:22,23), sometimes also called, but erroneously, "Chaldean," that being a dialect peculiar to the learned in Babylon (Dan. 1:4). The Syriac was the tongue spoken by the Assyrians who destroyed the kingdom of Israel, and of the Babylonians who destroyed Judah. The several instances in which this language is used in the Old Testament are, first, Jer. 10:11. in which the triumphing heathen are abruptly informed that their gods are doomed to utter destruction; second, Ezra 4:8 to 6:18, and 7:12-26, in these portions the haughty Gentile conquerors of Judah are informed in their own language of Jehovah's abiding interest in His people, although but weak and few in number, having just emerged from their long captivity; third, in Dan. 2:4 to the close of Dan. 7., here the rise, progress, and total destruction of Gentile power, is divinely sketched, and thus they are left without excuse.
The Hebrew tongue, Acts 26:14, and the various Hebrew words and expressions, such as in Mark 5:41;7:34; 15:34 spoken by Christ; also John 5:2; Rev. 9:11, the original Hebrew language, but simply that then spoken by the Jews. In general, the Lord and the Apostles spoke the common tongue—Greek. The exceptions we have indicated, as also Paul's address on the Castle stairs at Jerusalem (Acts 22) were in the Syriac tongue. The inscription affixed over the cross of Jesus was written in Greek, the language of the people, in Latin, the official language of the imperial power, and in Hebrew, the ecclesiastical tongue of the heads of Israel, this latter meaning the Aramean.
Christ's Threefold Division of the Old Testament.-The division of the Old Testament into "the Law," "the Psalms," and "the Prophets," does not rest on the uncertain authority of Jewish tradition, but on the authoritative teaching of the risen Lord. Here are His own blessed words-"And He said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning Me" (Luke 24:44).
"The Law of Moses" here refers to the first five books of Scripture, generally termed "the Pentateuch." These books were originally written as one, and are read as such in modern Jewish synagogues. Christ is the holy burden of these books, as said Philip of Bethsaida (John 1:45), and the Lord before (John 5:46) and after His death and resurrection (Luke 24:44).
"The Prophets" embrace that portion of the Bible which is strictly prophetic—from Isaiah to Malachi—and also the historical books, as all having one thought in common. A prophet is one that brings the mind of God to bear upon the conscience: it may be God's mind as to the present—that mainly characterizes the historical books—or His purpose concerning the future—as in the prophetic writings. But what is important to observe is, that in all these 29 books the mind of God is pressed upon the souls and consciences of Jehovah's people, and in certain cases on the Gentiles too; and further, that Christ, especially in His regal dignities and glories, is mirrored in these writings. Yes, He is the center of all revelation and the burden of all Scripture.
"The Psalms" are five in number-Job, Book of Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon. These books are denominated "the Psalms" because they are really the utterances and pulsations of the human heart. Their distinctly moral character and poetic strains have entitled them to be classed under one comprehensive title. The feelings and exercises of the Blessed One, and of Jewish saints in the future crisis of their history, are fully detailed in this divine section of Old Testament Scripture; the death of Jesus and resulting consequences are developed in the Law of Moses; while, the prophetic and kingly glories of the Messiah are, in the main, the themes in the second section of the Old Testament writings.
The divisional title "the Psalms," meaning the five books already alluded to, must not be confounded with "the book of Psalms." When this latter is spoken of in the New Testament, as in Acts 1:20 and Luke 20:42, it refers to the separate book bearing that divine title. It may here be remarked, that Paul, by the Holy Ghost, recognizes the present numbering of "the book of Psalms," for in Acts 33, he refers to what is "written in the second psalm" in proof of God's accomplishment of His promises.
It is important to remark that Jesus was not a manifestation of God. Revelations by and manifestations of God are characteristic of the Old Testament; but in Jesus, as portrayed to us in the Gospels, God is perfectly revealed; "and without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifested in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory" (1 Tim 3:16).

Geology and the Scripture Account of Creation

In the following table we present a few facts gathered from the museum of the geological storehouse. We might have increased them tenfold, but those adduced are sufficient for our purpose, which is to show that instead of science and revelation being contradictory, they are in perfect harmony. It is the same God who wrote Holy Scripture that made the stones, and believing this, how can there be a contradiction between His word and His works? Ten thousand geological or other facts in nature leave untouched the absolute perfection of the Word of God; yea, we invite thorough, searching, and minute inquiry into every department of physical science. Give us any number of carefully ascertained facts. These we will gladly accept, and rebuke the fears of those who hesitate to receive them. But on the other hand, conclusions and deductions may be taken for their real worth. The foundations on which Christianity rest, are too solidly laid to be in the least disturbed by the unhallowed theories and fancies of men, however pious or learned. The Christian has the truth, both in a written and personal form; first in the Holy Scriptures, a full, inspired, and completed revelation of the truth; need we say that there is abundant room for development in the apprehension of the truth, but certainly not in the truth itself. Again, Jesus said "I am the truth." He was that, and is that, in His own person. Can there be progress or development in the glorified Man in heaven? Certainly not; while surely there is abundant scope for growth and increase in the knowledge of Him "who is the same, yesterday, to-day and forever."
What, then, is the clear conclusion from even a cursory examination of the facts revealed by the geologist? It seems certain to us, as it is to all who have devoted any attention to the subject, that those huge rocks, from 15 to 20 miles deep, formed of accumulated and countless millions of particles of matter, and arranged in successional layers of the most orderly character, must have occupied for their formation periods of time so vast as to defy human calculation. Many of these rocks must at a remote age have formed the bed of the ocean, and others dry land, covered with vegetation. Those sedimentary rocks tell us that the waters were filled with life, that fishes and numerous aquatic animals of gigantic size and curiously shaped, once swam there, that amphibious animals disported themselves, and birds extraordinary for size and kind, trod those ancient sands and left their footprints behind them. What marvels those rocks unfold! What silent yet eloquent witnesses they are to the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Creator! Can the mind grasp the length of time needful to deposit material so as to form and consolidate rocks miles deep? Once more examine those rocks: Do they not tell us of rich, luxuriant vegetation? Look at those tropical plants found in the coldest regions, telling us that light and heat were equally diffused throughout the primeval earth. The magnificent foliage and shrubs and trees, of which there are no existing species producible by the naturalist, almost transport us into those immense, grand, old forests and gardens which the eye of man never beheld and human foot never trod. The silence of those bye-gone ages was broken by the hiss of serpent and reptile of enormous length and singular form; those dense forests once reverberated with the joyous notes of birds, who flapped their mighty wings, and where stalked the giant animals of that creation. And all this turned into stone Has all this been accomplished in a day of 24 hours? To state the proposition is sufficient as a refutation. We are not now raising any question affecting divine power, nor would we indulge in the unhallowed thought that God is not free to create in any shape or in any moment of time, but we have clear and indubitable evidence in the organic remains before us, of fossils, bones, skins, flesh, skeletons, etc., that the creation disentombed by the geologist did not come as it is now from the Creator's hands. To any who would question the wisdom of a pre-Adamic creation, we would say, Have you ever reflected on the goodness of God in turning the primeval vegetable world into coal? Need we refer to the "carboniferous" era as so commercial daily life of man; and yet who can tell, or even form the least conception of the important changes which must have transpired, and the enormous time needed to perfect the state of things displayed in these rocks and fossils, the benefits of which we are now enjoying. Is there a page in the book of Holy Scripture, or a line in the volume of nature, informing us as to the antiquity of the globe? There is not. The first date recorded in the Word of God will be found in Gen. 5:3, "And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years." The measures of time in the book of Genesis refer to the age of man, not to the earth at all; and hence it was an unhappy blunder of that otherwise able and accomplished chronologist, Archbishop Usher, to date the first verse of the Bible at 4004 B.C., for which there is not the slightest authority in the sacred text.
If, then, the voice of science urgently demand a vastly longer period for the formation of its numerous strata than that wrongly marked in our Bibles, and, further, that vegetation must have flourished, light and heat existed, and land animals at least lived under conditions not furnished by the present state of things since man was created, What is the natural conclusion? Why, that our thoughts, our previous habits of thinking and speaking, are wrong, not the Word of God, as the unsanctified lips of some have dared to utter. We do not say that the Word of God falls in with the results and facts of science, thus honoring the Word; it never borrows light, but adds a luster and glory to every subject it touches.
Our statement then is, that the first verse of the Bible is a separate and independent affirmation, and is not to be accepted as a summary of the succeeding verses describing the six days' work, and for this we will give Scripture proof presently. "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." Does the Word of God say that this "beginning" was 6000 years ago, and, if so, where? All that the first verse of Genesis asserts is, that in a certain undated "beginning" God created. When or how we are not informed. This original creation may have been 20,000 years ago, or a 100,000 if you choose. Matter, therefore, is not eternal, for it had a "beginning," and its creator was "God." The reader must not suppose that this interpretation is offered to save the credit of the Word of God; its statements are absolutely perfect, and it is well to know that many centuries before geology could be counted as a science, and before she ever presented a single difficulty, such early writers as Augustine, Basil, Origen, and others held that the first verse of Genesis and the six days of creation were entirely distinct. Now read verse 2, "And the earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters." What a scene of waste, darkness, and desolation! Did God create it so? Is not perfection stamped upon the various works and ways of God? "His work is perfect." We can scarcely suppose any sober-minded Christian to hold that God created the earth in the ruined condition so graphically described by Moses, and which the eye of the seer beheld as an emblem of Israel's utter desolation (Jer. 4:23).
We believe this matter will be greatly simplified by careful attention to two inspired, therefore authoritative statements. First, Moses says, " In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." Now, that this does not refer to the earth's condition as "without form and void" is evident from Isa. 45:18, "For thus saith the Lord that created the heavens: God Himself that formed the earth and made it; He hath established it. He created it not in vain (or ‘void,' the same word as in Gen. 1:2), He formed it to be inhabited."Hence in this second statement we are expressly told that God did not create the earth empty or "void," as described in the second verse of Genesis. The following rough plan may bring the order more clearly before the mind:—
1.
"In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth," filling the latter with animal and vegetable life, as "the book of stone" bears witness. When it was created, and how long it thus existed, Scripture does not inform us.
(Here follows a long and uncounted period of time.)
2.
"And the earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep." How this terrible calamity happened, and how long the earth lay desolate and ruined, we know not, but Isaiah (45:18) expressly says God did not create it so.
(Here follows another lengthened measure of time.)
3.
"And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters." The brooding of the Spirit of God over the awful desolation was certainly prior to the six days' work, but as surely introductory to it.
(Here follows another interval, but necessarily a brief one.)
4.
First day of 24 hours- Gen. 1:5.
Second day of 24 hours- Gen. 1:8.
Third day of 24 hours- Gen. 1:53.
Fourth day of 24 hours- Gen. 1:19.
Fifth day of 24 hours- Gen. 1:23.
Sixth day of 24 hours- Gen. 1:31.
Seventh day of 24 hours (?)-we are not told.
See now, how perfectly this meets the demands of science for time and terms of life, unknown to man since he became a tenant on the earth; for between the two first verses of Genesis, you are welcome to measures of time as long as you choose, and to evolve principles and conditions of existence which could only apply to a pre-Adamic earth.
But in order to reconcile Scripture and geology, it has been sought to turn the separate days in which the heavens and the earth were made, into lengthened periods of time, and, as is well known, the late Mr. Hugh Miller, although not the author of this theory, was perhaps its most able and powerful exponent. But is not this trifling with the Word of God? Is not the interpretation forced and unnatural? Why should it be six times repeated, "the evening and the morning.. were the day," if we were thereby to understand lengthened measures of time? Besides, the interpretation when applied to the successive strata disclosed by the geologist does not satisfy. That a general correspondence may be traced between the geological periods and the six days' work would be generally admitted. Mr. Miller has himself satisfactorily established a likeness between the three great geological periods, and the third, fifth, and sixth days of Gen. 1, but that is all; absolute identity there is not, and we suspect Mr. M. must have felt the difficulty, as he did not attempt a formal proof of the whole. There are various facts which make this theory untenable, and many who received it are now, on more mature consideration, giving it up. It has been said that in "six days the Lord created heaven and earth," and hence there could have been no previous creation, as we have stated. But it may be replied that Scripture not once asserts a creation in six days: it is written, "in six days the Lord made heaven and earth" (Ex. 20:11). The word "create," strictly used, is applied to the production of things by the word or work of God, apart altogether from pre-existing materials or matter (Heb. 11:3), while the word "made" signifies to shape or form existing material: "these are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created (Gen. 1:1), in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens (Gen. 1:3-31). The distinction between "creating" and "making" is all-important in considering the mutual relations of geology and the Scripture account of creation. The Bible does not, of course, formally, teach science, yet, on whatever theme it speaks, absolute perfection of statement may be relied upon. One solitary fact has not yet been produced (although the treasures of creation have been eagerly ransacked for the unholy purpose) in opposition to any statement found in the Word of God.
Deeply interesting and morally instructive are the details of the six days' work, and the more carefully they are examined, it will be found that they throw light on numerous points, and amply confirm the fact of a pre-Adamic creation—of that world without a human inhabitant, and which had undergone various violent catastrophes ere it was prepared as a dwelling for man.
First Day.-"And God said, let there be light: and there was light." The sublimity of this passage lies in its grand simplicity. Many, besides the great heathen critic Longinus, have been struck with admiration at the perfectly magnificent utterance, and it has been repeatedly brought forward as one of the finest passages on record. Instantly the light broke in upon the dense and universal scene of darkness. Observe that it is not said the light was then created, but caused to be. There had been light previously, as the facts of geology clearly show. Would any pretend to say that God would create animals with eyes of exquisite workmanship and of keen vision, and yet no light existing; or that God would have created a darkened heaven and earth? Here then is light, independent of, and apart from the heavenly orbs, which were not made or set in heaven till the fourth day. When or where was it known that light could exist apart from the heavenly bodies? It is only of late years that science has demonstrated the fact, and thereby paid another tribute of homage to the unerring accuracy of the Mosaic account of creation. Light travels at the astonishing rate of about 195,000 miles in one second. Sound is a slow traveler compared to this, journeying at the rate of about 13 miles in one minute.
Second Day.-"And God said: Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters." The obedience was instant and complete, and the expanse thereby formed between the waters was called "heaven," that is, the atmosphere which extends upwards to about 50 miles, and which is essential to the three kingdoms of nature—animal, vegetable, and mineral. You will observe that we have three heavens spoken of in Scripture. Paul was caught up to the third heaven (2 Cor. 12:4), which is spoken of as the immediate presence of God, and the region of the Divine glory, also the dwelling place of angels and saints; then the second heaven, or region of the sun, moon, and starry host (Job 38:31-33, etc.)—these heavens are referred to in Gen. 2:4, as created according to the interpretation given of the opening verse of the Bible; while here we have the third, or atmospheric heaven.
Third Day.-The work of the third day claims special attention. It will be observed in the course of the chapter that the Creator six times pronounced His work "good," and on the completion of the whole "very, good"; but be it noted that on the second day the word of approval is omitted, while on the "third " it occurs twice. Why is this? It will be observed that the formation of the expanse, while separating the "waters from the waters," still left the earth submerged and shapeless. Disorder still reigned supreme. Hence, when the third day dawned, God gathered the waters under heaven together. Oceans, seas, lakes, rivers were formed; and mountains, islands, continents, valleys, sprang out of the dry ground, thus completing the work of the second day, and which was then pronounced "good" (Gen. 1:10). Another distinction may here be pointed out. In the course of the first three days' work, the word "called" occurs five times (Gen. 1:5-10), while it is not again used throughout the chapter. Is this a trivial matter, not worth noting either by writer or reader? Nothing is unimportant which it has pleased God to communicate, and it would be well for the blessing and profit of our souls were we to scan, with microscopic minuteness, the blessed pages of inspiration. In those three days, therefore, the groundwork was laid in which the lite, beauty, and bountifulness of creation were to be displayed. Thus the "day," ruled by the glorious sun; the "night," by the silvery moon (Gen. 1:5); "heaven," the great distributor of light and heat, and the region where every swift and beauteous bird warbles its joyous notes (Gen. 1:8); "earth," with its countless treasures hidden in its womb, and its surface clad with vegetation; and "sea," teeming with life, and fruitful in blessing to man and creation (Gen. 1:10), are each distinctly named and "called" by God. Thus the creative week is divided; the first half in laying the groundwork, the second half in furnishing and adorning it. That this is not an arbitrary distinction will be apparent from the following parallelism of the days and divisions of the week:-
In considering the third day's work, which is pretty fully related, we meet with another of the many undesigned proofs of a previous creation; for observe that the "earth" is not here said to be created, no more than it was said of the "light" (Gen. 1:3). For ages the earth lay buried beneath the waters, awaiting the command of its Creator to arise from its watery tomb (2 Peter 3:5): "Let the dry land appear" (Gen. 1:9), and it was so. We cannot help here transcribing the beautiful verses of the Psalmist:—
"Who laid the foundations of the earth, that it should not be removed forever: Thou coveredst it with the deep, as with a garment (Gen. 1:2): The waters stood above the mountains. At Thy rebuke they fled; at the voice of Thy thunder they hasted away. They go up by the mountains; they go down by the valleys unto the place which Thou hast founded for them."—Psa. 104:5-8.
The earth's circumference is about 25,000 miles, and her area about 197,000,000 square miles, including land and water, the latter covering about three-fourths of the whole, or 145,500,000 square miles. The revolution of the earth on its own axis every twenty-four hours gives us day and night, and its yearly journey round the sun is performed in 365 days and 6 hours: thus a year, and, of course, the change of seasons. We must again call the reader's attention to the double action of this day. It will be observed that the commencement of each day's work is prefaced by the fiat of command-"God SAID;" while on its completion we meet with the token of satisfaction—"God saw that it was good." On the third day both expressions occur, first, as to the appearing of the dry land, and secondly, the covering of the earth with vegetation and beauty. At the Divine command the three orders of vegetable life at once covered the dry, but bare and barren earth, commencing with the lowest scale of vegetable physiology (grass) and ascending to the highest (fruit trees). This was a wonderfully gracious act of creative power. We have not only beauty adorning the new earth, but food and sustenance for man and beast. The delicately tinted flowers filled the balmy air with their delightful aroma. The green herb in countless variety, as meat for beast, fowl, and creeping thing, sprang forth in maturity and perfection in their respective regions at the voice of the beneficent
Creator; while a rich and abundant supply of food for man was provided in the fruit trees and herbs having seed in themselves—the power to propagate—and, aided by means of Divine ordering (Gen. 3:22), to branch out into almost endless variety. The inspired comment far exceeds in real sublimity and matchless simplicity anything ever penned by man. Is this not so?
"He sendeth the springs into the valleys, which run among the hills. They give drink to every beast of the field: the wild asses quench their thirst. By them shall the fowls of the heaven have their habitation, which sing amongst the branches. He watereth the hills from His chambers: the earth is satisfied with the fruit of Thy works. He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle, and herb for the service of man, that he may bring forth food out of the earth. And wine that maketh glad the heart of man, and oil to make his face shine, and bread which strengtheneth man's heart. The trees of the Lord are full of sap; the cedars of Lebanon which He hath planted, where the birds make their nests: as for the stork, the fir trees are her house...O Lord, how manifold are Thy works, in wisdom hast Thou made them all; the earth is full of Thy riches."—Psa. 104:10-24.
We have nearly 300 plants, flowers, herbs, and trees named in Scripture, from the fig tree in Genesis till the tree of life in Revelation.
Fourth Day.-The work of the fourth day (Gen. 1:14-19) does not call for lengthened remarks. The celestial orbs were "made," not created, on this day, and set in heaven to light the earth and regulate her motions. We have light on the first day, and the atmosphere on the second, essential to the vegetation of the third; but if thereby it is shown that light was independent of the sun, and vegetation flourished without solar light and heat, it is equally plain, we judge, that on the fourth day the sun became the tabernacle and throne of light and heat, and further, that the permanence of the vegetable world was made dependent on the solar system and starry host. We conceive that the great point in the work of the fourth day is the adaptation of the celestial luminaries to the conditions of life and state of things on the earth, whether of the material or organic worlds. The incidental allusion to the stars (Gen. 1:16) confirms our statement, that it is not the creation of the lights, but their place in heaven and their functions towards the earth which are expressed in these verses.
The sun is the great center of a vast system, and its distance from the earth is computed at 95,000,000 miles, and its diameter at about 890,000 miles. It revolves on its own axis every twenty-five days and ten hours. The pale and lovely moon is distant from us about 240,000 miles, and its diameter is about 2000 miles. Were a spectator standing at the equator, 5000 stars might be seen, but only on a clear moonlight night. Countless numbers are of course observable by the aid of powerful telescopes.
Fifth Day.- In the work of the fifth day we have the waters stocked with aquatic animals and the firmament with flying fowl. This we conceive is an advance on the preceding steps of creation, and manifests a forth-putting of Divine energy of a much higher kind than we have yet witnessed. Who but God could create life? Hence, for the first time in the course of the work, as detailed in the previous days, we have the word "created" (Gen. 1:21). Neither the "moving creature" nor flying fowl were created out of the waters, as has been insisted upon from the reading of Gen. 1:20. The region or sphere where each were to move and live is the thought in the passage, and this is confirmed in the case of the "fowl " from the marginal reading of the text, and from Gen. 2:19, while the creatures inhabiting the waters are expressly said, in Gen. 1:21, to have been created by God.
Sixth Day.-The sixth day now dawns upon the world, when the last act of creative wisdom and power is to crown the whole. There is a twofold action on this day, as there was on the third. First, the creation of land animals and creatures (Gen. 1:24, 25), prefaced as usual with the Divine word calling into existence, "God said," and closing with the Creator beholding His work and expressing His satisfaction therein, "God saw that it was good." Second, we have the creation of man, his place in the terrestrial sphere, then food for man and creature life generally. The three-fold order of land mammalia is given as follows:-
1. Cattle—as horses, sheep, oxen, and generally domestic animals.
2. Creeping things—as serpents, reptiles, and invertebrate creatures.
3. Beasts of the earth—as lions, and generally beasts of prey.
We have two creations of life on the fifth day, that of fishes and birds; and also two on the sixth day, that of land animals and man.
We come now to the creation of man and his place of lordship and dignity in the beautifully-ordered scene. We have had light (Gen. 1:3) thrown upon a ruined, dark, and watery waste. What a scene of desolation the light revealed! Next we had the waters divided and a beautiful expanse formed, but as yet untenanted (Gen. 1:7). Then followed the appearing of the dry land: instantly, at the Divine word, she clad herself with beauty and vegetation (Gen. 1:9-12). The sun then poured its golden beams upon the beauteous earth, and as she gently sinks in the west, the pale and silvery light of the moon—the queen of the night—aided by the brilliant starry host, illuminate the earth and heaven (Gen. 1:16); then the waters are filled with life and heaven with flying bird (Gen. 1:20, 21); lastly, the land is occupied with cattle, beasts, and moving creatures. What then? Is the work complete? As yet there was no intelligent, responsible creature morally competent to express the Creator in the vast and sinless scene. Where could you find amongst the various forms of organic life in heaven, earth, or sea, a being who could lead creation's praise, enter into the moral perfections displayed by God in His beauteous workmanship, represent Him therein, and be the vehicle of the Divine thoughts to the waiting creation. Now, however, God will work in the absoluteness of His sovereign will, and create man in His moral likeness, and to be His representative in power on the earth. This was truly a work worthy of the Creator, and surely it was fitting that thus a moral link should be established between the Creator and His work.
We need scarcely say that the creation of man on the sixth day is in perfect accord with the results of geological researches. We have upwards of 30,000 species of organic life displayed in the various strata, and not an instance on record of human remains being found save in the upper tertiary formation or "historical period," where, of course, existing species are plentiful. We are, of course, aware that certain cases have been triumphantly cited, in opposition to our statement, but we are equally aware that on careful investigation each instance so alleged has turned out a grievous mistake. One such case is fresh in our recollection. A distinguished savant made the startling assertion that a human skeleton had been found at the root of a tree 600 feet below the surface. The story was thoroughly sifted, and the result was that a skeleton had been found, not fossilized, mark you, but in "good preservation," at a depth of 16 feet. First, then, we have vegetable life, then fishes for the sea, and birds for the heaven, followed by land animals, and lastly man; and this is the order observable in the Scripture account of creation, centuries before the very name "geology" was coined. When will men learn that the temple of science can only be reverently trod by sanctified feet, and that in it the first lesson I must learn is, that God is always right, that His word is supreme as an authority on all questions affecting Christianity—our relationships to God, and also to science, our relationships to creation?
The following remarks by Mr. W. Kelly in his able and masterly lecture on "Creation" (Broom, Paternoster Square, London), are worth careful consideration:-"It is only when man is thus about to be made that God says, "Let us." Oh, can you not appreciate the spirit of such a word as this? Can you not admire the way in which God, as it were, sits in council on the creation of man? Can you not judge between the physiologist that would make an ape his projenitor, and the Bible that reveals God thus creating man in His own image? Which is the more noble? which is the more degrading? Of no other creature is it said, "Let us make," when it was a question of the earth, the sea, nay, of light itself—nothing of the sort. "Light be," said Elohim, "and light was." But as to the others: He wrought, but with no such preface as "Let us make." Here it is for the first and only time: "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion." What can be farther from development? Such an idea is altogether foreign; and, indeed, the existence of different races and kinds has been engraved by God most legibly on the world of nature; for although man by his wicked ingenuity may cross the breed, as e.g., of animals that were put under his dominion, the result is always to induce sterility—the standing witness, on the one hand, against man's meddling; and, on the other, for the order in which God meant His creation to proceed. Thus is set before us succinctly, but plainly, the general course of creation."
After man had been settled on the earth as God's vicegerent—it's Lord and center under the Creator—the whole range and boundless extent of the vegetable world is given as a storehouse of food for man and beast; herbs having seed and fruit trees being for man, and the green herbs simply for all the rest of land creatures. "And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had made: and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made. And God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because that in it He had rested from all His work which God created and made" Thus God put the broad stamp of approval upon His handiwork. He blessed and sanctified the day which declared the completion of His creative labor for the blessing of man.
"Praise ye the Lord. Praise ye the Lord from the heavens: praise Him in the heights. Praise ye Him all His angels: praise ye Him all His hosts. Praise ye Him sun and moon: praise Him all ye stars of light. Praise Him ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens. Let them praise the name of the LORD: for He commanded, and they were created." Psa. 148 Amen and Amen.

The Animal Creation

That interesting department of natural history—zoology, thus classifies the animal kingdom: first, land mammalia; second, birds or all kinds of flying fowl; third, reptiles or creeping things; fourth, fishes; and fifth, invertebrates. These distributions of animal life are, of course, most useful when scientific accuracy is required.; but to a general reader and for all practical purposes the Scripture classification is amply sufficient as, first, marine creatures; second, winged and flying fowl; and third, land animals. We have the seas, then heaven or the air, and lastly the land respectively stocked with life (Gen. 1:20-25). This is the order too observable in modern geological research.
The learned scientists of our proud and highly educated nineteenth century are wont to discharge their intellectual shafts at the credulity and ignorance displayed by the author of the book of Genesis. "This ancient document," say they, "was good enough for a rude and barbarous age, for the world in its infancy; but the Pentateuch has served its purpose, and we can easily afford to lay it aside as a book possessing not the slightest authority, but we will revere it because of its high antiquity, for it is hoary with age. Science has shown that the cosmogony of Moses is altogether out of date and quite irreconcilable with the clear deductions of modern light upon creation and its wonders." Now, we strongly object to the statement that science corroborates the Word of God, nay, it is that word which confirms and seals the certain and carefully ascertained facts and conclusions of science, and adds a luster to these studies when taken up in the fear of God, which is the beginning of wisdom. We will put two or three plain statements before our readers, frankly avowing that our knowledge of the sciences is extremely limited, but our faith in the Word of God supreme: it liveth forever while we are but creatures of a day. First, Has one fact been produced from the realm of nature which contradicts any statement in the Word of God, and if so, Where? and When? We await the proof Second, Is it not a fact that in all, or nearly all, departments of physical science mistakes have been made, and that succeeding investigators have corrected the ignorance and rebuked the assumptions of their predecessors? Third, Has it not been repeatedly demonstrated that the Bible account of creation is not merely in substantial accord with established facts, but in numerous points circumstantially confirms the teachings of science, and which till late years were held to be contradictory? We will adduce two or three examples. How could light exist apart from the sun? Science, however, on the principle of electricity, has established the fact, but it was in the Bible; yes, and in the much abused book of Genesis thousands of years before this was known. The Christian believed it because on the first day God caused the light to be, and on the fourth set the sun in the solar system. He needs not the voice of science to establish the supreme authority of Holy Scripture. The "Book of Stone" has informed the geologist as to the order and ascending scale of animal life, but the Christian can triumphantly point to the Mosaic record of creation and show it written there thousands of years before geology ever had a votary. Ethnology has been pleased to say that it has satisfactorily established the unity of the race, and further, that the human family as now divided can be resolved into three great branches. How much better to have believed in the unity and dignity of the race from the second chapter of Genesis (Gen. 2), and in the three great divisions of mankind from the tenth chapter of that same book (Gen. 10). When will men learn to be somewhat more cautious and careful in their assertions; a little modesty, after being proved to have been wrong so often, might surely befit these men of science. Of this we are fully assured from our gleanings in the writings of the school-men that the Scripture adage, "knowledge puffeth up," is abundantly witnessed in the rash assumptions and unbelieving attacks made upon a document inspired and written by Divine authority 3500 years ago. Some of the brightest intellects which have ever entered the temple of science have cheerfully paid court and homage to the Word of God. Scripture, of course, is independent of man; it never borrows light, but it adds a luster to its students, and it is right and becoming that its pre-eminent dignity be duly acknowledged.
The animal creation is further divided into clean and unclean (Lev. 11 and Deut. 14); the former being for sacrifice and for food, while the latter is regarded as unfit for either. In these ceremonial enactments Jehovah had a much higher object in view than the simple regulation of His people's food. There was a moral end in these instructions. God was teaching His people holiness, and although as Christians we are not under these legal requirements, the spirit of them should be cultivated. "Whether, therefore, ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God" (1 Cor. 10:31).
Of clean land animals there must be the ability to chew the cud, and walk with cloven foot; the hoof must be divided. These two inseparable and distinguishing marks were essential. The camel, coney, hare, &c., might possess one of these qualifications, but they were pronounced "unclean," because they lacked the other (Lev. 11:3-7). Again, all marine creatures having fins and scales, thus possessing the ability to swim, were "clean," and could be freely used by a ceremonially holy people (Lev. 11:9-12). All carnivorous and nocturnal birds were amongst the prohibited class (Lev. 11:13-19). Reptiles and creeping things in general were also unclean and an abomination (Lev. 11:20-42), but the various kinds of locust who "leaped" along the ground, neither crawling nor creeping, were allowed for food.
In the following compendium of animal creation will be found embraced all, or nearly so, of every living creature named in the Scriptures, and are arranged in strict alphabetical order. Amongst the birds it will be observed that those of prey predominate. There is also a considerable variety of small birds who inhabit Palestine not named at all. The oft-recurring expression "after his kind" (Lev. 11) intimate a species, and not specialty. Of fishes, none are named although as a class often referred to in the sacred pages and the distinction between clean and unclean accurately pointed out. The waters of Palestine abound in fishes, the Dead Sea excepted. By-and-bye, however, its waters will be healed, and teem with fish in all variety, affording constant occupation to the fisherman on its shores (Ezek. 47)
Adder.-References, Gen. 49:17; Prov. 23:32, etc. A venomous reptile of the serpent species. Its characteristics will be best known by carefully consulting the Scripture references.
Ant.-References, Prov. 6:6-8;30:25. These industrious little insects are very numerous in Palestine. They form a colony, hut without any recognized leader, and yet labor harmoniously in storing up during summer food for winter use.
Ape.-References, 2 Chron. 9:21; 1 Kings 10:22. This is one of the few animals not metaphorically mentioned in Scripture. It was not a native of Palestine, but was introduced into the country every three years by Solomon, whose ships imported them from Southern India or the large island of Ceylon. What species of the monkey tribe is referred to we cannot tell.
Ass.-References, Gen. 12:16; Job 39:5, etc. In Palestine and adjacent countries, the ass was the favorite traveling animal, and was ridden by kings, nobles, and persons of distinction. It betokened peace (Zech. 9:9), as the horse did war (Rev. 19:11). The wild ass is noted for its stubbornness, fleetness, love of freedom, etc.
Badger.-References, Ex. 25:5; Num. 4:8. The skin of this animal was used as an outer covering in the tabernacle, and was peculiarly well adapted for the purpose, being exceedingly durable, impervious to the weather, and the fur being long and thick. The skin of the badger is still a valuable commodity in the East. We see no reason for identifying this animal with the "seal," as some do.
Bat.-References, Lev. 11:19; Isa. 2:20, etc. This nocturnal little animal dreads the light. Swarms of them inhabit the caverns and dark recesses so common in Palestine. It was an unclean animal under the law, and is the chosen symbol of darkness and desolation.
Bear.-References, 2 Sam. 17:8; Dan. 7:5, etc. The fierceness, cruelty, and tenacity of grasp displayed by this animal are frequently referred to in the prophets. Anciently it was the dread and terror of the Palestinean shepherds. Now, however, the bear is only to be seen in the mountainous parts of the country.
Beast.-References, Dan. 7; Rev. 4 The four great empires are represented as wild beasts in the book of Daniel, but in Rev. 4 and Rev. 5 the word should be translated "living creatures." "Beasts of the earth" are distinguished from "cattle," in Gen. 1:24, the former being wild animals, while the latter are domesticated.
Bee.-References, Judg. 14:8; Deut. 1:44, etc. This most useful insect was and is still most numerous in the East. The dry and warm climate and varied flora of the country have made Palestine famous for its honey "a land flowing with honey." From the numerous hives, both of wild and domesticated bees, the inhabitants from time immemorial have derived a considerable revenue from the sale of the rich honey so plentiful, being found in rocks, hollow trees, etc. The immense swarms and fierce attacks upon man and beast are frequently alluded to in Scripture.
Beetle.-Reference, Lev. 11:22. As this is the only place where the word "beetle" occurs, and judging from the description given, it must have been of the "locust" species, and hence allowed for food.
Behemoth.-Reference, Job 40:15-24. This word only occurs in this passage in Job, and there is little doubt but that the huge amphibious animal referred to is the hippopotamus, frequenting the rivers of Africa, and anciently found in the Jordan. "He is the chief of the ways of God" in the animal creation.
Bittern.-References, Isa. 14:23; Zeph. 2:14, etc. This solitary bird selects the ruins, wastes, and marshy pines, where it utters its peculiar cry during the silence of the night. It is connected with the truly awful desolations which befell Nineveh, Babylon, and Idumea.
Boar.-Reference, Psa. 80:13. The wild boar, although only mentioned once, was and is yet found in large numbers in the woods of Palestine, and is one of the most destructive animals amongst the crops, vineyards, and flocks. Amongst Jews and Moslems this animal is regarded as peculiarly unclean.
Bull.-References, Isa. 51:20; Deut. 14:5. This wild animal was allowed the Jews for food. It has been considered, from the reference in Isaiah, that some species of antelope is meant, but it cannot be said with certainty what particular animal is referred to; "wild bull" and "wild ox" are the translations of the same Hebrew word.
Calf.-References, Gen. 18:7; Amos 6:4. The bull calf was the favorite animal for food, and many were stalled and carefully looked after for this purpose, while others were kept ready for agricultural purposes only. The bull calf was a national form of worship in Egypt, and we may add of Israel too (Ex. 32).
Camel.-References, Judg. 7:12; 2 Kings 8:9, etc. This valuable animal and beast of burden—"the ship of the desert"—is probably the most useful animal in the East. It is indispensable in treading the Arabian Desert, and constituted an important part of wealth in Bible lands, as the numerous Scripture references show.
Canker-worm.-References, Joel 1:4; 2:25, etc. In the few passages where this insect is named its destructive power is referred to. It is an apt and striking illustration of the utter desolation and wasting caused by countless and irresistible enemies; and its ravages in the East are dreaded as the plague. The "canker-worm " is the Eastern "locust" in its larva state.
Caterpillar.-References, Isa. 33:4; Psa. 78:46, etc. The Hebrew word for "canker-worm" signifies licker up, and for "caterpillar," consumer. No doubt The locust is meant, but in the state before it assumes its wings. It is an emblem of utter wasting and destruction.
Chameleon.-Reference, Lev. 11:30. As the original word denotes strength, it is believed that the reference is to one of the large and powerful lizard species abounding in Palestine. It was an unclean animal under the Law.
Chamois.-Reference, Deut. 14:5. As the animal known to us as the "chamois" never inhabited Palestine or adjacent countries, it is generally regarded, in this the only passage where the name occurs, as the wild sheep now almost extinct in Bible lands. It was a clean animal under the Law.
Cockatrice.--References, Isa. 11:8; Jer. 8:17, etc. The particular reptile referred to cannot with certainty be determined, but the various Scripture passages in which the name occurs show that a deadly, poisonous snake is meant.
Cock.-References, Matt. 26:34; Mark 14:30. This domestic fowl is only mentioned in the Gospels, and was certainly unknown to the Jews previous to the captivity, being imported from India. The certainty and regularity of its midnight crowing is connected with some solemn warnings and teachings in the Gospels.
Colt.-References, Gen. 49:2; 32:15, etc. Young camel or ass. The colts were frequently used for riding by persons of distinction, and represent an ungovernable will, as in the book of Job and elsewhere.
Coney.-References, Psa. 104:18; Pro. 30:26, etc. An unclean animal. This small animal inhabits the rocks, and is exceedingly watchful and wary on the approach of danger. The wisdom of this diminutive little creature—about the size of the rabbit—in selecting high rocks for its dwelling is a lesson to us worth pondering.
Coral.-References, Ezek. 27:16; Job 28:18. The finest coral was procured from the Red Sea or Persian Gulf, and was greatly prized for its beauty and value. Coral is the interesting workmanship of millions of sea creatures who lived and died at the bottom of the waters.
Cormorant-References, Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:17. Another of the unclean birds abounding about the rivers and sea coasts of Palestine. The word literally means plunger; it is one of those birds who plunge into the water in pursuit of its prey.
Cow.-References, Lev. 22:28; Isa. 7:21, etc. The cow formed an integral part of wealth in such an agricultural country as Palestine, and generally denotes abundance. The 'bullock" on the other hand is the chosen symbol of service and patient labor, and was the most valuable animal offered in sacrifice on Jewish altars.
Crane.-References, Jer. 8:7; Isa. 38:14., This gregarious bird is of large size and is remarkable for two characteristics, both noted in the references—first, its peculiar trumpet-like cry, and second, its regular migratory habits.
Cuckow.-References, Deut. 14:15; Lev. 11:16. A species of sea-fowl, but the particular bird referred to is uncertain. It is ranked amongst the unclean birds under the Law.
Dog.-References, Psa. 22:16; Phil. 3:2, etc. The Scripture references to this most common of all animals are, as a rule, employed to signify contempt and cruelty. The Jews still speak of "Gentile dogs," and Mahomedans of "Christian dogs."
Dove.-References, Gen. 8:9; Sol. 2:14, etc. This was one of the clean birds, and could be offered in sacrifice by even the poorest of the people. The Scripture references are equally abundant in Old and New Testaments, and represent certain gracious qualities. It is also the symbol of peace.
Dragon.-References, Mic. 1:8; Job 30:29, etc. Whatever animal may be meant in these and other passages it is difficult to say, but certainly it is the selected symbol denoting cruelty, desolation, and utter loneliness,
Dromedary.-References, Isa. 60:6; Jer. 2:23. An exceedingly swift animal of the camel species. Wherever the word occurs in Scripture a swift, speedy animal is meant, and one smaller than the ordinary camel.
Eagle.-References, Lev. 11:13; Deut. 32:11, etc. This unclean bird of prey is frequently alluded to in Scripture. Its swiftness, love of offspring, keenness of vision, longevity, and other characteristics are noted. It is a symbol of judgment (Matt. 24:28).
Elephant-References, 1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chron. 9:21. This huge animal, so well known in India and Africa, was not introduced into Canaan till the wars of Antiochus of Syria with Egypt, and is not even named in Scripture, save in the margin of the passages here given.
Fallow deer.-References, 1 King 4: 23; Deut. 14:5. This clean animal is noted for its agility, gracefulness, and beauty. It figures largely in Eastern song.
Ferret.-Reference, Lev. 11:30. This unclean animal is only mentioned once in Scripture, and is believed to denote some species of lizard.
Flea. -References, 1 Sam. 24:14; 26:20. This little insect swarms in countless numbers, and is of course in all warm countries exceedingly troublesome. It is used in these, the only two passages where the word occurs, as the expression of insignificance.
Fly.-References, Ex. 8:21-31; Eccl. 10:1, etc. In these and other Scriptures there is no particular species of fly pointed out. Their number and variety are almost legion in Bible lands.
Foal.-References, Gen. 32:15; Zech. 9:9, etc. The Mosaic law was most careful in caring for the young of animals generally, which the "foal," the young of the "horse" and of the "ass" shared.
Fox.-References, Judg. 15:4; Ezek. 13:4, etc. This nocturnal and gregarious animal is undoubtedly the "jackal" in most of the passages where the word "fox" occurs. They are still plentiful in the East and assemble during the night in large packs and are exceedingly troublesome to the gardens and vineyards and to domestic cattle and fowls. Cunning, cruelty, and destructiveness are the characteristics of this animal as pointed out in the Word of God.
Frog.-References, Ex. 8:2; Rev. 16:13. This amphibious reptile is several times mentioned in Scripture but always, save in the Apocalypse, in connection with Egypt. The "frog" abounds in the rivers and marshy places in Syria but especially in Egypt.
Glede.-Reference, Deut. 14:13. This unclean bird is probably of the vulture species. In the only other passage where the original word occurs it is translated "vulture" (Lev. 11:14).
Gnat.-Reference, Matt. 23:24. The reference is to the smallest of insects which is contrasted with the largest Palestinean animal the camel. The words in the text "strain at," should be "strain out."
Goat.-References, Lev. 16:8,10,26; Num. 15:24-29, etc. This clean animal was pre-eminently the sin-offering victim. In patriarchial times especially the goat formed an important and valuable item of wealth. Its flesh could. be eaten for food, its milk was greatly prized, and its skin largely used for numerous purposes. It is the symbol of the strong and compact Macedonian power (Dan. 8:5), of the wicked generally (Matt. 25:31-33), and of the great and mighty (Ezek. 39:18). The habits and qualities of this well-known animal, both wild and domesticated, are frequently referred to in the Sacred Writings.
Grasshopper.-References, Num. 13:33; Eccl. 12:5, etc. This troublesome insect and Eastern scourge is a species of locust, but permitted as food to the Jews. The immense swarms and destructive character of these insects to vegetation are described with remarkable minuteness and graphically portrayed in the prophet Joel. Teaching and lessons of great interest are drawn from the ways and habits of this very common little creature in Palestine and the East.
Greyhound.-Reference, Prov. 30:31. This word only occurs once in the Bible and the margin which explains the meaning of the word as "girt in the loins," also says it is the "horse." A fleet animal is no doubt referred to.
Hare.-References, Lev. 11:6; Deut. 14:7. This was another of the unclean animals and hence prohibited for food. The Palestinean hare closely resembles our own.
Hart.-References, Isa. 35:6; Psa. 42 I, etc. This Mosaically clean animal was a species of deer and is noted for its swiftness, activity, affection, and earnest longings for water. There are some precious lessons drawn from the movements and habits of this graceful animal.
Hawk.-References, Lev. 11:16; Job 39:26. This unclean species of bird is the common name for small birds of prey of which there are a considerable number in Palestine. God gives the wisdom, or rather instinct, to these migratory birds to seek a warmer climate, so says Job.
Heifer.-References, Gen. 15:9; Num. 19, etc. This animal was simply a young cow. In the special provision for wilderness defilement a red heifer was to be sacrificed as a sin-offering. The untamed character and unbroken will of these well-fed animals are beautifully alluded to in the Prophets, and their mournful lowing, as figuring the desolation and distress of Moab (Isa. 15:5), is told us in the grandest of all the Prophets.
Heron.-References, Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18. This unclean bird is but one of a species common enough in Palestine and Syria generally. In both of the passages referred to—the only ones where the heron is named—it is said, "the heron after her kind," showing that a species is meant and not a particular bird merely.
Hind. -References, Gen. 49:21; 2 Sam. 22:34, etc. This beautiful animal is the female deer, while the "hart" is the male stag. The intense love of liberty, and other characteristics of this animal are accurately depicted in the Word of God.
Hornet.-References, Deut. 7:20; Ex. 23:28, etc. This is amongst the largest and certainly the most dangerous of insects when irritated. Their sting is most painful, and, as they swarm in large numbers, occasionally attacking man and beast, madness and death often ensue. They are, in the earlier stages of Israel's history spoken of as the instruments of Divine judgment upon the Canaanites.
Horse.-References, Deut. 17:16; Zech. 1:8, etc. This useful animal was not used as a beast of burden or applied to agricultural purposes as with us. The Jews were forbidden to multiply them (Deut. 17:16) as calculated to withdraw the heart from Jehovah. Egypt was famous for its cavalry, and in Scripture the "horse" is regarded as the symbol of war, the ass of peace. The Scripture references to the qualities of the horse are very numerous.
Kid.-References, Gen. 27:9; Num. 7:87, etc. The kid or young of the goat was greatly prized as a luxury at table, and is so still. The flesh being fine and tender made the kid a peculiarly desirable article of food amongst all Orientals, and in honor of special guests it was customary to select from the flock a well-favored kid for dinner. It was also used as a sin-offering.
Kite.-Reference, Lev. 11:14. This rapacious and unclean bird cannot with certainty be identified, but as the same Hebrew word is translated "vulture" in Job 28:7, and its keen sight referred to, it no doubt refers to a species of the sharp-sighted vulture.
Lamb.-References, Ex. 12:5; Lev. 23:19, etc. A lamb, according to Scripture, might be either the young of the sheep or goats. It was the paschal offering (Ex. 12); daily sacrifice—morning and evening (Ex. 29:38,39); weekly sacrifice (Num. 28:9; monthly sacrifices (Num. 28 ix); yearly sacrifices (Lev. 23, etc.); also offered on special occasions.
Lapwing.-References, Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18. This was another of the unclean, therefore prohibited birds. From the translation of the word it is now generally regarded as the "hoopoe." This fine bird has a beautiful crest and commands attention from its singular appearance and peculiar gestures. It is a common enough bird both in the eastern and western hemispheres.
Leopard.-References, Isa. 11:6; Dan. 7:6, etc. This animal was at one time common enough in Palestine but it is now rarely to be met with. It is an apt symbol of the conquests of Alexander the Great (Dan. 7), in the celerity of his movements and sudden and unexpected nature of his attacks. The cat-like cunning of this animal in watching for its prey, its swiftness and cruelty, are finely depicted in the Prophets. The skin of this beautiful animal is highly prized and is the emblem of royalty in Africa till this day.
Leviathan.-References, Job 41:1; Psa. 74:14, etc. The graphic description of this huge amphibious animal in the book of Job leaves no doubt that the crocodile is meant. It inhabits chiefly the rivers and banks of Africa, especially of the Nile, but has been found in the "Nhar Zurka," a river flowing through Samaria. The cruelty, strength, and other characteristics of this dreadful creature affords the Psalmist and the Prophets frequent illustrations in speaking of the great powers of Egypt, Assyria, etc.
Lice.-Reference, Ex. 8:16. This insect is only mentioned as amongst the plagues on Egypt. In a warm country and to a cleanly people like the Egyptians this third infliction of Divine judgment must have caused them exquisite pain and distress.
Lion.-References, Gen. 49:9; Psa. 22:21, etc. This well-known animal was anciently common enough in Palestine. Throughout Syria it is now extinct. No wild animal is so often mentioned in Scripture as the "lion," and its majesty, strength, courage, roar, and other features are frequently spoken of in the Word. Satan because of his ferocity, the Babylonian Empire because of its strength and grandeur, and Christ because of His majesty and royal power are each represented by the lion.
Lizard.-Reference, Lev. 11:30. This unclean reptile is only mentioned once in the Word of God. As there are many species of the lizard family abounding in the ruins and desolate places of the Holy Land the name is to be regarded here as a generic one, hence, all reptiles of the serpent kind were prohibited to Israel.
Locust.-References, Nah. 3:15; Joel 1:4, etc. The locust family is numerous and is a most frightful scourge in Eastern lands. They march in exact order and such are their numbers that no means or power known can arrest their devastating career. They turn in a few hours the most delightful and fruitful gardens into a desert. The locust is therefore a fitting emblem of Divine judgment.
Mole.-References, Isa. 2:20; Lev. 11:30. This unclean animal is different in size and in some other respects from the English mole. Burying grounds and desolate places are the habitations of the Palestinean animal, hence the appropriateness of the Isaiah passage.
Moth.-References, Luke, 12:33; Job 13:28, etc. The clothes' moth is the only one mentioned in Scripture and true to the derivation of the word it denotes the instability of man and the temporary tenure of all earthly possessions. This insect, especially in its larva state, is peculiarly destructive to clothing—a terrible trial in the East, where rich and very costly apparel are highly prized and carefully stored away.
Mouse.-References, Lev. 11:29; Isa.66:57, etc. Of the unclean animal known by this name there are several species. In these passages therefore the term is a generic one; but in 1 Sam. 6:5, the field mouse is referred to as being one of the most destructive animals to growing crops.
Mule.-References, 2 Sam. 13:29; Esther 8:10, etc. This domestic animal was the offspring of the horse and ass, but as the Israelites were not allowed to cross the breeds (Lev. 19:59), the mule was imported into the country and was ridden by kings and distinguished persons. The mule is a strong, stubborn, patient, hardy, sure-footed animal.
Ospray.-References, Lev. 11:13; Deut. 14:12. This unclean bird is termed by some "the fishing eagle." Its native element is the air, and yet it lives on fish, which it can see swimming on the surface of the water a long way off. Like the eagle to which it is closely allied it swoops down upon its prey and rarely fails in catching it.
Ossifrage.-References, Lev. 11:13; Deut. 14:12. This unclean bird is very large but not numerous. It inhabits the mountainous parts of Syria, and, like the eagle, swoops down upon its prey, seizing much larger animals than itself and instantly tearing them in pieces.
Ostrich.-References, Lev. 11:16; Job 39:13-18, etc. This immense bird although provided with wings cannot fly, but can out-run the fleetest horse. We need not a naturalist's description of this interesting bird as Job furnishes us with an accurate account. The cruelty of the ostrich in forsaking her young (Lam. 4:3), the beauty of her plumage, her mournful cry, her swiftness of flight and other features are employed in the illustration of moral truth and lessons to us. In several instances where "owl" is in the text as in Isa. 13:21, Lev. 11:16, the margin rightly reads "ostrich."
Owl.-References, Lev. 11:16; Isa. 34:54, etc. What particular bird is referred to cannot with certainty be determined. That it was an unclean bird uttering a peculiar screech is evident from the passages where the word occurs but in several instances "ostrich" should be substituted.
Ox.-References, Isa. 1:3; Job 1:3, etc. This well-known agricultural animal was one exceedingly strong and used for sacrifice, for draft work, and for food. The ox constituted an important part of Eastern wealth.
Palmer-worm.-References, Joel 1:4; Amos 4:9. This terribly destructive insect is much dreaded in the East. It is one of the locust species, but in its larva state, when it is fully as destructive to vegetation as when full winged. The locust in the various stages of its existence commits the most frightful ravages upon some of the fairest portions of the earth.
Partridge. -References, Jer. 17:11; 1 Sam. 26:20. The habit of this bird in laying her eggs on the ground and her attempts to hatch them there is noticed by the Prophet Jeremiah. Thousands of eggs are thus procured and the bird itself is easily caught; that too, and the manner of doing it, are noted in 1 Sam. 26:20, etc.
Peacock.-References, I King 10:22; 2 Chron. 9:21. This beautiful bird was imported into Palestine from India every three years by the ships of Solomon. On the same occasions apes were brought to the king for their playful antics, as the peacocks were for their rare beauty.
Pelican.-References, Lev. 11:18; Psa. 102:6, etc. This well-known bird was unclean under the law and its flesh forbidden as food. It is generally associated with solitary birds who frequent ruins and desolate places far removed from the haunts of man. Its love of solitude is referred to in Psa. 102:6. In two instances where cormorant is in the text, read pelican-Zeph. 2:14; Isa. 34:11.
Pygarg.-Reference, Deut. 14:5. This clean animal is of the antelope species. Some have identified the "pygarg" with the beautiful antelope known as the "addox," an inhabitant of Northern Africa, and from the derivation of the Hebrew word it may be so. The margin reads bison, which is incorrect.
Quail.-References, Ex. 16:11-13; Num. 11:31, 32, etc. This bird is several times mentioned in the Old Testament, but always in reference to the miraculous supply afforded to the Israelites on two separate occasions. The flesh of the "quail" is greatly prized in Syria and many thousands of them are annually sold in the Jewish markets. They always fly in the direction of the wind and in flocks so numerous as to darken the sky, and as their wings are short and not strong, they are easily exhausted, and in their yearly return across the Arabian desert thousands of them are captured and are prepared for food just as Israel did in the wilderness.
Ram.-References, Ex. 29:26; Gen. 15:9, etc. This clean animal was largely used in sacrifice. It was the consecration animal (Ex. 29 and Lev. 8). Its horns were formed into trumpets (Josh. 6), and its skin dyed red served as a covering for the tabernacle (Ex. 25:5), etc.
Raven.-References, Gen. 8:7; Job 38:41, etc. This unclean bird is well known. The various characteristics ascribed to it and its general habits are true to the letter. God's care in using this bird of prey to supply His servant and prophet Elijah with food (1 Kings 17:6), and the Divine care in feeding even these most unclean of birds (Luke 12:24), are beautifully illustrative of God's goodness towards and over all His creatures.
Roe.-References, Sol. 2:7; Deut. 12:15. This clean animal, whose flesh was ever a delicacy, is one of the most beautiful of horned animals. The roebuck or gazelle, for they are identical, is still found in Palestine, and the sacred writers frequently refer to the beauty, swiftness, elegance, and other traits of this species of deer.
Scorpion.-References, Deut. 8:15; Luke 11:12. This reptile is very common in the East and wary travelers are careful where they sit as scorpions are found under loose stones, in ruins, etc., and when disturbed sting sharply and severely. They are lobster-like in appearance, and their poison is secreted in their tails, which they strike with. Excruciating pain is the result, and oftentimes death, hence the allusion in Rev. 9:5,10.
Serpents.-References, Prov. 30:19; Gen. 3, etc. The serpent is the chosen symbol of subtlety and guile. There are so many kinds of serpents that to enumerate them here would be apart from our object. Fully 600 species are known to naturalists.
Sheep.-References, Isa. 53:7: John 10, etc. The first occupation mentioned in Scripture is that of shepherd and the first animal the sheep. There is no animal so frequently spoken of in the Bible, and none which is so full in illustrating God's gracious care, and generally of moral character. For sacrifice, for food, and as wealth the sheep occupies the principal place amongst animals in Scripture, and this is not to be wondered at, for Palestine is preeminently a pastoral country. The occupation of shepherd was anciently an honored and highly respected one; the King of Moab tended his own sheep, so does Jehovah (Psa. 23), and so does our blessed Lord (1 Peter 5:4).
Snail.-References, Lev. 11:30; Psa. 58:8. These are the only places where the word occurs. In the one passage it is classed amongst the unclean and in the other the nasty slimy trail of this slow-going creature is referred to.
Sparrow.-References, Psa. 84:3; Matt. 10:29, etc. This is the most common small bird of any known and as there are upwards of 100 different kinds in Palestine alone it is believed that as a rule the word must be taken as meaning small birds in general. They are the commonest of God's creatures, yet objects of Divine care and regard.
Spider.-References, Job 8:14; Pro. 30:28. The plans and devices of the wicked are compared to the spider's web (Isa. 59:5). This ingenious little insect weaves its web with consummate skill, which is all the more remarkable considering its fragile character.
Stork.-References, Jer. 8:7; Zech. 5:9, etc. This large bird was forbidden to the Jews as food. There are two kinds, black and white, both abounding in Palestine. The regularity of her return to her old haunts, and the etymological signification of the word-implying tenderness and filial affection—has caused this well-known bird to be warmly welcomed, and in some countries actually protected by the law. It is also a useful sanitary bird.
Swallow.-References, Psa. 84:3; Prov. 26:2, etc. It is difficult to particularly identify the smaller birds which are much more plentiful in Palestine than with us. No doubt a group of small migratory birds is here intended, birds almost ever on the wing moreover. As the sparrow is the most common of birds, the swallow is the most restless.
Swan.-References, Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:16. This beautiful aquatic bird was ranked among the unclean birds. It little matters whether the modern swan is the one meant in the passage as undoubtedly a water bird is referred to.
Swine.-References, Deut. 14:8; Isa. 65:4, etc. This most filthy and unclean of all animals was an abhorrence to the Jews. Christ upheld the majesty of the law by granting permission to the expelled demons to enter the herd of swine and destroy them, for these animals ought not to have been kept within the territory of Palestine. A swine herd is a degrading employment (Luke 15:15), and the filthy habits of the sow are made to illustrate a deeply important truth in 2 Peter 2:22.
Tortoise.-Reference, Lev. 11:29. The amphibious animal known as the tortoise is common in Palestine, and its flesh and eggs are equally sought after for food. It is generally understood that some species of " lizard " is meant in the passage in Leviticus.
Unicorn.-References, Psa. 22:21; Isa. 34:7, etc. There are at least seven distinct passages where this animal is named, and it seems to us throwing contempt upon the sacred pages to assert that, because the unicorn cannot now be identified with any existing species, therefore it was a fabulous creature. Not so; it was an animal well-known in early times, at least to Israel. This two-horned creature is noted for its size, strength, ferocity, and untamableness, for which see the several passages.
Vulture.-References, Lev. 11:14; Deut. 14:13, etc. There are several species comprehended under the common name "vulture," all unclean under the Levitical law. This bird of prey feeds upon the carcass of man or beast, and frequently follows a victorious army in its march, pouncing upon the unburied slain. "There is a path which the vulture's eye hash not seen" (Job 28:7). The sharp, keen vision of this rapacious bird is several times alluded to in the Scriptures.
Weasel.-Reference, Lev. 11:29. Only once named in Scripture, and then as amongst the prohibited animals. The common weasel is abundant in Palestine.
Whale.-References, Job 7:12; Matt. 12:40, etc. The Hebrew word does not necessarily mean only the sea monster known as the whale, but the largest size of marine animals.
Wolf.-References, Gen. 49:27; John 10:12, etc. This well-known wild beast is still met with in Palestine. The dangerous and bloodthirsty character of the wolf, ravening during the night in packs is several times alluded to in Scripture. The wolf is also the terror of the shepherd keeping lonely watch over his flock. Oppressors and devourers of God's people, whether of Israel or the Church, are compared to wolves.
Worm.-References, Isa. 66:24; Acts 12:23, etc. There are many kinds of worms, some bred by putrid matter, as exampled in the awful end of Herod. The "worm" is the figure of endless anguish (Mark 9); it is also the figure of abject contempt and utter humiliation, as in the Psalms and book of Job.

The Botany of the Bible

The Scripture classification of vegetables and other products of the earth is a simple one (Gen. 1:11). It should ever be borne in mind that the Bible was written for the world, and has a moral end in view, even the glory of God. Wondrous it is that God should have laid, in the death of His Beloved Son, the ground of salvation to lost man; but, even here, as in the boundless sphere of creation all is subordinated to the maintenance and display of His own glory, whether of power as in creation, or of grace as in redemption. Neither botany nor any other subject is treated scientifically in the Scriptures. The wise and learned may object, but the mass can appreciate. We do not object to scientific accuracy, quite the contrary, but why insist upon it in a book designed for man as such, and where as correct and satisfactory results are, in numerous subjects, arrived at simply as the result of careful observation? The Hebrews never formally wrote on botany, nor could they have produced a scientific delineation of the beautiful and abundant flora of their country; and yet from the "fig-tree" in Genesis to the "tree of life" in Revelation, the references in the Word to the botany of Palestine, Egypt, etc., are exceedingly numerous, affording rich and abundant material in the enforcement and illustration of moral truth. In the mention of those trees, shrubs, and flowers, which can be presently identified, naturalists of the highest standing bear testimony to the exactness of the description given, and yet all is drawn from observation. What did Solomon know of botanical science? yet " he spake of trees from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon (tall, strong, and stately), even unto the hyssop (low, lying plant) that springeth out of the wall" (1 Kings 4:33.)
"Modern travelers have repeatedly noticed the beauty and abundance of its spring flowers, and equally varied are its trees and shrubs: not less than 1000 species of plants have been recorded as natives of Palestine, and the whole number of species probably reaches 2000; but of these a very small portion are referred to in Holy Writ, and those it is often difficult to identify with certainty."We have about 28 names of trees, plants, and flowers specifically named in Scripture, but the difficulty of identifying even those with existing species is confessedly great; and hence some who have taken in hand this interesting branch of study have entered the regions of speculation and conjecture where we dare not follow them. Solid and reliable information is valuable, but conjectural statements should be shunned.
The Scripture classification of botanic physiology is thus simply stated:— “Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself upon the earth: and it was so" (Gen. 1:11). The loveliness of the "lily," the fragrance of the "rose" among flowers; the extensively cultivated garden plant the "mint" and the common enough "anise" as spices; the healing "balm" and soporific property of the "myrrh;" the strength and durability of the "cedar" and "fir" amongst trees; the "fig," "pomegranate," and "almond" among fruits; the tall, dark "cypress," waving over the graves of the departed; the stately "palm," emblematic of victory, and the drooping "weeping willow" by the river's side; besides, numerous aromatic and medicinal plants are all pressed into the service of the Holy Ghost in the unfolding of the circle of Divine truth, and further show that the ancients in Bible lands were well acquainted with the rich and varied flora of their respective regions. The trees and herbs yielded fruit and medicine, while the celebrated perfumes of the East were cultivated in their gardens and carefully compounded. From the Bible itself we learn that the Hebrews were enthusiastic students of nature. The following classification of the vegetable physiology of the Bible may prove helpful.:—

Aromatic Plants

Aloes is extracted from a tree grown in Northern India (Psa. 45:8, etc).
Calamus is an Eastern perfume, and formed one of the ingredients composing the holy anointing oil (Ex. 30:23, etc).
Camphire yields a delightful fragrance, and from its leaves a dye is produced, which is held in great favor amongst Eastern females in staining their hands and feet ( Song of Sol. 1:14).
Cassia is an Indian perfume, and formed one of the ingredients of the holy ointment (Ex. 30:24).
Cinnamon is a favorite spice, and formed another of the ingredients of the holy ointment (Ex. 30:23).
Cumin is a plant yielding seeds, which, when crushed, gives a pleasing aromatic flavor highly prized in the East.
Frankincense was the principal of the sacred perfumes, and is frequently spoken of in connection with the country of Arabia, of which probably it was originally a native.
Galbanum is a Persian plant, and formed one of the ingredients of the sacred incense.
Mint is largely cultivated in Palestine, and is much used as a perfume, and also as a condiment.
Myrrh is a well-known fragrant perfume; a sacred one (Ex. 30:23), and one of the love-perfumes of the Canticles.
Saffron is one of the finest of the perfumes, and is obtained from the Crocus flower.
Spikenard was an Indian product, and one of the most costly perfumes and ointments mentioned in the Scriptures (Mark 14:3).
Stacte was one of the ingredients in the holy incense. It is the product of the beautiful " Storax Tree."
Sweet-Cane is mentioned in Jer. 6:20, and Isa. 43:24, but is in other passages translated "Calamus," which see.

Medicinal Plants

Balm was a curative agent of high repute; its medicinal virtues, both as an external remedy for all kinds of wounds, and its internal efficacy in stomach and other complaints are well-known (Jer. 8:22).
Cumin is another of the numerous umbelliferous plants of the East. Most useful in stomachic complaints.
Figs were prepared as a plaster or poultice for the cure of Hezekiah's boil (Isa. 38:21). This is still in many cases an efficacious remedy in abscesses, gum-boils, etc.
Myrrh or Laudanum occurs in the Old Testament in Gen. 37:25; and is not the perfume known as Myrrh. In these two passages the word denotes the gum of the " Cistus Plant," known to us as Laudanum, the medical virtues of which are known to all.
The Pomegranate Tree is one of the most generally useful. The rind, seeds, and other parts form a most useful medicine for various complaints.
Rue is a plant mentioned only in the New Testament, and has long been used as a disinfectant in fevers.
The Olive Tree produces almost the only oil used in Palestine; its healing properties are referred to in such Scriptures as Luke 10:34, etc.
Stacte or the Gum of the Storax Tree is extensively used in chest complaints.

Food, Condiment, Fruit and Beverage Plants

The Almond Tree is noted for the beauty of its flower, while its fruit was highly prized in Canaan, and generally in Eastern lands.
Anise (Matt. 23:23), better known as Dill, is largely used in the East in seasoning food.
The Apple Tree figures the Bridegroom in the Canticles. The fruit was rich, juicy, and beautiful. The "apple" of Scripture must not be confounded with the well-known fruit of that name so familiar to us.
Barley is largely used in the East as food for man and horses; it is even more common than wheat.
Beans are mixed with various kinds of food, and largely partaken of by the poor.
Coriander is plentiful in the East, and is used in seasoning fruit and confectionery (Ex. 16:31).
Corn is a cereal as familiar to the inhabitants of the Eastern world as elsewhere.
Cucumber is a well-known Egyptian and Palestinian vegetable; a favorite dish amongst the laboring class.
Figs are the first fruit mentioned in Scripture; the figure of plenty (Zech. 3:10), and a symbol of the Hebrew-politico commonwealth (Matt. 24:32).
Fitches produce a pungent condiment, highly valued in Egypt and Palestine.
Garlic, a well-known Egyptian vegetable.
Husks (Luke 15:16) are the pods of the locust tree, the food of horses and swine. Occasionally the poorest of the people have fed upon them, but only under circumstances approaching to a famine.
Leek is another Egyptian vegetable, also largely cultivated in Palestine.
Lentil is a well-known cereal in Palestine, and of which a very wholesome "pottage" is still made (Gen. 25:34).
Mallow is a plant difficult to identify, but was one eaten by the poorest of the people.
Manna was "Angel's Food" divinely supplied to Israel in the wilderness; its taste and color are referred to in Scripture.
Mandrake or "Love Apple" is still partaken of in the East, and is supposed to promote generation, as in Gen. 30:14.
Millet is another of the Palestinean cereals, and is eaten both prepared and unprepared.
Mustard is only mentioned in the New Testament, and is found both cultivated and wild in Palestine.
Nuts are well-known fruit, still cultivated in Palestine, although not plentiful.
Oil Tree (Isa. 41:19). The particular kind of tree here meant is not known, but simply signifies a tree yielding oil.
The Olive Tree lives to a great age, and is a celebrated one in Bible history. Its value commercially is very great, as one tree will yield from 12 to 55 gallons of oil. Its remarkably fine wood was used largely in the construction of the Temple, and is greatly prized in the manufacture of fine articles of furniture. The Gentiles and now Christendom are compared to an "olive tree" (Rom. 11).
Onions are a well-known Egyptian vegetable, used both raw and cooked.
The Palm Tree was formerly very abundant in Palestine, and yielded a rich supply of dates, a highly prized Eastern food and luxury.
Pulse was not any particular vegetable, but simply a vegetable diet, as beans, peas, etc.
The Pomegranate Tree produces an exceedingly rich fruit, and the juice a cooling draft or light wine.
Rye was both an Egyptian and Palestinean cereal.
Saffron is much prized as a condiment; it flavors and enriches soups and food generally.
Sycamore or species of mulberry tree produces a fruit highly prized in Northern Syria, and also a cooling and delightful summer beverage.
Sycamore Tree (Luke 19:4) produces a small kind of fig, but neither so fine nor large as the ordinary fig of Eastern lands.
The Vine is probably the most valuable in a commercial point of view of any plant cultivated by man; its fruit and wine, and the ease with which it is cultivated in warm countries make it a valuable product.
Wheat is the most useful of all cereals, forming the staple article of food in all lands. The Scripture references to the “Vine" and "Wheat" are numerous, and, in many instances, really interesting.

Trees Used for Manufacturing Purposes

Algum or Almug Trees were used in the making of the sacred musical instruments, and in the ornamental parts of the Temple (1 Kings 10:11, 12). It was a valuable wood (2 Chron. 9:10, 11).
Ash Tree (Isa. 44:14). This is not the modern tree of that name. What species is referred to is not known. It was used in the making of idols and various kinds of idolatrous images.
The Box Tree was a rich and beautiful wood, and in ancient times was used for the inlaying of ivory in articles of value.
The Cedar. This grand old tree once covered the sides of Mount Lebanon, and was largely used by David, Solomon, and Nebuchadnezzar in the erection of their palaces, also in the construction of the Temple.
The Chestnut, or, according to the Septuagint, the Plane Tree. Its ample foliage secures a delightful shade and retreat from the burning rays of an Eastern sky, while its enormous trunk supplies timber for a variety of purposes.
The Cypress has been used from time immemorial as a momento over the tombs of the rich. It is a tall and upright tree, and its dark mournful-looking waving plumes make it a fitting emblem for funeral purposes.
Ebony. This tree grows in tropical countries. The ebony of Scripture, one of the most valuable of woods in the manufacture of fine articles, was imported probably from India.
Fir. Probably no wood was more variously used than "Fir." This tree, formerly very common in Palestine, is now but rarely found throughout the country.
Flax was extensively cultivated all over the East before the introduction of cotton. Egypt especially is noted for its flax crops; so also Palestine.
The Sycamore Tree is used in the construction of the Mummy boxes of Egypt and in Egyptian articles of furniture generally. It is the most lasting wood known.
The Pomegranate grows both wild and cultivated; its bark is used in the tanning of the finest kind of leather, and its beautiful fruit and flower were largely used in the ornamentation of the Sanctuary and in the rich robe of the High Priest.
Gopher Wood (Gen. 6:14) was used in the construction of Noah's Ark. Both the "cypress" and the "cedar " were anciently used in ship. building, but whether either was the "gopher wood" of Gen. 6 cannot with certainty be determined.
The Gourd of Jonah was a plant peculiarly fitted to afford shade and shelter under a burning Eastern sky. It was and is still used in the construction of arbors.
Juniper Tree, or rather desert shrub. This species of broom afforded shelter to the Prophet (1 Kings 19), as it does the wandering Arabs and travelers of the nineteenth century. It is largely used in the manufacture of charcoal (Psa. 120:4).
The Myrtle is one of the most beautiful trees in Palestine (Zech. 1:8). The leaves, bark, and root are used in tanning Russia leather, and impart to it that peculiar smell characteristic of that kind and quality.
The Oak is one of the strongest and grandest of old trees. There are some magnificent specimens in Palestine. Underneath its noble branches idolatrous rites were practiced, and from the strong and durable character of its trunk, it was a wood specially adapted for building purposes.
The Palm is not only justly celebrated for its fruit, but its large, beautifully-shaped leaves were waved as emblematic of victory (Rev. 7:9). The fibrous nature of its trunk makes it an unsuitable wood for the manufacture of fine articles, but for garden-gates, posts, beams, etc., it is well adapted, and for these purposes is largely used in the East.
Shittim Wood, or stem of the Shittah Tree, was extensively employed in the construction of the Tabernacle. It abounded in the Arabian Deserts, and could be easily procured in the Sinaitic Peninsula. From its quantity and various properties, it was admirably adapted for the sacred purposes to which it was applied.
Thynie Wood is only mentioned in Rev. 18:12, and was at one time the most valuable of woods. It has been identified as the "citron," a native of Africa, and a wood greatly prized by the Romans.
The Willow is a beautiful tree, flourishing on the banks of the rivers and brooks of Palestine. It has been identified as the "oleander, now the exclusive material with which the summer booths in Galilee are constructed."

Various Plants and Flowers

The Bay Tree of Scripture is a native of Palestine. It was a tree of rapid growth and of speedy decay, of thick foliage and wide-spread branches (Psa. 37:35).
Bitter Herbs were eaten at the Passover Supper (Ex. 12). Repentance and self-judgment were to accompany the memorial of redemption. There are many native plants of a bitter kind, as wild lettuce, chicory, etc.
Bramble, Briers, Thorns, Thistle, Pricks, Nettles. There are about 20 Hebrew words denoting various prickly plants, emblematic of the curse, and which abound in Palestine. The references in Scripture to these plants are numerous.
Bulrush, Rushes, Flags, Reeds, etc. These various words signify the papyrus plant of Egypt, now extinct, and from which the earliest paper was derived. This plant is still found in certain marshy places in Palestine.
Cockle was a destructive weed and exceedingly offensive to the smell. It must have been a well-known Arabian plant (Job 31:40); it is translated "wild grapes" in Isa. 5:2,4.
The Elm Tree (Hosea 4:13,) is elsewhere translated "teil tree," under the spreading branches of which idolatrous rites were performed.
Gall and Wormwood are the names of two poisonous plants; the latter was eaten, and the former yielded a drink, while both are used as the expression of Divine judgment Jer. 8:14, etc.
Grass is used as the expression of what is transitory and perishable (Isa. 40:6-8, etc). The grasses of Palestine are more numerous than in any other country.
Hemlock, an exceedingly bitter and poisonous plant (Hos. 10:4). Hay, cut or dried grass, as food for cattle was unknown among the Hebrews; it simply signifies full grown grass (Prov. 27:25).
Hyssop was employed in the sprinkling of blood (Exod. mi.), and in the purification of the Leper (Lev. 14) What plant was used cannot be determined with certainty. It is frequently employed as the expression of nature in its lowest and worst forms.
The Lily of Palestine, of which their are several species, has been pronounced by travelers to be exquisitely beautiful. This fair and lovely flower is frequently referred to in the Scriptures.
The Mulberry Trees of 2 Sam. 5:23, 24 cannot be identified, but the reference in the text is evidently to a grove of trees whose tall branches would convey the rustling sound intended by Jehovah.
The Pine Tree is twice referred to by Isaiah, chapters 41:19; 60:13. "It is quite unknown to what tree this term applied."-Sir Joseph Hooker.
The Poplar was used by Jacob (Gen. 30:37), and under its pale and abundant foliage idolatrous rites were anciently practiced (Hos. 4:13).
The Rose of Palestine is twice referred to in Scripture (Isa. 35 and Song of Sol. 2:1). What particular flower is indicated by the "Rose" and "Lily" cannot be determined. Beauty and fragrance are however characteristics of the Palestine roses.
Tares are mentioned only in Matt. 13:24-30. The seeds of this wheat-like grass are poisonous to man and beast and hurtful to all cereals.
The age and durability of some of these trees are very remarkable,, and are referred to by the grandest of the prophets (Isaiah) in illustration of the long ages of Jehovah's earthly people in the millennium. Here is a list of a few well-known trees and their ages, extracted from Dr. Dunn's valuable book on "Biblical Natural Science,"Vol 2, page 497:

Typical and Illustrative Persons

In the Old Testament there is a large and varied store of typical teaching, but the mine will only yield its wealth to the diligent worker. "The slothful man roasteth not that which he took in hunting." The Spirit of God has laid under contribution, persons, places, events, and things in general in teaching Christ to us, and in the unfolding of the circle of Divine truth of which He is the center.
The 39 books comprising the Old Testament are like a picture gallery, but the collection of pictures although large and varied, is meaningless and uninteresting without a guide to explain and a key to unlock the boundless treasure. But the Holy Spirit—the guide into all truth has come—and the "Son" sent from God, the key surely to the whole Word of God; and now these typical pictures stand out before us conveying their precious lessons, and unfolding the Christ of God in His glories and work to our hearts. This kind of teaching is solid food, "belonging to them that are of full age, even to those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil."
The dispensational types of Genesis, the redemption types of Exodus, the sacrificial types of Leviticus, the wilderness types of Numbers, the Canaan types of Joshua, the Kingdom types of the historical writings and the prophetic types of the Prophets will yield a harvest both rich and abundant to all who care to labor in this profoundly interesting field of Bible research.
The study of the types, however, require careful handling, and the student will need grace to curb imagination and check severely the mere working of mind or intellect; for our encouragement, however, let us remember that we are endowed with the mind of Christ (1 Cor. 2:16) and the Holy Ghost the power of the new man.
The following list is a brief one, and the remarks upon each character of the briefest kind possible:-
Aaron, mountainous (Heb. 9). Christ, the Christian’s Great High Priest, now within the Veil. Name occurs about 350 times in the Scriptures.
Abel, vapor, vanity (Gen. 4). Christ as a martyr slain for righteousness sake (Psa. 69). Name occurs 12 times in the Scriptures.
Abiathar, father of him that survived (1 Sam. 22:20-23). God's rejected Priest (Abiathar) in connection with God's rejected King (David). Priesthood now allied to a world-rejected Christ. Name occurs about 30 times in the Scriptures.
Abigail, the father's joy (1 Sam. 25). The Church cleaving to Christ in the day of His rejection, afterward married to the Lord. Name occurs about 15 times and only in the Old Testament.
Abimelech, father of the King (Gen. 11). The Gentiles in external relationship to God and His people on earth. Common designation of the Philistine Kings. Name occurs about 24 times and only in the Old Testament.
Abiram, lather of exaltation (Num. 16). Abiram with others—princes of the congregation—allied with Korah—head of the ministering tribe—joined in open revolt against the authority of Moses and Aaron; figuring future union of Church and State in open rebellion to the royal and priestly rights of Christ. Name occurs about 10 times and in the Old Testament only.
Abner, father of light (2 Sam. 2;3). Abner an upright man, connected with the royal house of Saul, fighting against the Lord's anointed to maintain the falling honor and dignity of his house - figures the morality of the day, fighting for and supporting the decaying fortunes of the world, which is, after all, in opposition to Christ. Name occurs about 60 times and only in the Old Testament.
Abraham, father of a great multitude (Gen. 17). Father of a spiritual race (believers) and of a natural race - Israel (Rom. 4). Root of the Olive Tree-general testimony on the earth (Rom. 11). Name occurs including " Abram " about 300 times in the Scriptures.
Absalom, father of peace (2 Sam. 15). The future Antichrist, i.e., "the bloody and deceitful man" (Psa. 5:6). Name occurs about 106 times and only in the Old Testament.
Adam, earth or red (Gen. 2). Christ, Lord of Creation, and otherwise Adam was the "figure of Him that was to come" (Rom. 5:14; Cor. 15.; Eph. 5:31,32). Name occurs about 30 times in the Scriptures.
Adonijah, Jehovah is my master (1 Kings 1). Usurper of the royal rights of Christ; will find its counterpart more fully during the early part of Christ's millennial reign. Name occurs about 24 times and only in the Old Testament.
Agag, high, tall (1 Sam. 15). The flesh in its pride and in its best and highest pretensions doomed to utter destruction (Exod. 17:8-14). Name occurs about 8 times and only in the Old Testament.
Ahab, father's brother (1 Kings 16). Apostate civil power leagued with the idolatrous power (Jezebel) in the closing days of Christendom. Name occurs about 90 times and only in the Old Testament.
Ahasuerus, Majesty of the prince (Esther 1). Supreme authority in the world and its connection with the Jewish people now and in the closing days. Name occurs about 30 times and only in the book of Esther.
Ahithophel, brother of foolishness (2 Sam. 15). Satan's latter-day plans and counsels against the Lord's Anointed defeated. Name occurs about 20 times in the Old Testament only.
Aholah, her own tent or temple (Ezek. 23). Samaria or the ten-tribed kingdom and her idolatrous worship. Name occurs 5 times, and only in the reference chapter.
Aholibah, my tent or sanctuary in it (Ezek. 23). Jerusalem or the kingdom of Judah, in midst of which Jehovah had placed His "sanctuary," exceeding even her sister Samaria in idolatry. Name occurs 6 times, and only in the reference chapter.
Asenath, beauty (Gen. 46:20). The Gentile wife of the exalted Lord. Name occurs but 3 times, and that in Genesis 41 and 46.
Baali, my Lord or husband (Hos. 2:16). Jehovah in relationship to Israel as her husband and Lord. There is but one occurrence of this name in the Scriptures.
Balaam, destruction of the people (Num. 22). Ecclesiastical corruption turned to account by Satan for the hurt of God's people. Name occurs about 60 times in the Scriptures.
Balak, empty (Num. 22). The future civil power leagued with the ecclesiastical (Balaam) power for the hurt of God's people. Name occurs about 40 times in the Scriptures.
Belshazzar, prince whom Bel. (god of Babylon) favors (Dan. 5). This last of the Chaldean monarchs illustrates profanity at its height, visited by the sharp and sudden judgment of God; it is also typical of impiety of a like kind, and of judgment as suddenly executed in the closing days of Christendom's apostacy. Name occurs about 8 times, and only in the prophet Daniel.
Boaz, in him is strength (Ruth 2). Christ, in whom is treasured up the sure mercies of David, making good in a future day Israel's blessing in relationship and inheritance. Name occurs about 24 times in the Scriptures.
Cain, acquired (Gen. 4). Typically, the Jews who slew Christ (as Cain did Abel) and then sent to wander on the earth as fugitives, but marked off and preserved by God. Name occurs about 18 times in the Scriptures.
Caleb, barker, hence a dog (Num. 13). Faithfulness to God commanded and rewarded. Name occurs about 30 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Chilion, pining away (Ruth 1). Israel out of her land and wasting away because of her iniquities. (Isa. 38:12).
Cyrus, sun (Isa. 44:28; 45:1). Cyrus, the destroyer of Babylon and deliverer of the Jews, points to the future day when the Gentiles in the hands of Jehovah will be used for the blessing and help of His earthly people. Name occurs about 24 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Daniel, God my Judge (Dan. 1). The Prophet figures the Lord as the revealer and interpreter of the Ways of God; also as the future Jewish remnant, faithful to God and confessing national iniquity and sin. Name occurs about 80 times in the Scriptures.
David, beloved (1 Sam. 16). The Messiah anointed for the Throne, then rejected as now, and also the early part of the millennial reign. Name occurs about 1120 times in the Scriptures.
Delilah, languishing (Judg. 16). The beguiling power of the world over the Christian. Name occurs 6 times, and only in the reference chapter.
Eliezer, God the helper (Gen. 24). Figures the Holy Ghost leading home the bride through the desert, to Christ risen and in heaven, as Eliezer conducted Rebekah to Isaac, received from the dead in a figure (Heb. 11:19.) and dwelling in Canaan—type of heaven. Name occurs but once in Scripture (Gen. 15:2.), but it is the same who is repeatedly referred to as the "Servant," in Genesis 24.
Elihu, my God is Jehovah (Job 32). The Holy Spirit the alone interpreter of God's moral ways and dealings with man. Name occurs about 7 times, and only in the book of Job.
Elijah [whose] God [is] Jehovah (2 Kings 2). That portion of the Church changed and caught up to meet Christ without seeing death, as Moses figures the dead saints raised, hence Moses and Elias in the Mount of Glory (Luke 9:28-35); also ministry of power and judgment to apostate Israel in coming days. Name occurs about 100 times in the Scriptures.
Elimelech, God is King (Ruth 1). God, Israel's husband and King, when in her land. Name occurs 6 times, and only in the book of Ruth.
Elisha, God's Salvation (1 Kings 19). The future ministry of grace to guilty Israel succeeding that of judgment. Name occurs about 60 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Enoch, dedicated (Gen. 5). The Church taken to heaven after her walk and testimony for God on earth and before the world is judged, as typified in the flood. Name ( not to be confounded with the son of Cain, Gen. 4) occurs about 9 times in the Scriptures.
Ephraim, double fruit (Gen. 41:52). Fruitfulness of the Lord in His present rejection by the world and Israel; illustrated in Heb. 2 Name personally and of the people occurs about 140 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Esau, hairy (Gen. 25). Apostate Gentile power in opposition to God and His earthly people. Name of the person and people occurs more than 100 times in the Scriptures; Edom, however, not here included, is the usual way in which the descendants and country of Esau are spoken of in the Bible.
Esther, star (Esther 2). The earthly and Jewish bride of the Lord in millennial glory and dignity (Psa. 45). Name occurs about 58 times, and only in the book of Esther.
Eve, life (Gen. 2). Figures the creation of the bride of the Second Man (Eph. 5:31,32) and of her association with Him in lordship and dominion over the earth. Name occurs 4 times in the Scriptures.
Gehazi, valley of vision (2 Kings 4). Divine discovery of and Divine judgment upon sin in those externally near to God. Name occurs about 12 times, and only in second book of Kings.
Gershom, a stranger there (Ex. 2:22). Christ having been rejecter by Israel, is at present unknown by, and a stranger to, the ancient people (name not to be confounded with son of Levi, Num. 3) Occurs about 5 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Hagar, fugitive (Gen. 16). Covenant of works or the law made with man in the flesh (Gal. 4). Name occurs about 14 times in the Scriptures.
Haman, honorable (Esther 3). Future Gentile enemy of Israel planning her destruction, and in the midst of his power and plans suddenly destroyed. Name occurs about 54 times, and only in the book of Esther.
Hannah, grace, favor (1 Sam. 1). Israel desolate and in sorrow turns to Jehovah, who then establishes her in the earth in glory and relationship to Himself. Name occurs 13 times, and only in first two chapters of 1 Samuel.
Hazael, God has looked upon (1 Kings 19:15). God raising up a scourge for His people in the north (the Assyrian of the Prophets) n the latter-day crisis of their history. Name occurs about 24 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Hiram, noble (1 Kings 5). This Tyrian king, in the days of David and Solomon also termed "Huram," represents the Gentiles willingly lending their aid and treasures in building up the Temple in the coming days of the kingdom. Name occurs about 28 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Hophni and Phinehas, champion and mouth of brass (1 Sam. 1:3). A degraded and corrupt priesthood, causing "the way of truth to be evil spoken of." Names occur about 7 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Isaac, laughter (Gen. 22). Christ dead, risen, and dwelling in heaven the heir of all things. Name occurs about 130 times in the Scriptures.
Ish-bosheth, man of shame (2 Sam. 2). Usurpation of the royal power in Judea during the early part of Christ's millennial reign. Name occurs about 13 times, and only in the second book of Samuel.
Jacob, supplanter (Gen. 25). The Jew outcast from home and country, and under the governmental dealing and discipline of God; in some respects, Jacob also typifies the Lord, as in his marriage with Leah and Rachel. Name occurs, including it as applied to the nation, about 370 times in the Scriptures.
Jeremiah, exalted of the Lord (Jer. 32). Christ buying the earthly inheritance in presence of the world's hostile power. (Matt. 13:44). Christ weeping and lamenting over Jerusalem (Luke 19:41,42) is figured in the "Lamentations" of the same Prophet. Name occurs about 140 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Jezebel, no habitation (1 Kings 16). Idolatrous religious system leagued with the Apostate civil power in the closing days. Name occurs about 23 times in the Scriptures.
Joab, Jehovah-father (2 Sam. 2). Craft; boldness. Type of a clever, cunning man of the world. Name occurs about 140 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Job, treated with hostility (Job 1). Self and human righteousness withered up by the hand and in the presence of God. Name occurs about 60 times in the Scriptures.
Jonah, dove (Jonah 1). Israel cast out amongst the Gentiles; also the Lord in death, then preaching to the Gentiles (Matt. 12:39-41). Name occurs about 30 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Jonathan, [whom] the Lord hath given (1 Sam. 14). The future Jewish remnant cleaving to Christ during the reign of Antichrist. Name occurs about 100 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Joshua, the Lord's salvation (Josh. 1). Christ in victorious power by the Spirit leading His people through death into present blessing in the heavenly places (Eph. 1). Name occurs about 210 times in the Scriptures.
Keturah, incense (Gen. 25). Israel's future establishment in the land, and relationship to Jehovah. Name occurs 4 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Korah, ice (Num. 16). Christendom's future apostasy and terrible doom (Jude it). Name occurs about 20 times in the Scriptures.
Labatt, white (Gen. 24). A man worldly-wise in external relationship to God's people, and using religion as a stepping-stone for self and family aggrandizement. Name occurs about 54 times, and only in the book of Genesis.
Lamech, strong (Gen. 4). Lust, self-will, and cruelty of the last days in connection with Israel. Name occurs 5 times, and only in the reference chapter.
Leah, wearied (Gen. 29). The Gentile bride first possessed by Christ, although Rachel (the Jew) was first loved and sought. Name occurs about 34 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Lot, covering, protection (Gen. 13). An illustration of the wretched principle "making the best of both worlds." Name occurs about 36 times in the Scriptures.
Maher-shalal-hash-baz, hastening to the spoil (Isa. 8). A prophetic sign of the approaching and desolating ravages of the Assyrian—the great enemy of Israel in the past and future periods of her history. Name occurs but twice, and only in the reference chapter.
Mahlon, sick (Ruth 1). Israel out of her land, sick unto death (Hos. 5:13). Name occurs 4 times, and only in the book of Ruth.
Mara, bitter (Ruth 1:20). Israel's future return to her land accomplished in bitterness and sorrow. There is but one occurrence of the name in Scripture.
Melchizedek, king of righteousness (Gen. 14). The combined kingly and priestly millennial reign of Christ. Name occurs about 11 times in the Scriptures.
Mephibosheth, signification doubtful (2 Sam. 9). Illustration of the kindness of God displayed to a poor sinner. Name occurs about 14 times, and only in second Samuel.
Mordecai, worshippers of Mars (Esther 2). Christ exercising the power and glory conferred upon Him in connection with His earthly people in the last days. Name occurs about 58 times, and only in the book of Esther.
Moses, drawn out of the water (Ex. 2). Christ, the future deliverer of His earthly people from their sins, and from their enemies. Name occurs. about 805 times in the Scriptures.
Naaman, pleasant (2 Kings 5). The pride of man thoroughly humbled, and the kingdom received as a little child. Name occurs about 12 times in the Scriptures.
Nadab and Abihu, noble, and whose father is God (Num. 3). The daring presumption of mere nature, aided by religious ordinances and ecclesiastical position, to enter the Lord's presence. These names occur about 12 times, always in conjunction, and only in the Old Testament.
Naomi, my pleasantness (Ruth 1). Israel, Jehovah's pleasant child (Jer. 31:20.); and pleasant plant (Isa. 5:7).
Nebuchadnezzar, prince of god mercury (Dan. 2). Absolute and universal power in the hands of man. Name occurs about 90 times in the Scriptures.
Noah, rest (Gen. 6). Figures Christ in some respects, and in others the future remnant of Israel. Name occurs about 55 times in the Scriptures.
Obadiah, servant of the Lord (1 Kings 18). A servant of the Lord in fellowship with the world, hence the walk and testimony is of a hidden character. Name occurs 7 times, and only in the reference chapter.
Obed-edom, serving Edom (2 Sam. 6). Jehovah's care over those who care for His interests on earth (Matt. 6:33). Name occurs about 9 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Orpah, a hind or fawn (Ruth 1). A backslider and apostate from Jehovah, His truth and people. Name occurs but twice, and only in the reference chapter.
Pharaoh, prince or king (Ex. 1). Supreme authority in the world. Common designation of the Egyptian kings, of whom there are at least seven thus titled in the Scriptures.
Phinehas, mouth of brass (Num. 25). Zeal for the glory of God, and its consequent reward (Psa. 106:30, 31). Name occurs about 16 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Rachel, a ewe or sheep (Gen. 29). The Jew first loved and sought by Christ, but Leah (the Gentile) first possessed. Name occurs about 48 times in the Scriptures.
Rahab, enlargement (Josh. 2). Faith in the word and work of Jehovah, securing immunity from judgment, and a place with God, and with His people. Name occurs about 8 times in the Scriptures.
Rebekah, binding (Gen. 24). The bride traveling through the wilderness to Christ on high, cheered and sustained by the comforts of the Holy Ghost. Name occurs about 31 times in the Scriptures.
Ruth, beauty (Ruth 1). Israel taken up in the future, on the ground of sovereign grace alone, figured by Ruth, a Moabitess, in herself utterly destitute of right to blessing (Deut. 23:3). Name occurs about 13 times in the Scriptures.
Sarah, princess (Gen. 17). Covenant of grace or promise (Gal. 4:22-31) offered to the Jews (Acts 3:25). Name occurs about 60 times in the Scriptures.
Saul, asked for (1 Sam. 9). The future Antichrist, who will reign as king in Palestine (Dan. 11:36). Name occurs about 400 times in the Scriptures.
Seth, appointed (Gen. 4). Christ in resurrection (Abel in death), the appointed heir of all things, and head of the new creation. Name occurs about 9 times in the Scriptures.
Solomon, peaceable (1 Kings 11). Christ's millennial reign in all its glory, and sought to by the near and distant heathen. Name occurs about 312 times in the Scriptures.
Shear-Jashub, a remnant shall return (Isa. 7:3). A prophetic sign and name, intimating that a remnant of Israel will be spared from judgment, and recommence the history of the nation in her land. Name occurs but once.
Uzzah. strength (2 Sam. 6). The daring presumption of man instantly checked by Divine judgment. Name occurs about 8 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Vashti, beauty (Esther 1). Gentile bride refuses to show her beauty in the world and before her Lord, but this the Jewish bride (Esther) will do in the coming day. Name occurs about 10 times, and only in the book of Esther.
Zerubbabel, sown, i.e., begotten in Babylon (Zech. 4:6-10). Christ building up the glory in millennial times; completing it amidst shoutings of "grace." Name occurs about 22 times, and only in the Old Testament.
Zipporah, bird (Ex. 2). Gentile wife of the Lord during His absence from Israel. Name occurs three times, and only in the book of Exodus.

Divine Names and Titles

Our studies in this interesting field of Bible research will be found to throw some light upon dispensational truth, and, what is better still, the rays of the Divine glories emitted from these names and titles are both numerous and diversified. The following brief notes will, it is hoped, help the reader in perceiving the beauty of, and remarkable precision in which the various names and titles of the Godhead are written in Holy Scripture.
1. GOD (ELOHIM).
This is the fourth word in the Bible, and by far the most frequently used of any of the Divine names, occurring in the Scriptures about 2700 times. It is a fact of no small importance, and one which has been greatly overlooked in the consideration of questions bearing upon the plurality and unity of the persons of the Godhead, that the name "Elohim" is the plural form of the word "Eloah," also translated "God" about 60 times in the Scriptures. Scholars have been greatly puzzled to account for the very interesting fact that a plural word of such frequent occurrence in the Hebrew Scriptures, should have been by the Jews themselves, so uniformly rendered God, and that, too, by a people so very jealous about their sacred writings. What need, however, of the least surprise, when it is borne in mind that the Holy Ghost—the Divine penman—would in the twenty-seven hundred occurrences of the name "Elohim," afford abundant and irrefragable evidence of the fullness, glory, and unity of the persons of the Godhead. What a triumphant answer is thus supplied in the name itself, to those who would with unhallowed lips dare to depreciate the glory of our God, of His Christ, or of the Holy Ghost.
Creation is not ascribed to the "Father," but to "God," and to the "Son;" thus, in Gen. 1, and including Gen. 2:1-3, which closes the Divine account of creation, God (Elohim) occurs 35 times. In Gen. 7:9, we read, "There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, male and the female, as God (Elohim) had commanded Noah;" the propagation of the species, and God's right and title in creation sufficiently account for the name in this connection; but in Gen. 7:5 of the same chapter, where moral relationship is in question, seven pairs of clean animals and birds (for sacrifice, Gen. 8:20) were to be preserved in the ark; the great relationship title is then used: "And Noah did according unto all that the LORD commanded him."
"Elohim" is sometimes applied to others besides the Creator, as "gods," in Ex. 32:4-8—there it is Hebrew idolatrous worship; also, "strange gods," Deut. 32:16, where it is Heathen idolatry; used also of Judges, Ex. 21:6; of Angels, Psa. 97:7; and of Israel, Psa. 82:6. In all these instances, it will be observed that the idea of might and authority are contemplated.
2. GOD (ELOAH).
The first occurrences of this name, of which we have about 60 in all, are in Deut. 32:15-17. It is the singular form of the plural name "Elohim," both words being rendered "God" in our English Bibles, and without any distinguishing mark. Israel, as a nation, was placed in the midst of an idolatrous world as a testimony against the gross idolatry and corruption of the heathen, and as a witness to the unity of Jehovah; to Him who is alone and one in power, wisdom, and goodness, in contrast to the numerous gods and deities of the world. An integral part of all divine testimony from the days of Abram, whether Patriarchial, Jewish, or Christian, is that "our God is one Lord" (Mark 12:29; 1 Tim. 2:5). Thus where the idolatry of Jew or Gentile with their "gods many and their lords many" are in question, Eloah is generally used as being the name and expression of the only living and true God, the object of all testimony and worship.
To the uncircumcised and idolatrous heathen, God sent a message in their own language (Syriac or Aramean), that their gods (elohim) shall certainly perish from the earth, and from under these heavens (Jer. 10:11); this threat will be duly executed in the day of Jehovah's anger, as Isa. 2:18, solemnly intimates, "The idols He shall utterly abolish."
3. LORD GOD.
This double title occurs for the first time in Gen. 2:4. The responsibilities of man to God, and of moral obligation generally, were established in innocence (Gen. 2.), and are divinely upheld and maintained (Gen. 3), in spite of the lawlessness of man. Responsibility and moral obligation are in no wise dependent upon the state or condition in which humanity is found, hence, in those two chapters, the title " LORD GOD," occurs 20 times. Blessed it is to know that in the Cross of the Lord Jesus Christ, the whole question of creature responsibility in all its breadth, has been settled and closed forever for all who believe, and that Christ risen from the dead is the new source of a new life and head of a new race—that the Second Man imparts the virtue of His own condition before God, and thus, all Christian responsibility directly flows from the new position and new life which the believer possesses in Christ. Man innocent in Eden (Gen. 2), and guilty outside Eden (Gen. 3), is taught that the LORD with whom he is in moral relationship, is none other than God (Elohim), whose power and glory forms the theme of creation's song and testimony (Psa. 19; 145). Man's peculiar creation—"And the LORD GOD formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul"—at once placed him in a position immensely superior to the various living creations above or around; his place was one of conscious intelligent relationship to his Creator, hence flows man's accountability to God. He who alone is, and supreme in power, in creation, glory, and in the excellency and fullness of His Divine Being, has been pleased in His Sovereign goodness to put man—His creature—into positive relationship with Himself.
4. LORD, or JEHOVAH.
This, of all the Divine names, was held in peculiar reverence by the Jews, and the import of which they perfectly understood, as expressing absolute existence—the name of the great I AM (Ex. 3:14). The force and value of this Divine name, is much more difficult to perceive by a Gentile mind than by a Jewish one; the latter's religious training and education, by Jehovah Himself, making the ancient people perfectly familiar with the name and in some measure with its value to them as a people. But to us—saved Gentiles—the Holy Ghost has been pleased to communicate the meaning of the name Jehovah, as we, too, stand related to Him. For, is not Jesus of the New Testament, Jehovah of the old (Matt. 14:14-21, with Psa. 132, especially verse 15)? It is also written, "I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord (Jehovah), which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty" (Rev. 1:8). We learn the absoluteness of His being, of Him who is the independent, self-existing One, in the words "which is" (compare with John 8:58), while Jehovah's relation to the past is expressed in the words "which was," and His relation to the future in, the sentence, "which is to come." Both man (Gen. 4) and Israel (Ex. 6:3) were placed by Jehovah in distinct moral relationship with Himself; the latter in special covenant relationship. The terms on which the patriarchs stood with God, are described by other Divine names than that of Jehovah.
In the book of Psalms, God (Elohim) occurs about 360 times, while LORD (Jehovah) occurs about 700 times. In the first book of Psalms consisting of those from Psa. 1. to Psa. 41., Jehovah, the covenant name and title of relationship occurs upwards of 270 times, and Elohim only about 50 times. In the second book of Psalms, those from Psa. 42. to Psa. 72., we do not meet with more than 30 instances of Jehovah, while Elohim occurs about 200 times. Psa. 14 and Psa. 53. furnish us with further illustrations of the Spirit's careful use of these names; in each Psalm the name of God occurs seven times; in the former Psalm "LORD" occurs four times, and "God" three times, while in the latter Psalm "God" alone occurs seven times; in the former of these Psalms it is said "the LORD looked down from Heaven; " while in the latter it reads " God looked down from Heaven; " in the Psa. 14, the wicked "call not upon the Lord;" while in the Psa. 53, it is they have not "called upon God." These and other distinctions which might be pointed out are not unimportant. On what principle then are they to be understood? Judah in her land and especially in Jerusalem, consequently in covenant relationship with Jehovah is, in the main, the subject of the first book of Psalms, hence the frequent use of the covenant name "LORD" or Jehovah; but in the second book, Judah is regarded as outcast from her land and glorious city, and the mass of the people in apostacy from God and truth, and identified with the Antichrist, thus "God" is the leading title. Read Psa. 14 and Psa. 53. in this light, and instead of confusion the perfect order and Divine beauty of these titles will at once appear. God—the Creator-Name and Jehovah—the covenant title explain these differences which have baffled German wisdom and English "advanced thinking." God is always right and man is always wrong.
There are various words translated LORD, Lord, lord, both in the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures, conveying shades of thought interesting to close and critical readers of the Bible. LORD, however, is only applied to Him who is known as Jehovah, the self-existing one; but "Lord" is also applied to Jehovah in the Old Testament, although not so frequently as in Psa. 8, etc.; the former being printed in small capitals, the latter in ordinary letters.
We have Jehovah, the independent self-existing one-Ex. 6:3.
We have Jehovah-jireh, the Divine provider of sacrifice-Gen. 22;14.
We have Jehovah-Nissi our banner in victorious conflict-Ex. 17:5.
We have Jehovah-Shalom, our altar of peace-Judg. 6:24.
We have Jehovah-Shammah, the Divine presence in Jerusalem Ezek. 48:35.
We have Jehovah-Tsidkenu, our righteousness-Jer. 23:6.
"Lord" is used of Christ in the New Testament about 650 times, 170 of these being found in the Gospels alone; in nearly 160 of the New Testament occurrences of this Divine title, it is clearly identical with Jehovah, just as Jesus the Son of Man is identified with "the Ancient of days." (Compare Rev. 1:13-16 with Dan. 7:9).
The term "Lord " does not once occur in John's three Epistles, and the familiar phrase "in the Lord" is only found in the writings of the great Gentile apostle, with but one exception (Rev. 14:13). All Christian responsibility, whether of a corporate, individual, or social character, is directly connected with Christ as Lord. The various relationships of life are to be duly observed and regulated by what is due to Him in this character (Eph. 6:1-10; Col. 3:17-25). Christ's Lordship in the Christian Assembly (1 Cor. 12:3-5) and in the godly observance of the Eucharistic feast or supper, in connection with which the title "Lord" is used eight times (1 Cor. 11.), is a truth almost unknown, or, if so, nearly ignored by the professing Church. The title "Lord" is also the expression of Christ's rights over man and creation (Matt. 13:44; 2 Peter 2, etc). Peter's great Pentecostal sermon (Acts 2) is concluded by the statement "that God hath made that same Jesus whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ." Jehovah He is, and that in virtue of His Divine Person, but as man, He was made "Lord," and exalted to God's Right Hand, and as such He has just claims over the christian, over man and over creation. Our responsibilities are connected with the exalted Man as "Lord," our blessings are connected with the exalted Man as "Christ." The latter name is connected with Christian position, thus "in Christ" defines my place before God, while the former name is as directly connected with the whole range of Christian duty and responsibility, hence "in the Lord" divinely regulates my place and conduct on earth.
5. MOST HIGH GOD.
This is a beautiful millennial title, occurring four times in that typical kingdom picture, Gen. 14:18-24; it also occurs several times in the Gentile book of prophecy—Daniel. "The Most High God, possessor of heaven and earth," will receive the worship of the millennial nations, and will also pour down His blessings upon them. The heavens and the earth will be filled with blessing and be vocal with praise. Melchizedek, in whom was united priesthood and royalty, points to Christ in whom every glory centers, and who alone is able and alone worthy to bear the double glory of kingly power and priestly grace, as saith the prophet "He shall be a priest upon His throne" (Zech. 6:13). Now, this blessing from God to man and from man to God (Gen. 14:19, 20.) is exercised mediatorially. The coming kingdom, both in its celestial or upper, and terrestrial or lower spheres, will be received from the Father (Luke 19:12.), and for one thousand years the Lord Jesus—the true Melchizedek—will sway the scepter in righteousness; will unite all things in the heavens and on the earth; will be God's representative in the creation; will be the link of blessing from God to man, and the channel of worship from man to God, and at the close of His glorious reign, He will deliver up the kingdom to God (1 Cor. 15:24-28) in the Divine perfection in which it was received; thus the kingdom and all its connected glories will be mediatorial in character.
"Most High" is used ten times in Daniel; five times in Dan. 4. and five times in Dan. 7. In the latter Scripture, the expression occurs three times in a plural form, and refers to the heavenly places, (Eph. 1:3 and 6:12,) it might be translated "high places"; the other two instances where "Most High" is used in, is in Dan. 7:25, and is rightly applied to God; the other occurrences applying to the sphere of blessing, not to the Blesser. The expression "Most High" in Dan. 7:27, is an interesting passage, as showing the connection between the glory celestial and the glory terrestrial. "And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven shall be given to the people (Jewish people) of the saints of the Most High (that is the risen and glorified saints dwelling in the heavenly places), whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey Him."While earthly dominion is committed to the Jews on earth; the heavenly glory and rule over the earth will be enjoyed by the saints risen and glorified, and immediately associated with Christ; while the connection between the heavens and the earth and the saints occupying both spheres will be blessedly maintained. This is not an arbitrary thought, as Rev. 21:12, 24, 26 and Hos. 2:21-23, have a similar strain as their burden.
6. ALMIGHTY GOD.
"ALMIGHTY" is used about 60 times in the Scriptures and is a word applied to God only. Sometimes it occurs alone, and sometimes in conjunction with other divine names or titles; about 30 of these occurrences will be found in the ancient and interesting book of Job.
"Almighty God " occurs but twice in the Bible; first, in Gen. 17:1, and second, in Rev. 19:15. Abraham the pilgrim and stranger called out from an idolatrous world to walk with God, would find in the revelation of the "Almighty God" a sure and all sufficient resource. "God Almighty" in His grace; "Almighty" in His sustaining power; "Almighty" in Divine resources; "Almighty" for an arm of flesh to lean upon—such would seem to be the force of this grand Patriarchial title. To the pilgrim fathers of Israel God revealed Himself as the Almighty (Gen. 17:1; 28:3; 48:3)—the everlasting and memorial name of Israel's Divine Savior (Ex. 3:15). In announcing to Moses the approaching deliverance of His people, God thus speaks to His servant: "And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty; but by My name Jehovah was I not known to them" (Ex. 6:3), that is as a name of distinct and ordered relationship. No doubt the fathers of the people were for long familiar with the title "Jehovah," as it is often met with previous to Israelitish history, but God did not please to reveal Himself to them as Jehovah, but as "God Almighty." Thus God has revealed Himself to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as the "Almighty" One; to Israel as "Jehovah," and to Christians as "Father." How appropriate! How Divine the wisdom in the use and value of these several displays and revelations of God! If a saint, walking in the path of lowly obedience to the word of God, will clear himself from all untrue, false, and unholy fellowships—sacred or secular—as did Abram (Gen. 12) in his day,—what are the resources and aids of such an one? If the exhortations of 2 Cor. 6:14-18 are imperative, calling for prompt and godly action, the encouragement and sustaining grace are of the most blessed character; could aught exceed the sweetness of those words?—"I will receive you, and I will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be My sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty."
If then, in the first book of Holy Scripture, the "Almighty God " tells of all sustaining power and grace for the pilgrim saint and stranger; the last book reveals God under the same title as all consuming in wrath and judgment to the impenitent sinner (Rev. 19:15).
7. LORD OF ALL THE EARTH.
This title is found twice in the book of Joshua, chap 3:11-13, and once in Zech. 6:5. In taking possession of "all the earth," of which Canaan was the earnest and Joshua a type of the Lord in the taking of the inheritance, God selected this easily understood and fitting title, and under it the people crossed the Jordan and undertook the conquest of the land. When, however, the highly favored people would dare to connect God's blessed name and presence with their evil and idolatry, God could but leave the earth, had no longer a home or throne in it; thus the glory (the Divine majesty and Divine presence) is witnessed by the prophet slowly passing away from Jerusalem to its native home (Ezek. 1-11). To have longer remained in the defiled temple (Ezek. 8) or sanctioned the iniquity of the throne, would have been to lower His character, deny Himself, and tarnish His glory as God; that were impossible. Governmental power, therefore, passed over from Jerusalem to Babylon, and from that important epoch we date "the times of the Gentiles" (Luke 21:24; Dan. 2). God could not sanction by His presence—although governmentally He might bless the power conferred upon the Gentiles—so long as His people were held in captivity by these powers, and the cities of Judah lay waste; hence, when the cause of Israel is again taken up, the title will be re-asserted (Rev. 11:4, compared with Zech. 4 and Zech. 6: 5).
Nebuchadnezzar lauded the "God of heaven," so also Daniel the prophet; but not the "Lord of all the earth," that title only being taken up when Israel's place of supremacy in the earth and amongst the nations is being made good. The central part of "The Revelation" is God's assertion of His right and title to the earth; the consequence being days of wrath and terror upon man, especially upon apostate Judaism and Christendom. Such will be the fear which these judgments will inspire in the wicked, that they will haste to give glory to the "God of Heaven" (Rev. 11:13), but that is not the title expressive of the character of these awful days and times. Men will cheerfully own God's title to heaven, His right to dwell and govern there, for, after all, that keeps God and man at a distance; but when He announces His settled purpose to take up again this earth, to wrest it from the power and grasp of Satan, men sternly refuse to own the title—"God of the earth." So the storm of Divine judgment rolls on, the seals are broken, the trumpets are blown, and the vials are poured out, the thick black clouds break and burst, until those christianized lands and guilty world are thoroughly swept by the besom of destruction, until too, the song from heaven breaks upon a joyous and redeemed creation: "The kingdoms of this world (or world-kingdom) are become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ; and He shall reign forever and ever" (Rev. 11:15).
This, then, is a title which God did assert at the conquest of Canaan, and which He will establish by power in judgment after the day of grace is closed, and introductory to the setting up of the kingdom on earth.
8. GOD OF HEAVEN.
WE have about 20 instances of this interesting title in the Scriptures. It is only found twice in the New Testament, viz., in the Revelation; but it occurs eight times in the book of Ezra; this is to be carefully noted, for it is in this latter portion of the word to which we would refer as elucidating the force of the title "God of Heaven."
The book of Ezra details the religious state of the returned remnants from Babylon. God most graciously permitted a considerable number of His people to return to the city and land of Immanuel, but they did so under Gentile permission and protection. When returned they got blessing from God, but not the presence of God. Governmental power was gifted to the Gentiles in the person of Nebuchadnezzar; the Divine presence was granted to the people, when owned in the land, before their scattering; while the Divine blessing rested abundantly on the work of the returned captives. In the five post-captivity books—Ezra, Nehemiah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi—the remnant is not once termed "My people," save in distinct reference to the future. Yet this is the favorite expression of the earlier prophets, and found abundantly in the earlier books. The altar fire may, as of old, consume its victims; the priest may burn incense at the prescribed hours of worship; the appointed and consecrated feasts of Jehovah may be carefully observed according to the written Word; the new moons and free-will offerings of the people be duly accepted according to the ritual of Moses; the temple courts of the new-built House may resound with songs of praise; the fallen walls and palaces of Jerusalem be reared in something like former grandeur; the city gates, as of old, be opened and shut at their appointed seasons; but the presence of God—of Jehovah—was absent. The glory is departed from Israel. Their temple—beautiful and glorious—had no Ark, no golden Mercy-Seat, no golden Cherubim shadowing the Mercy-Seat, no Urim and Thummim; that which was the distinguishing glory of priest and temple—the Ark—had been removed or destroyed by the Chaldeans. Where was the cloud of glory, the well-known symbol of Jehovah's majesty and presence? It had vacated its place between the Cherubim and retired into heaven at the epoch of the Babylonian attack upon Jerusalem, but will yet return and occupy the magnificent millennial Temple, filling it with glory (Ezek. 43). These sunny days and times are not far distant.
Thus we account for the frequency of this title in the book of Ezra. God was indeed caring for and watching over the remnants of His people, but He did so secretly and providentially, not, as before, actively interfering on their behalf from His Throne in Jerusalem in power, nor from His Temple in their midst in grace. The Throne of righteousness is now set up in the great Gentile metropolis, and the glory has left the House, hence the appropriateness of the title "God of Heaven." God acts in and from heaven, not on earth, save providentially, yet directs and controls all for the blessing of His own. When He begins to act publicly on behalf of Israel, He will do so under His Joshua-title, "Lord of all the earth."
The point now for faith to recognize is, that God is acting and directing, although unseen, for the present blessing of His own; and this He does, making His hand felt in the personal circumstances of life, as also in the governments and powers of the day. What a stay to the heart in the presence of evil and evil men:-" Be still and know that I am God." What then about the raging of men or the din of war? Can not the restless and troubled heart repose on those calm and divinely blessed words, "Be still and know that I am God?" Blessed Lord repose the hearts and souls of Thy troubled saints in these and coming days of anxious dread!
The book of Esther, in which the name of God does not once occur, shows the secret actings of God, exercised through the Persian monarchy towards those of the people who, indifferent to Jehovah and His interests, preferred for gain and ease to remain in the land of captivity, instead of availing themselves of the edicts of Cyrus and Artaxerxes granting liberty. Thus the people outside the country of Canaan—careless and unbelieving, are watched over and protected by God Himself, but from heaven and secretly, for He cannot in their state own them publicly. In the post-captivity books, God is owned as the "God of Heaven," and as such He acts.
The expression "Kingdom of Heaven," which occurs in the New Testament, and only in the Gospel of Matthew, about 30 times, has its root in Dan. 4; it is an important phrase in connection with the title "God of Heaven." This Divine, and to us exceedingly important title covers all the period of time, from the scattering of Judah by the first imperial power, until God again takes up the cause of the Jew.
9. FATHER
THE Divine revelation to the Patriarchs was as "God Almighty," to Israel as "Jehovah," while to Christians it is "Father"—the distinguishing New Testament title. The name occurs singly, or in conjunction with other titles, about 300 times in the New Testament Scriptures. It is worthy of notice, that Jesus only once directly addressed "God" as such (Matt. 27:46); He often spoke of God, but with the exception named, always directly addressed the "Father." Of the many Divine names and titles, there is none more full of comfort or more touching to the heart, than that of "Father." To the Christian, it is the expression of that peculiar relationship and measure of that blessed nearness, founded on accomplished redemption, and which every believer occupies. A Jew, however godly, could not directly address Jehovah as his "Father;" "Like as a father pitieth his children, so the LORD pitieth them that fear Him" (Psa. 103:13).
"Father" is the language of the babe in Christ (1 John 2:13); the cry of the Spirit in the believer (Rom. 8:15); it is a name which speaks of a love and relationship only fully known and enjoyed by the practically separated saint (1 John 2:15, 16). In those loved chapters of John 13-17.—containing the dying instructions of Christ, and in which His mind is given us for consolation and profit during the whole period of this present interval of grace, the name "Father" with its pronouns occurs upwards of 100 times.
The prayer of glory is addressed to the God of Jesus Christ (Eph. 1:17-23); the prayer of love to the Father of Jesus Christ (Eph. iii. 14-24 "Our Father" is not the language of Jesus and His disciples as some have supposed, but of the latter only, while "My Father" was spoken alone by Jesus. "My Father" and "Your Father" (John 20:17), while maintaining the distinctive blessedness of the believer, yet as distinctly marks off the pre-eminent place of Jesus. All disciplinary dealing (Heb. 12:9, 10), conduct and life (1 Peter 1:14-17), fellowship (1 John 1), and restoration of soul (1 John 2: 1), are referred to the "Father." It is also the Father's care (Luke 12:30), love (John 16:27), grace (Matt. 5:45-48), goodness (Matt. 7:11), words (John 17:8), and testimony (John 17:14), which forms, stays and comforts the soul of the saint in his daily life. But while "Father" is the name which, perhaps, above all others, stirs the feelings and awakens the tenderest emotions of the heart, it must be borne in mind that the name is only fully declared after redemption had been accomplished, after the wrath of God had spent itself on Jesus on the cross. "I will declare Thy name unto my brethren" (Psa. 22:22), were the words of the Savior ere He died, and soon after, raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, He commissions Mary of Magdala to announce to His brethren the new relationship, saying:-"I ascend unto My Father, and your Father; and to My God and your God" (John 20:17)
The concluding verse of the Lord's intercessory prayer for His own, "I have declared unto them Thy name, and will declare it" (John 17:26) refers to a past unfolding of His Father's name as in John 20:17 (John 17 supposes the Lord already ascended to heaven), and a future declaring of that wondrous name now being accomplished by the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven.
10. JESUS.
This precious name occurs nearly 700 times in the New Testament. Upwards of 600 of those instances will be found in the Gospels alone. In Mark and Luke, the name occurs about 100 times in each book; in Matthew about 170 times, and in John about 250 times; in the Acts, it is not of frequent occurrence, and in the Epistles about 30 times only. It is well worthy of careful notice, that in no case has the Holy Ghost caused that ineffably sweet and precious name to be written with an adjective. "Jesus" needs no labored description; no flourish of rhetoric, or tongue of man or angel to publish its glories. His dignities, His moral perfection, the varied glories of His person, ways, and works proclaim WHO and WHAT He is. The Christian should carefully avoid as really detracting from the worth of Jesus all such expressions as "Dear Jesus," and in epistolary correspondence "In Jesus;" such language is not only unscriptural, but is exceedingly faulty, both in expression and thought "In Jesus" (1 Thess. 4:14), should be
"through Jesus."
We account for the infrequent use of this peerless name in the Epistles, owing to the new position of Jesus as risen and exalted; there "Christ," the title of the exalted and glorified man, is used upwards of 200 times, while, as already observed, "Jesus" only about 30 times. As the man amongst men, active in goodness and love, His Divine glory hid, He passed through the scene as the "Man of Sorrows," and as the four Gospels give the records of that wondrous life, He is there called "Jesus," His personal name as born into the world (Luke 1:31; Matt. 1:21); it told of reproach, suffering, and shame.
11. CHRIST.
"MESSIAH" is a Hebrew word and "Christ" a Greek one, both meaning "Anointed," as in (Psa. 2:2), thus, in the Gospels, where "Christ" occurs about 50 times, it is an official designation, and is usually written with the article prefixed as "the Christ." Our very excellent version of the New Testament fails in numerous instances in conveying this title aright to English readers; the omission of the article is unhappy, as it obscures a vital part of the Lord's testimony to the Jews. The Messiah—the burden of Old Testament Scriptures—had now come, and was presented for Jewish acceptance. Jesus -"the Christ"- offered Himself to Israel as the Savior from sin and Deliverer from Gentile rule (Luke 1:67-79); but Israel knew not the day of her gracious visitation, so contrary was He to all Jewish expectation, although Psa. 22; 69, and Isa. 53, might have prepared them for the advent of a suffering and rejected Messiah ere the kingdom and the glory could come. Jehovah will assuredly build up Zion; but atonement for sin on the cross must be the ground and basis, whether for blessing and glory, and whether for Jew or Gentile. Israel rejected Christ's Messianic claims; and, as to the moral glory displayed in His person, works, and ways, their minds and hearts were blinded. Consequent upon His full and final rejection as King of Israel, as the Christ, the Anointed of Jehovah, our place and portion is now found in Israel's rejected One, crowned and glorified in heaven, God is not in meantime pressing the Jewish claims of His beloved Son, that He will do soon, and then, not as before, contingent on Jewish or Gentile responsibility, but our God will work in the absoluteness of His own power for the glory of His Son as the Messiah in Judea, and also in the more comprehensive and broader title, "Son of Man," on the earth. Christ's new place as risen from the dead and glorified on high measures our place in the glory He has entered, and fixes our position before God; hence, in the Acts and Epistles where Christ's place and ours are fully developed, "Christ" is not often written with the article prefixed. In the Gospels, as we have seen, it is an official title, and occurs about 50 times; in the Acts, His exaltation by God is the great point, and there the name occurs about 20 times; while in the Epistles, it is used upwards of 300 times, and, as defining our position before God. As the Church, we are united to Him in life, blessedness, glory, and future dominion of all things—over the works of God's hands (Eph. 1:22, 23; 1 Cor. 15., etc.); as saints, individually, we sit in heavenly places "in Him" (Eph. 1:3-5, etc.). We are not as Christians in position and standing before God in the first man at all; and we ought not to be down here according to practical life and ways. Christ risen from the dead is the head of God's new creation, and source of life and new responsibility. Life and responsibility flow from connection with Adam or Christ, the first man of the earth, the second man heavenly. We as believers are "in Christ," whether alive on the earth (2 Cor. 12:2) or dead (1 Cor. 15); thus, our position in the Divine presence is not only a fixed one and blessed beyond all that heart could conceive, but one against which the gates of "hell (hades) and death" are utterly powerless, because, founded on a life victorious over Satan and death.
12. JESUS CHRIST.
THIS double title only occurs five or six times in the Gospels, but is frequently used by the Apostles Paul, Peter, and John in their epistles. Paul in his fourteen letters writes "Jesus Christ" about 66 times; Peter in his two Epistles about 12 times; and John in his three Epistles, about 9 times. The lowly humbled man on the earth, Jesus, is now the exalted and glorified man in the heavens, Christ. What He was as "Jesus," and what He is as "Christ" combined, give the force of this title. The sufferings of earth and the glories of heaven are thus wondrously linked in the divine order of the names "Jesus Christ."
13. CHRIST JESUS.
"Jesus Christ" is a title common enough in all the epistles, but "Christ Jesus" is almost wholly confined to Paul. Peter does not once use it in his first epistle, and in his second, only twice, while neither Jude in his short Catholic letter, nor John in his three epistles and Revelation, writes "Christ Jesus" even once. These titles are penned with remarkable precision in the Scriptures, and to confound them is simply to rob our souls of blessing, and Christ of glory; this we cannot afford to do, and so depend upon it, beloved reader, that an exact acquaintance with the Spirits' employment of these names and titles will yield no mean light or profit to thy soul. The apostles and writers of the New Testament were converted when Jesus was on earth, save Paul, whose first acquaintance with Christ was formed in the glory (Acts 9), hence they and he speak of Jesus as they knew Him. In this way we account for the rare occurrence of Paul's favorite title, "Christ Jesus," in other than the Pauline writings. Peter, John, and others first knowing Jesus on earth, speak and write of Him as "Jesus Christ;" while Paul first knowing Jesus in glory, uses the expressive title "Christ Jesus." It is not found at all in the Gospels.
The exalted man, the head and center of every glory—Christ, was once the deeply humbled man on earth—Jesus. Thus the glories on high are first known, and man in Christ in the presence of God, ere the sufferings of earth and Jesus our pattern in conflict and sorrow can be learned. In Phil. 2 and 3. I get first a humbled Christ (Phil. 2.), then a glorified Christ (Phil. 3.); but while this is so historically, it is not so doctrinally, for I must know Christ in the glory as an object and for power before I can walk as He walked. Thus "Jesus Christ" would be Phil. 2. and Phil. 3, while Christ Jesus would be Phil. 3. and Phil. 2. in moral order. The first title would be what He was and what He is united; the second would be what He is and what He was combined.
14. LORD JESUS CHRIST.
This is the full written title of our Lord, connecting His authority (Lord) with His manhood (Jesus) and glory (Christ). Thus His power is indissolubly linked with His humanity and present exaltation (Matt. 28:18). This title is found in all the introductory verses of the Pauline Epistles, save the Hebrews, and generally at the close also. In the introduction to 2 Timothy the title is slightly altered, but it occurs in the last verse of that Epistle. It is not once used by John in his three letters; in fact the word "Lord" does not occur once in those epistles. If the thoughts given
under each name are connected, the Scriptural force and value of this fullest of all the Lord's New Testament titles will be readily perceived.
15. SON OF GOD.
This grand and Divine title is neither official nor dispensational, but one of personal and moral glory, and is only fully declared and unfolded in the writings of the Apostle John—the revealer of Divine mysteries, as Paul of heavenly secrets. John discloses a deeper glory than that which bears upon Judah, in her land or dispersed—that is Peter—or upon the twelve tribes of Israel, gathering in groups in their synagogues—that is James—or upon creation and the Church—that is Paul. The Divine and personal glory of Jesus Christ—"Son of God" and "Son of the Father"—is the wondrous theme of the Apostle of life and love.
"Son of God" occurs but once in the Old Testament (Dan. 3:25). The title is applied to Adam in Luke 3:38, as the expression of his place and dignity in creation. The angels too are styled "sons of God" (Job 2; 38:7, etc.), but no angel is ever termed "Son of God," much less "the Son of God." "Son" is a title belonging to Christ by inherent right; it becomes ours only by adoption.
"Son of God" occurs in the Scriptures nearly 50 times, and is the expression of Christ's personal dignity and glory. "Son of the Father" occurs but once, and intimates the blessed relationship eternally subsisting between the Father and the Son. "Only begotten Son in the bosom of the Father" is but once written in Scripture, and is the declaration to us of the depth and tenderness of the love in which the Son ever abode with His Father. Dignity, relationship, and love are unfolded in those divine and exquisitely beautiful titles.
It is interesting to note that Luke connects Sonship with the incarnation of our Lord (Luke 1:35); Matthew with the calling out from Egypt (Matt. 2:15); Mark with the commencement of the Lord's ministry (Mark 1:1); but John traces the Sonship of Jesus Christ before time began. "In the beginning was the word" (John 1:1) is a peculiar form of expression, and probably conveys the most exact and historical thought of eternity found in the Bible. "From the beginning" (1 John 1:1) refers to a specific event—the appearing of Christ as man in the world. "In the beginning was the Word" has no reference to either date or epoch. It is a truly remarkable phrase. Eternity, Personality, Deity, Coequality, and Creatorship are ascribed to Him who is the "Word" and the "Son," and that within the brief compass of 42 words (John 1:1-3). In the Gospel of John we see the Son of God with the sinner; but in the Epistles of John we see the Son of the Father with the saint; in the former we are instructed in life, in the latter in love and fellowship.
"Son of the living God" (Matt. 16:16). It is upon the glory of Christ's person thus divinely revealed by the Father to Peter that Christ builds His assembly. Paul too in accordance with the double ministry received of the Lord—the Gospel and the Church (Col. 1:23-26) "straightway preached Jesus that He is the Son of God" (Acts 9:20). The Divine glory of that name and person formed the ground of all His Gospel and Church testimony. The Divine and Heavenly glory of the "Son" is needed for Church foundation, Church blessing, and Church glory, and also as a basis, solid and imperishable, on which our individual salvation most surely reposes; these are in brief the subjects of the Pauline writings. The Divine glory of the "Son" for the gathering, blessing, character and moral likeness of the family in the Father's house, are the happy themes of John, who, himself reposing on the bosom of his Master knew something of the intimacies of the heart of God.
16. SON OF MAN.
It is an interesting circumstance that while the title "Son of Man " occurs in the Gospels upwards of 80 times it is only directly applied by the Lord to Himself; it is not even once applied by others to Him. Stephen, however, saw Jesus glorified in the heavens and addressed Him as "Son of Man," saying, "I see the heavens opened and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God" (Acts 7:56).
John in the Revelation twice uses the title, applying it to the Lord in both instances (Rev. 1:13; 14:14). Stephen and John are the only persons in the New Testament who apply the title "Son of Man" to Jesus. There is but one occurrence of this title in the Epistles, and that one is a quotation from Psalm 8 (Heb. 2:6).
In the Old Testament "Son of Man" is used of Ezekiel about 100 times; in Daniel it occurs three times, two of them being applied to the Prophet, and the third to the Messiah (Dan. 7:13). Like those two Old Testament prophets of the captivity—who found their sphere of ministry outside Israel not then recognized of God—Jesus ever applied this title to Himself consequent upon His rejection as "the Christ" by Israel; it was a title He peculiarly delighted in and one which tells of His deep and abiding interest in man as such. Thus He oversteps the narrow and circumscribed limits of Judaism, and instead of a glory filling Immanuel's land merely, the scene widens, for the dominion of the "Son of Man" embraces the heavens and the earth, and instead of a glory skirting the coasts of Judea, the whole earth becomes lightened with His glory under this name and character. The glory of Messiah—King of Israel, is the subject of Psa. 2, but a scene more universal in extent, and even more grand in character is opened to view in Psa. 8—a glory which He takes as "Son of Man," and one in which we share (Eph. 1:11). Universal dominion and absolute sovereignty are glories resting upon this exceedingly interesting title—one, moreover, in which every human being is concerned, for universal judgment and authority to execute that judgment are referred to the "Son of Man " (John 5, Acts 17:31). On the other hand, life and power to communicate that life are referred to His Divine title "Son of God" (John 5; 17:1, 2). As "Son of Man" He comes in glory to Israel (Matt. 24:30), and to the Gentiles or living nations on the earth whom He gathers before His throne of glory (Matt. 25:31); then He will bring in universal blessing and righteous rule (Matt. 13:41).
Blessed Lord, bring in those happy days in Thine own time and in Thine own way!
17. SON OF DAVID.
This title is found in the synoptic Gospels 14 times—in Matthew eight times, in Mark three times, in Luke three times; but is not once found in John. This title is more confined in its application than the broader and more comprehensive one "Son of Man;" the former has Judea as its range, and the Jews as its subjects of blessing; while the latter has earth as its sphere, and mankind as the subjects of its exercise.
God has been pleased to reveal Himself in four great relationships—first, to creation as GOD; second, to Israel as JEHOVAH; third, to the Patriarchs as GOD ALMIGHTY; fourth, to Christians as FATHER. There is also a fourfold revelation of the Sonship of our blessed Lord—first, as the "SON OF GOD," title of personal and Divine Glory; second, as the "SON OF THE FATHER," expressing the ever-abiding relationship of the Son to the Father; third, as the "SON OF MAN," the righteous and gracious ruler over the millennial earth; fourth, as the "SON OF DAVID," the fulfiller of every glorious promise and prediction to the ancient people.

Brief Summary of the Foregoing

1. GOD (Elohim). Glory and power connected with creation and God-head fullness.
2. GOD (Eloah). Only living and true God, object of worship, and subject of testimony.
3. LORD GOD. Creature relationships established with the Creator.
4. LORD OR JEHOVAH. Moral relationship established with Israel.
5. ALMIGHTY GOD. Divine sustainment for the saint; Divine wrath on the sinner.
6. MOST HIGH GOD. Mediatorial power, priesthood and blessing in the coming kingdom.
7. LORD OF ALL THE EARTH. Authority over and proprietorship of the earth.
8. GOD OF HEAVEN. Divine government exercised providentially on the earth.
9. FATHER. God's relationship to New Testament believers.
10. JESUS. Personal name of our Lord when on earth.
11. CHRIST. Our standing before God, and measure of our new place and blessing.
12. JESUS CHRIST. The once humbled, but now exalted one.
13. CHRIST JESUS. The now exalted one, once humbled on earth.
14. LORD JESUS CHRIST. Authority, united to manhood and glory.
15. SON OF GOD. Divine and personal glory.
16. SON OF MAN. Earthly glory and dominion.
17. SON OF DAVID. Judaic glory—co-extensive with Immanuel's land and people.

Outlines of the Books of the Old Testament: The First Division of the Old Testament - the Law

(Luke 24:44)
"The Law Of Moses," or Pentateuch comprising the following books—Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus Numbers, Deuteronomy.

Genesis: 4000 B.C. - 50 Chapters and 1533 Verses

Genesis is by far the oldest document extant, and is in many respects the most interesting book in the world. It is the basis of all science, as it alone contains a true and full account of creation, and also of the origin and unity of the human race. The groundwork of all history, whether ancient and modern, general and special, is laid in this grand old book, which traces the course of the families and nations of the earth from their respective sources—the three sons of Noah—besides furnishing a comprehensive sketch of the world's history for the first sixteen and a half centuries. We have here, too, the only reliable and Divine source from whence we can gather light as to man and the world's age. This is the only record preserved to us on which a safe system of chronology can be built. Nowhere else are all human relationships so fully unfolded in their original purity, whether towards God, man, or creation. What other book furnishes such a grand collection of rich and rare biographies? What work so full and positively fascinating as this in its truthful sketches of primeval life and times? Are not the far-distant lands of the east made familiar to us, while, under the Holy Spirit's guidance, we are conducted into the tent or stand beside the altar, or through the desert, with the camel bearing its costly stores from Arabia and aromatic perfumes from Egypt and the south? How vivid the delineation of eastern manners, customs, and ways! Should not the birthplace of civilization, the cradle of the human race, and the center from whence all religion—Patriarchial, Jewish, and Christian—emanated possess an undying charm above all to the Christian student?
Genesis is not only the first book of the Pentateuch or five-volumed book of Moses, and the first in order in all Hebrew and English Bibles, but is also first in moral order as to the contents of the Bible itself. As signified by its name, it is pre-eminently the book of Divine beginnings, and has been happily termed "The seed plot of the Bible," as it contains the germ of every truth and subject developed in the succeeding books of Holy Scripture. From the character of this divine and ancient record we would style it the book of sources, and Revelation the book of results.
This first-written book of Holy Scripture is older by several centuries than any human production. The Chinese profess to have books of a much earlier date, but their statements on this point cannot be relied upon, and although their chronology is undoubtedly very ancient, it is also involved in much obscurity. Certain Egyptian monuments, as the Great Pyramid, supply scraps of historical information shortly after the Deluge, but nothing definite. The first of all historians was Moses. Neither books nor monuments can furnish the slightest help in determining the age or characteristics of the times preceding the Flood. We are indebted alone to the Book of Genesis for a true, because Divinely-inspired account of the world's history for the first sixteen and a half centuries. It may be remarked that the three first words of our book -"in the beginning" - are also the three first words of the Gospel according to John; in the former, however, the start is creation, in the latter we are in eternity. What a boundless field of wealth is presented to the Christian student in this precious and interesting book.
To creation God reveals Himself as Elohim—it is a plural word denoting the fullness, glory, and power of the Creator, and is rightly enough translated God 2700 times in the Holy Scriptures. To man as such the Creator has been pleased to take the title of Jehovah, expressive of moral relationship towards the intelligent creation, more than 6850 times in the Old Testament alone. To the Patriarchs the Almighty God would be an all-sustaining power for weakness to cling to, and for faith to confide in. These are the three leading names of relationship with God found in our book.
In order that the general bearing of the book be apprehended and an intelligent idea of its contents be gathered up, we here append a list of the subject or subjects of each chapter:—
Gen. 1-God's work in creation, and man's responsible place in it as center and Lord.
Gen. 2.-God's rest and satisfaction in His work, and human relationships established in innocence.
Gen. 3.-Satan the tempter; details of the temptation; judgment upon the serpent by the promised seed; governmental judgment upon the woman and the man; sacrifice and righteousness prefigured in the coats of skin.
Gen. 4.-Approach to God on the ground of death; murder, a human religion, city building, polygamy, and the world-system founded, furnished, and adorned in the family of Cain.
Gen. 5.-God's elect, and testimony to Christ's return by Enoch (Jude 14,15), and Noah (Matt. 24:37-39).
Gen. 6.-God's verdict of man; God's judgment upon man; God's remedy for man.
Gen. 7.-Salvation and judgment; or, the Ark and the Flood.
Gen. 8.-Appearing of the new world, and all blessing for man and the creature founded on sacrifice.
Gen. 9.-Institution of civil government; God covenanting with man and creation; Noah's failure and his prophetic utterances upon his three sons—the progenitors of the nations and families of the earth.
Gen. 10.-The world peopled by the descendants of Japheth, eldest son, Ham the youngest, and Shem the second.
Gen. 11.-The first general attempt of man to form a religious center, the Tower, and human center—the City of Babel—apart from God; the line of grace traced from Shem till Abram.
Gen. 12.-The call, walk, worship, and failure of Abram.
Gen. 13.-Lot, the man of the world choosing for himself; Abram, the man of faith, has his portion chosen by Jehovah.
Gen. 14.-Beautiful millennial chapter pointing to the conflicts, royal priesthood, rest, refreshment, and blessing of the future in connection with the earth and the Jews.
Gen. 15.-The connection between heirship and sonship ("If children then heirs"); all promise and blessing founded as to their security on sacrifice; the people delivered and their oppressors judged, and the limits of the land from west to east defined.
Gen. 16.-Hagar, (law) and Ishmael, (the flesh). The typical instruction conveyed will be found in Gal. 4.
Gen. 17.-The unconditional promises grander than ever; circumcision, i.e., death to the flesh instituted; Abram and Sarai have their names changed, and the child of promise, Isaac, here first named.
Gen. 18.-Communion with God as to the judgment of the world, and intercession founded thereon.
Gen. 19-Lot saved from the world's doom "as by fire;" the disgraceful origin of the Moabites and Ammonites.
Gen. 20.-Abraham fails to walk in holy separateness in presence of the world (Abimelech), yet when restored in soul intercedes with God for it.
Gen. 21.-Isaac, the child of promise, born, and weaned amidst general rejoicing; Hagar and Ishmael, law and flesh, rejected; the world entreats the favor of the man of faith.
Gen. 22.-Isaac, figure of Christ, dead and risen (Heb. 11:19), and heir of all things in Resurrection.
Gen. 23.-Sarah, covenant of grace with the Jews, dies (Acts 3:25, and Abraham, man of faith, in the presence of death.
Gen. 24.-The bride called out, adorned with Isaac's love-gifts, and conducted through the wilderness to her heavenly and risen bridegroom under the guidance of the Holy Ghost.
Gen. 25.-Israel's future relationship to Jehovah figured by Abraham marrying Rebekah; Isaac heir of Abraham's wealth; the sovereignty of God in the choice of Jacob instead of Esau.
Gen. 26.-The Abrahamic promises confirmed in Isaac, who fails more deeply than even his father did in Gen. 12. and Gen. 20.
Gen. 27.-Jacob, representative of the Jew, is blessed with the fullness of earthly blessing; the chapter of family sin and failure.
Gen. 28.-The blessing of "God Almighty" resting upon Jacob; the union of Esau and Ishmael, or of the Edomites and Ishmaelites; Jacob, the Jew, outcast from home and land, but watched over and protected by angelic care.
Gen. 29.-Jacob the deceiver in turn deceived (Mark 4:24) Jacob figures Christ as loving Rachel the Jew, but first possessing Leah the Gentile, who is fruitful in children.
Gen. 30.-Rachel the Jew gives birth to Joseph, figure of Christ in suffering and then in glory; Jacob enriched with the blessings of the earth.
Gen. 31.-Jacob's return by Divine command to the land of his fathers; Laban by Divine command cannot injure Jacob; Jacob the Jew and Laban the Syrian enter into a covenant—Jehovah watching between.
Gen. 32.-Jacob has no confidence in "God's host" to preserve him from his brother's enmity, but schemes and prays as to the coming meeting with Esau; God wrestling with Jacob so as to break his will.
Gen. 33.-The meeting of the long-separated brothers; Jacob again deceiving, turning his back upon Mount Seir, his brother's possession, after promising to meet him there.
Gen. 34.-Wickedness; deceit and cruelty.
Gen. 35.-Jacob called to dwell in Bethel, "house of God;" worldliness and idolatry are then judged; Rachel, the loved wife of Jacob, dies after giving birth to Benjamin (Christ in power acting on the earth); the twelve sons of Jacob.
Gen. 36.-Esau figure of haughty Gentile power in opposition to God and His people established on the earth before the promised seed, illustrates the moral of 1 Cor. 15:46.
Gen. 37-Joseph figures Christ first in suffering, then in glory; like Christ hated “without a cause;" dreams of earthly glory; sold to the Gentiles and carried into Egypt.
Gen. 38.-Judah's shameful wickedness.
Gen. 39.-Joseph's personal integrity and his sufferings for righteousness' sake.
Gen. 40.-Joseph ( Christ), even in suffering, the wisdom of God and interpreter of His ways.
Gen. 41-Joseph (Christ) revealing the counsels of God as to the world, and exalted to the exercise of the regal power.
Gen. 42.-Joseph (Christ) secretly nourishing his brethren, and dealing with their consciences as to their sin.
Gen. 43.-Joseph (Christ glorified) cannot reveal himself to his brethren till Benjamin (power) be united to him, thus the union of power and glory in Christ for the blessing of Israel.
Gen. 44.-Judah fully acknowledging the sin and guilt of Joseph's (Christ's) cruel rejection—the conscience is thoroughly searched and the sin confessed.
Gen. 45.-Joseph (Christ) revealing himself to his brethren. See Zech. 13
Gen. 46.-The rise of the nation from 70 souls who went down into Egypt; the touching meeting between Israel and Joseph.
Gen. 47.-Jacob the Pilgrim blessing the Monarch of the world (Pharoah) Jacob and his sons enriched and blessed in the richest part of the country, the land of Goshen; Joseph ( Christ exalted) the source of all blessing to the world.
Gen. 48.-Jacob's dying reflections upon his checkereda life; Israel and not Joseph in the mind of God as to the blessing of Manasseh and Ephraim.
Gen. 49.-The prophetic blessings of Jacob, in which the history of the nation is sketched from their rise in Egypt till settled in millennial glory.
Gen. 50.-Canaan hopes remembered both by Jacob and Joseph.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-From Adam till Noah, a period of 1656 years. The history of the old world. Gen. 1-7.
2.-From Noah till Abraham, a period of 427 years. Governmental dealing and general history characterize this period. Gen. 8-9.
3.- From the call of Abram till the death of Joseph, a period of about 276 years. God's ways with the Patriarchs in this lengthy section of the book display the admirable wisdom of God in grace, glory, discipline and government. Gen. 12-50.
Besides the foregoing general divisions, Genesis contains ten sections, each containing the words "the generations" as follows:-
(1) Gen. 2:4.-Generations of the heavens and of the earth.
(2) Gen. 5:1.-Generations of Adam, in Seth his third son.
(3) Gen. 6:9.-Generations of Noah.
(4) Gen. 10.-Generations of Noah's sons.
(5) Gen. 11:10.-Generations of Shem, Noah's second son.
(6) Gen. 11:27.-Generations of Terah, Abram's father.
(7) Gen. 25:12.-Generations of Ishmael, founder of the Arab races.
(8) Gen. 25:19.-Generations of Isaac, the son and heir, figure of Christ.
(9) Gen. 36-Generations of Esau, founder of the Edomites.
(10) Gen. 37:2.-Generations of Jacob, from whence sprung the Jews.

Exodus: 1706 B.C. - 40 Chapters and 1213 Verses

In this book we have the commencement of Israel's history as a nation, while in 1 Samuel the kingdom history begins. The period of time covered by the book extends from the death of Joseph till the erection of the Tabernacle, and Jehovah filling it with His glory, about 145 years. From the death of Jacob till the birth of Moses we have no regular history, save a very few connecting links. Previous to the decease of the aged Patriarch Jacob, his sons are assigned the rich and pastoral country of Goshen, Pharaoh's own cattle being preserved there (Gen. 47:6); then we have the prophetic blessings of Jacob and his touching end, followed by the mourning of the Egyptians for 70 days. The embalmed body is carried up to Canaan, and laid side by side with Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, and the "tender-eyed" Leah, there to await till the blast of the trump awake the sleepers to resurrection-life and glory. The fears of Jacob's sons are answered by the tears of Joseph, the seventh time he is said to have wept (Gen. 1. 15-17); then Joseph dies, is embalmed and coffined in Egypt, and thus closes the book of Genesis.
Exodus, the second book of Holy Scripture, opens with a new king on the Egyptian throne, distinctly typical of an Egyptian king in the latter days (Isa. 19). The Hebrews rapidly multiply in spite of the cruel edicts issued by the cruelest of the Pharaohs; this is followed by the birth and subsequent history of Moses, Israel's great deliverer, which forms an integral part of the sacred narrative, and is an exceedingly instructive one to all, being fruitful in lessons of deepening importance in these days of unwonted activity and zeal. Moses the deliverer, and Aaron the High Priest, both figure Christ as saving in the power of Redemption and sustaining by the grace of priesthood. The first forty years of Moses' life were spent in the court of the Pharaoh's; the second forty in solitude with God; and the third forty in the wilderness in active service (Acts 7).
In no other book of Holy Scripture is the great truth of Redemption and its resulting consequences in bringing the redeemed nigh to God, more fully unfolded and blessedly illustrated. Its numerous and varied types are mainly of a redemptive character in keeping with the general design of the book. In the main, the two great subjects of the book are Redemption from judgment, the world, and the power of Satan, and positive Relationship to God established thereon. Ex. 12 and Ex. 14. record the deliverance of the people, the first by the blood of the Lamb—the answer to us being "Justified by His blood," as in Rom. 5:9; the second by the power of Jehovah—the answer being in Rom. 4:25, "Raised again for our justification." After the Redemption of the people had been effected, Jehovah could dwell among them. Wondrous blessing indeed! The first intimation in Scripture of God dwelling with man is found in that magnificent song of triumph (Ex. 15.): "Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, in the place O LORD, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, in the sanctuary, O LORD, which Thy hands have established." God walked in Paradise and visited the Patriarchs, but He had no home or dwelling on earth until after Redemption had been typically accomplished by "blood" and "power." The first relationship of the people to God was on the ground of pure grace, and continued but a period of nearly three months—from their exodus or departure till they reached Sinai; the second principle of relationship was law, and under this they voluntarily placed themselves as the means of maintaining their connection with God; the third ground of standing before God was one of mixed law and grace (Ex. 34.), not of grace simply, for that they had forfeited; nor of law only, for then it must have been judgment.
In this book we have the people before Jehovah, first, as viewed in their misery; second, as redeemed from the power and judgment of Egypt; third, as in relationship to God, whether under grace or government.
The number of the people who left Egypt under the leadership of Moses, then 80 years of age, and Aaron 83 years, cannot with certainty be determined. We know, however, that 600,000 men, besides women, children, and a large mixed multitude (Ex. 12:37, 38), took their departure from the land of captivity and cruel bondage, and we cannot be far wrong in estimating the whole number at about two and a half millions of people.
In the enumeration of the holy vessels there is seeming confusion. From Ex. 25:23-40 we are in the "holy place," but the incense or golden altar is omitted in the description; so also in Ex. 25., where "the court" is minutely described, the brazen laver is quite passed over. These omitted vessels are found in their true place, just where God in His own wisdom has placed them, that is after the consecration of Aaron and his sons to the priestly office (Ex. 30). Beginning with the ark and ending with the court, that is from within, or, from God to man, the great point is God variously manifesting Himself to man (Ex. 25.-27.); while from Ex. 28.-30, the main thought is the means by which man can be brought holily and righteously to God; hence the place occupied in the divine description of the golden altar and brazen laver.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The state of the people, the Deliverer and the Deliverance. Ex. 1.-14.
2.-The people in the wilderness first under grace, then under law. Ex. 15.-24.
3.-The unfoldings of grace in the construction of the Tabernacle and the institution of the Priesthood. Ex. 25.-31.
4.-The apostacy of the people; the law regiven and the name of the LORD proclaimed-law and grace. Ex. 32.-34.
5.-Enumeration of the holy vessels and priestly garments; the Tabernacle reared up, and all set in due order "as the LORD commanded Moses." Jehovah's glory and presence fills and occupies the whole scene. Ex. 35.-40.

Leviticus: 1490 B.C. - 27 Chapters and 859 Verses

Leviticus has been happily termed "The priests' direction book," as it contains a full and circumstantial account of all matters connected with the sacrifices, offerings, feasts, and generally of the worship and ministry of the Priests and Levites. The whole Jewish ritual was eminently typical of Christ in His glorious person, atoning work, and priesthood. Christ as the Sacrifice, as the Offerer, and as the "Great High. Priest," is evidently the burden of this precious book. The intensely interesting types of Leviticus yield a rich and inexhaustible store of Divine truth, touching the sacrificial and priestly work of the blessed Lord; but the reader would do well to study them in light of Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews and in the Divine presence, for the types can only be profitably handled in the seven-fold light of the sanctuary.
The previous book closed with "the glory of the LORD filled the Tabernacle;" this opens with God uttering Himself from His dwelling-"And the LORD called unto Moses and spake unto him out of the Tabernacle of the congregation saying." Hence, Grace is the marked feature of the precious communications which issued from the Tabernacle or presence of God. Jehovah is here regarded as dwelling in midst of His redeemed people, the mercy-seat or propitiatory sprinkled with blood the rest of the Divine Majesty; the golden cherub on either side the representatives of the moral guardians of His throne; the ark all covered with pure gold, containing the depository of His righteous claims upon man as graven by the finger of God on the unbroken tables of stone; with sacrifice the ground of approach, and priesthood the holy means of drawing near.
Atonement is characteristic of this book. Redemption is founded on blood-shedding (1 Peter 1:18, 19), and is treated of nationally in the Old Testament, while individually spoken of in the New Testament, hence in Genesis there could be no distinct teaching upon this momentous theme, as it had to be illustrated in a manner worthy of God, and this is the subject of Exodus where the nation is in view before Jehovah. But atonement could no more be taught in Exodus than could redemption in Genesis. The priest was needed to atone, he only of the children of Israel could bring the blood into the presence of and before the eye of God. What a magnificent unfolding of the great truth of atonement we have in Ex. 16, the central portion of the book as it is the fundamental truth of all Scripture and of our book especially. In the previous book the redemption of the people was fully secured; in this the worship of the people is as truly provided for, and naturally follows the story of redemption. In the main, the great subject of the book is, God gathering the people around Himself, filling His presence chamber—the holiest of all—with the unspeakably blessed memorials of sin righteously judged and put away forever out of His sight and mind, and also to the faith of the offerer and worshipper.
The time occupied in this book would probably not, cover more than about a month, that is counting from the erection of the Tabernacle in the first month of the second year till the numbering of the people in the second month of the same year. Compare (Ex. 40:2 with Num. 1:1). Between those events the book of Leviticus comes in in the history.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1, The divine order of the sacrifices, and the laws regulating their observance. Ex. 1.-7.
2.-The consecration and establishment of Aaron and his sons in the Priesthood, Ex. 8.-10.
3.-Man in nature, practice, and circumstances utterly ruined and undone. Ex. 11.-15.
4.-Atonement (Ex. 16) the basis of all holiness befitting the presence of Jehovah, as also the ground of His dealing with His people from first to last. Ex. 16.-27.
NOTE.
IT may be well to note here the distinction in the terms SACRIFICE, OBLATION, and OFFERING. Sacrifice involved the shedding of blood, as of bullocks, lambs, etc.; oblation referred to the presentation of fruits, vegetables, where no blood was shed; offering is the mere general word, and could apply to either or both of the foregoing.
There were morning (3rd hour), evening (9th hour), weekly, monthly, and yearly sacrifices, besides other national festivals and feasts, all of which will be found specifically mentioned in this and the following books. The three national and compulsory feasts were the Passover (redemption), Pentecost (first fruits of the nation to God), and Tabernacles (millennial glory); in other words, REDEMPTION, LIBERTY, and GLORY,

Numbers: 1490 B.C. - 36 Chapters and 1288 Veses

Passing through the rich variety of truths which crowd the pages of the book of Genesis, we are at once brought face to face with the central truth of all Scripture, REDEMPTION; which is the starting point of the soul's history with God, and of this the book of Exodus mainly treats. The next and necessary stage in the life of one who can, on divine authority, say "I am saved," is WORSHIP-"Giving thanks unto the Father which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light" (Col. 1:12); now that is the point to which we are conducted in the book of Leviticus. Then follows the SERVICE and trials of the wilderness, so fully detailed in the deeply instructive book of Numbers.
In the previous book Jehovah, dwelling in midst of His redeemed and happy people, gave forth His rich communications of grace, chiefly in respect to His peoples' worship and communion. In this book His Tabernacle is pitched in the midst of His people numbered and gathered; Himself the center, rest, and guide of the many thousands of Israel.
This is essentially a book of wilderness trial; one, too, of Divine and unwearied patience with the murmuring host. Here are written down the records of a love which embraced the whole nation, and every individual member thereof, in all the movements, difficulties, trials, and hourly vicissitudes of the long and wearisome journey of nigh 39 years. Had they confided in God, eleven days would have sufficed to have completed their journey from Sinai (Deut. 1:2). Brief, but telling, however, is the recital of that tenderness and care that watched over every member of the mighty host-"thy raiment waxed not old upon thee, neither did thy foot swell these forty years" (Deut. 8:4). A few of the grave events which befell Israel are grouped together in moral order by the Gentile apostle in warning the lax Corinthians against trusting in ordinances instead of Christ, and he sums up thus—may we lay it to heart! "Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples (or types), and they are written for our admonition upon whom the ends of the world (or ages) are come. Wherefore, let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall" (1 Cor. 10:1-12).
Numbers comprises a period of forty years, save fourteen months, that is from the departure from Sinai, where they lingered about a year, till their arrival on the extensive plains of Moab, preparatory to the passage of the Jordan—compare Num. 10:11 with Josh. 4:19. Before they commenced their wilderness journey the people were carefully numbered, the Levites being separated from the mass of the people and numbered by themselves. The total number of men fit for war, from 20, years old, was 603,550 (Num. 1:46); this gives an addition of 3,550 to the number who left Egypt (Ex. 12:37). There was a second numbering of the people in the plains of Moab at the close of their journey 38 years afterward (Num. 26:51, 64, 65); none in the original census were embraced in this one, save Caleb and Joshua, all the rest having perished in the wilderness. The total number in this case was 601,730. The beautiful order and Divine arrangement of the tribes with their standards surrounding the Tabernacle, must have been an imposing sight when it elicited that inspired utterance from the apostate prophet, "How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, and thy tabernacles, O Israel" (Num. 24:5). Alas! how the precious unity and ecclesiastical order of God's Assembly on earth has signally failed as to outward testimony. How has the fine gold become dim! But while we would bow our heads in acknowledgment of signal and widespread failure, we dare not compromise the weighty truth which God has in grace to His poor church revived in late years. "There is one body and one spirit." We can ever count upon the grace of our God, "who abideth faithful: He cannot deny Himself."
The Levites, typical of Christians in service, are here prominent, as the priests, typical of us in worship, were in Leviticus.
Most of the facts and incidents recorded in this deeply suggestive and highly instructive book happened in the beginning and close of their journey, that is, in the second and thirty-ninth years of their eventful history.
It will greatly assist in the simplifying of the historical portion of the book if the three points in the wilderness history be duly attended to. (1)Shortly after the departure from Sinai, Israel arrived in the wilderness of Paran, and from Kadesh, south of Palestine, sent out spies to view the promised land; then (2) follows an unrecorded history of many years, a silence almost unbroken, and the veil scarce lifted from the period of death, for it was during this time that the rebellious nation was under the sentence of death, and under the ban of God's displeasure; the (3) next great epoch in the history is their arrival a second time at Kadesh, and their journey from thence to the eastern side of Canaan, because of the scornful refusal of Edom to allow a passage through his territory. The first part is noted in Num. 1.-12., the second part in Num. 13.-19., the third part is in Num. 20.-36
The book is full of solemn events, and if the grace of Jehovah is here reflected on every page, no less is the holiness of that grace maintained. Ten times at least we have here recorded murmuring and rebellion against the Lord, and as often did judgment follow; but alas! man in nature is irrecoverable, hence in the brazen serpent (Num. 21., John 3:14-16), type of the crucified Savior, and in Aaron's budding rod laid up in Jehovah's presence (Num. 17.), type of living priesthood, we have set forth the righteous ground and holy means by which God can SAVE the sinner and SUSTAIN the saint.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The numberings of the people for war and the Levites for Tabernacle service. Num. 1.-4.
2.-People, Priests, and Levites getting ready for the wilderness journey. Num. 5.-10:1-10.
3.-The journey from Sinai to the southern border of Canaan. Num. 10:11-14.
4.-The people turned back; an almost unrecorded history of about 37 years. Num. 15-20:1-21.
5.-The journey to the eastern side of Canaan, skirting the land of Edom, and the arrival of the people on the plains of Moab and numerous interesting events, with Divine instruction for Canaan. Num. 20:22—Num. 36.

Deuteronomy: 1451 B.C. - 34 Chapters and 959 Verses

The previous books are on the whole well named, and, in general, describe their character. Thus Genesis, signifying production or origin, is a fitting title for the book of the beginnings. Exodus, meaning departure or going out, gives the root idea of redemption. Leviticus, so termed from the whole Jewish religious ritual carefully elaborated in the third book of Moses, and which was committed to and so far carried out by the tribe of Levi—hence Leviticus. The numbering of the people, preparatory to and at the close of wilderness walk and warfare, and of the Levites for tabernacle service, gave its name—we do not say character—to the fourth book. Deuteronomy, so termed by the Alexandrian transcribers, or "seventy," and signifying the second law or law repeated, is a poor expression indeed of its contents. It is not at all the law or previous communications of God simply repeated to the new generation about to enter Canaan, but the book has a character peculiar to itself, as distinct and as important as any book in the whole canon. There is no repetition in the works of God—no two blades of grass of the countless millions adorning our fields are precisely alike—and the same principle equally obtains in the word of God. Our God never repeats Himself. If words and sentences verbally the same occur in different sections of the Holy Scriptures, it will be found that the moral purpose intended is different in each case.
What a solemn period in Israel's history we have arrived at! What a checkereda life theirs had been! How fruitful in holy lessons to us! Does not their wilderness career emphatically tell out what man is in his self-confidence, and that too in presence of ever-abounding grace and love? What a patient, holy, gracious God was theirs; and Israel's God is ours. The people now rest on the edge of the desert—the scene of their wanderings and murmurings. In a few weeks they will cross the Jordan and enter into possession of their inalienable inheritance—the land on which the heart and eye of Jehovah rest perpetually, and which floweth with milk and honey. The former generation had passed off the scene, a solemn witness to the unchanging truth that "our God is a consuming fire." Moses, the aged legislator, at his earnest solicitation, feasted his eyes on the goodly land, while its glories successively passed before him, on Pisgah's height—but his feet were not to tread its sacred soil until the resurrection morning, when "they shall walk with Me in white, for they are worthy;" and our Savior and Divine Guide will conduct His ransomed through scenes of surpassing beauty. These and other considerations drawn from the people's apostacy and the Divine faithfulness, stamp the spoken (Deut. 1: 5) and written (Deut. 28: 58) communications contained in the book with peculiar solemnity. The citations from Deuteronomy by the Apostle in discussing the great question of righteousness (Rom. 10), and by our blessed Lord, who three times quoted from it (Luke 4), are important as defining the moral condition of the people when these heart-searching and pathetic appeals, with which this book abounds, were addressed to them. The utter ruin of Israel was morally complete when Christ, driven into the wilderness, foiled Satan with the words of God drawn from our book; and the Lord's quotations from the early part of the book were not more conclusive as to Israel's utter alienation of heart from God than was Paul's at another day, who cited from the latter part, and that too in view of Israel's utter corruption and departure from God. Another point of importance to the due understanding of the scope and purpose of the book, is, that no intermediate links are recognized as existing between the people and God. The relationship is immediate and direct. Priests and Levites the links between God and the people as to worship and service—are rarely spoken of. This principle of direct connection with God is one of supreme importance in these days. In Deut. 16. we have three feasts compulsory upon all the males of the people, and which were intended to show the nation morally in relationship to Jehovah (Deut. 16:16); these were:-the Passover, Redemption by the blood of the Lamb; Pentecost, the Liberty of grace; and Tabernacles, the Glory to come.
Obedience to the Commandments of the Lord is made the ground on which the people were to enter Canaan and continue therein, and this obedience is urged after a recapitulation of God's ways with them from their departure at Sinai nigh forty years before. The motives urging to this obedience are of the most touching character. The brief review of the wilderness, which serves as an introduction to the book (Deut. 1.- 4.), is not to supplement the history as given in the wilderness books of Exodus and Numbers: a higher object is in view, and one worthy of God and most useful to man. In these chapters we have the moral springs of action; the roots and sources opened up and laid bare. In the previous books we have the strictly historical course of events; while here we have the inner aspect of that history—its hidden workings. From the thirtieth chapter we have a revelation of the future in its present and future bearing upon Israel. There is very little typical instruction in the book, and in this respect it stands out in marked contrast to the preceding books. Deuteronomy is eminently practical, and abounds in appeals to the conscience, which characterizes it on the whole as a moral one, and one well fitted therefore to act upon the heart, life, and ways. God's sovereign choice of a place (Jerusalem) as a center for His people—where He would record His name—is a marked feature of the book. The word "choose" in this connection occurs more than 20 times.
This book supposes the people settled in Palestine, and is their guide or direction book for Canaan conduct and ways; this is self-evident from any chapter in the central portion of the book. The priests' guide-book is Leviticus, and that of the Levites, Numbers.
No book of late years has been so bitterly assailed (save perhaps Genesis) as Deuteronomy; but we would beg the reader to carefully note that the book is cited from or specifically referred to by Solomon (1 Kings 8:29) 450 years after Moses; in the days of Amaziah, king of Judah (2 Kings 14:6), nearly 200 years after Solomon; also by Jehovah (Jer. 34:14), after another 200 years and more; again, our Lord Himself thrice quoted from the early chapters in His memorable contest with Satan (Luke 4); Peter too quotes from the book, ascribing its authorship to Moses (Acts 3:22, 23); the same Messianic prophecy is used by Stephen in his truly wonderful address in the presence of the assembled leaders of Judah (Acts 7:37); while Paul freely uses the book in discussing the great question of righteousness for Jew and Gentile (Rom. 10). The Lord put His seal upon the early part of the book; Peter and Stephen the central portion, and Paul the latter part. Thus the whole fabric of Divine revelation stands or falls with Deuteronomy. The authorship, inspiration and Divine authority of Deuteronomy are vouched for by Jehovah, the Holy Ghost, Christ; also by kings, prophets, apostles, and martyrs—all of whom directly cite from or refer to it. And yet, in face of this overwhelming evidence, so-called Christian men will dare to question its Divine authority. Alas! alas! for the deniers of inspiration, their judgment is rapidly nearing.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-A brief summary of God's ways with the people from their departure at Sinai, presenting the roots of their failure, which were want of confidence in God, and presumption of the flesh. Deut. 1.- 4.
2.-The ground and motives on which the people's obedience to the law is urged on their entrance into the land. Deut. 5.- 11.
3.-Divers, statutes, and ordinances for observance in the land. Deut. 12.- 16:17.
4-Holiness, and the civil and ecclesiastical blessing of the people divinely secured in the land. Deut. 16:18—Deut. 26.
5.-The curse and blessing; the new covenant in the land of Moab; the people's latter day blessing on the principle of faith. Deut. 27.-34.

The Second Division of the Old Testament: The Prophets (Luke 24:44)

JOSHUA, JUDGES. RUTH, I SAMUEL, 2 SAMUEL, I KINGS, 2 KINGS, I CHRONICLES, 2 CHRONICLES, EZRA, NEHEMIAH, ESTHER, ISAIAH, JEREMIAH, LAMENTATIONS, EZEKIEL, DANIEL, HOSEA, JOEL, AMOS, OBADIAH, JONAH, MICAH, NAHUM, HABAKKUK, ZEPHANIAH, HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, MALACHI—in all, twenty nine books.
NOTE.
[Priesthood, the normal means and institution appointed by God for the blessing of His people, utterly broke down, and, instead of sustaining Israel in her need and misery, it actually became a stumbling-block in the family of Eli (1 Sam. 1-1 Sam. 3.); then prophecy was regularly established in Samuel (Acts 3:24), and by this ordinance of sovereign divine appointment God could address Himself to the conscience of His people. The Priest was the people's representative before Jehovah; while the Prophet was Jehovah's mouthpiece to the people. A Prophet then, is simply one who can bring the mind of God to bear upon the conscience, it may be His mind as to present state—that mainly characterizes the historical books, as from Joshua till Esther; or it may be in the unfolding of His purposes as to the future, which is the broad feature of the books from Isaiah till Malachi. It is this application of the word prophecy (see also 1 Cor. 14.) which has led to the classification of the above books under the one comprehensive title, "The Prophets.")

Joshua: 1451 B.C. - 24 Chapters and 658 Verses

Joshua was an Ephraimite, born in Egypt, and at the promulgation of the law but a young man—the faithful servant of Moses—and who, on the apostacy of the people in the matter of the golden calf, beautifully maintained an unobtrusive place in the Tabernacle, while Moses—the Mediator—stood in the gap publicly vindicating the glory of the God of Israel (Ex. 33:11, etc.). As a young man even though having the Spirit (Num. 27:18), he only came to the front when so directed (Ex. 17:9,10), and "departed not out of the Tabernacle" till called. He was one of the two who proved his faithfulness to Jehovah and His people by reporting truthfully as to Canaan; consequently with his faithful and whole-hearted companion, Caleb, alone permitted to enter the promised land of the whole generation who left Egypt forty years before. Shortly before crossing the Jordan, he was appointed by Divine command to complete the work originally appointed to Moses (Num. 27:15-23). Hoshea or Oshea, meaning deliverance or salvation, was changed by Moses to Jehoshua or Joshua (Num. 13:16), signifying the Lord's salvation, a fitting title expressive of the work to which as leader of the Lord's host he was divinely called. The Hebrew name Joshua and the Greek name Jesus have the same signification, hence Luke (Acts 7:45) and Paul (Heb. 4:8) term Joshua "Jesus." The period of time covered by the book is from the death of Moses till the death of Joshua, probably a period of from 25 to 30 years (compare Josh. 1. with Josh. 24). The events chronicled in the first 22 chapters are comprised within seven or eight years; the last two chapters of the book are occupied with the dying charges and counsels of the aged Joshua. The historical circumstances are interesting, as developing the ways of God with His people, and as establishing the faithfulness of Jehovah in conducting them in triumph into the promised inheritance, breaking the power of Satan and triumphing over every obstacle opposed to His counsels and His people's blessing. The rest of Canaan however, was neither full nor permanent. It was a rest, conditional upon obedience, for the people must be put to the proof; their hearts must be fully tested, in order that the nothingness of man and the perfection of Divine grace be lessons graven on the soul. The day is not far distant when the heart of Israel will turn from every root and source of confidence in man to God—when the lesson of "no confidence in the flesh" will be learned through painful and humbling trial. Israel will yet be settled and blessed in the land under the peaceful sway of her Messiah, on the ground—not of her obedience surely—but of sovereign grace alone; she has forfeited by the broken law and murder of her Messiah every right to the least blessing, having sinned away every glorious hope, promise, and expectation. God will then revert to the grand, magnificent, and unconditional promises of national glory and blessing made to Abraham, confirmed in Isaac the seed, and re-affirmed to Jacob. What a day for Israel when the moral effect of centuries of trial and discipline will be fully accomplished, when in truth and verity she will say of herself in presence of abounding grace over her abounding evil: "surely I have behaved and quieted myself as a child that is weaned of his mother: my soul is even as a weaned child" (Psa. 131) After the passage of the Jordan, the camp was pitched at Gilgal (Josh. 4:19), and became the rallying point and center in the wars of Canaan.
After a seven years' conflict, the people rested from war, before, however, the whole land was possessed. The southern kings were first subdued, then the northern kings, in all 31 kings (Josh. 12.) Then followed the distribution of the land by lot to the various tribes—Joseph in his two sons getting a double portion. The Tabernacle—sign of God's connection with His people—is set up in Shiloh, rest (Josh. 18.) Here the "ark" rested for about 350 years till taken by the Philistines (1 Sam. 4:11), whom Israel had failed to drive out (Josh. 13:2)
The Levites had also 48 cities assigned them amongst the possessions of the tribes, all being arranged according to the law of Moses. Whatever the failure of the people: "There failed not ought of any good thing which the Lord had spoken unto the house of Israel: all came to pass" (Josh. 21:45). Although the whole land was not actually conquered, still it was portioned out amongst the tribes as if it had been. The geographical allotments were as follows:—
East of the Jordan were located Reuben (south); half tribe of Manasseh (north); and Gad between both.
West of the Jordan were located Asher and on the shores of the Mediterranean, occupying the extreme north; while Naphthali lay due north-east.
Zebulon lay south of Naphthali, and touched the sea of Galilee on the east.
Issachar was exactly south of Zebulon, and occupied an insular position.
Manasseh—One-half of this tribe lay north of Ephraim, and had the Mediterranean on the west and the Jordan on the east.
Ephraim's territory extended west and east from the great sea till the Jordan.
Benjamin had Judah due south, and Dan on her western side.
Dan bordered on the country of the Philistines, and lay north-west of Judah.
Judah and Simeon were the two most southern tribes.
During the millennium, the tribes will not be arranged in the irregular form as here given, but the portions will be more evenly distributed. The size of the country will be considerably enlarged, both north, south, and east (the Mediterranean always being the western boundary), and the tribes arranged across the breast of the country. The millennial "Throne," "Temple," "City," with surrounding suburbs, being situated between the portions assigned to Judah and Benjamin (Ezek. 48). Dan, the seat of idolatry in Israel, and omitted in the sealing of the twelve tribes (Rev. 7), is first named in the future division of the land.
Joshua, the distinguished captain and leader of the Lord's host, dies, being 110 years old; also Eleazar the priest, son of Aaron; and the bones of Joseph brought up out of Egypt are buried. Thus the book opens with the death of the Mediator, Moses, and closes with the death of the Priest, Eleazar: "for all flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass." "Gilgal," the place of power, because the place of self-judgment, characterizes the book; as "Bochim" the place of tears, because of the general failure, does the book of Judges. The epistle to the Ephesians might be profitably read and studied in connection with this book, and, as presenting to us in type what is there so vividly set forth by Joshua and Canaan. After the triumphant crossing of the Jordan, and the moral preparation of the people had been effected, war, and not rest was maintained for a series of years, the people possessing just so much of the country as they actually conquered. Canaan, therefore, is not heavenly rest after death, but present conflict with "wicked spirits" in heavenly places, as the consequence of crossing the Jordan, that is passing in the death and resurrection of Christ into present blessing (Eph. 1), where also Christian conflict is carried on (Eph. 6). In the first chapter of the Epistle, I am seated in heavenly places, in the full enjoyment of Canaan blessing; in the last chapter of the Epistle I am standing in heavenly places, practically making good Canaan blessing and position; in the former chapter I am looked upon as possessor of all; in the latter chapter I am viewed as a soldier maintaining it all. It is one thing to accept the position which God in grace has given me, but it is quite another to maintain that position in the energy of the Holy Ghost.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The Jordan crossed; Canaan entered; and the spiritual preparation of the people for the wars of Jehovah. Josh. 1-5
2.-The victories and failures of the people. Josh. 6-12
3.-The division of the land amongst the tribes, and the whole treated as Jehovah's, though not actually conquered. Josh. 13.-22.
4.-Joshua's dying charge. The people again placing them selves before God, on the ground of obedience. Josh. 23., 24.

Judges: 1425 B.C. - 21 Chapters and 618 Verses

The utter failure of Israel in maintaining their conquests in Canaan; their wickedness and idolatry through association with the heathen and their general unfaithfulness to Jehovah; their misery, captivities, and tears make up a painful and exceedingly humbling history. The story of Israel's declension from God and His testimony is here broadly noted on every page of the inspired record. The energy of faith characteristic of the first part of the book of Joshua present a sorrowful contrast to the history recorded in this book. Here all is changed; the atmosphere you breathe is heavy; Israel is under a dark cloud. Why all this? Has God failed them? No; "He abideth faithful—He cannot deny Himself," while everything entrusted to man and the church has proved a signal failure. Man is a leaking vessel, and cannot hold the blessing, be it ever so fully and preciously freighted. But the counsels of God, whether as they respect Israel, the world, or the church, will be infallibly secured, because the divine purposes are lodged for their accomplishment in Christ, the second man. This book, however, is not one only of failure, for it records many and sovereign acts of deliverance wrought for the people when they cried to Jehovah. The evil in Israel waxed worse and worse, until it culminated in the rejection of the theocracy, or the divine government of Jehovah (1 Sam. 8).
"The misery into which their unfaithfulness brought them moving the compassion of God, His mighty grace raised up deliverers by His Spirit in the midst of the fallen and wretched people. ‘For His soul was grieved for the misery of Israel’. But Israel was unchanged. ‘And yet they would not hearken unto their judges. And it came to pass when the judge was dead, that they returned and corrupted themselves more than their fathers in following other gods, to serve them, and to bow down unto them; they ceased not from their own doings nor from their stubborn way’. This is the sorrowful history of the people of God; but it is also the history of the grace of God and of His compassion towards His people."
This book gives the dark period of Israelitish history under thirteen judges (which gives its name to the book)—from the death of Joshua till the death of Samson, adding some supplementary matter which presents an awful picture of Israel's idolatry and wickedness. The judges here specified did not administer the affairs of all Israel, but exercised their sovereignty only over a limited district or part of the country. The judgeship of Samuel was an exception (1 Sam. 7:15-17). Although Eli the priest, and Samuel the prophet, both in succession judged Israel, yet they are wisely omitted from the history of the judges as recorded in that book, as that was not what characterized them in the mind of the Spirit of God. It is the mission of the first book of Samuel to develope and show the connection of the three great institutions designed for the blessing of man and creation, namely, Priesthood, Prophecy, and Kingly Government; hence Eli the priest, Samuel the prophet, and Saul the king, are the prominent personages in the first book of Samuel. Abimelech amongst the Judges sought to forestall the purposes of God by reigning over Israel (Judg. 9) as king, but the attempt ended in utter failure and disgrace to all connected with it.
The whole period of time covered by the Judges was 450 years (Acts 13:20). Their several oppressions in all amounted to 111 years, not counted in Divine history.
The Reformation and recovery at certain seasons of truths long buried beneath the rubbish of centuries, find a certain analogy in the book of Judges; thus the principles herein developed are of great importance to the Church of God. "Revivals," in the true sense of the word, are the answer to the "deliverances" here accorded to Israel. The first verse of the second chapter, "from Gilgal to Bochim," gives the key to the understanding of the book. After the death of Joshua the internal condition of the people rapidly declined, until they sunk so low as to form alliances with the very people whom they should have utterly exterminated, and, forgetful of Jehovah, gave themselves up to the worship of "Balaam and the groves." "Unfaithful within, the Israelites fall into the hands of the enemy without." The first of Israel's deliverers was Othniel, Caleb's younger brother, who judged Israel forty years (Judg. 3:8-11); the last was Samson, whose interesting history occupies Judg. 13 to Judg. 16.
The names of the thirteen Judges and the several periods of rest granted to the people consequent on the various deliverances wrought on their behalf, are as follows:-
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The utter failure of the people after the death of Joshua in not rooting out the Canaanites according to Divine command, and in turning to the idolatry of the heathen. Judg. 1.- Judg. 3:7.
2.-Israel oppressed by the surrounding nations, and the sovereign character of the deliverances vouchsafed—from Othniel to Samson. Judg. 3:8- Judg. 16.
3.-A chapter of idolatry and wickedness. Judg. 17.—Judg. 21.

Ruth: 1322 B.C. - 4 Chapters and 85 Verses

This is a beautiful book, and is evidently a typical one, sketching Israel's past, present, and future history. Domestic life and primitive customs are simply and charmingly told—customs which exist to this day in all their ancient simplicity. The meaning of the names of the persons will greatly assist in the intelligent understanding of this broadly-marked type of the reception to grace and blessing of Israel in her coming future:-
Elimelech figures Jehovah as the husband and King of Israel (Jer. 31:32; Psa. 89:18); Naomi representing the nation in marriage relationship with the Lord (Isa. 5:7; Jer. 31:20). But, on leaving the land of Israel, Elimelech dies; that is, Israel outside the land of Immanuel and amongst the Gentiles loses God as her husband and king, while the two sons—Mahlon and Chilion—sicken (Mic. 6:13) and pine away (Ezek. 24:23). Thus Israel outside Canaan is neither owned of God as wife or people, but sickens and dies, and is lost amongst the nations. Ruth, the future Jewish remnant, is a Gentile destitute of right or title, but she identifies herself with the desolate condition of the afflicted people (Mara), and Boaz, figure of Christ, in whom is strength, undertakes the cause of Ruth, the latter-day remnant, marries her, redeems the inheritance (the land of Palestine), and raises up the lost memorial of Israel.
The principles of grace and redemption are here most clearly prefigured; and as Ruth is one of the four women mentioned in the Lord's genealogy according to the flesh (Matt. 1), it must be a deeply interesting study to a spiritual mind to trace the providential chain of circumstances which could introduce a Moabitess amongst the Lord's ancestry, whose origin was most disgraceful (Gen. 19), and who, by the Levitical Law, was forever debarred from entering the congregation of the Lord (Deut. 23:3). This book affords a wonderful illustration of what grace—divine and sovereign grace—can accomplish. While it is true that the events and incidents recorded took place during the times of the Judges, it is equally important to recognize the distinctness of the book from that of the Judges. If that book gives the dark side of Israel's history, this unfolds in lovely detail the bright side of that same period.
The book of Ruth should be regarded as the link between the subjects presented in the preceding one (Judges) and those contained in the book which follows (1 Samuel). The predictions respecting Christ as of the royal tribe of Judah (Mic. 5:2; Gen. 49:10), and of the lineage of David (Jer. 23:5; Psa. 132:11), are marvelously linked in this interesting history (compare Ruth 5:18-22 with Matt. 1:3-6). Is not this a striking illustration of that divine oracle, "The Scripture cannot be broken?" Boaz and Ruth are the leading characters in the book and history. Boaz, in whom is strength, points to Christ, in whom is treasured up the sure mercies of David, and who will take up the cause of Israel in the closing days. Ruth (beauty) figures the future Jewish remnant, who, because of the nation's utter apostacy, will have no more claim upon the promises and glory than would a poor despised daughter of Moab. Hence Israel, having sinned away her every right to blessing, will be taken up on the simple ground of pure and sovereign grace. The regathering and blessing of all Israel will be on the ground of the unconditional promises made to the fathers.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The historical circumstances and situation. A famine in the land of Israel—sad fruit of their sin, undoubtedly, but "thou dwell in the land and verily thou shalt be fed" (Psa. 37:3); instead of which Elimelech, his wife, and two sons leave the chosen land and sojourn in the country of Moab, and contrary to the law (Deut. 7:3), marriages are contracted with the daughters thereof. Death in the land of Moab. Ruth's touching devotedness to Naomi; she cleaves to the God and people of Israel. Ruth 1
2.-Ruth, figure of latter-day Israel destitute of right or title; and Boaz, figure of Christ. Israel will yet be taught to confide in her Messiah and Bridegroom. Ruth 2. and 3.
3.-Relationship fully established, and the Redemption of Israel's forfeited inheritance made good. Ruth 4

First Samuel: 1171 B.C. - 31 Chapters and 810 Verses

We have had Israel in the loins of Abram thus individualized, so to speak; then growing into a family (Genesis), and from that into a populous nation (Exodus); then, redeemed by the blood of the Lamb, they worship before Jehovah (Leviticus), and tread the sands of the desert as strangers and pilgrims, journeying to the rest beyond (Numbers); they are carefully instructed too, in the conduct becoming such a people about to enter into the promised land (Deuteronomy); again, we see them as the Lord's host, fighting the battles of their God and King in Canaan (Joshua), followed by the "dark ages " of Israel's history (Judges); but mercy rejoices over judgment even during that same period (Ruth).
All this previous preparation and disciplinary process was most needful for Israel's establishment as a kingdom. The nation's rejection of Jehovah as their King evidenced a total want of confidence in God. Was not His presence in their midst a sufficient guarantee that their safety and blessing would be amply secured? Surely the glorious wonders of Jehovah's grace and power wrought for His people in Egypt, the wilderness, and Canaan, were magnificent pledges that their interests, in all time to come and in presence of all hostile powers, were in safe because Divine keeping! The demand of the people, therefore, "Make us a king to judge us like all the nations " (1 Sam. 8), was the distinct and positive rejection of Jehovah and His reign, and consequently a step of the gravest importance to them; but, on the other hand, God turned their sin into an occasion for bringing out His purposes in royalty to be accomplished in Christ—God's last resource in blessing for man, Israel, and creation. In David, ever regarded as the head and root of royalty in Israel, that purpose is first unfolded. The reign of Saul, which like the law came in by the way, only proved what the kingdom would become in man's hands. Saul's reign before David, Jehovah's anointed, was typical of the reign of the antichristian king in Palestine (Dan. 11:36) before the glorious reign of Jesus—David's Son and Lord. Thus the reign of Saul was no part of Jehovah's purpose, although an integral part of His plan.
In considering the history of the kingdom as developed in the six books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, it will be well for the reader to carefully peruse this book, as it unfolds the successive and preparatory steps which led to it. In the first book of Samuel we have truly a humbling picture of that which constituted the true glory of Israel The priesthood, the original means of maintaining the people's relationship with Jehovah, completely breaks down in the person and family of Eli, the high priest (1 Sam. 3:11-14). How then could the people be brought nigh to God, when their representative was himself under the ban of the Divine displeasure? Sacrifice, the basis of approach to God, was "abhorred" by men, owing to the dreadful conduct of those who were set for the maintenance of the truth and testimony (1 Sam. 2:12-17); while the ark, the distinguishing center and glory of the whole Levitical system, was taken captive by the rejoicing Philistines (1 Sam. 4:12-18)—truly "the glory is departed from Israel". But all this only ripened the purpose of God, which was to establish His King on Zion, the source and means of all blessing to His creatures; and so the prophet Samuel is raised up the first of that long line of prophets (Acts 3:24) which closed with John the Baptist—a period of more than 1000 years. The circumstances attending the birth and entrance to the prophetic office of Samuel, with the connection between prophecy and priesthood, and the value attached to the Word of God, prayer, and praise, are subjects on which we might profitably linger, and which the reader would find to his everlasting profit to muse over in the Lord's presence. As the priest became the medium of intercourse between the people and God, so the prophet became the link between God and the people. The former represented the people before Jehovah, the latter represented God to the people. But, besides this, the prophet anointed and introduced the king; thus becoming the intermediate link between priesthood and kingly power. The subordination of the priest to the king is intimated in 1 Sam. 2:35, "and he shall walk before mine anointed forever." The prophet too failed; yea, it was the failure of Samuel in making his sons judges over Israel which immediately prepared the way for the introduction of kingly government. But first, man and the object of his choice (Saul meaning "demanded") must be fully exposed, and the lesson graven on the blessed pages of inspiration, if not on the heart of man, that the accomplishment of God's purposes can alone secure happiness. All blessing for Israel depended upon the faithfulness and piety of the reigning king. Individual piety ever shone through the darkest periods of Israel's history; but all governmental blessing for Immanuel's land and people was lodged in the then reigning monarch. The truth of this principle will be found abundantly verified in the history of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. The reign of Jesus in the millennial age will be the bright and distinguished witness that, of all which have preceded Him, of every previous steward of the grace or goodness of God, He alone can maintain the glory of God in unsullied purity, and uphold the true blessing of man.
In this book then we have four great subjects:-First, the utter failure of the Levitical system in the family of Eli. Second, the designation of Samuel to the prophetic office, and his ministry chiefly in connection with Saul and David. Third, the immediate government of Jehovah rejected, and Saul, the people's choice, Israel's first king, who reigned forty years. Fourth, God's rejection of Saul, the people's man, and David, the man after God's own heart, anointed king, who is henceforth regarded as the head of royal power in Israel.
"The two books of Samuel constituted originally one work. The division was made by the Greek translators as a matter of convenience, so as to close the first book with the death of Saul, and begin the second with David's accession to the throne. This division was followed by the Vulgate, and was introduced by Daniel Bomberg into the printed Hebrew text. To the original whole work the name of Samuel was appropriately given; for he is not only the central personage in the history which it records to the establishment of the kingdom, but it was also through him, as the acknowledged prophet of the Theocracy, that both Saul and David were designated and anointed for the kingly office. The Greek Septuagint designates these books from their contents, First and Second of the Kingdoms, and First and Second of Kings."
The two books of Samuel, the two books of Kings, and the two books of Chronicles, originally constituted three books; as they are, however, they give the full history of monarchial government in Israel. We can see no difficulty whatever in accepting Jewish tradition which assigns the first twenty-four chapters of the book to the authorship of Samuel, and the remaining portion, with the second book, to the prophets Gad and Nathan. Assuming this to be correct, we have thereby an explanation of 1 Chron. 29:29.
The first book of Samuel covers a period of nearly 100 years—from the birth of Samuel to the death of Saul
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The complete break down of the Priesthood in the house of Eli. 1 Sam. 1.-4.
2.-God vindicating the authority and glory of His name (the Ark) amongst the heathen. 1 Sam. 5.-7:2.
3.-The government of Samuel and his sons, and the people's rejection of the Theocracy. 1 Sam. 7: 3-8.
4-The reign of Saul and his rejection by God. 1 Sam. 9.-15:
5.-David (type of Christ) anointed King; Saul, type of the willful king (Dan. 11:36); Jonathan pointing to the future Jewish remnant cleaving to Christ. 1 Sam. 16.-20.
6. -Saul's thorough rejection of and growing hatred to David. The Anointed King, and his strange eventful history before he ascended the throne, foreshadowing Christ, Israel's rejected Messiah. 1 Sam. 21.-31.

Second Samuel: 1056 B.C. - 24 Chapters and 695 Verses

In this book we have the reign of David, first over Judah at Hebron for about seven years, then in Jerusalem over all Israel for thirty-three years (2 Sam. 5:4, 5), in all 40 years—the period of time comprehended in the book. The reign of David foreshadows the victorious power of the Lord Jesus in the establishment of the future millennial kingdom. Solomon typifies Christ afterward reigning in peace and glory, and sought for by the Gentiles, as the Queen of Sheba sought Solomon. Psa. 45 would represent the Davidical reign, while Psa. 72 would as fittingly set forth the Solomon reign. In this book David represents the Lord as King (2 Sam. 5.), as Priest (2 Sam. 6.), and as Prophet (2 Sam. 23.) In the former book we have traced the Kingdom—its history and sorrowful issue in the hands of man; while in this we have its establishment according to God—in David typically of course.
In the first book of Samuel everything is cast in a Jewish mold, in the second book the typical bearing is more of a Gentile character. In the first book Saul figures the anti-Christ opposed to the Messiah, the central object in Old Testament prophecy. Jonathan, whose love and devotedness to David is most touching, sets forth the Jewish remnant cleaving to Christ, and Kingdom-hopes and prospects. The future and personal anti-Christ will unite in his own person royal power and prophetic energy, thus, "the King" (Dan. 11:36) in Palestine is also "the false prophet" (Rev. 19:20). Saul at one time united in himself both characters. In the typical application to the future crisis, the first book of Samuel would answer to the rule of Antichrist amongst the Jews, after the removal of the Church to heavenly glory, and before the descent of the Lord to take and establish the Kingdom. Now in this second book of Samuel we have in Absalom additional features of antichristian wickedness in the closing days. From 1 John 2, we learn that Antichrist will head up Jewish apostacy—the denial of royal power in the Messiah; and also sum up Christian apostacy—the denial of grace in the revelation of the Father and the Son. Thus, in this second book, we meet with that truly beautiful expression, "the kindness of God" (2 Sam. 9:3), and that shown to a member of Saul's family, the sworn enemy of David. Again and again does the grace of Jehovah and of Jehovah's anointed King shine out in this book; surely this is distinctive of Christianity. Absalom, then, sets forth the Antichrist, but in special connection with Christendom apostacy the worst of all apostacy. The opposition of Absalom to David was in certain respects much worse than that of Saul's. In the former every feeling of filial relationship was trampled upon. The grace of David, too, in forgiving Absalom for the cruel murder of his brother, was equally set at naught, and pride and deceit filled the foolish young man. In Absalom we have a type of him who is "the bloody and deceitful man," insensible to the grace shown him, and inflated with his beauty and self-importance, setting himself against all that is called God (2 Thess. 2:4), that is, against all divinely constituted authority; for David, be it remembered, being God's King on earth, became thereby the source of all power and authority in Israel. Thus the typical bearing of this book, in its broad features and general principles, is clearly applicable to the great events of the closing period of this age.
It may be well to remark that in the first book of Samuel the prophet and the priest are identified with the rejected King; whereas in our book, Ahithophel, the wise counselor, but not the priest, is identified with the usurper Absalom. Why this? Because in the future crisis, of which all this is distinctly typical, the Antichrist will set himself against the royal and prophetic rights of the blessed Lord. Satan is now the great anti-priest on high. Very soon, however, he will be cast down to the earth (Rev. 12:9, 10), and will then raise up the Antichrist to oppose the Lord in His earthly relationships as King over the earth and Prophet amongst His people.
The faith of David, his exercises, trials, and confidence in God, is a study of a most delightful character, and one full of profound instruction. Surely if the Holy Ghost in the book of Psalms has freely used the life of the shepherd-King—the man after God's own heart—as ground and material in inditing many of the most plaintive strains ever penned, in composing odes of the most magnificent and grand description, we may enter upon, with deep and deepening soul profit, the study of a life which will yield to none in the rich stores of experience to be gathered, and of typical instruction concerning Christ in His afflictions and glories. Using the book, however, as a figure of Christ taking the kingdom gradually, and then reigning in Jerusalem, the seat of royal government, as did David, affords valuable insight as to the manner in the establishment of the coming millennial kingdom.
In the historical circumstances noted in this interesting book, three things are worthy of careful attention, and in fact characterize the history. It is the sovereign election of God, and not the will or responsibility of the creature, which secures the blessing of man, and accomplishes the counsels of God. Had the establishment of the kingdom been dependent upon man, then its utter ruin were full and final in Saul This surely is demonstrated in the first book of Samuel But the calling of God is without repentance or withdrawal, because founded on His sovereign will Psalm 78 clearly establishes this point, one which ought ever to be the boast and security of our souls. "Moreover, He refused the tabernacle of Joseph, and chose not the tribe of Ephraim. But chose the tribe of Judah.... He chose David also His servant." But not only is the tribe, and the family, and the person chosen of God, in whom his counsels would be surely accomplished, but Zion, the seat of Divine government, the center from whence David pursued his victorious career of war and conquest, is "chosen" of God, and is the "desired" place of Jehovah's habitation and rest forever (Psa. 132). Thus the three historical circumstances alluded to are, first, the sovereign choice of David, the king; second, the sovereign choice of Zion as seat of government on the earth, and of Jehovah's habitation and rest; and third, the ark, the basis and center of God's moral dealings and relationships with His people—called "His strength" and "His glory"—brought in triumph to Jerusalem, and established there, so that God could make Zion His habitation and rest. These things will find their full development, according to God, in the coming reign of the Lord Jesus Christ
"Isles of the deep, rejoice! rejoice!
Ye ransom'd nations, sing
The praises of your Lord and God,
The triumphs of your King.
" He comes—and at His mighty word,
The clouds are fleeting fast,
And o'er the land of promise, see,
The glory breaks at last.
" There He, upon His ancient throne,
His power and grace displays,
While Salem, with its echoing hills,
Sends forth the voice of praise."
—Sir E. D.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1-David's reign in Hebron over Judah only, for seven and a half years. The first verse of the third chapter gives the key to this portion of the book, which will find its antitype in the opening years of the millennial reign. 2 Sam. 1.-4.
2.-David, King over all Israel; Jerusalem the seat of government. David victorious in war and conquest, thereby establishing the ground of blessing to the people, and restoring the relationship of the people with God in bringing home the ark to Zion. 2 Sam. 5.-12.
3.-Absalom figuring the antichrist of the last days; consequent upon his death, David, fully established on the throne, clears the land of the Philistines, etc., enemies within the territory of Immanuel. The Messiah, the great subject of the book and prophecy. Compare Psa. 18 with 2 Sam. 22. The last words and last actions of David. 2 Sam. 13.-24.
NOTE.
David was anointed for the throne when about 15 years old; after the death of Saul he reigned 40 years, and died when about 71 years old. He was the only one of the kings of Judah who was born at Bethlehem—the birth-place of our Lord.

First Kings: 1015 B.C. - 22 Chapters and 816 Verses

The two books of Kings which, like those of Samuel and Chronicles, originally constituted but one work, unfold the "Kingdom" established in power and glory under Solomon, then traces its gradual decline, noting the sources of its corruption in Solomon (1 Kings 11.) when in the very zenith of its glory and prosperity, followed by division into the separate kingdoms of Judah and Israel, and continuing the history until the removal of Israel or the Ten Tribes to Assyria, and subsequently the deportation of Judah and Benjamin to Babylon, and the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, a period of more than 400 years.
In this book, after the death of Solomon and the division of the kingdom, the history is specially that of Israel, which, beginning with Jeroboam, is brought down to the reign of Ahaziah. The notices of Judean matters are exceedingly brief and scanty, and are in general so presented as to show their connection with the affairs of Israel. The reign of the apostate Ahab and his wicked and idolatrous consort Jezebel, was one in which the Lord signally bore witness to His rich and sovereign grace and His tender love and solicitude for His people. The prophets Elijah and Elisha exercised their ministry during this reign, and wrought miracles surpassed only by those accomplished by Moses in Egypt and the Red Sea. The wonders instrumentally wrought by Moses were when the people were in slavery, and were intended to accomplish their deliverance from the world's power; those of Elijah when the people were in a state of apostacy, and to effect their emancipation from the world's idolatry. The condition of Israel in the coming crisis will be analogous to the state of the people in the times of Moses and Elijah. Captivity to the Gentile power and apostacy under the Antichrist will characterize their truly awful condition; the miracles which attested the mission of Moses and of Elijah will be the same in character as those which will accredit the testimony of the witnesses in the coming future (Rev. 11:3-6). The prophetic ministry of Elijah—the prophet of fire—displayed the power of Jehovah in contrast to idols; the prophetic service of Elisha—the prophet of grace—manifested the grace of Jehovah in meeting the people's sin.
It is very touching to observe God's love to His fallen people, that while prophets were sent to the Jews or two tribes, and addressed themselves to the heart and conscience of Judah, yet no miracles were wrought amongst them; it was reserved for the still more guilty kingdom of Israel—founded by Jeroboam, its first king in idolatry of the basest kind, and at a time when wickedness, Baal worship, and almost entire forgetfulness of Jehovah characterized that guilty people—that God thus remarkably interposed in His sovereign goodness. But, alas, it is ever the sorrowful history of the first man that no amount of grace can win back to God the alienated heart and affections of the creature. Israel went from bad to worse; scarcely one gleam of light relieves the dark and darkening gloom, and amongst her 19 kings—all wicked—there is only one of whom it is written he "besought the LORD." The four Judean kings whose reigns are noted in this book are Rehoboam, Abijam, Asa, and Jehoshaphat. The two former were bad men, and their united reigns only amount to 20 years; whereas the two latter were pious men, and their united reigns amount to 66 years. The outward condition and prosperity of the people were also dependent upon the personal faithfulness or unfaithfulness of the king—a principle amply illustrated in the state of Judah and Israel under her kings. The blessing of Israel and of the world will, in the millennium, be fully secured in the glorious reign of Jesus. Solomon's wealth, glory, wisdom, magnificence, and extent of kingdom are but a faint image of Him who will sit as a " priest upon His throne " (Zech. 6:13). The glory of Jesus exceedeth far. Solomon building the Lord's house, sitting on the throne of Jehovah, sought for by the Gentiles to hear his wisdom and pour their treasures at his feet and lend their willing service, the combination of priestly grace and royal glory, the abundant peace abroad and the full blessing of the people, the fame of his wisdom and the magnificence of his court attracting the near and distant heathen, are all typical of the millennial glory of the Lord Jesus Christ. In marked contrast to the stability of Messiah's kingdom and reign (Psa. 72), we have here presented to us the inability of man to hold the blessing committed to him, for Solomon brought on the ruin of his house and the dismemberment of his kingdom (although God will yet build all up in Christ) by adding "riches," thus feeding pride, and "horses," thus begetting self-confidence, and "wives," alienation of heart from Jehovah (1 Kings 10, 11), all forbidden by the law (Deut. 17:16,17).
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-David in old age and his dying charge to Solomon. The kingdom established in judicial righteousness in Solomon. 1 Kings 1, 2.
2.-Solomon as King and Priest. The wisdom, magnificence, glory, and extent of his reign—all typical of the future. 1 Kings 3, 4.
3.-The building of the temple—all being covered with gold; glorious without and within. No "veil" is noticed here as the point is not drawing near, but rather God dwelling in midst of His people. The veil is set up as noticed in the description given in the Chronicles, because, there it is the drawing near of Israel in millennial glory, that is prefigured. Here it is God dwelling, because the glory is come, and all established according to Divine righteousness (the gold). The Gentiles (Hiram) assist in the work. Solomon's prayer in the dedication of the temple—the longest in Scripture record. Solomon too acts as Prophet, Priest, and King. 1 Kings 5.-10.
4.-The ruin of the kingdom foretold. Its division under Rehoboam, and the history, especially of the Kingdom of Israel, from Jeroboam, the idolater, till Ahab the apostate. 1 Kings 11.-16.
-The prophetic ministry of Elijah and Elisha to apostate and rebellious Israel (see Rev. 11:5,6). Ahab increasingly wicked, and the unholy alliance formed between the houses of Israel (Ahab) and Judah (Jehoshaphat), 1 Kings 17.-22.

Second Kings: 896 B.C. - 25 Chapters and 719 Verses

In this book we have the history of the kingdom continued from about the conclusion of the Elijah ministry till the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar It also records the downfall of the ten tribed kingdom, and the captivity of Israel to Assyria, which took place about 130 years before that of Judah to Babylon The book opens with fresh illustrations of the judicial character of Elijah's ministry in midst of an apostate people (2 Kings 1.), and in type (Jordan and the ascension of Elijah) sets forth the start of the ministry of grace (Elisha) to be, whether for the church or Israel, the death and ascension of Jesus It was outside the land of Israel, on the other side of the Jordan, and consequently outside the range of the law; this is important as to moral teaching and application The Elijah ministry was prominent in first book of Kings, while the Elisha ministry is prominent in second book of Kings.
The gradual decline and irretrievable ruin of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah is the great subject of this book Increasing wickedness and idolatry, spite of prophetic testimony divinely attested, soon led to the utter ruin of the house of Israel God in righteousness removed them out of His sight, and Assyria became the country of their captivity, and the center from whence they were scattered world wide (2 Kings 17) After the deportation and complete blotting out of their nationality till restored in sovereign goodness by the hand of Jehovah Himself (Ezek. 20), the history is that of Judah only, who, instead of learning from the fate of her guilty sister Samaria, also played the harlot, and filled Immanuel's land with wickedness and murder (Hosea). Judah's last king, Zedekiah, caused Jehovah’s name and glory to be dishonored before the Gentiles (Rom 11:24) by breaking the oath extorted from him by Nebuchadnezzar, the heathen monarch. This filled up the cup of iniquity. The king, priest, and people filled Jerusalem and the temple with the vilest idolatry and practices of the heathen. For three-and-twenty years did Jeremiah (Jer. 25:3) expostulate with and weep over the house of Judah. "And the Lord God of their fathers sent to them by his messengers rising up betimes and sending: because He had compassion on His people and on His dwelling-place." What was the people's answer to Jehovah's grace and patience?-"But they mocked the messengers of God, and despised His words and misused His prophets, until the wrath of the Lord arose against His people, till there was no remedy" (2 Chron. 36).
Judah's last king, princes, priests, and people were sent into captivity to Babylon; Jerusalem's walls were broken down, her temple destroyed after being plundered of its sacred treasures, and the dread sentence "Lo-ammi not my people" written upon the nation. A few of the poorest of the people were left in the land under the governorship of the kindly-disposed and humane Gedaliah. Such is the sorrowful history and terrible end of the kingdom established in responsibility in David. All blessing of a divine and permanent character await the reign of Jesus. A little while, and the coming One will come and establish His kingdom over Zion and all the earth.
It may be well to remark that each monarch's reign was written separately; thus, for the reign of Solomon we are referred for a fuller account to "the book of the acts of Solomon." (1 Kings 11:41.) Besides many individual records and histories, we have more general documents referred to; thus the expression after each monarch's reign, "the book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah," and of Israel's monarchs, "the book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel." Those kingdom records have not been preserved to us, but the Holy Spirit has registered every official and individual act, and all must pass in calm and solemn review before the judgment seat of Christ. Solemn thought to us each one. May we personally lay it to heart! (2 Cor. 5 10; Rom. 14:12.)
The first book of Kings comprehends a period of about 126 years; the second book about 300 years.
MONARCHS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.
1. Saul, who reigned 40 years. 2. David, who reigned 40 years.
3. Solomon, who reigned 40 years.
SOVEREIGNS OF JUDAH AND ISRAEL.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-Conclusion of the Elijah ministry. 2 Kings 1, 2.
2.-Elisha's ministry of grace to Israel. 2 Kings 2:12-8:15.
3.-The royal succession in Israel and Judah continued till the captivity of Israel to Assyria. 2 Kings 8:16 to 2 Kings 17.
4.-History of the Kingdom of Judah from Hezekiah till the capture of Jerusalem, destruction of the temple, and deportation of the King, nobles, and people to Babylon. 2 Kings 18-25.
NOTE.
The origin of the Samaritans is given in 2 Kings 17.

First Chronicles: 4004 B.C. - 29 Chapters and 842 Verses

The two books of Samuel, the two books of Kings, and the two books of Chronicles originally constituted three independent books. The rejection of direct Divine government, formation of the kingdom, its establishment in man's hands, with the interesting connection between prophecy, priesthood, and kingly power, along with full biographical accounts of Samuel, Saul, and David, are the main subjects of the books of Samuel. The public history of the kingdom established according to Divine purpose in David, its glory, extent, decline and ruin, the temple, the figure of heaven our dwelling place (without a veil), and the kingdom of Israel or the ten tribes specially noticed, are the important matters treated of in the books of Kings. In their typical import, the books of Kings and Chronicles set forth the glory and majesty of the millennial kingdom of our Lord, but with this manifest difference, that in the former, besides the public and general history of the kingdom, the heavenly character of the blessed future and our place in it, is the great point; hence in the description of the temple with its many rooms (John 14:2), neither "veil" nor "brazen altar" are mentioned. The "veil" set up would represent a people outside, whereas we dwell in the house; while the "altar," the point of approach to an earthly people, could have no application to us, for we are already brought TO GOD (1 Pet. 3:18). But in the books of Chronicles, where the temple and its furniture are minutely described, both "veil" and "altar" are seen, the reason being that these books figure the earthly aspect of the coming kingdom in which the Jews and the saved nations are in the foreground, and however blest on earth, they will still have to draw near, as those not in the immediate circle of the Divine presence.
In the books of Chronicles the kingdom of Israel is but little noticed, the great points being the establishment of royalty in the house of David according to God and the history of kingly government from its rise till its utter ruin in Judah; thus, while covering the same period as the books of Kings, the inner history is more fully recorded. The grace of God in connection with the throne and the temple and their relation to the future millennial glory (typically), are prominent subjects in those books. David, Solomon, Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, and Josiah are the leading personages of these inspired records.
In the restoration of the commonwealth, the returned remnants from Babylon would find the genealogical lists (from Adam) contained in the first nine chapters of all importance in determining the lineage of priests and levites, the sole authority to minister in holy things (Ezra 2:62); and their value to the people was equally great as enabling them to recover their former place and inheritance in Israel. Thus these two books were invaluable to the remnants, having been drawn up (1 Chron. 6:15) during their captivity, and amongst other purposes intended for their special help and blessing. The adultery of David, the idolatry of Solomon, and other grave faults are omitted in these books, the grace of God being every where prominent in the history as here recorded. David's history is presented, not biographically as the man, or officially as the king, but only in those actions and events which constituted him a marked and fitting type of the Lord, hence his history generally is not at all the point in this book. Distinct apical teaching is given in the books of Chronicles; while as distinct moral teachings and lessons are characteristic of the books of Samuel. The temple and its services are also very specially in view. David is everything and everywhere in this first book of Chronicles. He is here seen making all ready for the peaceful and glorious sway of Solomon. Thus the first part of Christ's millennial reign will be the full answer to this book.
"Remark here that the extent of authority which David exercised was very great and of wide bearing. The whole religious order was reconstructed. Everything, even to the age of the Levites' service, depends on the authority and regulations of David, as formerly on those of Moses. All the patterns of the temple and of its vessels are given \ him by inspiration, as that of the tabernacle and all belonging to it had been given by Moses."
We are indebted to another for the following parallelism between the books of Chronicles and Samuel The slight differences in several instances are quite in keeping with the moral purpose intended in each book:-
PARALLELISM BETWEEN THE BOOKS OF CHRONICLES AND SAMUEL.|{}|
The list might be extended, but these will suffice for our purpose.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-Genealogy and history according to the sovereign goodness of God from Adam to the captivity. 1 Chron. 1-9
2.-From the death of Saul till the sacrifice on the threshing-floor of Oman the Jebusite, whereby the judgment of God upon Jerusalem was arrested. 1 Chron. 10-21.
3.-David's preparation for the erection of the house of God, its services, ministers and priests closing in worship, and the accession of Solomon to the throne of Jehovah. 1 Chron. 22-29.

Second Chronicles: 1015 B.C. - 36 Chapters and 822 Verses

It has been already observed that the united reigns of David and Solomon prefigure the millennial reign of Christ. In Solomon we see the blessed results in glory and blessing of all that David suffered (1 Sam.), of all his conflicts and victories (2 Sam.), and of his vast preparations and Spirit-given patterns of all pertaining to the temple and the sacred polity (1 Chron.). In Joseph and Benjamin we have typified the union of glory and power; in Melchizedek the union of royalty and priesthood; and in David and Solomon the union of successful conflict and glory. The fruit therefore of the Davidical rule of the Lord (as Psa. 45) will be the establishment in glory and peace of the kingdom, of which 2 Chron. 9 is a beautiful and striking type, and of which Psa. 72 is a magnificent and glowing description.
The point in the early part of this book is Jehovah putting Himself in connection with the kingdom established in glory in midst of His people and His temple, where their worship and gladness could be accepted. The combination of kingly glory and priestly grace so as to secure the full blessing of an earthly people, and as exhibited in the reign of Solomon, will be most preciously verified when Christ will reign over Israel and "sit as a priest upon His throne." If the description given of the temple in this book be compared with that in 1 Kings, it will be found that in the Kings' account we have a higher range of thought, a more elevated character of teaching, than in the description contained in the Chronicles. One marked example will sufficiently illustrate the difference. In the former statement there is no mention made of the veil, because the point in the book of Kings is our immediate access to God, hence for us the veil is rent; whereas in the Chronicles the veil is seen set up in the temple, because Israel on the earth is in question, and even in millennial glory the veil will not be rent for them. They will draw near to God. The difference between a people blest on the earth governmentally and drawing nigh to God, and a people blessed in heavenly places and dwelling in God's presence is one of vast importance. After a brief account of the establishment of the kingdom of Israel or ten tribes in Rehoboam (2 Chron. 11), the history is in connection with the house of David, and is traced down to the captivity and destruction of Jerusalem in the year 589 B. C.
In the double books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, a comprehensive sketch of Jewish-kingdom history may be gathered. In the first book of Samuel we have the kingdom founded in Saul, but according to the responsibility of man. In the second book the kingdom is established in David, according to the purpose of God. In the first book of Kings we have the public history of the kingdom—from Solomon till the death of Jehoshaphat. In the second book of Kings the general history is brought down to the destruction of Jerusalem. In the first book of Chronicles David is the prominent personage before the mind of the Spirit. In the second book of Chronicles David's house occupies the foreground in the sacred narrative, as in the books of Kings, Israel or the ten-tribed kingdom is specially in view.
We have the founding and establishing of the kingdom in the books of Samuel, the general history of the kingdom in the books of Kings, while the books of Chronicles unfold the inner history of the kingdom in connection with His sovereign grace; hence, in these latter, the omission of Solomon's faults and, in general, also those of David.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The glory, extent, and priestly blessing of Solomon's reign, figure of Christ's rule over the world, the Gentiles and Israel. 2 Chron. 1-9.
2.-History of the royal succession in the house of David from Rehoboam till the destruction of Jerusalem. 2 Chron. 10-36.

Ezra: 536 B.C. - 10 Chapters and 280 Verses

The return of a portion of Judah to her land, after a lengthened and sore captivity of 70 years in Babylon, was according to the prophecies of Jeremiah (Jer. 29:10), and in answer to the confession of sin and intercession of Daniel (Dan. 9). The name of the deliverer and destroyer of Babylon is pointed out by Isaiah (Isa. 44:28; 45:1).
The exile of Judah was effected on three separate occasions; under the reign of Jehoiakim, also under Jehoiachin, his son (2 Kings 24), and again under the reign of Zedekiah (2 Kings 25). We have also recorded two returns of the people to Jerusalem; first, during the reign of Cyrus (Ezra 1:2); second, during the reign of Artaxerxes (Ezra 7, 8). Scripture also notes two future returns of Judah to her land; first, a national return in unbelief (Isa. 18); second, an individual restoration (Isa. 27:12, 13).
There are four commandments or decrees recorded in this book, but all of them have reference to the temple. This is important to note, as the commandment anent the building of Jerusalem, and which has an important bearing as fixing the commencement of the prophecy of the 70 weeks, or 490 years (Dan. 9:24-27) is not found here, but in the book of Nehemiah, Neh. 2. The first company who assembled in the deserted city of Jerusalem numbered about 50,000; the second company, conducted by Ezra many years afterward, was a small but select one (Ezra 8.). The foundation of the temple was laid by the first company of returned captives under Zerubbabel (Ezra 3.), amidst mingled weeping and rejoicing, and its completion and dedication was celebrated with joy (Ezra 6.). Some time after the house of the Lord was finished, Ezra was commissioned to beautify the house, and conducted the second return to Jerusalem after a four months' journey. Considerable energy of faith and devotedness to God, along with strict adherence to the written law of Moses characterized these remnants. They observed the Feast of Tabernacles, which had not been kept since the days of Joshua, even during the palmy days of Solomon; the authority of God and of the law are once again established amongst the people; unholy fellowships, sacred and domestic, are sternly rejected; the priesthood is again set up, and all regulated according to the law and genealogy, which was carefully verified. Idolatry—of which the land was purged, from the deportation to the coming of Christ—and the ways and uncleanness of the heathen were carefully shunned.
Ezra, being a priest and a scribe, unfolds the religious side, or history of returned Judah, and that for about 80 years. This distinguished scribe and ecclesiastical historian is generally regarded as the compiler of the books of the Old Testament, and his memory is still held in great reverence by the Jews. Work and worship are characteristic features of the book.
It may be worth noting by the reader that, from Ezra 4:8 till Ezra 6:18, and from Ezra 7:12-26, are portions written in the Chaldee or Aramean language—the tongue of the Babylonians and Assyrians.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The return to Jerusalem of Zerubbabel's company, and the energy of faith which, spite of all obstacles and opposition, completed the building of the temple, established the priesthood, etc., according to the law of Moses. Ezra 1-6.
2.-The second return from Babylon under Ezra the priest, and the holiness of priests and people maintained. Ezra 7-10.

Nehemiah: 446 B.C. - 13 Chapters and 406 Verses

In this sixteenth book of Holy Scripture, Old Testament history closes. Certain remnants were indeed permitted to gather once more in the land of their fathers, and build their ruined city and temple, but they do so under Gentile authority. "The times of the Gentiles" cover that long and sad phase of Israel's history which, commencing with the transference of regal power from Judah to Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 2), runs on till its utter destruction by the Ancient of Days (Dan. 7), and the resumption of power and the government of the world by Israel in millennial glory.
The previous book records the ecclesiastical history of the returned Judah-remnants; this unfolds their civil condition in the city and land of their fathers; hence it is the counterpart to that of Ezra, and historically comes after it.
Nehemiah occupied a very important and highly honorable post in the Persian court, namely, cupbearer to Artaxerxes the king. Having heard, upon inquiry, sad accounts of his brethren in captivity, and of Jerusalem's utter desolation—her walls broken down and her gates burned with fire—he gave himself to prayer, fasting, weeping, and confession of his own and the people's sin. This was a moral condition of soul truly acceptable to God, who thereupon disposed the heart of the Persian monarch to grant the needful authority for the rebuilding of the city (Neh. 2). The reconstruction of the city occupied a period of seven hebdomads, or 49 years, (Dan. 9:25), a time of bitter opposition and severe trial to the Jews. Nehemiah was also appointed Tirshatha, or Governor of Judea. The hearty and willing service of all classes of the people—priests, levites, rulers, goldsmiths, apothecaries, merchants, daughters, and others—in building up the walls and gates (Neh. 3.), and in the free-will offerings of the people (Neh. 7:70-72), is a beautiful example of the energy of faith. The perseverance in the work of the Lord in "the troublous times" of Dan. 9:25, in spite of the opposition and artifices of the crafty heads of the Samaritans, Sanballat and Tobiah, display the power of faith which, when set on God, and deriving its strength from the consciousness that His glory and interests are ours, is more than a conqueror over the whole power of the enemy.
The twelve years' administration of Nehemiah, previous to his return to the Persian Court (Neh. 13:6), was characterized by great diligence in the correction of abuses. Usury and oppression were strongly put down, and restitution of mortgaged lands and property enforced. The genealogy of the nobles, rulers, and people was carefully verified by registry. No doubt the chronicles drawn up during the captivity (1 Chron. 6:15) were invaluable in this respect. The public and daily reading of the law, and united worship of the people (Neh. 8.); the full and thorough confession of national sin, and separation from the Gentiles and surrounding heathen (Neh. 9.); the holy determination to cleave to the Lord and return to the written Word (Neh. 10.), Nehemiah, the Governor, and Ezra, the Priest, zealously co-operating in establishing and settling all, both sacred and secular, according to the law of Moses (Neh. 11., 12.)make up a scene most touching to behold, and one most fruitful in lessons to the remnant people of these times. On Nehemiah's return to Jerusalem from Persia (Neh. 13:6, 7) evils of an ecclesiastical and civil kind were most sternly dealt with. Thus closes the last historical notice of Judah till the coming of the Son of God in grace. Work and fighting are characteristic features of the book.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-Nehemiah's spiritual exercises and his commission to rebuild the ruined city. Neh. 1.
2.-God with the people in their services and labors; opposition without and within overcome, for God was with them. Neh. 3-6.
3.-Obedience to the written Word of God, the ground of blessing and basis of action; all arranged and regulated according to the law of Moses. Neh. 7-13.

Esther: 521 B.C. - 10 Chapters and 167 Verses

TEN CHAPTERS AND 167 VERSES.
Probably not above 60,000 of the people availed themselves of the permission granted by Cyrus to return to the ruined cities and towns of Judah—so poorly was Jerusalem inhabited that Nehemiah appointed one of every ten of the people to reside in the holy city (Neh. 11:1). During a residence of seventy years—two generations—in Babylon, the mass of the people originally deported died out, and those born during the period of servitude were, as a rule, totally indifferent to Jehovah and His land and interests.
This book, therefore, shows the care of God exercised secretly towards those of His people who, utterly indifferent to the hopes of their fathers, deliberately preferred remaining in the land of their exile. The grace of God is boundless, and His care unwearied, and so He watched with deep and tender solicitude over His apostate people. It is the book of God's secret providence. He is here as it were hidden from His people, hence His name does not once occur in the book. Ahasuerus, the Persian monarch of this book, is usually regarded as the celebrated Xerxes of profane history, and whose invasion of Greece so stirred up the rage of the mighty Macedonian monarch, Alexander (Dan. 8:7). Certainly what is said of Ahasuerus—of his riches (Esther 1:4), of the extent of his vast empire (Esther 1:1), of his sensuality and feasting (Esther 1: 5-10), of his arbitrary and tyrannical conduct (Esther 1:13-22, etc.)—agree with the character and historical account furnished by profane authors of Xerxes. The feast of Purim or lots (Esther 3:7), was instituted in commemoration of the deliverance of the people from the wicked plot of Haman, who designed their thorough extermination and destruction; this festival is termed "Mordecai's day" in the books of the Maccabees, and is even still observed in these modern times by the Jews throughout the world. The last three of the historical books of Scripture are Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther, the latest of all being Nehemiah, which closes Old Testament history.
As to the typical bearing of the book, Vashti represents the Gentile wife who, failing to show her beauty was deposed, and Esther, the Jewish wife and queen, taken into high favor; Mordecai sets forth the blessed Lord exalted to the headship of the world and Israel; all this pointing forward to the coming future.
The following are the Persian monarchs specially named in the post-captivity books. As a rule the Persian sovereigns were generally kindly disposed towards the Jews:-
PERSIAN SOVEREIGNS|{}|
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-Vashti the Gentile deposed, and Esther the Jew exalted. Esther 1, 2
2.-Haman's wicked devices brought to naught, and himself and house ignominiously destroyed. Esther 3-7.
3.-Mordecai (type of the Lord in the end) exalted to the right hand of the then imperial power, and using his authority to effect the deliverance of, and also to securely establish the blessing of the people. Esther 8-10.

The Lord Hath Afflicted His Zion

The city He loved so well,
Where He deign'd, like a couching lion,
In glory and strength to dwell.
And why hath Jehovah forsaken
The place of His ancient throne;
His Vine from the wilderness taken,
To flourish for Him alone?
Ah! deem not the Holy One cruel;
Had Solyma loved His will,
She had sparkled the costliest jewel,
The beauty of nations, still;
The Lord had been still her defender,
And she, the queen of the earth,
In holiness, freedom, and splendor,
Had gloried in Shiloh's birth.
But she fell-and her crown of glory
Was struck from her rebel brow;
And with feet all wounded and gory,
She wanders in exile now.
Yet, sad one, distrust not our pity;
Though some may wring out thy tears,
We will weep for the Holy City,
And sorrow o'er former years.
Thou art stricken, dethroned, and lowly,
Bereft of a home on earth,
Yet still to our hearts thou art holy,
Thou land of Messiah's birth!
He sprang from thy chosen of daughters,
His star o'er thy hills arose,
He bathed in thy soft-flowing waters,
And wept o'er thy coming woes.
He wept, who in secret yet lingers,
With yearnings of heart, o'er thee;
He, He, whom thy blood-sprinkled lingers
Once nailed to the cursed tree.
Dark deed! it was thine to afflict Him;
Yet longs His soul for the day
When thou, in the blood of thy victim,
Shalt wash thy deep stains away.
Thou land of the Cross, and the glory,
Whose brightness at last will shine
Afar through the earth-what a story
Of darkness and light is thine!
He died as a lamb:-as a lion,
He spares thee, nor can forget
His desolate Exile of Zion;
He waits to be gracious yet.
-Sir Edward Denny, Bart.

The Third Division of the Old Testament: The Psalms (Luke 24:44)

“The Psalms."
Comprising the Following Books:-
Job, The Book Of Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song Of Solomon-in all, five books.
[So termed because they are the utterances of the human heart.]

Job: 1520 B.C. - 44 Chapters and 1070 Verses

The scenes in this book are laid in the far distant east, in the ancient country of Arabia, "the only land in all antiquity that never bowed to the yoke of a foreign conqueror." Its customs, manners, and people, are almost identical with the earliest ages of mankind; thousands of years have passed away, and yet the charming simplicity of patriarchal life, as exhibited in Abraham and Job, may be witnessed still in that ancient and interesting country, which has maintained its primitive character, while empires and kingdoms have flourished and fallen.
"In Job, we have man put to the test. We might say, with our present knowledge, man renewed by grace, an upright man, and righteous in his ways, in order to show whether he can stand before God in presence of the power of evil, whether he can be righteous in his own person before God. On the other hand, we find the dealings of God, by which He searches the heart, and gives it the consciousness of its true state before Him." It is a book written upon the moral government of God in this world, not with a nation such as Israel, but with a God-fearing, prosperous man, yet one whose conscience had not been searched in the presence of God and in the light of His holiness. It carefully details the process by which a man learns the utter worthlessness of the flesh in its best estate. Will human righteousness avail for God? In the details of the book, Satan is used as the servant of the divine purpose for breaking the will of man, hence his power is permitted, limited, and directly controlled (Job 1, 2); it is in principle what we find in Christianity (1 Cor. 5:5.) Job is also a book without dates, hence is neither characteristically dispensational nor historical The book is also cast in the early patriarchal times between Abram and Moses—the latter being regarded by many as the writer of the book. The age of Job (Job 42:16) and other considerations point to this ancient and inspired document as being, probably, as old as the Pentateuch. Job was no mythical personage, nor were the circumstances merely imaginary as some have strangely and unbelievingly supposed; the testimony of the prophet Ezekiel (Ezek. 14:14) and the apostle James (James 5:11), should effectually silence all such unbelieving thoughts, which are simply the product of the dark and wicked heart of man.
Job's friends, Eliphaz and Bildad, each addressed him three times, Zophar twice, and Elihu once. Eliphaz was calm, dignified, and temperate, and, as the eldest, commenced the discussion. Bildad was more heated, more direct and personal too in his attacks upon Job. Zophar distinctly held Job responsible for the trouble which had come upon him, and speaks in a hasty, impulsive mood. Elihu, the youngest of the group, speaks, when all are silent. He vindicates God in His dealings and ways with man, and reproves both Job and his friends. Here we have the utterances of one who is standing for God—a true witness for Jehovah, and the interpreter of His character and ways as displayed in His moral government in this world.
Those speeches and Job's answers, form a deeply interesting discussion upon the principles of the divine and moral government of this world. The reasonings of Job's three friends, Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar, were to the effect that the earthly government of God in the temporal prosperity of some and in the deep afflictions of others, were according to God's approval or disapproval of their conduct, and thus the measure of His dealings towards men, a principle both false and dangerous, and one which Job thoroughly exposes both by argument and fact. Job's nothingness is exposed in light of God's power (Job 38, 39), and his vileness in light of God's presence (Job 40). Satan retires from the scene after chapter 2. This use of Satan to accomplish the divine purposes—God using his artillery against Himself—is a truth of much comfort to the saint (1 Cor. 5:5; 1 Tim. 1:20). "All power is of God" -divine, satanic, human. God is the source of all power, as He is of all goodness. Hence He limits and controls its exercise as it pleaseth Him and for the blessing of His own.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-God Himself raising the question with Satan as to His servant—Job's integrity. Job 1, 2.
2.-Job's mournful complaint and the eight speeches of his three friends with Job's replies—the subject being the earthly government of God. Job 3-31.
3.-Elihu justifies God in all His dealings and ways, and silences Job as before Job had silenced his three friends. Job 32-37.
4.-Job owns his nothingness and vileness before God; the divine object being thereby gained, self-judgment, confession, and utter loathing of self are the precious points of God's controversy with His saint and servant. Job 37-42: 6.
5.-God turned the captivity of Job when he prayed for his friends and the blessed conclusion and happy issue of all. Job 42:7-17.

Psalms: 150 Psalms and 2461 Verses

The title (Acts 1:20) and numbering (Acts 13:33) of this divine collection of heart utterances are fully owned of God. The headings, many of which are untranslated, are of very ancient date, being found in the Septuagint or Greek version of the Old Testament, nearly 300 years B.C. There are 116 Psalms titled or headed, the remaining 34 being strangely enough styled "Orphan Psalms." The name of David occurs in the headings in more than the half of those titled Psalms. Those dedicated to "the Sons of Korah" are evidence that God remembered mercy in that awful scene of judgment recorded in Num. 16, for to them were committed the choral services of worshipping Israel. The Psalms historically cover the whole period from Moses (Psa. 90) till the Judean captivity in Babylon (Psa. 137), about a 1000 years.
The meaning of the word selah, which occurs about 70 times, and three times in the Prophet Habakkuk, Hab. 3, has been the subject of much dispute amongst scholars; but let any sober-minded Christian look up a few of the Psalms where the word is found, and will he not naturally pause and consider as he reads it? Whatever the word may signify critically, we are convinced that the force and value of the word "selah" are to be gathered from moral considerations.
The two main subjects of the book of Psalms are, first, a godly remnant as distinguished from the mass of the nation of Israel (Psa. 1); and second, the Messiah the object of counsel and prophecy (Psa. 2). Thus the two first Psalms form the ground work of the whole inspired collection.
The Hebrews, ancient and modern, divided the 150 Psalms into five books, disregarding historical sequence or chronological order. The spiritual and soundly instructed have owned that the Hebrew arrangement of the book must have been of divine ordering.
The First Book contains Psalms 1-41 We have here a good deal of the personal history of the Messiah, also the covenant name "Jehovah," or LORD, which is written about 270 times, whereas "God," the creation title, does not occur more than 50 times. As a suffering remnant of Israel, or rather Judah, is here recognized in their land, and the Messiah's identification with them, as in Matt. 3—this identification being historically past, and prophetically future—we easily account for so much of the life-history of Christ being given, and for the frequent occurrence of the covenant title Jehovah.
The Second Book contains Psalms 42-72. The Judah-remnant, which occupies such a large place in the prophetic Scriptures, is here prophetically viewed as driven out from Judea and Jerusalem, and undergoing a baptism of blood, but are cheered and sustained by the presence and promises of their Messiah. God does not publicly own this remnant, whom governmentally He has driven out of the land, and hence Jehovah, the relationship title, not being enjoyed, only occurs about 30 times; whereas God, the creation title, really characterizing the people then, occurs about 200 times.
The Third Book contains Psalms 73-89 The whole history of the nation is here divinely sketched from her rise in Egypt till her settlement in millennial glory and blessing. The names Jehovah and God occur in nearly equal numbers.
The Fourth Book contains Psalms 90-106 The successive announcements of Jehovah's (Christ's) coming, and the blessing attending His reign and personal presence, are the grand subject of these joyous Psalms, the Jews being regarded as the center, and Jerusalem the metropolis of all earthly glory. The relationship of Israel to God being restored, Jehovah occurs about 100 times, and God about 20 times.
The Fifth Book contains Psalms 107-150 This division is not so prophetic in character as the others, but is more distinctly moral. Jehovah's character and doings are grandly celebrated in songs unrivaled for sublimity and poetic sweetness and fervor. The songs of degrees, 15 in number, (Psa. 120-134), while historically applying to the return from Babylon to Jerusalem, look forward to the various stages of Israel's moral return to Jehovah, the name of whom occurs 230 times and more, while God is only written about 30 times.
The direct application of the Psalms is to the Messiah and Israel, not to Christ and the Church—to a people under the moral government and disciplinary dealings of God. Judah will be restored to her land by Gentile intervention on her behalf, undertaken for political motives merely (Isa. 18), and will then be disciplined and scourged under the governmental anger of Jehovah; for have they not as a nation persistently rejected the Holy Ghost, persecuted the prophets, betrayed and murdered the Just One, and broken the Law which they faithfully promised to keep (Acts 7:51-53)? These solemn counts in Israel's indictment will be pressed upon the conscience of the guilty nation, and will be fully owned by the God-fearing part of Judah, whose experience, prayers, trials, and confessions, are the subject-matter of many of these Psalms.
The dispensational character of the book, as a whole, has been greatly overlooked; and Christian standing, experience, and hopes have been imported into the book, when they are really not to be found. There is, of course, much truth common to the saints of all ages, and a certain experience of God's goodness, which all may enjoy. But it is a fatal mistake in the apprehension of this book to read it as recording true, full Christian experience. The following blessings characteristic of Christianity, will not be found in the book of Psalms:
1.-The knowledge of eternal life (John 5:24).
2.-Sins forgiven and the conscience purged (Heb. 10.).
3.-Union to Christ in the heavens (Eph. 1).
4.-Immediate access to God, because the veil is rent (Heb. 10).
5.-The consciousness of relationship-"Father" (Rom. 8).
The book of Psalms primarily regards a people under law and as the immediate objects of the earthly government of God.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
I.-Christ associating Himself with the Jewish remnant of the latter clays. Psalms 1-41
2.-Messiah identifying Himself with the godly out of the land in the last days. Psalms 42-72.
3.-History of all Israel from her rise in Egypt till her blessing under the rule of the Messiah. Psalms 73-98.
4.-The coming of Jehovah (Messiah) for the blessing of Israel and creation. Psalms 90-106
5.-Moral truths; songs and universal praise. Psalms 107-150
[The three first divisions end with the words "Amen, and amen;" while the two last divisions close with "Praise ye the Lord" or Hallelujah.]

Proverbs: 1000 B.C. - 31 Chapters and 915 Verses

This book unfolds the path of wisdom and way of blessing, not for eternity but for time, and not for heaven but for earth. Its maxims are the result of experience, are fully owned of God, and have been communicated to us by Divine inspiration, hence they are not to be regarded merely as a part of the 3000 proverbs spoken by King Solomon (1 Kings 4:32), for the authority of God is distinctly attached to this book, which is meant to apply to our every-day life and to its multitudinous details. All, whether king or subject, master or servant, father or son, mother or daughter, husband or wife, will find the sayings contained here, invaluable, and he who directs his life accordingly will, under the moral government of God, spend a happy, useful, and prosperous life. The book should he carefully studied by all, and especially would it be to the advantage of the young, were these proverbs stored up in the heart and memory, and right blessed will the man be who orders his life by them. Let it be carefully noted, however, that the book is a faithful and wise directory for earth, not for heaven. It is highly important, also, for the Christian to recognize that he is in title a heavenly man (1 Cor. 15:48); hence the fuller application of these "Proverbs" to an earthly people, whose place and blessing will be secured for them on this earth by the introduction of God's king.
Of Agur and his pupils Ithiel and Ucal (Prov. 30:1) and King Lemuel (Prov. 31:1) Scripture reveals nothing.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The principles of God's moral government on the earth with individuals. Prov. 1-9.
2.-The application of these principles of God's moral government in the details of daily life. Prov. 10-24.
3.-The application of general truths and principles to daily life, briefly and tersely expressed. Prov. 25-29.
(The foregoing divisions are each introduced with the preface "The Proverbs of Solomon.")
4.-The words of Agur (Prov. 30.) and of King Lemuel (Prov. 31.), the former rich in moral truth, and the latter describing the character of a good king and a virtuous woman. Prov. 30., 31.

Ecclesiastes or the Preacher: 977 B.C. - 12 Chapters and 222 Verses

This book records the experience of King Solomon, the wisest, richest, and happiest king that ever sat upon a throne. Was there a cup of earthly bliss which Solomon had not fully tasted? Wisdom, riches, pleasures, honor, power had been poured in rich and abundant profusion into the lap of the King. The world and its varied stores utterly failed to satisfy and fill the heart of the monarch, and "What can the man do that cometh after the king?" Here is detailed the experience of one who had both capacity given him from God, and the means to minister to it fully, also divinely given. Hence it is important to see that we have not in this book the morbid experience of a misanthrope, nor of one who had failed in the search after every form of human happiness. Moreover, it is the record of the musings of a heart which had not drunk in, and enjoyed, every kind of lawful pleasure merely, but besides had gratified to the full every unlawful pleasure and lust. The book was written by Solomon at the close of his life, and after his repentance because of his idolatry and other sins (1 Kings 11). Calmly the aged monarch reviews his life. To him the world had yielded its choicest stores. Is he satisfied? He takes pen in hand, and, gazing up and all around, he writes down "All is Vanity." "Everything beneath the sun" is pronounced unworthy as an object for the heart of man. "All is vanity" is the solemn and true verdict of the King, and the whole duty of man as to this world is to "fear God and keep His commandments." This book searches everything "beneath the sun" to find a satisfying object large enough for the heart, and the utter failure is here announced.
O for grace to learn and read the lesson to present and everlasting profit, that there is but ONE whose glory is above the brightness of the sun, even Jesus, who alone can fill the heart and satisfy the deepest longings of the soul.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The vanity of everything beneath the sun. Eccl. 1-6.
2.-The path of true wisdom through the world. Eccl. 7-12.

Song of Solomon: 1014 B.C. - 8 Chapters and 117 Verses

Amongst the 1005 songs sung or composed by King Solomon (1 Kings 4:32), this one is pre-eminently "the song of songs." The Spirit of God has been pleased to convey this Song to us, which, like all other portions of Holy Scripture given by inspiration of God, will be found most needful for the Christian (2 Tim. 3:16,17). What became of the 1004 songs we know not. Had it been to our profit to know, we would have been divinely informed. Our true wisdom is to learn from what God has preserved and chosen in His sovereign goodness to communicate to us.
This book does not figure the relationship existing between Christ and the Church, and the affections and exercises of heart resulting therefrom. This Song reveals the longings and yearnings of a heart desiring an established relationship with the object loved, but the contrary is true of the Church. Her relationship with Christ is already settled, although the actual consummation is yet future (Rev. 19:7-9). Our union to Christ is as good as accomplished, as the Holy Ghost, given to dwell in the believer, is the power of present enjoyment, bringing all the blessedness of the coming day of glory into our hearts, besides imparting the consciousness that "now are we the sons of God." Hence the feelings and heart exercises of the Church as produced by the Spirit of God, result from a present, established, and known relationship.
In this precious book, King Solomon figures the Lord in His future dealings and ways with the godly remnant of Israel in drawing out their affections and desires after Himself. It is the king and the spouse, not the bridegroom and the bride. But while the book has a typical and future bearing upon Israel, we must be careful to maintain its distinctly moral application to ourselves individually. Love and Communion are in the main its themes. It comes short, however, of the love of John 17 If in Ecclesiastes the object is too small for the heart, in this book the object is too large for the heart; in the former we need an object, in the latter an enlarged heart. Careful and accurate attention to the various actors and speakers will greatly assist in the intelligent apprehension of the purport and contents of the book. We have marked them off as follows:-
The SPOUSE, Song of Sol. 1:1-7, 12-14, 16, 17; Song of Sol. 2:1, 3-17; Song of Sol. 3:1-4; Song of Sol. 4:16; Song of Sol. 5:2-8, 10-16; Song of Sol. 6:2, 3, and the two last clauses of verse 13; Song of Sol. 7:9-13 beginning "for my beloved;" Song of Sol. 8:1-3, 6, 7, 10-12, 14.
The KING, Song of Sol. 1:8-11, 15; Song of Sol. 2:2; Song of Sol. 3:5; Song of Sol. 4:1-15; Song of Sol. 5:1; Song of Sol. 6:4-12; Song of Sol. 7:1-9, middle clause; Song of Sol. 8:13.
The COMPANIONS, Song of Sol. 3:6-11; Song of Sol. 5:9; Song of Sol. 6:1, and first two clauses of verse 13; Song of Sol. 8:8, 9, and first clause of verse 5.
NOTE.
Song of Sol. 3:5, "till he please," should read "till she please."
We are aware that this book has been questioned, that its inspiration and Divine origin have been denied, that its claim for insertion amongst the sacred writings has been rejected by many. But it has always struck us as a singular thing, that many who reject the book are most unspiritual persons. The mass of saints in all ages have richly enjoyed the reading of this Song; it has quickened their affections and spoken to their hearts of Him who loved them and died for them.
The argument usually advanced by objectors, that the book is full of love-imagery, could have no weight with Easterns. Oriental poetry and language abounds in flowery metaphor and forms of expression as dramatic in character as will be found in the Song. Neither Orientals—past nor present—nor Hebrews—ancient and modern—have ever regarded this book as the expression of voluptuous passion. It has been reserved for the cold and heartless Christianity of the Western world to find fault, where others have reveled to the delight and joy of their souls.
Jonathan Edwards, regarded by many as the "driest and most astute of scholastic theologians," greatly delighted in this book; so Dr. Chalmers; but need we multiply? The book is of God. It formed part of the sacred Hebrew canon, and was accepted as such by the compiler of the Old Testament writings, the Jewish nation as a whole, and the Septuagint translators, who inserted it in the place where we have it in our English Bibles. Further, the Lord spoke of it as forming part of the collection then known and recognized by the Jews as "The Psalms" (Luke 24:44).
Here is an expression of honest indignation from the scholarly Spanish-Jew Rabbi, Aben Ezra, against the unbelieving attacks hurled against the Song of Solomon:"Far be it! far be it! that the Song of Songs should treat of carnal affections; but all things in it are figuratively spoken. Yea, unless its excellence had been great, it would have had no place among the sacred writings: nor is there any controversy as to that."
" The voice of my beloved sounds
Over the rocks and rising grounds-
O'er hills of guilt and seas of grief
He leaps, He flies to my relief."
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-"My beloved is mine." The desire is towards Him and the spouse, realizing that He belongs to her. Song of Sol. 1, 2:16.
2. "I am my beloved's."The desire of His heart is toward me, and I have the sweet consciousness that I belong to Him. Song of Sol. 2:17; 6:3.
3. "I am my beloved's, and His desire is toward me" (Song of Sol. 7:10). That is, I belong to Him, and the unchanging love of His devoted heart is ever set upon me. Song of Sol. 6:4; 8:14.
(In these divisions there is a growing and deepening apprehension of His love, and consequently a ripening experience on the part of the spouse.)

The Second Division of the Old Testament: The Prophets (Luke 24:44)

"THE PROPHETS."—COMPRISING THE HISTORICAL AND PROPHETIC BOOKS—TWENTY-NINE IN ALL.

Isaiah: 760 B.C. - 66 Chapters and 1292 Verses

Isaiah signifies "Salvation of the Lord," and is to some extent descriptive of the character of this "the most sublime and elegant of the prophets of the Old Testament." Of the Prophet's personal history we know nothing; it is the mission and not the man; the work and not the servant we contemplate in these sublime and grandly comprehensive prophecies, which, in their range and extent are unequaled amongst the many magnificent prophecies which adorn the blessed pages of inspiration. It is, we judge, because of this book holding the first place in extent, in breadth, and completeness of its subjects, that it heads the arrangement of the prophetic writings in all Hebrew and English Bibles. Isaiah is also termed the "Evangelical Prophet," as his predictions of Christ are more full and abundant than in any portion of the Old Testament, and the quotations from his prophecy more numerous in the New Testament than from any book in the former revelation, save the book of Psalms, which in this latter respect exceedeth even Isaiah.
Israel's future in millennial glory and blessing, Jerusalem being the metropolitan city of the redeemed earth; the judgment of the nations and their blessing afterward, but in subordination to Judah; this by the introduction of and knowledge and presence of the Messiah, are in the main the subjects of the book. This grand prophecy is divided into two great parts. First, Isaiah 1-35, in which God's dealings with Judah, Israel, and the nations in the latter days are revealed; there is not much detail here, the subject being largely and comprehensively dealt with. Then follows four chapters of past historical matter (Isaiah 36-39.) needful for the linking up of the history with the prophecy. The second main division consists of Isaiah 40-66, in which the two grounds of judgment upon Israel—Judah especially—are discussed at length; these are the turning to idolatry and the rejection of the Messiah.
We add, from one now with the Lord, the following list of subjects:-"Citations from each of them will be found in the New Testament:"
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The Assyrian, the great northern invader of Judah, and the first and last enemy of Israel, will be punished after God has dealt with the conscience of and in judgment with His people, this will close the Lord's indignation against "His own." Christ will then stand as an "Ensign" to the peoples and nations and to Him the center of rest and glory—all will gather (Isa. 11:10). Saved Israel in her magnificent song, sung in the days of her gladness and redemption from her sins and enemies (Isa. 12.), ascribes salvation and strength to Jehovah. Isa. 1.-12.
2.-In this division all the powers that had to do with Israel are judged; thus the "burden of Babylon," the "burden of Moab," the "burden of Damascus," the "burden of Egypt," etc„ etc.; then the world, the kings of the earth, and the "host of the high ones on high," i.e., wicked spirits in heavenly places (Eph. 6:12, margin). Israel will be gathered individually and celebrate her full deliverance, not in song, as in Isa. 12., but in worship. Isa. 13.-27.
3.-In this section we are at once transported into the scenes of the closing days connected with Israel, Jerusalem being prominent. Every power opposed to the counsels of Jehovah and the blessing of His people (Idumea especially) will, consequent upon the Lord's descent from heaven be utterly and immediately destroyed. The blessing at the close is grandly expressed. The land, the people, and the waste places share largely in the joy and blessing which God will bestow in rich and glorious fullness in that day. "And the ransomed of the Lord shall return and come to Zion with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads: they shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away." Isa. 28-35.
4.-The importance of this distinctly historical section is easily perceived, its main subjects forming the historical basis of the prophetic future. These are:-The captivity in Babylon, the Assyrian invasion, and the raising up from death of David's son—thus figuring Christ. Isa. 36-39.
5.-God in controversy with His people because of idolatry; closing with the words, "There is no peace, saith the Lord, unto the wicked." Isa. 40.-48.
6.-God in controversy with His people because of their rejection of Messiah—the Servant of Jehovah in life and death; also closing with the words, "There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked." Isa. 49.-57.
7.-The return of the Messiah to Zion; all the people righteous. Jerusalem magnificently adorned, and the wealth and homage of the Gentiles and their kings paid to it. Judgment, too, ever to be remembered (Isa. 66:24), as glory will feast the eyes of Israel and the nations forever. Isa. 58.-66.
NOTE.
It will be observed that Israel is spoken of as outcast and Judah as dispersed (Isa. 11:10). Notice, too, that the first three divisions end with a bright millennial scene, and the last three divisions with a dark millennial picture.
CORRECTIONS IN THE TEXT OF Isa. 53
ENGLISH TEXT. CORRECTED TEXT.
Isa. 53:8. Who shall declare His generation? His manner of life who would declare?
(The question was alone answered by the dying robber who justified Christ, saying, "This man hath done nothing amiss." Luke 23:14
Isa. 53:9. He made His grave with the wicked. His grave was apptointed with the wicked.
(Man's appointment to lay the holy One of God in the same grave with the wicked was divinely overruled, for God had determined otherwise. John 19:38-42.)
Isa. 53:11. By His knowledge shall my right- By His knowledge shall My righetous Servant
eous Servant justify many, for He instruct many (i.e., in practical righteousness),
shall bear their iniquities. and He shall bear their iniquities.
(In this verse we have the life work of the blessed Lord, and also His death-work. He instructed His disciples (Matt. 5-7) during his life. He bore the iniquities of sinners in His death.

Jeremiah: 629 B.C. - 52 Chapters and 1364 Verses

Jeremiah was separated to God, and ordained a prophet unto the nations before his birth, in this, like John the Baptist. He was of Aaronic descent, his father being a priest residing in Anathoth, a place about four miles from Jerusalem. He began his prophetic ministry at a very early age—in the 13th year of the reign of the godly King Josiah; his extreme youth, and the gravity and arduous nature of the service to which he was called, evidently appalled the young prophet, as he shrank from his commission, saying, "Ah, Lord God! behold, I cannot speak: for I am a child." Strengthened and reassured that it was Jehovah's mission, Jehovah's word, and Jehovah's presence (Jer. 1:4-10), he began and continued his service, which was one of almost uninterrupted suffering for a period of about 40 years, all through the successive reigns of Jehoiakim and Zedekiah.
We have a good deal of the personal history of the prophet interwoven with his ministry; in this he resembles the great apostle of the Gentiles, whose personal biography and inward life and feelings are inseparably linked with truths and revelations of everlasting and vital importance. Another point of resemblance between the prophet and the apostle is in their sufferings, and as recounted by themselves; probably no Old Testament prophet suffered so much and so continuously as Jeremiah, and, certainly, no New Testament servant suffered as did the great apostle. In Isaiah, the glorious predictions and magnificent prophecies leave us transported amidst visions and glories and grandeurs, and we never once think of the man; but in Jeremiah the ground is lower, the atmosphere very different, our hearts are drawn to the man whose messages are treated with contempt, and the faithful unfolder of the mind of Jehovah thrown again and again into the filthy underground dungeons of Jerusalem. Apparently too, the mission of Jeremiah was fruitless, no present results were effected. Solemnly he warned the nation of impending ruin; plainly he told them of their sin, uncovered their wickedness, and spared neither king, priest, nor people. The appeals to the conscience of Judah are of the most searching character. His rebukes and remonstrances most stern and unqualified. Again, we see him breaking his heart over their impenitence and hardness, saying, "Oh that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people" (Jer. 9:1). But all were unavailing to win back to God the alienated heart of Judah; the tears, words, and prayers of the prophet seemed fruitless. Judah was bent upon her own way and upon her own destruction. Even during the closing years of Judah's last king, Zedekiah, Jeremiah in the name of the Lord, again and again counseled submission to the Chaldeans then besieging Jerusalem; the dungeon and nearly death was the answer.
After the capture of the city, and when the Word of the Lord had been fully vindicated, and the predictions of the prophet been fulfilled to the letter, no reward or inducements could lead the faithful Jeremiah to forsake the feeble remnant left in the land by the Chaldean conqueror, for a life of honor and ease in the imperial city of Babylon (Jer. 40.). Jeremiah would cling to the land and the people on whom the eyes of Jehovah rest perpetually; most touching proof of a heart devoted to Jehovah and His people! Upon the murder of Gedaliah, the Babylonian governor of Judah, the people terrified, fled for protection and safety to Egypt, and that in spite of the earnest remonstrances of the prophet, who assured them of safety by remaining in the land (Jer. 41, 42). But the Word of the Lord which had been so often disregarded, was again set at defiance; they went to Egypt, but thither the sword of the Chaldean reached both them and Egypt; and again, as always, the Lord vindicated His own blessed Word. The last notice of our prophet is with the apostate remnant in Egypt, lifting up his voice in testimony against their idolatry (Jer. 44.).
There is not at all the comprehensiveness of Isaiah in these prophecies, but there is much more direct appeal to the conscience and touching heart-breaking expressions of sorrow; Judah, too, is very specially the subject of testimony, and the object to whom these moral appeals are immediately addressed. The anticipations of future blessing for all Israel are very full; their moral condition occupying a prominent place in these latter-day prophecies (Jer. 30-33.). It is in this book also that the duration of the Babylonian captivity—70 years—is stated; and, further, that at its close the Chaldean Empire would be utterly destroyed (Jer. 25:11-14; 29:10-14). The prophecies of Jeremiah also formed the ground work of those wonderful communications bearing upon the full blessing of all Israel at the close of the 70 weeks or 490 years, seven years of which have yet to be accomplished (Dan. 9). The sins of the people—of Judah—and impending judgments, with details of the condition of things in Jerusalem before the Babylonian attack, and after the capture of the city amongst the poor of the people left in the country under the administration of Gedaliah, with judgment of the nations immediately or remotely connected with the Chaldean invasion of Judah, and promises of full latter-day blessing for all Israel—are the main subjects of the book; only it is well to see that the great effort is to reach the conscience of all to whom the prophecy refers.
The various dates of the prophecies are not given chronologically, hence moral sequence must be sought. The following simple threefold division may assist in the understanding of the book as a whole.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-In this section the moral appeals to the heart and conscience of Judah are numerous and forcible. The history does not go beyond the capture of Jerusalem; but in the closing chapters of the section, Babylon and all the surrounding nations come in for judgment. Jer. 1-25.
2.-Here many interesting details are given of the siege of Jerusalem, and of the state of things previous to that important epoch. Israel as well as Judah are embraced in the prophecies of Jer. 30.-33.; the promises of future blessing are very full and rich, Jer. 26.-38.
3.-Jerusalem captured; Jeremiah released from prison; and the history and fate of the people who went to Egypt; Babylon, Egypt, and other nations all judged with the most blessed intimations of future mercy and blessing for all Israel. Jer. 39.-52.
NOTE.
The heathen are abruptly informed in their own language, the Chaldee, that their gods are doomed to utter destruction (Jer. 10:11); the rest of the book is of course Hebrew.

Lamentations of Jeremiah: 588 B.C. - 5 Chapters and 154 Verses

This is an exceedingly touching book as recording the feelings of the prophet over the awful desolation of Judah and scattering of her people. The predictions of Jeremiah had been fulfilled to the letter, and Jerusalem—the city of the Great King—lay ruined before the prophet's eyes, her palaces, her glorious temple, her walls, gates, and bulwarks being utterly destroyed. He had witnessed the assaults of the enemy, the capture of the city, the slaughter of the inhabitants, and the captivity of others. Judah was without a king, throne, or temple, the ruin was complete; the destruction thorough and unsparing. The strains in which all this is told, express intense anguish of spirit. The misery, consequent upon the Chaldean's successful capture of Judah, leads the prophet to bewail and lament over the scene of desolation, in which "every letter is written with a tear, and every word is the sound of a broken heart" How touching the language!—"How hath the Lord covered the daughter of Zion with a cloud in His anger, and cast down from heaven unto the earth the beauty of Israel, and remembered not His footstool in the day of His anger."
But while here, we have a heart breaking itself over the afflictions of God's people, it is important to note, that the weeping prophet fully recognizes God as having in righteous judgment effected the terrible desolation, whoever had been the means instrumentally in accomplishing it (Lam. 2:1-8); it is well to recognize this principle, namely, to withdraw the eye from the instrument in accomplishing the disciplinary work and purpose of God, to ascribe righteousness to Him, with full confession of personal sin, while feeling for the miseries resting on others.
Both Jeremiah and Christ wept and lamented over guilty Jerusalem (Matt. 23; Luke 19:41); but in this, as in all else, Christ exceedeth.
The first, second, and fourth chapters, each containing 22 verses, are alphabetically arranged, according to the letters of the Hebrew alphabet; the third chapter of 66 verses, mostly consisting of one clause, is singularly arranged, every third verse beginning with the Hebrew alphabet in alphabetical order—a letter for every three verses; the fifth chapter contains 22 verses, but is not arranged as the others.
These lamentations originally constituted one book with the prophecy of Jeremiah, but their importance demands an examination apart.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-Jerusalem's utter desolation. Lam. 1
2.-The Lord the author of Jerusalem's desolation. Lam. 2.
3.-The prophet identifying himself with the miseries and afflictions of God's people. Lam. 3
4.-The Lord as having judged His people and will judge their enemies is before the mind of the prophet.
Lam. 4
5.-The Lord's tenderness, compassion, and unchangeableness are appealed to in confidence. Lam. 5
NOTE.
The Chaldean were a "bitter and hasty" people; and Zedekiah—who had sworn by Jehovah to be a true and faithful vassal of the mighty heathen monarch, Nebuchadnezzar—certainly stirred up the slumbering passions of the Babylonian. Relying upon Egypt's help, Zedekiah despised the name of Jehovah by whom he had sworn, and threw off his allegiance to Nebuchadnezzar. The Chaldean commenced the siege of Jerusalem in the ninth year of Zedekiah's reign (2 Kings 25:1). The defense was a bold and protracted one. Egypt, the only hope of the despairing people, did march an army to the relief, which compelled Nebuchadnezzar to raise the siege, but the respite was but of short duration (Jer. 37.), and the siege was renewed with increased vigor. The city was completely invested on all sides. Even then, had the king and nobles accepted the counsels of Jeremiah and gone out, submitting themselves to the clemency of the Babylonian, the city and people would have been spared (Jer. 38:2); but, alas! the word of Jehovah was set at naught, and the weeping prophet committed to the filthy dungeons of Jerusalem. Soon, however, famine and pestilence desolated the city, and the besiegers making a breach in the walls, the invaders poured into the doomed city, wreaking their vengeance on the truly miserable and infatuated people. No mercy was shown. The streets of Jerusalem ran with blood, and her sanctuary courts were polluted with the slain of her people. Neither youth, beauty, age, or sex, moved the heart or arrested the relentless arm of the Chaldean. The city was taken after a siege of about eighteen months (Jer. 39:1,2). The king and princes vainly attempted to escape. They were captured, and Zedekiah's sons cruelly slain before him; and, by a refinement of cruelty, made the last object he ever beheld. His eyes were then put out, and he was taken, heavily fettered, to Babylon, where he lingered in prison till his death. Upwards of threescore of the nobles and chief men were cruelly massacred at Riblah. A month after the capture of the city (compare 2 Kings 25:3. with 2 Kings 25:8), the captain of the Chaldean army burned the temple and the palaces, and laid the whole city in ruins. The desolation was complete; hence these mournful elegies.

Ezekiel: 595 B.C. - 48 Chapters and 1273 Verses

Of the four greater prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel, two were priests, namely, Jeremiah and Ezekiel, who with Daniel were for a considerable time contemporary. Those three were pre-eminently the prophets of the captivity; Jeremiah ministering amongst the poor left in the land after the final capture of Jerusalem, and afterward continuing his mission amongst them in Egypt; Ezekiel prophesied in Mesopotamia amongst the "dispersed of Judah" located there by the Babylonian conqueror, where also considerable numbers of the "outcasts of Israel" had been transported at an earlier time by the Assyrians; while Daniel who was of the seed royal of Judah, exercised his prophetic ministry in the court of the Gentiles. Thus the witness of the Lord and His testimony to His people were most complete.
Of the personal history of Isaiah we know nothing; of Ezekiel very little; of Daniel we know a good deal; of Jeremiah much of personal biography and of his inner and outer life is revealed to us, but this is so presented as to form an integral part of his mission, being remarkably interwoven with his prophecies.
Of the style of these prophets we may also speak, for be it carefully noted that the Spirit of God takes up the human mind in all its varied peculiarities, occupies it with Himself, and uses the individual man in revealing and publishing the truths of divine revelation; thus the masterly mind of Paul is used in writing the Epistle to the Romans, the most orderly and powerfully written of all the Pauline epistles, and one which has engaged the scholarly attainments and trained intellect of the Christian through all ages; while on the other hand the loving heart of John is as surely reflected in the writings bearing his name, and which have been the source of consolation to the spiritual and godly ever since they were penned. We would, however, take this opportunity of pressing upon all, that while a cultivated mind and scholarly attainments have their due place (and surely we are much indebted to the critical labors of scholars in settling the text of Scripture, and in helping much as to the framework of the truth), yet the Holy Spirit is the alone power by which the mind of God can be understood and received (1 Con 2:11-16); the Corinthians were naturally a learned people, but spiritually only babes. The truth is, that individual character, style, and peculiarity, is in exact keeping with the fullest inspiration. Jeremiah, to whom we have more than once referred, is an illustration of what is strictly human, with what is as strictly divine; thus the oft recurring expression: "Thus saith the Lord" establishing the truths of inspiration and Divine authority is in perfect accord with the human element, so markedly manifested in the book of the prophet Jeremiah. The style of Isaiah is stately and grand; his rich, full and commanding descriptive powers are finely illustrated in describing the glory of Jerusalem in Isa. 60 of his prophecy; Jeremiah is tender, sensitive, solemn, and pungent in his appeals to the conscience. The tears and utterances of the prophet afford a striking example of the combination of fearless exposure of sin and its condemnation, solemn dealing with the conscience, with intense love and feeling for the people. Ezekiel is full of imagery, symbol, and representation, thus his prophecies afford abundant material for the seer of the New Testament in the writing of the Revelation. The style is vigorous, forcible, and rapid. "The holy energy, indignant zeal for God, and the moral authority of the prophet in reproving Israel are strikingly apparent" Daniel writes as the historian. The precision and exactness of details as in Dan. 11, combined with the comprehensive narration of the Gentile—past, present, and future, as in Dan. 2.-7., has made this book invaluable to the historian and prophetic student. The characteristic and broad features of the empires which successively assumed the sovereignty of the world are wonderfully compressed into a very few words (Dan. 7:4-8), and which many pages of the learned historians fail to convey with equal exactness.
Ezekiel was carried captive to Babylon at the close of the brief reign, of but three months, of Jehoichin (or Jeconiah); the second to last king of Judah. The principal people of the land, besides the treasures of the temple and the wealth of the king's house, were embraced in this second recorded captivity (2 Kings 24); seven years previously Jehoiakim, with Daniel and other members of the royal family and a part of the temple vessels, had been deported to the Babylonian court. The third captivity (2 Kings 25), eleven years after the second, completed the ruin of Judah. Ezekiel with his family resided at Tel Abib, on the banks of the Chebar, a considerable distance from the metropolis of the Chaldean empire. Ezekiel's forced exile lasted 27 years (Ezek. 29:17) at least, but we are not safe in affirming that he wore the prophetic mantle more than 22 years, as it was in the fifth year of Jehoiachin's captivity that he began to prophesy (Ezek. 1:2).
Our prophet seems to have been held in high repute amongst his exiled countrymen, and his house a meeting-place for the elders of Israel and heads of the people (Ezek. 8:1; 14:1; 21, etc.), who assembled to hear the words of the Lord from the burning and eloquent lips of the prophet.
The desolation of all Israel being now complete, the whole nation is generally embraced in these prophecies. In the book we have a good deal as to Israel's ecclesiastical future, which might be expected from the combination of priestly service and prophetic ministry in the introduction. The future settlement of the tribes in the land, in equal and parallel bands, across the country from east to west, with numerous interesting details bearing upon Israel's millennial position, is also given us. (Ezek. 48)
There is no direct reference in the book either to Christ's first advent in grace or to His second in glory1—the gap between these epochs is filled up by the circumstances detailed in the book of Daniel. Another interesting circumstance may here be noted, namely, that the title "Son of Man," applied to the prophet above 100 times, is also used in the book of Daniel twice, and the blessed Lord, in the days of His flesh, applied it to Himself 60 times or thereby. Our prophet also speaks of Noah, who preached righteousness; of Daniel, who suffered for righteousness; and of Job, whose righteousness withered in presence of the Divine glory (Ezek. 14:14). The departure of the "glory" from the temple, then from the city (Ezek. 1-10), and its return to the millennial temple (Ezek. 43) are graphically and vividly portrayed. The future temple will be built according to Divine pattern and measurement (Ezek. 40-42); the long-deserted throne of Judah will also be occupied by a lineal descendant of David's house, termed in the closing chapters of the book "the Prince." The feasts, ordinances, and sacrifices, commemorative of Christ's work and Israel's glorious deliverance, will be reinstituted according to the new covenant made with the people—hence Pentecost, which has already received its fulfillment in the calling of the church, will be omitted. The new birth will be absolutely needful for Israel's introduction into millennial blessing, while of course it is indispensable to Divine favor now. Compare Ezek. 36:25-27, with John 3:3-12.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1. -A series of chronologically arranged prophecies bearing upon the impending Chaldean invasion, the destruction of Jerusalem, the scattering of the people, and utter ruin of all Israel. This division closes with the destruction of Jerusalem. Ezek. 1-24
2.-Judgment of the nations who participated in or rejoiced in the ruin of Judah. There are seven nations (a symbolic number signifying completeness) pointed out as the objects of Divine judgment, and who rejoiced or aided in the destruction of Jerusalem and scattering of her people, namely, Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia (Ezek. 25.), nations bordering upon Immanuel's land; then Tire (Ezek. 26.-28:19) and Zidon (Ezek. 28:20-23), the great commercial centers; and, lastly, Egypt (Ezek. 29.-32.), to which latter, judgments of the most unsparing kind are dealt out. Ezek. 25.-32.
3. -Judgment upon Israel; upon Gog and her allies in the closing days, with promises of future restoration and blessing of all Israel. Gog is judged after the commencement of the kingdom reign. Ezek. 33.-39.
4.-The millennial temple and its services; the throne and the people established securely in the land. Ezek. 40-48.
NOTE.
Who is Gog and Magog of Ezek. 38, 39? We believe the reference is to the last prince or autocrat of all the Russias: Magog, or ancient Scythia, is his land. Russia will be the great antagonist and leader of the powers north and east of Palestine in the coming future for Israel. The attack described in these chapters will be after the Lord has come, and at the introduction of the millennial era. The sentence, "O, Gog, the chief Prince of Mesech and Tubal," is rendered by the Septuagint, "O, Gog, prince of Rosh," i. e. Russia. This is further confirmed by the naming of the former European and present Asiatic capitals of the empire. Moscow and Tobolsk. Gog and Magog in this book, therefore, refer to the Russian people and land; but in the Apocalypse (Rev. 20:8) the expression must be understood symbolically.

Daniel: 607 B.C. - 12 Chapters and 357 Verses

We have a good deal of personal history and biography in the Prophets Jeremiah and Daniel, but so interwoven in the texture of their prophecies as to form an integral part of their prophetic utterances. Daniel was of the seed royal of Judah, and was taken to Babylon when very young—probably 14 or 15 years old. There seems to have been an invasion of Judea, at least of Jerusalem, in the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim, the third to last, king of Judah (compare Dan. 1:1, 2 with 2 Kings 24:1), when part of the temple treasures were removed, and the King, Princes, and members of the royal family were taken captive to Babylon. This first attack upon Jerusalem took place nearly 20 years before the final sack of the city. Daniel, therefore, must have spent the greater part of his life in the Court of the Chaldeans, as he survived that dynasty, for we find him prophesying in the third year of Cyrus, King of Persia (Dan. 10:1). The consideration of these circumstances tends to give great weight to the confession of his own and the nation's sins (Dan. 9.), for personally he could not have been a sharer, at least to any great extent, of the national guilt.
God did not leave Himself without ample testimony, even to the people whom, in the exercise of righteousness, He had driven from their city, country, and temple. Jeremiah, as we have already seen, prophesied amongst the poor left by the conqueror in the land. Ezekiel spake "the word of the Lord" amongst the captives settled in Mesopotamia, while Daniel interpreted the dreams of Nebuchadnezzar, and revealed the visions granted to himself, in the immediate region and center of Gentile royalty itself. Thus all were left without excuse, both the conqueror and the conquered.
Attention may here be called to the interesting circumstance that the writing from Dan. 2:4 till the close of Dan. 7 is in the Syriac or Aramean language, and as that portion of our Prophet divinely sketches the rise, progress, and end of Gentile power, the Babylonians and Assyrians—the two powers used in the captivity of all Israel—had in their own language the mind of God upon that committed to them, the grant of sovereign authority in the world.
In this book of Gentile prophecy, "the times of the Gentiles," which historically commence with the removal of the throne and glory of God from Jerusalem, and the transference of governmental power from Judah to Nebuchadnezzar (the head of gold), are briefly sketched until the entire setting aside of Gentile rule, and the introduction of the world-kingdom of the Son of Man. The revival of the fourth or Latin Empire of the West in a ten-kingdom form, and its connection with apostate Israel in the last days of Gentile supremacy, are leading features of this prophecy. Certainly the distribution of the Empire into ten kingdoms, having a central and directly controlling head, has never taken place; yet it is clear from Dan. 2 and Dan. 7 that such will be its character at the close of this age. This new and hitherto unknown feature necessarily calls for the revival of the Empire; and indeed we know from Revelation 17, that its future revival by Satanic energy awaits fulfillment. It may simplify this important point if we direct, for fuller consideration by the reader, the four following conditions ascribed to the Roman Empire. "The beast that thou sawest was" - that is, its Imperial form as it existed in John's day -"and is not,"- that is, it has no present political existence -"and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit,"- that is, its future revival by direct Satanic energy -"and go into perdition,"- that is, its terrible end will be utter, awful ruin (Rev. 17:8). The ten kingdoms and the beast, or fourth imperial power, will be found in direct conflict with the Lamb and His heavenly saints (Rev. 17:12-14) in that awful crisis which will usher in the Kingdom of Christ. Daniel alone of the prophets and the Apocalypse occupy the field covered by "the times of the Gentiles." The nations, headed by the Assyrian and Gog, express their hatred to the Jews as a people; while the nations of the West, comprised in the empire of or headed by the beast or "little horn" of Dan. 7, express their hatred to the Lamb, while politically favoring the apostate nation, then returned to her land, having received the "Antichrist." Isaiah, and the prophets generally, treat of the political enemies of restored Judah and Israel, while Daniel and the Revelation treat specially of the last phase of the fourth empire, and its relation to the Jews (subject of the prophet) and to the Lamb (object of the apostle).
The political history of the four great empires is given us in Dan. 2 and 7; the former chapter symbolizing them as metals, and the latter chapter as beasts. First, the Babylonian power, as "head of gold," highest and purest character of governmental power, and "lion," the majesty of that power. Second, the Persian empire, as "arms and breast of silver," inferior character of power to the former, being lodged in the hereditary nobles of the empire, and binding even the sovereign, and "bear," the grasp it maintained upon its conquered and numerous dependencies. Third, the Grecian Empire, as "belly and thighs of brass," lower character of power still, being practically in the generals and officers of the army, and "leopard," the almost marvelous celerity by which Alexander accomplished his extensive conquests. Fourth, the Roman Empire, as "legs and feet of iron and clay," the constitutional forms of monarchial government, and "fourth beast," its extensive and cruel absorption into the empire of near and distant kingdoms and states.
The "little horn" of Dan. 7. is the great Gentile leader in the West; the "little horn" of Dan. 8. is the distinguished leader in the East. They are distinct personages. The seventy weeks or 490 years, date from the commission granted to Nehemiah (Neh. 2) to restore Jerusalem. The last seven of these years have yet to run. They will commence after the Temple is rebuilt and Jewish worship reinstituted, which of course supposes the Jews restored to their land (Dan. 9:27). Dan. 11:1-35 records the conflicts between the kings of the North (Syria) and South (Egypt)—Palestine, the object of contention by both powers, lying between. From Dan. 11:36 to the end the history is distinctly future. The previous part of the chapter has been historically fulfilled, but its typical bearing upon the coming crisis must not be overlooked. To do so is to make the prophetic word of "private interpretation." 2 Peter 1:20,21.
Dan. 12:11 is that referred to by our Lord in His great prophetic discourse on Mount Olivet (Matt. 24:15). Its future application is evident from the Lord's use of it in that chapter speaking of it to be fulfilled.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The dreams of Nebuchadnezzar and their interpretation by Daniel, unfolding the history of Gentile power from its rise till its close. Dan. 1-6.
2.-The visions of Daniel, and the connection of the Grecian (Dan. 8-11) and Roman Empires with Daniel's people—the Jews in their latter-day history. Dan. 7-12.
NOTES.
Dan. 2-The great image represents Gentile authority or government.
The gold represents the Babylonian empire.
The silver represents the Persian empire.
The brass represents the Grecian empire.
The iron and clay represent constitutional governments.
The stone out of the mountain represents Christ in judgment.
Dan. 7-The four beasts represent the four universal empires.
The lion represents Babylon.
The bear represents Persia.
The leopard represents Greece.
The four wings represents the fourfold partition of Alexander's empire.
The fourth beast represents Rome.
The ten horns represents the ten kings of the Roman empire.
The little horn represents the personal head of the empire.
"Till the thrones were cast down," read "till the thrones were placed or set up."
Dan. 8-The ram with two horns represents the Medo-Persian empire.
The goat from the west represents Alexander the Macedonian.
The great horn was broken—Alexander's empire was broken up on his death.
"Four notable ones" represents the fourfold division of the empire.
Little horn (Dan. 8:9) represents Antiochus the Syrian king.
Dan. 11-The first 33 verses record past fulfillment; from verse 36 to the end, the application is yet future.
The days of Daniel and the Apocalypse are literal, and apply to the time of the end. Horns signify kings beasts, empires; and heads, the governing powers.

Hosea: 785 B.C. - 14 Chapters and 197 Verses

This prophet lived and exercised his ministry during one of the darkest periods of Israel's history—a period extending through the reign of several sovereigns (Hos. 1:1). He was contemporary, or at least partly so, with the prophets Isaiah, Micah, Joel, and Amos. The kingdom of Israel (or ten tribes) was rapidly drawing to its end. Idolatry, murder, and usurpation were crimes exceedingly prevalent in Israel during the reigns of the kings noted in Hos. 1; and the Assyrians were becoming as troublesome to the ten-tribed kingdom by their repeated invasions, as the Babylonians subsequently to the house of Judah. Hosea, Amos, and Jonah prophesied when Assyria was in the very zenith of its glory. Our prophet anticipates the ruin of Israel by the Assyrian, as later the ruin of Judah by the Babylonian. "He is filled with the afflictions and the guilt of Israel as a whole, and more than any other of the twelve shorter prophets breaks forth into passionate and renewed grief over the people."
For about 60 years Hosea energetically warned of sure and coming judgments upon Israel, upon Judah, and also upon the whole nation as such, but omits all prophetic mention of the Gentiles either for blessing or for judgment. There are many exceedingly bright predictions of Israel's glorious future, such as in Hos. 2:14-23. Ephraim, or the ten tribes, and Samaria, the capital, are particularly specified as the objects of Divine judgment.
The quotations of Paul and Peter from this book are extremely interesting. The Gentile Apostle (Rom. 9:25,26) quotes Hos. 1:10, and applies it to vindicate God's sovereign call of the Gentiles to grace and blessing, while the Jewish Apostle (1 Peter 2:10) quotes Hos. 2:23, in proof that the believing Jewish remnant in his day entered into blessing alone by the sovereign call and choice of God.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The dispensational ways and dealings of God with His earthly people set forth under striking prophetic symbols. Hos. 1.-3.
2.-Moral appeals to the conscience of the nation as a whole, to Israel and to Judah severally, in view of their sins. Hos. 5.-14.

Joel: 800 B.C. - 3 Chapters and 73 Verses

In considering the prophecies of Joel, the son of Pethuel, we must do so entirely from an internal examination of their contents, as we have no historical data to aid us in their study. That he was one of the earliest of the Judah prophets is generally allowed, although it would be difficult to fix the precise time when he uttered "the word of the Lord." The silence of Scripture should teach us as distinctly as its utterances.
Judah and Jerusalem and the state of things then existing; famine and a terrible incursion of locusts and other insects who devastated the whole country, forms the text on which the prophet enlarges and announces the coming day of Jehovah, not upon Judah only, but upon all the earth. Joel for "vividness and power of description is not surpassed by any of the prophets." What an elegant account is furnished of the triumphant Assyrian army through the land of Immanuel (Joel. 2.), and which, undoubtedly, in its fullness extends to the future crisis when the land will be invaded and Jerusalem besieged more than once by the then representative of Assyria, the first, as she will be the last of Israel's enemies. This book is one of judgment—of Jehovah's judgment upon all nations. In and around Jerusalem, wrath to the uttermost will fall upon the Gentiles (Joel. 3).
The signs and wonders referred to by Joel precede the day of the Lord (Joel. 2:30, 31); but the blessings—especially the distinguished one of the Holy Ghost poured out on Israel—will be after the day has set in. Peter, in his great Pentecostal discourse (Acts 2:16-21), quotes part of the prophecy of Joel, not in proof of fulfillment, but as showing chat the extraordinary effusion of the Spirit and striking results were in perfect accord or agreement with what the prophet testified. Joel's prophecy yet awaits fulfillment.
"More than half the short prophecy of Joel contains a wonderfully fine and vigorous description of a flight of locusts, and the devastation they occasion. There is not in all literature a description of any like subject comparable to this; and if, in our happy exemption from such visitations, we have been incapable of appreciating the serious nature of a calamity occasioned by mere insects, we have only to listen to the solemn tones in which the prophet speaks of it as a national judgment, calling for acts of public mourning and humiliation, to be satisfied that the visitation from locusts is among the most awful dispensations which a land can sustain. The present is indeed the standard Scripture passage on the subject."
One who has personally witnessed the march of these terrible insects thus writes:-"Riding up a hill, I found the whole surface, as it were, animated and rolling down the declivity. There were millions of young locusts, not yet able to jump, looking like a mass of semi-fluid mortar. On another occasion a flight of locusts did considerable injury, and disappeared. But they laid their eggs; and after a while the news arrived that these were hatched and the young ones on their march. They were without wings, and about the size of full-grown grasshoppers. The whole face of the mountain was black with them. On they came like a living deluge. We dug trenches and kindled fires, and beat and burned to death heaps upon heaps; but the effect was utterly useless. Wave after wave rolled up the mountainside, and poured over rocks, walls, ditches, and hedges—those behind covering up and bridging over the masses already killed."
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-An appeal to the nation, grounded on present calamity, but in view of the period of public and governmental judgment, known as "the day of the Lord." Joel. 1
2.-The day of Jehovah upon Judah, also with intimation of future spiritual blessing upon all flesh, of which Pentecost was a distinct and blessed pledge. Joel. 2
3.-The mighty gathering of the nations; the Gentiles summoned; they gather in the Holy Land to feel the strength of Jehovah's arm in awful judgment; then Judah abides in Jerusalem from generation to generation. Joel. 3

Amos: 787 B.C. - 9 Chapters and 146 Verses

This was one of the earliest of the prophets, and contemporary with Hosea. The latter, however, confines his predictions to the ancient people only; whereas our prophet denounces judgment upon the surrounding nations, as well as upon Israel and Judah. The date of the prophecy—"two years before the earthquake" (Amos 1:1), which happened in the long reign of Uzziah, king of Judah—is regarded as an important epoch in the prophetic writings. We have no account of this earthquake—the fact only being recorded; but it must have been a truly dreadful calamity, as the terror inspired and hasty flight of the people from the awful catastrophe are symbolic to some extent of the flight of the Jews for shelter into the miraculously-opened valley on the yet future occasion of the Lord's descent from heaven to Mount Olivet for the deliverance of His earthly people (Zech. 14:5).
Amos prophesied in the country of Israel, and chiefly in Bethel, the southern seat of idolatry in that land (1 Kings 12; 13). He seems, however, to have been a Jew residing in Tekoa, a small town south-east of Bethlehem, and from thence Divinely called to prophesy in midst of Israel. The prophet's account of himself is told with charming simplicity. Amaziah, the apostate priest of Bethel, as well as all Israel (Amos 7:10-15), was so troubled by the plain, outspoken threatenings of judgment upon king and people, that the monarch was appealed to, and the apostate priest forced to own the true and Divine character and mission of the prophet; he said unto Amos, "O, thou seer, go flee thee away into the land of Judah, and there eat bread, and prophesy there." The reply of Amos is striking for its very simplicity: "I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet's son; but I was an herdman (or shepherd) and a gatherer of sycamore fruit; and the LORD took me as I followed the flock, and the LORD said unto me: Go, prophesy unto My people, Israel."
This pastoral prophet, therefore, has judgment as the great burden of his prophecy. The hypocrisy and wickedness of Israel are specially pointed out. Stephen, in Acts 7, and James, in Acts 15, quote from this prophet. Israel's blessed future, as in all the prophetic writings, is also unfolded, and expressed chiefly in symbols drawn from the quiet occupations of a pastoral life.
These prophecies of unsparing judgment upon Damascus, Syria, Gaza, Philistia, Tire, Ammon, Moab, also upon Judah and Israel (Amos 1, 2), were in measure fulfilled upon the nations bordering on Immanuel's land by the splendid victories and successes of Jeroboam II., who restored to Israel something of her ancient glory (2 Kings 14:23-29), and also Judah's magnificent conquests over the adjoining nations under Uzziah (2 Chron. 26:6-15). But these judgments were only an earnest or pledge on Jehovah's part of future retribution upon the troublers of His people.
Israel is threatened with "captivity beyond Damascus," and this after her guilt had been forcibly expressed and proved from the time of her departure out of Egypt. The captivity of the ten tribes to Assyria, and of the two tribes to Babylon, vindicated this Word of Jehovah (Amos 5.).
The last five verses of the prophecy are peculiarly rich and full in their anticipations of Israel's future blessedness under the sway of their Messiah.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
I.-Judgment denounced upon various states, nations, and cities, including Israel and Judah. Amos 1-2.
2.-Idolatry and other wickednesses of Israel (or ten tribes) pointed out, and their captivity to Assyria predicted. Amos 3-6.
3.-Symbolic visions of judgment upon all Israel, with promises of future restoration and blessing. Amos 7-9.
NOTE.
Jewish tradition asserts that our prophet was badly used by the apostate priest Amaziah, on his refusal to leave the land of Israel for Judah, and, further, that the priest's son completed the work of his father by driving a nail into the prophet's temple, whose friends then removed him in a dying condition to his native place, where he died, and was buried in the sepulcher of his fathers, but, as we have already observed, this is merely tradition.

Obadiah: 587 B.C. - 21 Verses

TWENTY-ONE VERSES.
This, shortest of all the prophetical writings in the Old Testament, announces the doom of the Lord upon Edom, the land possessed by the descendants of Esau—Jacob's brother. Edom will be utterly destroyed in the future deliverance of Judah, and her judgment will be executed by the victorious hosts of Jehovah—the Jewish people (Ezek. 25:14; Isa. 11:4). The pride and arrogancy of the Edomites, secure in their mountain fastnesses and rocky dwellings, is the subject of Obad. 3 and 4; their destruction would be full and entire, and their friends and confederates would aid in their unsparing doom (Obad. 5, 6, 7); their wisdom in allying themselves with the successful invaders of Judah, would be baffled and all, yea, individually they would be cut off by slaughter (Obad. 8, 9). Language could not be conceived more precise or definite intimating judgment which would clear the land of the Edomites, and utterly exterminate the whole race and house of Esau, than is supplied in Obad. 18; only be it remembered that this final judgment is yet future, that the people against whom the Lord hath indignation forever is not extinct; they will reappear in the closing days, as will all the nations in their representatives. To man, nations and peoples referred to in that important and early chapter, Gen. 10, have entirely passed off the scene, but not so to God. All collective and individual responsibility has to be answered for in the future; on this earth all the nations who have played their part, will come up in the closing days in their descendants or representatives, and will have meted out to them the judgment due. The land and possessions of Edom and of the Philistines and Canaanites will yet be fully occupied by restored Israel (Obad. 19, 20); the blessed and glorious conclusion of all is stated in Obad. 21; the world-kingdom of Christ will secure righteousness, power, and glory.
The ground of these judgments upon Edom, the ancient and bitter enemy of Israel, is given us in the touching Obad. 10-14, in which God rehearses the doings of Esau to His beloved people. It is a serious thing to meddle with the saints of God; they are as the apple of His eye. To do them a wrong is to enter into a controversy with God Himself; to do them a blessing is to merit His hearty commendation.
Esau, the brother of Jacob, thus in a certain external relationship to God began his history by profanely despising the God of blessing (Heb. 12:16,17), and in the course of his descendants we see manifested the most inveterate hatred to Israel. They actively assisted the Babylonians in their attacks upon Jerusalem, seizing the property of the Jews, cutting off their retreat from the city and delivering up those whom they captured, besides proudly rejoicing over the distress of the people and desolation of the city. The Psalmist thus prays: "Remember, O Lord, the children of Edom in the day of Jerusalem; who said, Rase it, rase it, even to the foundation thereof" (Psa. 137:7). Edom is also prominent in the scenes of the last days, being first named in the wicked confederacy of the nations purposing to cut off the very remembrance of Israel from the earth (Psa. 83:4-18). The land of Edom will also witness to the Lord's vengeance upon the nations; there they will assemble and there be utterly destroyed—Isaiah 34—giving us the details. Edom's desolation will be "perpetual," even as she had a "perpetual" hatred to Israel (Ezek. 35).
It is interesting to note in reference to Jacob and Esau (Rom. 9:13) that the Lord's call of and love to Jacob are fully expressed in the first book of Scripture, but "Esau have I hated" in the last book of Old Testament Scripture—that is the race descended from Jacob's twin brother had fully developed their character, ways, and doings before God records His hatred of them.
NOTE.
Mr. Kelly in his Lectures Introductory to the Study e the Minor Prophets, remarks: "What has been employed to prove a late date is invalid, from forgetting that the prophetic vision presents things future, as already seen. For present time with a prophet is when a prophecy is accomplished, not when it is given. I believe he (Obadiah) was early, not late."

Jonah: 862 B.C. - 4 Chapters and 48 Verses

Jonah was the son of Amittai, of Gath-hepher in Galilee. It was probably because of the Gentile mission to which Jonah was separated that led the ecclesiastical heads of Israel in Christ's day to a convenient forgetfulness that a prophet had arisen out of Galilee (John 7:52). This book is one of the earliest among the prophetic writings. We may not be able to determine with certainty that Jonah was contemporary with Elisha, the prophet of grace to guilty Israel; but we are safe in affirming that he must have nearly succeeded him. This we gather in an incidental way from 2 Kings 14:25, in which we are told that Jeroboam II recovered from the Syrians certain territory bordering on the Mediterranean, formerly belonging to Israel. This was in accordance with a prediction uttered by Jonah some time before.
Jonah's unwillingness to undertake the mission of judgment to the great Gentile metropolis, reminds us of Peter's unwillingness to bear a message of grace to the Gentiles in his day (Acts 10;11). Both the prophet and the apostle were thoroughly Jewish, and both had to be taught the lesson (and we through them) that God is sovereign in His actions, and that when it pleaseth Him to go out of the ordinary ways and channels in the exercise of a wisdom altogether His own, neither saint nor servant must say unto Him "What doest thou?" The mission of the prophet Jonah was certainly an extraordinary one. Assyria was at that time the mistress of the world, and Nineveh, her proud, wicked, and exceedingly strong and large city, was to be destroyed in 40 days, which would, of course, involve the destruction of the empire. Such was the Divine threat. But when God threatens, it is with a view to repentance. The king to the meanest of his subjects humbled themselves before God; proclaimed a fast; cried mightily to God and turned from their wickedness. On the repentance of the people, God graciously turned from His purpose, and Nineveh was spared for about a century and a half, when Nahum was commissioned to announce its total destruction. God's ways with the Ninevites afford us valuable insight into His public and governmental dealings.
The personal history of the prophet too—which occupies the greater part of the book—is exceedingly instructive to the servant of the grace and glory of God. Jonah's disappointment at the sparing of the city and people of Nineveh, because his credit as a prophet was at stake, is a lesson worth pondering by all serving the master. Jonah, away from God, was the source of trouble to all in the ship; on his account, Jehovah caused a "mighty tempest in the sea," and the destruction of the poor ignorant Gentile mariners was imminent. This will be remarkably verified in the coming crisis. The Jew will be the occasion of judgment to the Gentiles in the latter days of their history. "The Eastern Question" will have to be solved and settled in connection with Judah's land and people (Zech. 14); and while, in the first place, the Jew will be the occasion of judgment to the nations, when received into Divine favor and blessing, she will become the source and channel of universal blessing, "And many people shall go and say, come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths: for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem." Jonah is also in some respects a type of the blessed Lord, first in death, then in resurrection, and then, as now, in testimony to the world (compare Jonah 2 with Matt. 12:39-41)
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The Divine commission to destroy Nineveh. The prophet, instead of going eastward to execute the Divine command, went westward to flee from the presence of the Lord. Jonah turns from himself in the fish's belly to the Lord, saying, "Salvation is of the Lord." Jonah 1, 2.
2.-The second commission to destroy the city. The people's repentance and the prophet's great disappointment at the exceeding grace of God in averting the threatened judgment, because his word apparently comes to naught, and his credit as a prophet seriously imperiled. Jonah 3, 4.
NOTE.
What is the moral value to the Christian in discussing the capabilities of existing aquatic animals of swallowing a man? The pen of Divine inspiration has written these words: " Now the Lord had PREPARED a great fish to swallow up Jonah " Whether by immediate creation or by an existing species we are not informed, but surely the word of the Lord is enough, and as if to rebuke the daring unbelief of this century, Jesus Himself reaffirms the statement of the fact (Matt. 12:40).

Micah: 750 B.C. - 7 Chapters and 105 Verses

Micah is termed "the Morasthite," from Moresheth-Gath, a town of Judea. He was one of the early prophets, being contemporary with Isaiah, who, like our prophet, looks forward to Israel's external enemy in the closing days—the Assyrian. Hosea and Amos were also contemporary prophets. His predictions were continued through the reigns of three of Judah's kings, and had special reference to the capitals of the two kingdoms, Samaria and Jerusalem (Mic. 1:1). The whole nation is sometimes spoken of as Jacob (what the people were by nature), and at other times as Israel (what the people were by grace).
We have a prediction of Micah's referred to in Jeremiah (Jer. 26:18). Other instances of a similar kind might be adduced, as Jonah in 2 Kings 14:25, showing how each part of the Word of God is bound up with the other, and that if Divine authority is denied for any book, you must for all, for the Word of God is one whole; one mind pervades the blessed volume, and "the Scripture cannot be broken." This unity of design is further illustrated by comparing the beautiful millennial scene of Mic. 4:1-3 with Isa. 2:2-4. Other points of resemblance might be adduced between these prophets, both in the subjects and style of treatment. Isaiah, of course, is wide and comprehensive, much more so than any of his prophetic brethren.
Jerusalem, being specially named as the object of Divine judgment, necessarily involved the nation of which it was the center. The same thing is true of Samaria, capital city of the ten-tribed kingdom of Israel. The world, too, comes in to share the judgment in connection with Israel, for Jehovah "cometh forth out of His place;" judgment is His strange work. The intimation of a glorious future for the nation of Jehovah's choice, as also for the world at large, is very full, and strongly, and beautifully expressed. "The Assyrian," so largely treated of in the prophets, especially Isaiah (Isa. 10, 28, 30, etc.), comes in here for special notice. The first oppressor of Israel and her last, will again enter Judea after the people have been restored, but will be opposed by Christ, then returned to the land. The Assyrian will be hopelessly destroyed, and Christ will become the peace of restored and happy Israel.
Earlier Scripture had pointed out the suffering and reigning Messiah as descended from Abraham, from Judah (the royal tribe), and from David (the royal house); but another link in the chain of Messianic prediction was needed, and this Mic. 5:2 supplies. The birth-place of our Lord is here named, and it was this Scripture that the priests and scribes referred to in proof of our blessed Lord's human genealogy (Matt. 2:4-6).
The prophetic announcement of judgment upon the religious capital of Judah, and the proud capital of Israel—Jerusalem and Samaria—have been fulfilled with remarkable exactness (Mic. 1:6; 3:12). Samaria has been more than once termed by the sublimest of the prophets, "the crown of pride" (Isa. 28). Where is the city that reared its head in pride and glory above the surrounding towns and villages? She is gathered in HEAPS! The broken columns, stones, and ornaments composing the city have been hurled down the mountain on which it stood, and discovered "the foundations thereof."
Zion was to "be plowed as a field." The plow was literally passed over the site of the city after its destruction under Titus, by the Roman general, Turnus Rufus, who did so under orders received from Rome. This ancient custom was meant to express the utter degradation of the conquered city.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-Jehovah's summons to the people and earth. Expostulations and threatenings followed by premises securing the triumph of all Israel. Mic. 1, 2.
2.-Jehovah's summons to the heads and princes of Israel. In this section the predictions of future blessing are unequaled in the prophetic word. Mic. 3.-5.
3.-Jehovah's summons to the mountains and foundations of the earth. God's controversy with the people and the iniquity owned. Mic. 6, 7.

Nahum: 713 B.C. - 3 Chapters and 37 Verses

Of Nahum nothing is known, save that he was from Elkosh, a Galilean town.
"The burden of Nineveh" is the subject of the prophecy. When the prophet wrote these predictions, there was not the least probability of Nineveh's downfall. Assyria exercised a proud and arrogant sovereignty over the surrounding nations, and was then planning the conquest and subjugation of Judah (Nah. 1:11). Nineveh's repentance under the preaching of Jonah about 150 years previously had been genuine, but neither lasting nor deep; now the Lord announces His purpose to destroy it utterly, giving no space for repentance. But what an unspeakable comfort to remember amidst scenes of desolating judgment, that "the LORD is good, a stronghold in the day of trouble; and He knoweth them that trust in Him" (Nah. 1:7).
Nineveh was a city of extraordinary strength and size. Jonah calls it "an exceeding great city of three days' journey;" it was one well fitted from its natural position, and the strength and skill of its fortifications to defy almost any invading force. Its walls were said to have been a hundred feet high, with fifteen hundred strong towers. But strong and mighty as the city and empire was, utter ruin was decreed, the proud and "bloody city" must fall, and the insolent and haughty Sennacherib be taught that Jehovah will "make his grave" when in the very zenith of his power.
The pride, cruelty, and idolatry of the city are wonderfully and graphically portrayed, but we cease to wonder, as we reflect that the pen of inspiration traced these burning words.
She is ironically invited to prepare herself for a lengthened siege, to strengthen her walls and bulwarks, and victual the great city (Nah. 3:14). The surprise and alarm on the capture of the city is powerfully and graphically told.
Babylon was destroyed by the Persians, who diverted the famous river Euphrates, which flowed through the city into other channels; they then entered by the bed of the river through the two-leaved gates of brass which had been carelessly left open. Assyria too would be destroyed, partly by water, for "the gates of the rivers shall be opened" (Nah. 2:6), and by fire (Nah. 3:13-15); like Babylon, too, her gates would be opened, affording a passage for the enemy (Nah. 3:13); while the sword and captivity would effectually dispose of her numerous and wealthy population. The total and immediate ruin of the city of Nineveh having been decreed by God, little wonder need be felt that these predictions having been fulfilled to the very letter, the site of the city was for centuries unknown, till the discoveries in recent years of the travelers Botta, Layard, and others, have revealed the utter ruin, and placed before the eyes of the skeptical nineteenth century memorials of the awful judgment which befell the "bloody city" of Nineveh.
No doubt Nah. 1:11 looks forward to the coming crisis, when "the Assyrian" or "King of the North," will come upon the scene as the representative of ancient Assyria, and play one of the most important parts in that awful time. "The antichrist" is a totally different person. Judah will be remembered in mercy in the future Assyrian destruction (Nah. 1:14, 15).
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-Jehovah's power in judgment with mercy and blessing for Judah. Nah. 1
2.-The "Doom of the bloody city," with particulars of its siege. Nah. 2, 3.
NOTE.
In the destruction of Babylon and Nineveh, the respective capitals of the Chaldean and Assyrian kingdoms, there are strong points of resemblance; but there is also marked contrast. The besiegers of Babylon entered the city through the almost dry bed of the river, which had been diverted from its usual course, but in the case of the latter city, the waters of the Tigris overflowed its banks and poured into the doomed city. The proud monarch retired to his palace and set it on fire, and thus perished, after sustaining a siege of about two years. The charcoal and burnt wood were plentifully found by the excavators in the ruins of Nineveh—which will never again rear its head (Nah. 3:19). Assyria, however, without its capital, will share millennial blessedness (Isa. 19).

Habakkuk: 626 B.C. - 3 Chapters and 56 Verses

Of the personal history, or even parentage, of this prophet Scripture is silent. He must have lived and prophesied some time before the ruin of Judah, or even its first invasion by the Babylonians, as he foretells the triumph of the Chaldeans -"that hasty and bitter nation"-over Immanuel's land and people. Nahum announced the destruction of the Assyrians who destroyed the Kingdom of Israel, so our prophet proclaims the utter ruin of the Chaldeans, who in turn destroyed the Kingdom of Judah. We have not so much the historical treated of in this book; the moral element prevails.
As to the subject matter of the prophecy, it is easily apprehended. The complete overthrow of the Kingdom of Judah and captivity of her princes, rulers, and people by the Chaldeans—whose warlike prowess and justly celebrated cavalry are described in language terse and beautiful—with the utter destruction of Judah's conquerors and glorious intimations of latter-day blessing for Israel, are the themes of which Habakkuk treats. The character of the Chaldean monarchy as hasty, bitter, avaricious, violent, terrible, dreadful, proud, swift in conquest, fierce as the evening wolves, imperious, idolatrous, treacherous, the instrument of Jehovah's vengeance upon Judah and the nations, is described in poetic and powerful terms in Hab. 1:6-17. The spiritual exercises of the prophet and his identification with the people in their sin and with the future remnant of Israel (in this like Christ) turning to Jehovah and hoping in His mercy are weighty and precious instruction. O for more heart to thoroughly identify oneself with the afflictions and trials of God's people—to watch and wait for the coming in of God in power and grace into the circumstances!
Luke (Acts 13:41) quotes Hab. 1:5, and Paul applies Hab. 2:4 three times: (1) Rom. 1:17; (2) Gal. 3:11; (3) Heb. 10:38. These quotations in their connections are exceedingly interesting. The word "selah" meaning to "pause" occurs three times in the third chapter, occurring also about seventy times in the book of Psalms; that chapter also supplies other points of resemblance to the book of Psalms.
"In the small compass of this book may be found, as in a compendium, all the glories and excellencies of prophetic poetry. Nothing can be more magnificent and sublime than the Divine hymn which terminates his prophecy—nothing more terrible than his threats—nothing more biting than his scorn—nothing more sweet and safe than his consolations." Again, "it were difficult to find words to set forth adequately the exalted claims and peculiar merits of this high minstrel of grief and joy, of desolateness and hope, of scorn and tenderness."
It will be observed that in Hab. 2 there are five woes with which the Chaldeans are taunted by the various nations and peoples so cruelly oppressed by the great Babylonian power; and further, this chapter supplies the answer to the perplexed spirit of the prophet, as shown in the previous one, especially from Hab. 2:12-17. The Chaldeans, instead of accomplishing the judgment of God—as a mission to which she was Divinely designated—maintained a haughty independence of God, and mocked its vengeance upon Judah in proud self-will Jehovah is righteous in taking vengeance upon the destroyers of His people as these woe-stanzas indicate, which are as follows:-
The first woe (Hab. 2:6-8), greed and cruelty of the Chaldeans.
The second woe (Hab. 2:9-11), covetousness and self-exaltation of the Chaldeans.
The third woe (Hab. 2:12-14), blood the foundation of the civil power of the Chaldeans.
The fourth woe (Hab. 2:15-17), corruption and violence of the Chaldeans.
The fifth woe (Hab. 2:19, 20), idolatry of the Chaldeans.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The prophet troubled in contemplating the judgment of Judah by the Chaldeans who in turn are judged. Hab. 1
2.-The prophet in faith waits upon God for a solution of that which troubles his heart, and is informed that the Chaldeans will be judged because of their sins. Hab. 2
3.-The prophet turns to Jehovah for the revival of His work; for joy and salvation too. Hab. 3

Zephaniah: 630 B.C. - 3 Chapters and 53 Verses

The pedigree of this prophet is given with more than usual care; his ancestry for four generations is named, as also the period of his prophecy—the reign of the godly reformer, Josiah (Zeph. 1:1). It is important to note that Zephaniah, Jeremiah, and Habakkuk, who predicted the Chaldean destruction of Jerusalem, and who prophesied during and after the reign of Josiah, omit all reference to the reformation effected by that pious king; for important as that work undoubtedly was, yet its results were neither permanent nor deep. Upon the death of the king both the succeeding prince and people lapsed into the wickedness of their fathers, and the nation became tributary to Egypt. Hence God, who knoweth the end from the beginning, passes over in silence the work of Josiah in clearing the kingdom of wickedness and idolatry.
It has been frequently remarked, and indeed it is self evident, that the book of Jeremiah is both moral and historical in treating of Judah's coming doom, and further, that our prophet, while occupied with the same event, does so historically; while Habakkuk, also writing of the same Judean epoch does so more as the moralist. Thus Zephaniah takes up the historical side of Jeremiah, and Habakkuk the moral side.
The references to preceding written prophecies as Isaiah, Amos, and Joel, are pretty numerous in so short a prophecy. The harmony and entire agreement in the prophetic books of the Old Testament are well worth a while's consideration, as evidencing that one Divine mind and purpose characterize all Scripture. The great themes of all the prophets are iniquity, judgment and glory, and Zephaniah descants on these subjects, especially the latter. In the main the burden of his prophecy is the "great day of the Lord," the day of Jehovah's anger—an expression common to all the prophets, and signifying the future period of judgment which will succeed the translation of the church to heaven. It is therefore pre-eminently a book of judgment, but glory triumphs in the end.
The judgments predicted by this prophet are not only general and universal in their range and extent, but are also minute and particular—none escape. All creation trembles when Jehovah awakes for judgment, but glory triumphs in the end; and perhaps there is not a finer expression of Jehovah's delight and joy in Zion within the blessed compass of revelation, than is furnished by our prophet:-"In that day it shall be said to Jerusalem, Fear thou not: and to Zion, let not thine hands be slack. The Lord thy God in the midst of thee is mighty; He will save, He will rejoice over thee with joy; He will rest in His love, He will joy over thee with singing" (Zeph. 3:16, 17).
Thy land and people, O Immanuel, will yet be the object of Thy joy and the rest of Thy love.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-The whole land of Judah is doomed to utter wasting and destruction; Jerusalem, the center of iniquity, will be thoroughly searched by judgment—none shall escape. Zeph. 1
2.-A remnant are exhorted to seek the Lord, so that they may be hid in the day of Jehovah's anger, for all the near and distant nations will endure the wrath of the Lord. Zeph. 2
3.-Judah's awful corrupt condition, but her latter-day blessing most glorious. Zeph. 3
NOTES.
TABLE OF REFERENCES.

Haggai: 520 B.C. - 2 Chapters and 38 Verses

There are five books dealing with the returned remnants to Jerusalem and Judea. Two are mainly historical, namely, Nehemiah and Ezra; the former treating of the civil condition of things, while the latter is occupied with the ecclesiastical state of the people. The three closing books of the Old Testament, sometimes termed "Prophets of the Restoration," prophesied in midst of these returned Jews, but in view of their utter and complete failure and ruin, uttering predictions not of judgment only, but, blessed be God! rich also in anticipations of that blessed future awaiting Israel and the earth, when after every testimony committed to man, and every steward and witness for God has proved a signal failure; when after a full and lengthened trial of the "first man," the kingdom and glory will be established in power in the hands of the "Second man." These times of blessing are nigh at hand.
The prophets Haggai and Zechariah (Ezra 5:1) were commissioned to encourage the people to recommence the building of the temple, which had been interrupted for a number of years by the assiduous efforts of the Samaritans, who succeeded in getting a decree from the Persian King—Artaxerxes, forbidding the work (Ezra 4). Our prophet, therefore, abounds in reproofs, warnings and encouragements. Under the faithful and energetic ministry of these two prophets, the work of the temple which had been interrupted for about 14 years, was quickly resumed and finished. During that long interval, the people displayed a remarkable zeal for their own interests, planting, house-building, and the like, but were utterly regardless of Jehovah's things indolently and carelessly saying:-"The time is not come that the Lord's house should be built." The energetic remonstrances of the prophets named, Haggai especially, prevailed, and the people commenced building before Darius reversed the decree of Artaxerxes (Ezra 4), and granting another confirming the commandment of Cyrus, given 21 years before, and which had been so much in the people's favor (Ezra 6); this is to be noted as showing that Jehovah was working for and His blessing resting upon the people; His presence too was with them (Hag. 1:13). Thus the unalterable laws of the Medes and Persians, which bound even the monarchs themselves to obedience (Dan. 6:15), are changed according to the Divine pleasure. "The glory of this latter house," Hag. 2:9, reads "the latter glory of this house." Paul beautifully and powerfully comments on Hag. 2:6, 7, in his Epistle to the Hebrews, Heb. 12:25-29.
The book contains four messages, in each case termed "The word of the Lord." These charges from Jehovah to the people were all delivered in the second year of Darius, and within the brief period of four months.
The five post-captivity books may be thus briefly regarded:-
BOOKS OF THE JEWISH RESTORATION.
1. Ezra, who unfolds the ecclesiastical state of things.
2. Nehemiah, who depicts the civil condition.
3. Haggai, the prophet of encouragement.
4. Zechariah, the prophet of the future.
5. Malachi, the prophet of the people's moral condition.
" Thus saith the LORD of hosts, Consider your ways." May writer and reader lay the exhortation to heart.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1.-Sharp and solemn reproof as to the people's indifference to the Lord's interests; the gracious effect produced. Hag. 1, or message one.
2.-Exceedingly cheering and encouraging, and withal, beautifully prophetic of latter-day glory connected with the Temple. Hag. 2:1-9, or message two.
3.-A solemn call to the people to consider their ways. Hag. 2 10-19, or message three.
4.-Jehovah will overturn and destroy the kingdoms and might of the earth, but will also remember His chosen. Hag. 2:20-23, or message four.

Zechariah: 520 B.C. - 14 Chapters and 211 Verses

The two prophets, Haggai and Zechariah, were for a time contemporary—fellow-laborers among the restored of Judah (Ezra 5:1). The former prophet, however, was called to the exercise of his ministry two months earlier than his colleague (compare Zech. 1:1 with Hag. 1:1). Of Haggai we know nothing, not even his father's name, as he is simply styled "Haggai the prophet;" but of Zechariah, we are informed of his father's and grandfather's name, and further learn from Neh. 12:4 and Ezra 5:1 that he was of priestly descent, as were also Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Ezra. Zechariah began his prophetic ministry in the eighth month of the second year of Darius Hystaspes (Zech. 1:1), and continued prophesying for more than two years at least (Zech. 7:10). The accuracy with which these dates are given, even to the day of the month as well as the year, is to be noted, as they conclusively signify God's recognition of the then Gentile Imperial Power and of the consequent degradation of His people.
Of the three prophets of the Restoration, Malachi unfolds the moral corruption of the people; Haggai warns, reproves, and encourages the remnant, promising Jehovah's presence and blessing, even although under Gentile dominion; but our prophet widens and enlarges his sphere of testimony, and shows the relation of and connection of Judah especially to the Gentile Powers in their judgment, and then as received to favor subordinately to the Jews. Jerusalem as a city, and Judah as a people, are in the fore-front of these prophecies, with the future relations of both to the Gentile Powers of the last days. The details of the closing hours of Jewish unbelief are numerous and interesting, and the miraculous signs and physical facts connected with the Lord's descent from heaven to Mount Olivet should possess intense interest to the student of prophecy (Zech. 14.).
In the first six chapters we have eight visions seen on the same night (Zech. 1:7, 8). The first vision represents the three empires which succeeded the Babylonian; it having passed away at the time of these prophecies. The earth was at rest under the yoke of the first of the three-the Persian power (Zech. 1:8-11). The second vision represents the four empires and their final destruction after their scattering and destruction of Judah (Zech. 1:19-21). The third vision represents the measuring of Jerusalem, thus signifying the appropriation of the city and people for Jehovah: the people will return in large numbers from the center, from whence they were anciently universally scattered, namely, Chaldea or the north. Surely Jerusalem is ever before the eyes of Jehovah, for in it He will yet establish His throne and His temple (Zech. 2.). The fourth vision represents the nation in the person of Joshua, the high priest, guilty and defiled; but God in the exercise of His sovereign grace pronounces their justification, and accepts them to favor and clothes them with glory (Zech. 3.). The fifth vision represents the combined glories of royalty and priesthood centering in Messiah, then returned to Judah (Zech. 4.). The sixth vision represents unsparing judgment upon the apostate and wicked part of the nation (Zech. 5:1-4). The seventh vision represents Babylon as the seat and center of wickedness, civil and ecclesiastical (Zech. 5:11). The eighth vision represents the providential course of the four great empires; the judgment upon Babylon having in meantime satisfied and vindicated the God of righteousness (Zech. 6:8); the full execution of Divine judgment upon the Gentile imperial powers will be effected at the coming of the ancient of days (Dan. 7). Thus closes this series of visions (Zech. 6.).
The triumphant entry of Christ as Israel's Prince and King, into the royal city of Jerusalem (Zech. 9:9, with Matt. 21:5), and Zion strengthened against the power of Greece (Zech. 9:13)—who will play no unimportant part in the coming Jewish future—are important events in the closing days of Judean history, and introductory to the establishment of Christ's millennial kingdom. Egypt, out of which Israel was redeemed, and Assyria, into which Israel was sent in chastisement (Zech. 10:10), will yield Jehovah's people at the epoch of their happy deliverance. The brotherhood between Judah and Israel is in meantime broken, and the Messiah of Israel is valued by the nation at thirty pieces of silver (?), while in retributive justice, the antichrist or "idol shepherd," will feed upon the fat and wealth of the land, but judgment will surely overtake him (Zech. 11.). Jerusalem will be a burdensome stone and cause of wrath to the peoples besieging it—for Jerusalem, after the return of her people, will be besieged twice by the surrounding nations. Certain judgment will fall on the congregated nations gathering in rage against Judah, while the civil leaders of the returned people, the nation as a whole, as also the greatness and strength of Jerusalem with its inhabitants, will feel the awful stroke. The judgment and then deliverance and blessing of the remnant of Israel (Zech. 13:8, 9) will be followed by the general mourning of the nation in presence of their once pierced Messiah—the king (David), the prophet (Nathan), the priest (Levi), and the people (Shimei or Simeon), with "their wives apart"—that is, individually—will thus all share in the general mourning and confession of national and individual sin (Zech. 12.). Idolatry rooted out of the land; Jehovah owning the "Good Shepherd" on the cross as His fellow; the apostate part of the nation cut off, and a third or remnant number purified by judgment and owned as Jehovah's people (Zech. 13.). The second and final siege of Jerusalem by the nations north and east of Jerusalem; the descent from heaven of the Lord, accompanied by all His heavenly saints and the miraculous signs and physical changes in and about Jerusalem; the feast of tabernacles kept yearly by the spared nations in Jerusalem, with holiness stamped upon the civil and ecclesiastical polity set up in the City of the Great King, and the utter extermination of the Canaanite closes this interesting book of combined Jewish and Gentile prophecy, which, in its fullest bearing, can only apply at the end of this age (Zech. 14.).
The quotation in Matt. 27:9, 10, and ascribed to Jeremiah, is really from Zech. 11:13. The difficulty has been explained on the ground that Jeremiah headed the list of prophetic writings as directed by the Jewish doctors, and consequently that any quotation from any Old Testament prophet could thus be ascribed to Jeremiah. The peculiar reference to that prophet in Matt. 16:14, does, in the opinion of many, imply some such arrangement referred to.
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1-The future blessing of Judah and Jerusalem, with judgment upon the Gentile oppressors of Jehovah's people, closing with the introduction of Messiah's millennial reign as King and Priest upon His Throne—presented in a series of visions. Zech. 1.-6.
2.-The moral condition of the people; the relation of the Gentiles to Israel in the future days, with their full and final destruction—a remnant spared and the latter-day glory—Jerusalem being the center. Zech. 7.-14.
BRIEF SYNOPSIS OF THE BOOK.
Zech. 1. -Jehovah's jealousy for Zion; His return in mercy to Jerusalem and the destruction of the Gentile Empires who had scattered Judah.
Zech. 2-The future establishment of Jerusalem, her glory, prosperity, and joy as chief among the nations; Jehovah in her midst.
Zech. 3-The full justification of the Jewish people pronounced by Jehovah Himself; the guilty and defiled nation represented by Joshua, the High Priest.
Zech. 4-The glories of royalty and priesthood would yet be established in Zion, setting her as chief in blessing on the earth.
Zech. 5-The apostate nation of Israel under the governmental curse of Jehovah; and Babylon regarded as the seat of wickedness on earth.
Zech. 6-Providential government exercised through the four Empires; Christ the branch building the temple and bearing the glory in the future.
Zech. 7-Jehovah's controversy with the priests and people; the returned remnants called to the exercise of practical righteousness.
Zech. 8-Jehovah and the people's future return to Zion and the latter-day glory and blessing of Jerusalem; Jehovah in her midst.
Zech. 9-Historical fulfillment from Alexander's overthrow of Persia till Christ; the early part of the chapter typical of the future.
Zech. 10-Israel gathered from the north and south, Assyria and Egypt, and strengthened by Jehovah Himself.
Zech. 11-The Messiah, all Israel, the Gentile oppressors, the Antichrist (Zech. 11:15-17), all in special relation to the last days.
Zech. 12-Judgment of the hostile eastern powers; Israel, delivered, mourns in presence of her once crucified Savior.
Zech. 13-Practical cleansing of the people; mass of the nation cut off, and a third or remnant numbered delivered.
Zech. 14-The last gathering of the Gentiles against Jerusalem, and numerous details of the closing days.
NOTE.
The triumphal march of the Lord into Jerusalem (Zech. 9:9); the price at which He was valued (the price of an ox or a slave in the marts of the east), and the use to which the money was applied (Zech. 11:22, 13), with the piercing of His blessed side (Zech. 12:10)—are Messianic predictions fulfilled to the letter.

Malachi: 397 B.C. - 4 Chapters and 55 Verses

Of Malachi, personally, nothing is known; the name signifies "My Messenger" (Mal. 3:1).
This last book of the Old Testament closes with a dark and sorrowful picture of the moral condition of the returned captives. As time wore on, the state of the remnant was marked by rapid decline, so that in the days of our prophet a remnant out of it had to be distinguished (Mal. 3:16-18) from the mass which had grown corrupt and wicked. At the time of the prophecy, the people had been once more established in the land, although under Gentile sovereignty and permission; the temple had been rebuilt, a regular and genealogical priesthood, and the great body of Levitical sacrifice and feasts reinstituted, but the moral state of all, both priest and people was at the lowest possible ebb.
The sight presented by the closing prophet of the Old Testament is a most humbling one. The spirit of zeal for the glory of God and of worship characterized the remnant at the commencement of their return to the city and land of their fathers: here the spirit of unconcern for Jehovah and His interests, of unbelief and scorning, stamp their features upon them at the close. Contempt for all that formerly distinguished them in their early history, is terribly demonstrated in offering to God sacrificial animals expressly prohibited by the Levitical law. What an answer to the grace of Jehovah in thus offering polluted bread, and the blind, lame, and sick, yea, the blemished animals in sacrifice. What a contrast is presented in Mal. 1:11; if they are so utterly indifferent to the grace and glory of Jehovah, He knows how to vindicate His own blessed name, and within the compass of the prophetic word a richer, fuller exposition of the glorious future is not to be found than in those beautiful words: "For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same, My name shall be great among the Gentiles; and in every place incense shall be offered unto My name, and a pure offering: for My name shall be great among the heathen, saith the Lord of Hosts." The earnest, lovely, and pleading expostulations of the Lord are received and answered in a high-handed reasoning spirit. Vision and prophecy were to be sealed up till the coming of John the Baptist, the immediate forerunner of Christ and greater prophet than all who had preceded him (Matt. 11:9-11). Elijah too is promised after Christianity and before the day of Jehovah—in the short interval lying between—who will wind up the prophetic testimony of our God. While John the Baptist was "The Messenger" (Mal. 3:1), he was also to faith the Elias to come (Matt. 11:14); on the other hand, Mal. 4, distinctly declares that Elijah will come to prepare Israel for the day of the Lord; this coming, therefore, is yet future.
The opening words of the prophet are quoted by Paul in Rom. 9:13; while the closing utterances are again and again referred to in the Gospels. Thus "the Scripture cannot be broken." The Divine inspiration of the whole is attested—repeatedly attested by our Lord, the apostles, and writers of the New Testament. While the prophets and holy men of old spake the "Word of the Lord," their testimony was not their own, but what they spoke and wrote in Jehovah's name was in the power and inspiration of the Spirit of Christ, which was in them (1 Peter 1:10-12).
GENERAL DIVISIONS.
1-The moral insensibility of the people to God and His worship. Mal. 1
2. -The sin and integrity of the ecclesiastical leaders of Judah. Mal. 2
3.-Jehovah coming in grace, preceded by His messenger—John the Baptist, with the remnant distinguished. Mal. 3
4.-Jehovah coming in judgment, preceded by His prophet Elijah. Mal. 4
NOTE.
The coming of Jesus in grace was heralded by John the Baptist (chap. 3:1). The coming of the Lord in judgment is to be introduced by the ministry of Elijah the prophet (chap. 4:5).

Guide Notes to the Books of the Old Testament

GENESIS contains in germ every truth and subject unfolded in the Word of God.
EXODUS illustrates in grand and impressive types the great truth of Redemption and resulting consequences.
LEVITICUS treats of sacrifice and priesthood, the basis and means of drawing nigh to God.
NUMBERS records the trials, service and wanderings of Israel in the wilderness.
DEUTERONOMY reviews the wilderness and instructs us as to Canaan—ways and conduct.
JOSHUA treats of the wars of Canaan and conquest of and partition of the country.
JUDGES notes the repeated failures of the people with Jehovah's unchangeable faithfulness and grace.
RUTH unfolds in type Israel's future reception on the ground of sovereign grace alone.
I SAMUEL shows governmental power in the hands of Saul.
2 SAMUEL shows governmental power in the hands of David.
I KINGS shows governmental power in the hands of Solomon and its subsequent decline.
2 KINGS traces the decline of royal power, especially in the Kingdom of Israel.
1 CHRONICLES shows royal power and glory in David connected with the Throne and the Temple.
2 CHRONICLES traces the decline of royal power, especially in the Kingdom of Judah.
EZRA unfolds the ecclesiastical condition of the returned Jews to Judea.
NEHEMIAH unfolds the civil condition of the returned Jews to Judea.
ESTHER reveals the providential care of Jehovah over the mass of His people not returned to Judea.
JOB details the process by which the flesh and human righteousness are withered up—all being according to the disciplinary dealings of God.
THE BOOK OF PSALMS records the experiences of Christ personally, and in connection with the future remnant of Israel.
PROVERBS is a Divine collection of wise maxims for a righteous walk in the world.
ECCLESIASTES. gives the search of the king for happiness, and the result -"All is vanity."
THE SONG OF SOLOMON unfolds the changing feelings of the bride and the unchanging affection of the bridegroom.
ISAIAH is the grandest and most comprehensive of all the prophetic writings.
JEREMIAH is both historical and moral in character, and deals with Israel, Judah, and the nations of the past and future.
THE LAMENTATIONS depicts the sorrows of a heart breaking itself over the miseries of God's people—Israel.
EZEKIEL unfolds the judgment of Israel by the Chaldean, and reveals latter-day blessing connected with Israel, her land and temple.
DANIEL comprehensively sketches the times of the Gentiles and their latter-day connection with Judah.
HOSEA points out the sins of Israel and Judah; but also their future blessings.
JOEL speaks of the day of the Lord (judgment), afterward the Spirit poured out upon all flesh—Pentecost being a sample.
AMOS declares the iniquities of Israel and the nations; at the close however, glory and blessing for all Israel.
OBADIAH presents a brief and forcible record of Edom's ways and doom
JONAH announces judgment upon Nineveh and its repentance.
MICAH predicts certain judgment upon Jerusalem and Samaria, but full blessing for both in the last days.
NAHUM is the announcement of final judgment upon haughty Nineveh.
HABAKKUK abounds in moral reflections and exercises upon Israel's sorrowful condition and guilty ways.
ZEPHANIAH speaks of unsparing judgment upon Jerusalem and the nations—a remnant preserved and blest.
HAGGAI is Divine encouragement to the people to resume the buildings of the temple.
ZECHARIAH unfolds the scenes of the last days; Jerusalem being the center of them all.
MALACHI gives a touching record of Jehovah's last pleadings with His people.

The Prophets and Prophecy

The characteristic feature of the Old Testament is God acting in government, while the distinguishing one of the New Testament is God's actings in grace. Now, the platforms on which the dealings of God were displayed, the people and city which formed the center of these Divine dealings, were the nation of Israel and Jerusalem its metropolis. There Jehovah established His throne and set up His temple—the former from whence He governed the whole earth, and the latter designed as a center of blessing for Israel and the nations. But who are the people beloved of God, the object of His eternal choice and love, in whom are displayed so fully the exceeding riches of God's grace? The Church, in which is neither Jew nor Gentile, is the object on which God has been pleased to lavish His rich and sovereign mercy. Through it the manifold wisdom and ways of God will be eternally displayed (Eph. 3)
Prophecy and Revelation.-To whom, then, does prophecy primarily refer—to Israel or the Church? We believe the answer to this important question lies at the root of the various contradictory systems of prophecy, and gives definiteness and interest to the prophetic future, besides affording an easy solution of numerous passages which are usually twisted to suit the purpose of the commentator. Now, were the distinction between the terms prophecy and revelation and the persons to whom they apply understood, the student would have at his command the key to the understanding of a large portion of the Word of God. Prophecy has the Jews as a people, Palestine as a country, and Jerusalem as a city in the fore-front. But the Jewish people being "set in the midst of the nations and countries" (Ezek. 5:5), the center of Jehovah's government of the earth and the source of blessing to the world, necessarily embrace the earth and nations as part of the sphere where the dealings of God are displayed. Prophecy, then, regards the earth, the Jews as a people being prominent, and then subordinately the nations. Thus, then, we have the Jews first, then the Gentiles as the subjects of prophecy. But the Church in which there is neither Jew nor Gentile (Gal. 3:28), but the fruit of the baptism of the Spirit—Jew and Gentile forming one body, a heavenly people united to the glorified Man in the heavens, and whose character, prospects, and hopes are heavenly—is outside the sphere to which prophecy strictly applies. Hence the Church is not named in the Old Testament, nor is she the subject of prophecy at all. We have, of course, saved persons in the Old Testament Scriptures, but not one body, this latter needed the death of Jesus (John 11:52) and the work of the Spirit to accomplish (1 Cor. 12:12). The Church as Christ's body was a mystery till revealed by Paul (Eph. 3). Revelation as clearly connects itself with the Church as prophecy does with the Jews. The Resurrection (1 Cor. 15:51), Translation (1. Thess. 4:15), Unity (Eph. 3:3), and the standing ordinance of the Church—the Lord's Supper (1 Cor. 11:23)—are all subjects of revelation, because they concern a heavenly people—heavenly as to title and character (1 Cor. 15:48,49). It may surprise the reader, but the remark will bear the most searching inquiry, that no prophecy in the Old or New Testaments directly concerns the Church.
The Function of the Prophet.-A prophet is one who speaks in the name and by the authority of another; thus Aaron, the spokesman of Moses to Pharaoh, is termed a prophet (Ex. 7:1); so also is Abraham, as in measure possessing the mind of God (Gen. 20:7). Both the terms—prophet and prophecy—are used in the Scriptures with a breadth and largeness of thought just like God, while as unlike the contracted theology of man.
Thus the 288 sacred musicians of the temple (1 Chron. 25:1-7), and the heathen poet of Crete (Titus 1:12), as well as Miriam (Ex. 15:20, 21), and the four daughters of Philip the evangelist (Acts 21:9)—all prophesied. Prophecy in its large and extended meaning is the unfolding of God's mind, and in this respect it differs from the teacher, that while teaching is the unfolding of the written word, prophesying is the means by which God speaks to the conscience of man (1 Cor. 14). The woman of Samaria termed Jesus a prophet, because He had unfolded her life's history and dealt with her conscience (John 4:19). The High Priest stood as the head and representative of the nation before God, thus, Aaron in his robes of glory and beauty (Ex. 28), and Joshua clad in filthy garments (Zech. 3) respectively represented the people before Jehovah—the former as to the acceptance of the people, and the latter as to the guilt and consequent justification of the nation before God. The prophet on the other hand was the bearer of a Divine message—"God spake—by the prophets" (Heb. 1:1). As representing Jehovah, and speaking in the power and majesty of His name, they uttered their standing formula "Thus saith the Lord," at once the expression of their holy mission and secret of the power and veneration with which the men and their utterances were regarded in Israel.
The more ancient title of the prophet was that of "Seer," for "he that is now called a prophet was before time called a Seer" (1 Sam. 9:9). Possibly the latter differed from the former in this respect, that visions of God were opened to the gaze of the Seer, while the word of the Lord was as truly characteristic of the prophet (2 Chron. 9:29).
The Unwritten Period of Prophecy. - Prophecy as an institution permanently established in Israel dates from the call of Samuel (Acts 3:24). From Israel's settlement in Canaan under Joshua till the judgeship of Samuel—450 years (Acts 13:20), we have only three direct notices of prophetic ministry (Judg. 6:8; 14:4; 1 Sam. 2:27); again, from Samuel, the first of the long line of prophets (which closed with John the Baptist), till the days of Uzziah, a period of about 300 years, we have no written prophecy. We would style that era the historical period, as the following abridged list from the books of Kings and Chronicles will show.
HISTORICAL WRITINGS.
1. "The book of the Acts of Solomon."
2. "The book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah."
3. "The book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel."
4. "The book of Samuel the seer, the book of Nathan the prophet, and the book of Gad the seer."
5. "The book of Shemaiah the prophet."
6. "The story of the prophet Iddo."
7. "The book of John, the son of Hanani."
8. "The story of the book of the Kings," etc.
From the period named therefore we have the spoken word of Jehovah, but in order that a permanent record of the Divine word and will be preserved, that word must be written.
The Written Period of Prophecy.- Probably the whole of the 16 books—prophetic books—were written within a period of four centuries; again, from Malachi till John the Baptist, which ended the prophetic line, till resumed by the future ministry of Elijah (Mal. 4:5,6), we have an interregnum of about four centuries. When Isaiah began to prophesy, the kingdom of Israel was rapidly drawing to a close, and ere the prophet died (Jewish tradition reports that he was sawn asunder with a wooden saw, so as to protract his sufferings), Judah had been invaded by the allied kings of Israel and Syria; also by Sennacherib the mighty Assyrian, and threatened besides with captivity in Babylon. Israel, too, had her cities and towns all depopulated by the Assyrians. Thus the grave circumstances under which the prophetic word was uttered and then written, gave occasion for the display of the most marked interpositions, and furnished the historical basis on which God mirrored forth His purpose to deliver and bless His people in the last days. We have then, in those writings, both the moral and strictly prophetic elements abounding. The book of the prophet Jeremiah is an example of this double character of Divine teaching and instruction. The prophetic lamp burned with unusual brilliancy during this the darkest period of Israel's history. The prophets, so to speak, turned their backs upon Israel's past, and directed the gaze of the faithful to the glorious future. How fittingly, therefore, that these predictions of future blessedness should have been written! How solemnizing also, that here we have penned by the unerring Spirit of inspiration the judgments which will descend upon Israel and the nations, introductory to the era of blessing! The four centuries occupied in writing these 16 books, were at once the darkest on man's side, while the brightest on God's side.
Classification of Prophetic Books.‒ These 16 books are divided in to four greater and 12 minor prophets. This arrangement is solely in view of the relative size of the books, and not at all a question of the moral value of one book more than another. The four greater prophets are Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel. Here we have what so many regard as a truth of almost vital importance, strict chronological sequence. We confess, however, that in the Bible, which has always a moral end in view, we fail to see that chronological order has such a place as it has in the systems of men. When God gives a date, He means us to learn from it, but when He withholds a date we ought equally to learn. The silence of Scripture is to be respected as well as its written utterances.
Isaiah properly heads the prophetic writings as being the most comprehensive of any of the books; it is the only one which describes the whole circle of the Divine thoughts and purposes respecting Israel. Then Jeremiah follows with the last pleadings of love over the guilty people before they are finally banished to Babylon, and with the remnant in the land spared by the conquerer. Next we have Ezekiel on the banks of the Chebar prophesying among the early captives deported to Chaldea. What striking and impressive symbols God used in instructing His prophets, and by which they in turn taught the people! Look at that basket of summer fruit (Amos 8:1, 2) intimating that Israel's summer was gone, and a winter of judgment was rapidly nearing. Again, see Ahijah, the Shilonite, rending his mantle into twelve pieces, and giving ten of these to Jeroboam. What more significant action of the rending of the united kingdom and the setting up of the kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam its first king? But Ezekiel, in energetic word and action, far outstrips any of his prophetic brethren. Are the miniature representation of the siege of Jerusalem (Ezek. 4.), or the eating of the prophetic roll (Ezek. 3), mysterious symbols too dark to be understood? If we have Ezekiel amongst the mass of the people in the land of their captivity and exile, we have Daniel amongst the more select class—the court of the Gentiles. Daniel covers that long phase of Israel's sorrowful history, termed "the times of the Gentiles."
Coming now to the minor prophets, we will make the last successful invasion by Babylon and the capture of Jerusalem the break. In past Jewish history no more important historical event has happened than the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, and the captivity of the people. The government of the earth then passed from the Jew to the Gentile, and the throne was set up in Babylon instead of Jerusalem. It was, indeed, a step fraught with the gravest consequences to man—both Jew and Gentile. Before the ruin of Judah, we have Hosea, Joel, Amos, and Micah who was contemporary with Isaiah, Habakkuk, and lastly, Zephaniah, who prophesied on the very eve of the subversion of the kingdom of Judah—six prophets in all.
After the captivity, we have the prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi-the ministry of the two former abounding in precious encouragement to the remnant people, while the latter depicts the moral corruption of all classes—priests and people.
There is yet a third and special class of prophets whose mission was to announce judgment upon the Gentile portion of the world; these are Jonah, Nahum, and Obadiah. Chronologically, Jonah precedes Nahum by nearly a century and a-half. Both these prophets announce the sure judgment of God upon the proud and haughty city of Nineveh—type of the world in its pride and haughty independence of God. Jonah, however, develops the public ways of God with nations—the threatened judgment was stayed on the repentance of the people. Obadiah reveals the overthrow and complete destruction of every hostile power opposed to Jehovah and His people. If Assyria represents the world in its pride, Edom represents it in its hatred to God and His people; and of this latter power Obadiah treats.
Sketch of the Prophetic Future.-The following epitome of the intensely interesting future awaiting Israel and the world is an abstract from the author's pamphlet entitled "The Eastern Question, and what the Bible says about Coming Events:"
Let us now very briefly take a glance at the coming situation. The blessed Lord is calling His "friends" around Himself, making known to us "all things" that He has heard of His Father (John 15:5). First carefully note that at any moment of time, unrevealed in the Scriptures of truth, and quite independent of political changes in the east or elsewhere, the translation of the saints to meet the Lord in the "air" may take place. My reader, if you are a believer on the Lord Jesus Christ, the blessed One who suffered may come now, ere you finish the reading of this paper, and fetch you to Himself. Would you be glad to see Him? Are your loins girded, your lamp trimmed, and your light burning? After the Church's removal to heaven, and after Canaan's separation from Turkey, Palestine will again come into prominence. The complete independence of Egypt will be secured, and a kingdom equally distinct established by Russian power and influence will occupy the territory north of Palestine. The Roman empire will be revived in a ten-kingdom form (Dan. 7; Rev. 13;17). The prophetic references to Rome show the empire distributed into ten kingdoms, while her unity and integrity as a whole are secured by the "little horn" of Dan. 7 These phases of the empire are not yet matter of history, and they are indispensable requisites for the fulfillment of the prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse. When the empire was broken up, its unity was gone. Prophecy demands a strong, compact, and united empire; this Satan will effect as accomplishing the purposes of God: "The beast shall ascend out of the bottomless pit " (Rev. 17:9). The Antichrist or Man of Sin will be settled as a king in Jerusalem (Dan. 11:36), and will act in concert with the head of the fourth empire (Rev. 13:12-17). The Jews will have been restored to their land through the aid of a seafaring nation, and for political purposes (Isa. 18). When restored they will accept the false Messiah as their king, and, through their civil and religious leaders, make a seven years' covenant—Daniel's last or 70th week—with the Roman prince (Dan. 9:27; Isa. 28:14,15). The unholy compact will not stand, for 'spite of the help and protection afforded by the western powers, that is Europe under the headship of Rome, God will bring against His deeply guilty and apostate people the Assyrian or King of the North, who will be as a rod in Jehovah's hand in the scourging of the guilty nation; at the close of the Lord's indignation against Israel a remnant will have learned to "stay upon the Lord, the Holy One of Israel, in truth" (Isa. 10:20). Further, the Roman Prince or little horn of Dan. 7 will break the agreement formed with the people, which guaranteed safety from their bitter enemy—the King of the North or Assyrian (Isa. 28:15)—and gave them a seven years' freedom and quietness to worship and sacrifice to the God of their Fathers (Dan. 9:27). Antichrist, aided by his chief, the head of the revived empire, will force idolatry upon Christendom (Rev. 13) and on the people of Judea (Dan. 11:36-39). The attempt to connect the temple with idol worship in the midst of Daniel's future and unfulfilled week of seven years, and to suspend the daily and other sacrifices (Dan. 9:27) will be resisted by the God-fearing remnant of Judah, whose experiences, prayers, songs, confessions, and trials are detailed at length in the book of Psalms and in the Prophets. The refusal of this remnant to worship "the beast" (Rev. 13:15) lets loose the rage and malice of Antichrist against these holy sufferers. Idolatry or death is the awful alternative. Many, forewarned by the Savior, will flee when they "shall see the abomination (idol) of desolation... stand in the holy place."When a certain idol (for such is the meaning of abomination as used in Scripture, 1 Kings 11:5-7) is set up in a prominent part of the temple, it is to be regarded as a signal for instant flight (Matt. 24:15-20, with Dan. 12:1).
Thus the Jews will be doubly oppressed in these days—first, by the Antichrist in the land, their great ecclesiastical oppressor; and secondly, by the Assyrian, their great political oppressor, who will come against them, enter their palaces, tread down the people as mire in the streets, capture Jerusalem, leading many into captivity, and committing the most frightful atrocities upon the inhabitants. This double oppression will continue three years and a-half, immediately after which the Lord Jesus will descend from heaven with all His heavenly saints, stand upon Mount Olivet—whose geographical position is so accurately described, that it cannot but be taken as a literal statement—and deliver His earthly people. Jerusalem will be besieged in the coming crisis more than once (Zech. 12;14); the last assault upon the city will not be a successful one. The personal intervention of Christ on behalf of His people, at the critical moment, when they are about to fall a prey to their foes, is marked by signs of a striking and miraculous character.
The Mount of Olives, when touched by the feet of the Son of God will cleave in two; thus a great gap or valley will be formed, into which the remnant at least will flee for safety. The Lord will Himself thus close the great Eastern—or Jewish—Question in a baptism of blood, Judah assisting in the work. Israel's place on the earth can only be made good by grace reigning through righteous judgment, both upon themselves and also upon those who burden themselves with Jewish matters.
The nations of the west are not directly involved in this awful struggle at Jerusalem. The Emperor of the west, with his ten vassal kings, will be rather the friend and would-be protector of restored Judah, politically. The peoples composing the Roman earth, if not those of a wider area, will express their hatred to Christ Himself. A solemn future and a terrible end are set before these lands of Christendom (Rev. 17:14; 19:11-21). The Gentiles north and east of Palestine are those outside the Roman Empire, and are the nations to be gathered against Jerusalem (Zech. 12; 14). The doom of the nations is regulated according to their guilt; thus the northern and eastern peoples are destroyed in a special manner, Israel assisting in the work of judgment. Greece also will figure in the closing scenes, and take part in the coming struggle, but will be most thoroughly vanquished by the sons of Zion (Zech. 9:13). The apostate nations of the west will rise against the Lamb and His heavenly saints, and, accordingly, they have a terrible doom meted out to them (Rev. 19). The three chief agents of Satan's power and wickedness in these awful times are cast into the lake of fire. (1) The Beast, head of the apostate civil power, under whose representative Christ was crucified. (2) "The false prophet,"—"Antichrist,"—"Man of Sin,"—the second beast of Rev. 13:11. These two, namely the Beast and False Prophet—the heads of the civil and ecclesiastical apostasies, and acting in concert—are united in the same doom; "these both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone" (Rev. 19:20). (3) The Assyrian, Israel's determined foe in the coming days (Isa. 30:31-33).
The prophet of visions (Ezek. 38; 39) tells us of Persia, Ethiopia, and many other nations, coming down under the leadership of Gog "like a cloud to cover the land." The apparently defenseless state of Judea; its numerous and thriving villages, having neither walls, bars, nor gates, seem to offer an easy prey to the neighboring nations, while the world's wealth, then centralized in Jerusalem, will awaken the cupidity of these powers (Ezek. 38:10-13). To plunder and destroy are the objects of this mighty confederation (see also Isa. 33, which also refers to Gog's attack). Alas! little do they dream that Jehovah hath girded Zion with strength, and that the keeper of Israel neither slumbers nor sleeps. The Lord Jesus Christ is there—Israel's glory and defense, and His and their enemies only reach the Judean mountains to find a grave, and their wealth to swell the treasures already gathered in Immanuel's land (Ezek. 39.). The chosen leader of this expedition against restored Israel is Gog. But who is Gog? The answer is at hand. The reference is to the vast and growing power of Russia—the outcome of the warlike Sclavonic tribes of ancient origin, descended from Japheth, eldest son of Noah (Gen. 10:2). The capital cities of European and Asiatic Russia are named in the first verses of the two chapters. "Meshech" (Moscow), formerly the seat of government of European-Russia, and "Tubal" (Tobolsk), chief city of Siberia, are not only thus early designated, but Russia itself is distinctly named and that, too, centuries before she was known as such. The words in the beginning of our chapters "the chief Prince of Meshech and Tubal "—should read, "Prince of Rosh, Meshec, and Tubal." Such is the reading in the Greek version of the Old Testament, so largely quoted from and referred to by our Lord and the New Testament writers. Thus Russia—and were it still doubted, the naming of her chief cities, will surely establish the fact—is clearly pointed out in the Scriptures of truth centuries before she, as such, was known; a certain proof of the futurity of this remarkable prophecy. Gog is a symbolic term for the head of all the Russias; Magog, also symbolic, is his land. Now let us read Ezek. 38:17, "Thus saith the Lord God: Art thou he of whom I have spoken in old time by My servants the prophets of Israel, which prophesied in those days many years that I would bring thee against them?" This being said of Gog, emperor of all the Russias, has led many to suppose that Gog and the Assyrian are one. We conceive, however, that Dan. 8:24 decides that point. The northern king, of fierce countenance, acts as the vicegerent of another and more powerful chief. The separate identity of Gog, and the Assyrian or King of the North, is clear: they are closely allied however. The relation of these powers to each other is similar to that which will exist between the "beasts" of Rev. 13, namely, the Roman power (Rev. 13:1-7), and Antichrist (Rev. 13:11-17). The King of the North, or Assyrian, is upheld by the power of Gog (Russia); while Antichrist in the land acts in the power of the Latin empire. What is said by the prophet of the captivity to Gog is attributed by the prophets of Israel to the Assyrian. This need present no difficulty because the latter acts in the power of the former. We will select one passage from the most comprehensive of the prophets (Isa. 10:5-34), as showing who God will bring against His guilty and apostate people, as a scourge in His hand: "O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger. I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of My wrath will I give him a charge to take the spoil and to take the prey, and to tread them down like mire of the streets." This treading down of the Jewish people we have attributed to "the little horn" of Dan. 8, the same personage as the Assyrian. There will be several invasions of Judea under the leadership of the Assyrian; but the last attack, conducted on a large scale, and by Gog in person, is the one referred to by Ezekiel, and which will take place when the Lord is actually reigning with His risen and glorified saints, not on, but over the earth. The utter defeat of this gigantic expedition against Judea, consisting of cavalry and troops of every description; the awful destruction of the "mighty army," which for numbers are compared to a cloud covering the land, and of which but a sixth are spared; the burning of the weapons of war for seven years, so that the forests will be untouched, and Israel supplied with firewood by the vast quantity of warlike implements gathered as spoils from the vanquished foe; Jehovah's hand in judgment reaching Magog (Russia), the center of this terrible outburst of hate against Israel, as well as the near and distant isles; the effect of these awful judgments and marked deliverance of Israel upon the heathen and upon Jehovah's people are powerfully told us in these chapters.
Russia is destined to become master in Asia. Already her vast empire stretches over half of Europe, and nigh the whole of northern Asia. Her dominions compose about a seventh of the habitable earth. It is very well known that the Russian policy is one of steady aggression, not chiefly in Europe, but in Asia, and that she has long coveted sole mastery in the East. The very rich and fertile provinces desolated by centuries of Mohammedan oppression and misgovernment, have been long and eagerly coveted by the giant power of Russia. There is little doubt but that she will succeed in her designs—that most of the Turkish territory will go to swell her already vast and growing possessions. She will command the powers north of Palestine (Lebanon mountains) and those east of the river Euphrates.
The enemies of Israel, spared from judgment, will be converted, and sent out as missionaries to the near and distant heathen -"they shall declare My glory among the heathen"- and, instead of expressing hatred to the Israelite any more, theirs will be the willing service of love in gathering to Judea those of the people left in distant countries, who will be gathered one by one (Isa. 66:19-21). The long-standing and bitter enmity between Syria and Egypt will also be completely removed. There shall be an highway from Egypt, through Canaan to Assyria, trod in peace and quietness by the traveler. The Egyptians and Assyrians, who in the past most cordially detested each other, and anciently strove for the mastery of the world at the expense of the other's ruin, will unite in happy service, and bury forever their mutual distrust and hatred. God will unite them in blessing with His earthly people, saying, "Blessed be Egypt My people, and Assyria the work of My hands, and Israel Mine inheritance" (Isa. 19:23-25). These will be the three leading powers in the millennial age, Israel being the chief, and Jerusalem the metropolitan city of the earth.
Egypt comes in for special notice, now "the basest of kingdoms," and the once haughty power which so sorely oppressed Israel at the commencement of her history. That ancient kingdom is destined to play an important part in the future. She will be the theater of very extensive war operations on the part of certain powers. Besides this, she will be torn by internal commotions, which will drain the country of its strength. God, too, will give the Egyptians a king in retributive justice for their cruel treatment of His people in ancient times; another Pharaoh will be raised up to rule the country and people with rigor and cruelty. Their favorite river (the Nile), the only means of vegetation to the kingdom, will be dried up, and general desolation ensue. The strength, wisdom, and policy of her counselors and people will utterly fail. But God never forgets what is done to His beloved Son. Egypt opened her friendly shores and received the child Jesus when His own people sought His life (Matt. 2:13-15). Egypt knew not what she did, neither did Moses when he identified himself with the afflicted Hebrews; but which, centuries afterward, the Holy Ghost writes down as "the reproach of Christ" (Heb. 11:26). Egypt then will share very specially in the blessing of millennial days—on the ground of sovereign grace alone - the basis surely of all glory and blessing to man—but first she must learn the lesson that "with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again." The oppressor is in turn oppressed. In their sorrow and affliction the Egyptians will "cry to the Lord because of the oppressors, and He shall send them a Savior and a Great One, and He shall deliver them. And the Lord shall be known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the Lord in that day, and shall do sacrifice and oblation; yea, they shall vow a vow unto the Lord and perform it. And the Lord shall smite Egypt; He shall smite and heal it, and they shall return even to the Lord, and He shall be entreated even of them, and shall heal them" (Isa. 19). "My people" will be the blessed expression of favor into which the Egyptians will be called in the coming days of glory on earth. How marvelous are the ways of our God! "How unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out!"
Palestine, too, will be considerably enlarged, according to the limits assigned to Abram (Gen. 15:18); stretching from the Nile on the west to the head of the Persian Gulf, where the Euphrates empties itself on the east; it will necessarily embrace those parts of Africa and Asia lying between those points. Other changes of a physical and geographical character will take place. The nations may squabble about their commercial interests in the Suez Canal, but God having decreed the utter destruction of the tongue of the Egyptian Sea (Isa. 11:15), formerly the scene of one of the most stupendous miracles recorded in Holy Scripture, it will necessarily involve in the same destruction the desert link connecting the Red Sea with the Mediterranean. The seven streams of the Nile will also be smitten by the hand of judgment (Isa. 11:15, 16). How ever could Israel traverse her land—which will embrace these parts -" in shoes" (see margin) save by the accomplishment of these miraculous events? The Euphrates, too, that river so famous in Scripture history, will be literally dried up. 1500 miles long, and in some parts many miles broad, it has ever formed a serious barrier to the mingling of the east and west, but the hindrance will be removed, for the great battle of Armageddon must be fought, hence the removal of the impediment to the gathering of the kings from the east and their armies; the drying up of the river will, of course, facilitate the march of troops into Canaan, "that the way of the kings from the east might be prepared" (Rev. 16:12). That justly celebrated river formed the eastern boundary of the Roman conquests, and is marked as the eastern limit of the Holy Land. The nations of the west will then meet in deadly strife with those of the east. Judea will become the great battlefield of the nations. This assemblage of opposed forces in the Holy Land is prefigured in that millennial chapter, Gen. 14. In and about
Judea God will gather the nations and kingdoms, to pour upon them His indignation and fierce anger (Zeph. 3:8). The reference to Armageddon is, no doubt, symbolic, and refers to Judg. 5:19.
We wait calmly upon God for the accomplishment of His blessed word. "Forever, O LORD, Thy word is settled in heaven." May our hearts be kept quiet while we look for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ—our happy hope. The blessed reign of our Lord for one thousand years over the earth (Rev. 20:4-6) is near at hand. Those glorious times foretold by prophets, and sung and harped by bards, groaned for by creation, and yearned after by the Church, are coming. They are nigh at hand. Our hope, however, is the coming Jesus Himself.
Blessed Lord! prepare Thy Saints to meet Thee in the air.

Outline of the Ways of God

By referring to the chart, the various parts of which are numbered, the orderly series of God's ways with man will be more simply perceived, their retention in the memory aided, and the general scope of the Divine purposes and plans more easily grasped by the mind:—
1.-By far the grandest counsel of eternity, as also the grandest fact in time, is the Lamb slain (1 Peter 1:20). Then the blessing of the saints and their predestination to the place, portion and relationship of children come next in importance (Eph. 1:4,5).
2.-Geology clearly enough establishes the truth of a creation prior to Adam, but no conflict need thereby be apprehended between science and the Mosaic or rather Divine account of creation. The first verse of Genesis refers to the original creation of heaven and earth, and is an independent statement entirely apart from what follows; the second verse shows the earth in a ruined state, yet, at a period prior to man; while from Gen. 1:3-31 we have the earth got ready in six literal days as a dwelling for man. The terms "creating" and "making" are important in this connection. "These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created (verse 1 of the Bible), in the day that the Lord God made (in six days Ex. 20:11) the earth and the heavens" (Gen. 2:4).
3.-Adam was created in innocence; we are born in sin (Psa. 51); in Christ humanity was holy (Luke 1:35). The period of innocence or sinlessness was a brief one, and in it Adam stood alone as Christ did before the work of the cross (John 12:24). Adam, as fallen, became the head of the race (Rom. 5:15); Christ in victorious power over death is head of His redeemed (1 Cor. 15:45). Innocence and Paradise once forfeited cannot be regained; but holiness, heaven, and eternal life are ours in Christ.
4.-For 1656 years God left man to himself. Conscience—that inward tribunal before which actions are weighed and judgment pronounced thereon—supplied the place of law and authority. Man went from bad to worse, until God in judgment swept creation by the besom of destruction—a remnant of man and the animal creation being preserved. In Noah, therefore, God instituted civil government (Gen. 9) in order to bridle the ungovernable will of man.
5.-Idolatry was introduced after the defeat of the Babel attempt to establish a universal independency apart from God (Gen. 11:1-9), and spread rapidly even in the family of Shem, so that Abram's father was an idolater (Josh. 24:2). It was this awful evil which led to the call of Abram by the Word of Jehovah and the appearing of the God of glory, thus God morally judged the world, and began a fresh depository of promise (Gal. 3:16) and committed a new testimony to man (Rom. 11).
6.-The people after celebrating the triumphs of grace on the wilderness side of the Red Sea, foolishly accepted law as the ground of blessing (Ex. 19). The law was neither given as the ground of justification nor measure of Christian life. As a principle, it applies to man in the flesh, but believers "are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit." Man before Moses was a sinner, but under the law he became a transgressor, as under Christ and grace an enemy to God.
7.-Moses, the representative of the law (2 Cor. 3:15), could not conduct the people into Canaan, type of the heavenly places; hence, Joshua, figure of Christ, in the power of the Spirit, triumphantly leads on the people to conflict and victory. Israel was ruled by judges till Saul.
8.-Israel's first king, was the man of the people's choice (1 Sam. 8); Israel's second king, was the man after God's own heart (Acts 13:22). The kingly power was continued in the tribe of Judah for 130 years after the destruction of the kingdom of Israel or ten tribes, but was finally destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar.
9.-Assyria became the place of captivity to Ephraim—the ten tribes. They have never been restored, and who and where they now are, cannot be ascertained. Ezekiel 20 details their future restoration. The Jews were deported to Babylon, and the government of the earth transferred to the Gentiles (Dan. 2); at this point of the history, "the times of the Gentiles" commence.
10.-After a captivity of 70 years, remnants of Judah are permitted to return, first under Cyrus and then under Artaxerxes; they settle again in Palestine but under Gentile subjection, and, after having been ruled over by Persia, Greece, Egypt, and Syria, the Romans in the year 63 B.C., took Jerusalem, and Judea became a tributary province to the Roman empire.
11.-Christ was crucified under Pontius Pilate, the then representative of the fourth or Latin power, was buried, raised, and ascended to heaven, all now being made subject to Him—the glorified Man (1 Peter 3:22).
12.-The descent of the Holy Ghost ten days after the ascension of Jesus, is the characteristic truth of the dispensation (Acts 2). By His coming, He has constituted believers what they were not before—the body of Christ (1 Cor. 12:12) and the house of God (Eph. 2:22).
13.-Jerusalem, after sustaining a siege unparalleled in history, was taken by Titus in the year 70, A.D., and thus the last historical dealings of God with His earthly people were broken; to be resumed, however, on their national return to Palestine (Isa. 18).
14.-God in grace has visited the world, and is calling out of it a people for His name. To those thus called, heaven is opened (Epistle to the Hebrews), and they are associated with Christ as joint heirs (Rom. 8:17); their prospect, hope, portion and blessings, are all heavenly-"partakers of the heavenly calling." As Eleazer, the steward of Abram's house, led Rebekah through the wilderness to Isaac—heir of all (Gen. 24), so the Holy Ghost is leading home to Christ on high the bride, sustaining and cheering her meantime by the way. Her immediate hope is the personal return of the Lord to fetch her to Himself (1 Thess. 4:13-18). The Lord will descend from heaven, and by His voice and presence change the bodies of the living saints like to His own (Phil. 3:21); He will raise the righteous dead of all ages and dispensations, and, together with the changed living, take them up in clouds, in His own most blessed likeness-"forever with the Lord.".
15.-After the rapture of the saints to heaven, Daniel's 70th week or seven years will transpire, during which Antichrist, accepted as the false Messiah by the mass of Judah thus returned, will reign as king in Palestine (Dan. 11:36), and the Roman empire be revived under a ten-kingdom form (Dan. 7; Rev. 17:8). The judgment detailed in the central part of Revelation will then be poured out upon an apostate Church and apostate Judaism.
16.-Christ, after the tribulation, will descend from heaven with all His saints and angels, and close in awful judgment "The times of the Gentiles" (Rev. 19:20,21; Dan. 2:44-45); deliver the Jews (Zech. 14) and restore Jerusalem to more than ancient grandeur (Isa. 60.).
17.-The millennium or world kingdom of Christ will then be established on and over the earth, and will exist in blessing and glory for 1000 years (Rev. 20:4). Christ and the church will together reign—one in power and glory—over the redeemed scene. Then Israel will be set in blessing on the earth, head of the nations, and Jerusalem become the metropolis of the earth (Isa. 60). The Gentiles too will be richly blest in these coming days, but subordinately to Israel (Psa. 67). Creation too will be delivered from her pain and sorrow, and rest in peace under the beneficent sway of its Creator and Preserver (Rom. 8:19-21). The kingdom-reign will continue for a period of at least 1000 years (Rev. 20).
18.-At the close of the kingdom a solemn pause ensues. Satan, who had been bound during the reign (Rev. 20:3), is let loose, and makes a last despairing attempt to occupy the throne of the world. He succeeds so far as to seduce the nations from under the rule of Christ and His saints, but quick unsparing judgment follows the impious attempt of Satan and his countless multitudes of followers -"fire came down from God out of heaven and devoured them" (Rev. 20:7-9).
19.-Then the wicked dead are raised; the last of God's saints had been raised 1000 years previously (Rev. 20:5). This will be followed by the last act of the drama. Creation as a sphere for the moral display of God and man, having served its purpose, will be rolled up as a worn-out vesture by its Lord and Creator—the eternal lover of our souls (Heb. 1:12). As the heavens pass into eternal oblivion it will be with a great noise, but the earth and its works, stained with the crime and sin of thousands of years, will be burnt up (2 Peter 3).
20.-The great white throne, before which the wicked will be judged, will be set up in eternity; and the "dead, small and great," upheld before it in space by power divine, which can neither be gainsaid nor resisted. The doom pronounced is irrevocable and eternal (Rev. 20:11-15).
21.-The church will enter the eternal scene in bridal affection, and in established relationship as the Lamb's bride and wife; also as the tabernacle of God amongst men (Rev. 21:2,3).
22.-The heaven and earth will be physically new, and in them will dwell righteousness; the Divine Sitter upon the throne will break the silence of these grand, magnificent and eternal ages, saying: "Behold, I make all things new." Amen, and amen.

Scripture Numeration

The study of numbers was a favorite one with some of the learned in ancient times. It would be a curious, but certainly not a profitable, piece of work to lay before the reader the strange fancies, and wild and extravagant speculations in the use of certain numbers, as the expression of the superstition and philosophy of the heathen world. Some of these numbers as then used, were not wholly destitute of a measure of truth. The scattered rays of Divine light now and again emitted from these and other symbols of heathen faith and superstition, only corroborate the apostle's account of the heathen world (Rom. 1). The study of Scripture numerals, however, will be found to yield no uncertain light, but will materially aid in the discovery of moral, dispensational, and prophetic glories. Need we say that here, as elsewhere, the regions of fancy and speculation must be shunned, and the student be content to be guided simply by the Spirit of God who leadeth into all truth. If this be done, the reader will find some interesting circumstances connected with Scripture numeration.
In the Lamentations of Jeremiah, we have a striking example of the use of the Hebrew alphabet. Chapters one, two, and four, consisting of 22 verses each, are arranged in strict alphabetical order, the 22 letters of the alphabet answering to the 22 verses in each chapter, and are found in the opening words of the verses. Our translation, of course, fails to convey this to the English reader; then, in chapter three, we have once more the letters of the Hebrew alphabet enumerated in order, but with three verses to each letter. Chapter five, although consisting of 22 verses, is not alphabetically arranged. To the Hebrews, who had neither paragraph, chapter, nor other division in their ancient writings, this Divine arrangement must have been extremely useful, and shows the condescending care of our God in thus aiding the memories of His people. Again, in the longest of the Psalms‒119th‒consisting of 22 sections of eight verses each, the Hebrew letters in alphabetical sequence head the sections
The Jewish writers had an exalted idea of their sacred language—perhaps the primitive language of man—and used the letters of their alphabet in many striking combinations, thus they reduced the 39 books comprising the Old Testament to 22; this they accomplished by coupling certain books and counting them as one. But the reader would do well to turn from the vagaries of man, which, at the most, contain but an element of truth to the WORD itself. Search these imperishable records, they contain the truth; they are the living source, the Divine fountain, while all else are but muddied channels.
ONE.
This numeral is the sign of Divine unity and absolute supremacy. We have a complete circle described in Eph. 4:4-6, consisting of seven distinct unities as one body, one spirit, one hope, one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God. Three is the sign of Divine manifestation, and seven of spiritual completeness. Notice then, dear reader, that the first three unities are the inward manifestations of God, as believers only are comprehended; the second three unities are the outward manifestations of God, as profession is contemplated, while the unity and supremacy of the whole is maintained by God "above," "through," and "in all," and lastly, as seven is the number denoting spiritual completeness, we have thus a complete, perfect, and unbroken circle described. However skeptical the reader may be upon the subject of Scripture numeration, he cannot, at least, question the evident design in the writing of this passage, which, if read in the light of the numbers we have indicated, will help immensely in grasping the wide and comprehensive scope of the Scripture as a whole.
We will turn to another interesting passage as showing the designed combination of certain numbers. In Ephesians 4, we had numerals one, three, and seven; but in the Gospel of John 17, we have one, two, and four. The Divine unity of the Father and the Son; unity of the apostles in their extraordinary mission; unity of the disciples in present testimony, and their future unity in glory are taught in these heart-breathings of the blessed Lord. As four contemplates man and creation, and two fullness of testimony, we can readily see the value of these numbers in this grand chapter; the whole regard man as such, the first two affording testimony to BELIEVERS; the last two to the WORLD. Surely, too, we are taught the unity of the governmental attributes of Jehovah in the golden cherubim, being of one measure and one size (1 Kings 6:25). Is not the unity of the race, spite of the objections of the learned, expressly declared by Paul in the great and intellectual city of Athens (Acts 17:26)? The professing church needs to be recalled to the meaning of this Divine number. Is she not gradually and surely slipping away from the unity of Christ's one sacrifice of Himself (Heb. 9), and her unity of worship—one altar (2 Chron. 32:12)? These instances are only samples of what may be gleaned in the rich fields of Holy Scripture.
TWO.
The expression of ample and competent testimony is the meaning of this number. The two witnesses of the Apocalypse (Rev. 11:3), signify a full testimony borne to Christ in His royal and priestly rights in the coming days of the tribulation (Rev. 11:4). The two calves of gold set up by King Jeroboam (1 Kings 12:28), are the full expression of Israel's idolatry, while the ministry of the two prophets—Elijah and Elisha—furnish a full testimony on Jehovah's part to the idolatrous nation. The water and the blood which came from the pierced side of the Savior, were a two-fold witness to the efficacy of His death—the one being for purification of sin, the other for expiation of sin (John 19:34.; 1 John 5:6). The two pillars of brass (1 Kings 7:15) in the temple of old, bear their testimony to the enduring character of millennial glory. The testimony to Israel's moral condition is set forth in the two blind men (Matt. 10:27); while the Messiah-ship of Jesus to the nation was competently witnessed to by the disciples sent out two by two (Mark 6:7); the twelve apostles are named and described in pairs (Matt. 10:2-4). Jehovah's testimony of old to the full work of atonement, is expressed in the two birds, alive and clean (Lev. 14:4), and the two goats (Lev. 16). The two tables of the testimony (Deut. 4:13) demanded righteousness from man. The two Testaments reveal God to man. The gold and the shittim-wood set forth the two-fold nature of the Lord as divine and human. Jesus is the second person in the God-head, and bears a double testimony to man's guilt and God's grace. "The testimony of two men is true" (John 8:17), would surely, in connection with the Scriptures already referred to, along with Matt. 9:27; Gen. 6:19; Lev. 5:7, etc., amply confirm the signification given to this number.
THREE.
This is a number of very frequent occurrence in the Scriptures, as the following list will show:-Three bear witness (1 John 5:8); three persons in the God-head (Matt. 28:19); threefold cry of the Seraphim (Isa. 6:3); three Christian graces (1 Cor. 13:13); three languages in the title over the cross (Luke 23:38); three calls to the earth (Jer. 22:29); three times a year (Deut. 16:16); three cities of refuge (Deut. 4:41); three times a day Daniel prayed (Dan. 6: 13); three men appeared to Abraham (Gen. 18:2); three-fold priestly blessing (Num. 6:24-26); three times Peter denied Christ (Mark 14:72); three times Peter beheld the vision (Acts 10:16); three times Paul besought the Lord for the removal of the thorn (2 Con 12:8); three measures of meal (Matt. 13:33); Jonas three days and three nights; Son of Man three days and three nights (Matt. 12:40). Revelation 4 and 5 will furnish a large number of similar instances.
This numeral, signifying Divine testimony and Divine completeness, may generally be regarded as the sign number of what is Divine; but certain Scriptures, as the third day in creation, the third in Christ's resurrection, and the third of Israel's revival, would also lead us to regard this number as the sign of resurrection in things moral, physical, and spiritual. (See the following texts:-Luke 13:32; Matt. 12:40; Hos. 6:2; 1 Cor. 15:4; Gen. 1: 11,12, etc.)
FOUR.
This number is evidently the sign of universality. It is generally employed when man, the world, or the whole scene of creation is contemplated; where largeness, breadth, and scope are in view, then this number is the one generally used. The following selection will satisfy even the incredulous on this point:-Four universal monarchies (Dan. 2 and 7.); four views of the heavenly Jerusalem (Rev. 21.); four views of the earthly Jerusalem (Ezek. 48); four rivers fertilizing the earth (Gen. 2); four winds of heaven, four corners of the earth, four trumpets, and four living creatures (Rev.); "four sore judgments," "four faces," "four sides," and "four wings " (Ezek.); four horns and four workmen (Zech. 1:18-21); four chariots (Zech. 6:1); and we have the four gospels to complete our abridged list.
FIVE.
This numeral is not of such frequent occurrence, and is thus not so easily read as those already considered, yet it has its own significance. We regard it as the expression of weakness. Would not David's five smooth stones with which he smote the giant, the five loaves so wondrously multiplied by Christ, five chasing an hundred (Lev. 26:8), flight at the rebuke of five (Isa. 30:17), significantly express weakness as the import of this number? Israel went up out of Egypt by five in a rank (Ex. 13:18, see margin; Josh. 1:14, see margin). Was that not weakness in contrast to the might of Egypt? But in such passages as Num. 5:7; Dan. 2:32,33; Matt. 25:2, etc., human responsibility is evidently the teaching. This number and its multiplies are largely used in the measurements and arrangements of those parts of the tabernacle and temple which express human responsibility and testimony towards man. Five is a number specially connected with man, as the five books of Moses; the five books comprehended under the general title, "the Psalms" (Luke 24:44) as Job, Book of Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon—and which lay bare the heart of man; the fifth book of Moses, which regards the people as a whole; the five parts of the Gentile image (Dan. 2); five words with my understanding (1 Cor. 14:19). In this connection five is an interesting number.
SIX.
The root idea in this number is non-completeness—what is short of perfection. The six water pots of stone (John 2:6), according to Jewish ordinance, witnessed the imperfection of man and ordinances to bring in blessing; the continually recurring six days' labor shows the non-completeness of man's work—his work can never reach a full and final result; the six things which the Lord hates do not convey the thought of the completion of evil, "Yea seven (completeness) are an abomination unto Him" (Prov. 6:16); there is deliverance says Job in six troubles, but "in seven there shall no evil touch thee" (Job 5:19)—there you have the final result. Solomon's glory comes short of perfection, hence the six steps to his ivory throne (1 Kings 10:19) and his yearly revenue of gold-666 talents (1 Kings 10:14). The number of the beast or world-power energized by Satan is 666 (Rev. 13:18), and the number of Pharoah's chosen chariots were 600 (Ex. 14:7), again expressing satanic power. Thus this number, and as variously multiplied, whether viewed in relation to man or Satan, ever present an incomplete result.
SEVEN.
Seven is more frequently employed in Scripture than any other symbolic numeral; the following list is capable of considerable extension. In Revelation alone, it occurs upwards of 50 times, as seven churches, seven candlesticks, seven stars, seven lamps, seven angels, seven spirits, seven seals, seven trumpets, seven vials, seven plagues, seven crowns, seven horns, seven eyes, seven thunders. Then we have seven nations destroyed (Acts 13:19), and seven deacons chosen (Acts 6:3); seven demons cast out (Mark 16:9); seven sons of Saul (2 Sam. 21:9), and seven sons of Jesse (1 Sam. 16:10); seven times Naaman dipped in Jordan (2 Kings 5:14); seven altars and seven bullocks (Num. 23:29); seven priests and seven horns (Josh. 6:4); the blood was sprinkled seven times before the mercy seat (Lev. 16); and the leper sprinkled seven times (Lev. 14). There were seven feasts of Jehovah; certain of the feasts lasted seven days. The Sabbath was the seventh day. Enoch was the seventh from Adam; Moses the seventh from Abraham. Seventy times seven is the measure of forgiveness (Matt. 18:22). This numeral is a characteristic one in all Divine matters, and, as it is composed of numbers three and four, the former the sign of divinity and the latter of creation, its abundant use in the Bible must impress the careful reader with its significance. Many of the sevens are clearly divided into four and three. This the reader will find helpful to carefully note, and which he may verify for himself in the seven kingdom parables of Matt. 13, in the seven feasts of Jehovah (Lev. 23), and in the seven churches, seven seals, seven trumpets, and seven vials of the Apocalypse. We would understand this number as expressing spiritual perfection and completion, either of good or evil.
EIGHT.
We have "Resurrection" expressed in numbers three and eight; in the former, it is resurrection for man, on his behalf; in the latter, it is the believer's new place and new beginning in Christ risen. Seven completing the circle of God's ways on earth, eight would point to the eternal rest of God. This number, therefore, we regard as the sign of Resurrection, of Eternity, of a new Epoch. We submit the following texts in confirmation:-John 20:26; Luke 9:28; 1 Peter 3:20; Gen. 21:4; Lev. 14:23; 2 Peter 2:5; John 7:37, etc.
NINE.
This may be a symbolic number, but of this we cannot speak with certainty. As original numbers multiplied express greater intensity of thought, it has been suggested that, as nine is a multiplication of three by three, the value of this latter number, but proportionately increased, must be sought for in the occurrences of "nine" in Holy Scriptures. It is several times used in the religious ordinances of old, Num. 29:26; Lev. 25:22. It is marked as the hour of prayer more than once in the New Testament, Acts 3:1; 3-30; Luke 17:17. It is an hour marked off from every hour before or since that moment, when Christ gave utterance to His great agony, "My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?" (Mark 15:34.) The darkness and the cry of desertion were both at the "ninth hour."
TEN.
This number measures responsibility towards God, as five does towards man. In the ten curtains, ten pillars, and ten sockets of the tabernacle, we have expressed responsibility to God; the same in the ten commandments, in which the prohibitory word "not" occurs ten times. We have also God "said," ten times repeated in Genesis 1. The people's failure in wilderness responsibility is expressed in the ten times they tempted Jehovah (Num. 14:22,23). Pharaoh's responsibility to God is noted in the ten times he hardened his heart, and is measured in judgment by the ten plagues. This number is also found in the same signification in Rev. 17; Lev. 27:32; 1 Kings 7; Zech. 5:2; Luke 15:8. This numeral is of very frequent occurrence, and is often used in various multiplied forms in the ordinances of Israel, and in the tabernacle and temple measurements.
ELEVEN.
WE cannot say much upon this number, but it seems to us as if it presented incompleteness of earthly administration. Divine authority administered on or towards the earth, is expressed in the number "twelve," and, as eleven is short of that, we gather that the signification given is correct; thus, Jehoiakim reigned eleven years (2 Kings 23:36); and Zedekiah, last king of Judah, eleven years (2 Kings 24:18); thus the administration of royal authority comes short in these reigns. Again we have the eleven disciples (Matt. 28:16) and eleven apostles (Acts 1:26); eleven stars (Gen. 37:9); eleven sons (Gen. 32:22); eleven curtains (Ex. 26:7,8); eleven cities (Josh. 15:50; and eleventh hour (Matt. 20:6-9). It will be observed that in all these instances incompleteness of administration is signified.
TWELVE.
This number signifies the administration of Divine government on or over the earth; also regarded as the sign of Israel's unity, as in the twelve cakes of shewbread (Lev. 24:5); "one bread" or loaf is the expression of church unity (1 Cor. 10:17). The government of the glorified saints over creation is viewed in Rev. 21; there are twelve gates, twelve angels, twelve foundations, twelve pearls, twelve apostles, twelve tribes, twelve manner of fruits. The special government of Israel is committed to the twelve apostles, who will sit on twelve thrones (Matt. 19:28). Israel's place of supremacy and administrative authority amongst the nations, is set forth in her twelve gates (Ezek. 48:31-34). Then we have twelve patriarchs (Acts 7:8); twelve precious stones in the breast-plate (Ex. 28:21); twelve legions of angels (Matt. 26:53), twelve stones taken out of the Jordan, and twelve stones put into the Jordan (Josh. 4:8,9); twelve wells of water (Ex. 15:27); twelve oxen (1 Kings 7:25). Christ at twelve years of age is found amongst the doctors at Jerusalem, and Solomon, when twelve years old, decided the question as to the mother of the living child.
THIRTEEN.
So far as we know, this is not a symbolic number, and its occurrence is but rare in Scripture. It is an interesting circumstance, however, that the present descendants of Ishmael circumcise their male youths when they reach the age of thirteen. Ishmael, it will be remembered, was circumcised when he was thirteen years old, the rite moreover, was confined to the line of Isaac, and to be administered when eight days old (Gen. 17:25).
FORTY.
This number is a very frequent one in the Scriptures. It expresses a period of full trial and probation. A few clear instances of the use of this number will show its signification. Jesus was driven by the Spirit into the wilderness, where, "with the wild beasts," He was tempted forty days. Matthew informs us that Jesus fasted forty days and forty nights, thus, as the dependent man trusting in Jehovah, He was fully tried, and in every way tested, and, not only for forty days, but besides, for forty nights. During that long probationary period, He waited in patience for the coming-in of Jehovah—He lived upon His every word; the trial only brought out His deep perfection as man, and His obedience as servant and minister of His Father's grace. Israel's forty years' wanderings in the wilderness was the full testing and proving of the people; and what was the result? murmurs and complaints. Moses lived forty years in the court of Pharaoh—a full term, for manhood was then reached (Heb. 11:24)—he there acquired those essential qualifications which shone so pre-eminently in the law-giver, but which he could renounce for the reproach of Christ; again, he spent forty years in Horeb, another full period of trial and moral preparation for the work assigned Him in conducting the Lord's redeemed through the wilderness, this service also lasting forty years. The reigns of Saul, David, and Solomon each extended during the full period of forty years. God would visit the haughty spirit of Egypt with a forty years period of judgment and desolation (Ezek. 29:13,14). Nineveh was threatened with judgment after the probationary period of forty days had run its course; wisely they employed the time in repenting and seeking the Lord, and so averted the judgment. Isaac's age—forty years—when he married, and Esau's age, also forty when married, are circumstances to be regarded in the light of this symbolic number. The spies were out viewing the land forty days; Moses was forty days and forty nights in the mount with God; Elijah fasted forty days and forty nights; punishment by stripes was restricted to forty (Deut. 25:3); an Israelitish mother's purification after the birth of a man-child was forty days (Lev. 12:2-4); and Ezekiel (Ezek. 4:6) was to bear the iniquity of Judah forty days—a day for a year. Full trial and testing, with the object of bringing out what is of man, and to strengthen what God has wrought in the soul is very clearly the teaching of these and numerous other texts containing the same number.
We have other numbers—as seventy, one hundred and twenty, and one hundred and forty four-which convey their own lessons to those who are willing patiently to learn; but we need not pursue the subject further, as these multiplied numbers will yield their meaning and precious lessons too by adding together the value of the respective figures necessary to form the larger numeral. Thus in forty we have the combination of four and ten, besides the ten, four times repeated, thus expressing greater intensity in the thought attached to that numeral; again in seven, we have four and three; in one hundred and forty-four, 12 by 12.
"Thousands of thousands" signify countless myriads.
Satan counterfeits those numbers to which what is Divine is attached, as three, seven, ten. For this, consult the Apocalypse where Satan's last actings in the closing days are described.
The following extract is from an excellent article on this subject in Helps for Wayfarers-a Canadian publication of real merit:—
"The books of the Old Testament are 36 in number (counting Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles as one book each, as is really the fact). The simplest division of 36 is into 3 by 12. Put this into meaning according to the symbolism of these figures, and what do we find? Three is the Divine and 12 the governmental number; taken together they give you ‘God in government’. What preciser definition could we have for the books of the Law?
"But the books of the New Testament are 27 in number. And this is the cube of three: it is 3 times 3 times 3; the most absolutely perfect number that can be, the only one into which none but the symbol of Divine fullness enters or can enter. Thus it is God and only God—God in His own absolute perfection—revealed in the New Testament pages—in the gospel of His grace.
"According to the common reckoning in our Bibles, Christ was born into the world in about the 4000th year of it. Now examine this date according to already-established principles. For forty centuries, then (less or more), the world's probation lasted, and this forty as we have already seen to be the mark and measure of full probation.
"But whence the other factor? Whence the century? Let us only consider that Isaac was a type of the true ‘Child of Promise’, and then we shall easily remember that his birth took place when Abraham's body was now dead, when he was about a hundred years old.... How significant and easily applicable to One greater far! born in the fortieth century of the world's probation, when all flesh was seen as dead, and in the power of God new life began for man in Christ."
"And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne and the beasts and the elders: and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands; saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honor, and glory, and blessing" (Rev. 5:11,12).

Collection of Bible Symbols

ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED.|{}|

Untranslated Hebrew Words in the Book of Psalms

The following valuable paper is part of an article from The Present Testimony, vol. 1, and which appeared many years ago. We trust this public acknowledgment of the source from whence it is taken will be accepted by the publishers and proprietor of The Testimony:-
1. Aijeleth-Shahar. (Psa. 22 title.)
Aijeleth occurs only here and in Prov. 5:19, "the loving hind;" and Jer. 14:5, "the hind." But there are many kindred words which confirm this meaning.
Shahar occurs about twenty-three times; it means morning, e.g. Gen. 19:15, "when the morning arose;" and 32: 24 (25) "the breaking of the day;" and 26 (27) " the day breaketh," etc.
The marginal reading for Aijeleth-Shahar, given by the translators is, "hind of the morning."
Query? Was this the name of an instrument; or of a tune to which the Psalm was to be sung; or was it rather a name given to the Psalm on account of its subject?
2. Alamoth occurs in 1 Chron. 15:20, "with psalteries on Alamoth;" Psa. 46 title, "A song upon Alamoth."
The same word Alamoth (which is only the plural of the word commonly used for Virgin, as Isa. 7:14, "a virgin shall conceive," etc.), is, however, found, Psa. 68:25, "the damsels playing," etc. Sol. 1:3, "The virgins love thee;" Sol. 6:8, "Virgins without number."
"For the Virgins" (i.e. virgin voices) makes good sense, and accords with modern singing: as we say, "for boys' voices." It may, however, be the name of an instrument, or of a tune.
3. Al-taschith occurs in the titles of Psa. 57; 58; 59, and 75.
Al means not, and Taschith, destroy, as the translator's margin reads "Destroy not."
Observation must decide whether this was connected with the subject of the Psalms, or whether it was the name of a tune.
4. Degrees. Though Anglicized songs of Degrees in Psa. 120-134, a few words may not be amiss, inasmuch as "Degrees" is nearly as unintelligible to some as would Mangaloth be.
The same word is used in Ex. 20:26, for the steps of an altar, as in 1 Kings 10:19, of a throne; 2 Kings 9:13, the stairs, and 2 Kings 20:9, the degrees of a sun-dial; 1 Chron. 17:17, a man of high degree; Ezra 7:9, for a journey, "began to go up;' Ezek, 11:5, the things which come into your mind;" Amos 9:6, "he that buildeth his stories in the heaven” (marg. ascensions or spheres). The word from which it is derived means, simply, to go up—ascend.
Luthers renders it, “in the higher choir," higher, either as to position in which placed, or, perhaps, tone of voice.
Some have supposed these songs were sung on the steps of the temple: so the LXX, and Vulgate.
To my own mind, there is an eternal evidence in them, of their being written, in grace, for the times when, thrice in the year, the males were to go up from their homes and appear before the Lord. A few of them may also have reference to such goings up as Ezra's from captivity.
5. Gittith. Psa. 8, 81, and 84.
The word Gath, winepress, is by most connected with this word, as the inhabitants of Gath were called Gittites.
Whether the vat; or Gath, the town, or an instrument of the name; or a tune is referred to; Query?
Some one suggests that they are all joyous songs, suited to be sung on such an occasion as a harvest-home, or a vintage.
6. Higgaion. Thus once rendered in Psa. 9:16. It occurs in three other places:-"and the meditation of my heart," Psa. 19:14; "harp with a solemn-sound," Psa. 92:3; "and their device against me," Lam. 3:62.
The humming sound of a harp struck, is supposed to correspond to the indistinct thoughts of musing; or the device against one who is hated; for the device, in this case, tells, but indistinctly the hatred within.
I do not see why meditation, or solemn-sound or device might not have been put for Higgaion, and the verse anglicized with the addition of some words in italics, as (this was their) meditation, or device, or a solemn-sound, (this).
7. Jonath-Elem-Rechokim is only found Psa. 56 title.
Jonah means dove, as in Gen. 8:8, 9, 10, 11, 12; or pigeon, as in Lev. 1:14, etc.
Elem means bound; the verb is frequently used to mark silence; as, I was dumb, Psa. 39:3, 10: but it is applicable to any binding: as Gen. 37:7, binding sheaves.
The word Elem only occurs here, where it is commonly said to mean silence, and in Psa. 58:1, where it is rendered "Do ye indeed speak righteousness, O congregation?" (i.e., mass of persons bound together).
Rechokim, in Hebrew, is a distinct word from Elem; though in English, sometimes printed as one with it; it is a participle of the verb translated (Psa. 22:11), "Be not far from me;" see also Psa. 5:19, and Psa. 35:22, and Psa. 38:21, and Psa. 71:12, and Psa. 109:17, etc.
" The dove of silence (among) strangers" is a common literal.
The dove of—that which is bound—persons afar off—are its three representative terms in English.—Compare the Psalm itself.
8. Leannoth. see Mahalath
9. Mahalath occurs alone Psa. 53
The dictionary says, "meaning uncertain." Why not, as others, sickness, or disease taking it as the common noun of the verb (Gen. 48:1). "thy father is sick;" Psa. 35:13, "when they were sick," etc.
The 53rd Psalm is striking, concerning the diseased state of the nation, and its importance as a Psalm is seen in its being given a second time in the book, but slightly altered (see Psa. 14.)
The word Mahalath also occurs with Leannoth, after it Psa. 88, which may be the plural of the word rendered Wormwood, Deut. 29:18; Prov. 5:4; Jer. 9:15; 23:15, etc.; and Hemlock, Amos 6:12—unless Leannoth be a proper name, concerning the sickness of Leannoth; concerning the disease of wormwood (i.e. the deadly, bitter disease), which would suit the Psalm.
The LXX. divided Leannoth into le the preposition to, and sing, respond to; and consider Mahalath either a proper name, of a tune, or instrument to sing on, or to Mahalath. I prefer the other.
10. Maschil. Translated in margin, "or giving instruction."
There are thirteen of these Psalms, viz:- 32, 42, 44, 45, 52, 53, 54, 55, 74, 78, 88, 89, 142.
As the translators have given a rendering here, I say no more than, that their side readings (as found in King James' bible) are as authoritative as their text, and of far more value than modern "lit," which are often worse than nonsense. As a whole, their translation is as wonderful as is the mercy which God has shown to this land, in connection with it, as above that of other lands.
11. The Michtam Psalms are 16, 56, 57, 58, 59, and 60.
I know no better rendering than the common one, a golden psalm. The word Michtam occurs no where else: but the word rendered, in gold of Ophir, Psa. 45:9; and golden wedge (Isa. 13:12) is a kindred word, and occurs nine times, as gold, and in no other sense.
12. Muth-labben. Psa. 9 title.
Muth (Psa. 48:14), "our guide unto death."
La, for the; ben, son. "Concerning death for the Son."
The LXX. concerning the secret things of the Son.
13. Neginah, of which Neginoth is the plural.'
Job 30:9, "I am their song;" Psa. 69:12; 77:6, song; so Isa. 38:20; and Lam. 3:14: 5:14, music; Hab. 3:19, "on my stringed instruments" (margin, neginoth) shows the meaning plainly enough. The verb is to strike the strings. Neginah occurs on Psa. 61 title; Neginoth, Psa. 4, 6, 54, 55, 67, 76. Upon the stringed instrument, or upon the stringed instruments.
14. Nehiloth. Psa. 5
The pipes, or flutes, as commonly derived from the verb, to pierce.
15. Selah occurs seventy times in the Psalms, and three times in Habakkuk.
All sorts of tortures have been inflicted on this word, to make it speak. Some take its three consonants as the first letters of three words, and render it as equivalent to our da cape, in music: let the musician return. But this is very unlike old Hebrew.
Gesenius says it is Silence, supposing it equivalent to the words, at rest, Dan. 4:4; as if Shelah and Selah were the same. Though I desire to read with shoes off my feet (for the place is holy, and I dread conjectures), it might, according to kindred words, mean raising. And so silence, as the result of one's rising from singing; for the idea of weighing is found in Lam. 4:2; in a good sense comparable to gold: and also, in a bad sense, Psa. 119:118, trodden down.
I observe that Selah is put often where a pause is natural, as after some peculiar statement: and thus, practically, I feel that it is pause, or silence, with Gesenius. More I cannot say.
16. Sheminith occurs 1 Chron. 15:21; Psa. 6 title, 12 title.
The translator's margin gives, on the eighth. It is the common ordinal adjective for eight, and refers to strings of instruments.
Some render it Octave, as denoting that it is to be played an octave lower than it is written; so, I think, Gesenius. I prefer the margin.
Observe that in 1 Chron. 20:21, Alamoth and Sheminith are in contra-position.
17. Shiggaion, Psa. 7, and Hab. 3:1, Shigionoth in the plural.
The verb is, to err, as in Psa. 119:10, 21, 118; Lev. 4:13, sin through ignorance. A wandering ode—an ode of wandering.
Variable songs—songs with variations. But I prefer either of the former.
18. Shoshannim. The lilies, as in Sol. 2:16; 4:5, etc., occurs Psa. 45, 49, and in connection with Eduth, Psa. 80.
Shushan-Eduth (Psa. 40) is the same word nearly, it occurs only 1 Kings 7:19, lily. Eduth is the common word for the testimony, in Exodus, etc. The lily is supposed to refer to an instrument, from its shape: so, I think, Calmet. Others connect it with the name of a song.
The word for upon, may just as well be rendered concerning to, etc.

Divisions of the Book of Psalms

There are in all 150 psalms, not chronologically but morally divided into five books, thus:-
Book One contains Psa. 1- 41—Of these Psalms, 37 contains the name of David in the headings, and Jehovah is the characteristic Divine title throughout.
Book Two contains Psalms 42-72—All these Psalms are titled, save three, and 18 bear the name of David, while God is the characteristic Divine title.
Book Three contains Psalms 73-89—All these Psalms are headed and titled. The Divine names God and Jehovah occur in about equal numbers, although God is more prominent in the first 11 Psalms.
Book Four contains Psa. 90-106—There are only three of these Psalms titled. Jehovah is here the characteristic Divine title.
Book Five contains Psalms 107-150—Of these Psalms 16 are titled. Jehovah is the Divine name which is here almost exclusively used.

Biblical Notes

MISTRANSLATIONS CORRECTED AND OBSOLETE WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS EXPLAINED.
MISCELLANEOUS NOTES.
Total number of books in the Old Testament 39
Total number of chapters in the Old Testament 929
Total number of books in the New Testament 27
Total number of chapters in the New Testament 260
Total number of verses in the Old Testament, 23,235
Total number of verses in the New Testament 7,959
The shortest book in the Old Testament is Obadiah.
The shortest chapter in the Old Testament is Esther 10
The last historical book in the Old Testament is Nehemiah.
The moral condition of Israel to the first coming of the Lord in grace is given in the book of Malachi.
Old Testament history is comprised in sixteen books—from Genesis till Nehemiah—the first and last historical books of the Old Testament.
The priests' guide book was Leviticus.
The Levites' guide book was Numbers.
The peoples' guide book was Deuteronomy.
The following prophets prophesied after the restoration from the captivity:-Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.
The following prophets prophesied during the captivity:-Daniel in the royal court of the conquerors; Ezekiel amongst the captives at the river of Chebar; and Jeremiah amongst the poor of the people left in the land.
The first mention of believing in the Old Testament is in Gen. 15:6.
The first historical notice of idolatry is in Josh. 24:2.
The first person in Scripture termed a "Hebrew" is Abram (Gen. 14:13).
The first altar spoken of is Noah's (Gen. 8:20).
The first polygamist was Lamech (Gen. 4:19).
The first worker for salvation was Cain (Gen. 4).
The first city builder and murderer was Cain (Gen. 4).
The first conqueror and hunter was Nimrod (Gen. 10:8-11).
The first recorded instance of a son dying before his father is noted in Gen. 11:28.
The first recorded instance of a daughter being born is noted in Gen. 4
The first general confederacy amongst men is recorded in Gen. 11:1-6.
For the first time the Hebrews are termed Jews; see 2 Kings 16:6.
The first mention of Assyria after the days of Nimrod, is noted in 2 Kings 15:19.
The first, second, and third kings of all Israel each reigned the probationary period of 40 years.
The first notice of the Rainbow—token of Divine goodness—is in Gen. 9
There were ten fathers before the flood, and ten fathers after the flood, till Abram.
Christ suffered at man's hands as a martyr for righteousness; hence judgment is the result (Psa. 69). Christ suffered at God's hands as a victim for sin; hence grace to man is the blessed fruit (Psa. 22).
The last five verses of Psa. 40—the prayer of the suffering Messiah—forms Psa. 70, the prayer of the future remnant of Judah.
"There is no peace, saith the LORD, unto the wicked," is the concluding words of Jehovah's expostulation with His people, because of their idolatry (Isa. 40-48). "There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked," is the concluding words of God's expostulation with the people, because of their rejection of the Messiah (Isa. 49-57).
Human life has been shortened by about a half, several times; thus the longest liver after the flood—Heber—lived 464 years, a little less than half Methuselah's age, 969 years, the longest liver before or since the flood; the longest liver after the dispersion at Babel—Reu lived 239 years, a little more than half Heber's age. In the wilderness, life was again shortened to about half of the age of Abram (Psa. 90:10): the blessed Lord was cut off in "midst" or half of His days, as a man (Psa. 102:24).
Scripture furnishes no account of the birth or death of any of Cain's posterity, but simply records their doings (Gen. 4).
Seth, third son of Adam, in whom the line of grace was continued, was contemporary with all the antediluvian fathers, except Noah.
Methuselah was contemporary with Adam for more than 200 years, and with Noah for about 600 years.
Enoch, who walked with God, was contemporary with Adam for about 300 years, and with Noah for some time, and thus the truth and revelation of God then revealed, was handed down for 1656 years.
The Cherubim (plural) are always connected with the judicial and governmental authority of God; it is so in the first instance, where they are named as in guarding the tree of life (Gen. 3:24). In the tabernacle and temple, they formed the moral supports of Jehovah's throne, as "justice and judgment" (Psa. 89:14); and in Ezek. 1 and 10, they clearly set forth God acting judicially towards His people, in bringing against them that "bitter nation," the Chaldeans.
The Seraphim (plural) announce the holiness of Jehovah, the Divine glory being their great care and concern; they are only once named in Scripture (Isa. 6); God's righteous mess is the great care of the Cherubim.
Four cities originally constituted the strength of the Babylonian kingdom (Gen. 10:10), and four cities the strength of the Assyrian kingdom. (Gen. 10:11, 12.)
The Patriarchs were called upon to walk before God and be perfect (Gen. 17:1); Israel was to be perfect with the Lord thy God (Deut. 18:13); Christians are to be perfect, as their Father in heaven is perfect (Matt. 5:48).
The Feasts of Jehovah were seven in number (Lev. 23), and are termed in John's Gospel "feasts of the jews," because there the moral rejection of the Lord is assumed from the commencement of the gospel (John 1:10,11).

The Seven Feasts

1. The Sabbath—God's eternal rest for man and creation (Heb. 3; 4).
2. The Passover—Redemption by blood, the foundation of all blessing and glory (1 Cor. 5:7).
3. The Feast of Unleavened Bread—Holiness of walk and life (1 Cor. 5:8).
4. The Feast of Weeks—Pentecost, when the Holy Ghost came down and formed the Church (Acts 2).
5. The Feast of Trumpets—Israel again summoned and gathered to her land and God (Psa. 81).
6. The Day of Atonement—Israel coming into the blessing of redemption (Zech. 12).
7. The Feast of Tabernacles—Millennial glory of Israel (Zech. 14:16).
The first four chapters of Lamentations, Prov. 31:10-31, Psa. 25, 34, 37, 111, 112, 119, and 145, are acrostics founded on the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
Abimelech was a common title of a race of Philistine kings.
Pharaoh was the royal designation of the Egyptian monarchs.
Antiochus was the royal title borne by the kings of the North, or of Syria.
Ptolemy was the royal title of the kings of the South, or of Egypt.
Cœsar was the title borne by the first Roman emperors.
Raguel, Reuel, Jethro, are various names given to Moses' father-in-law.
The sovereignty of God in election cannot be questioned, for the Word of God is full of it from Genesis to Revelation. Jacob instead of Esau, Isaac instead of Ishmael, Shem instead of Japheth, Seth instead of Cain, Arphaxad instead of Elam, Ephraim instead of Manasseh, Joseph instead of Reuben, royalty in the fourth son of Jacob, and priesthood in the third, are all witnesses of the sovereign elective purposes of God.
The subject of Isaiah chapter 53. commences with verse 13 of chapter 52.
The Jews have been successively ruled over by the Babylonians, the Persians, the Greeks, the Egyptians, the Syrians, and the Romans.

The Temples

The following are the temples mentioned in the Word of God:- Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 8), was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in the year 588 B.C. Zerubbabel's Temple (Ezra 3; 6) was pillaged and dedicated to the heathen god, Jupiter, by Antiochus Epiphanes, in the years 168 and 170 B.C. Herod's Temple (John 2:20) was reconstructed and almost rebuilt in a style of surpassing magnificence; commenced in the year 17 B.C. Antichrist's Temple (2 Thess. 2:4) will be built by the Jews in unbelief when returned to their land (Isa. 18); the "Antichrist" and the "Beast," i.e., head of the revived Roman Empire, will establish idolatrous worship in it. Christ's Millennial
Temple (Ezek. 40) will be entirely new, and not on the site of the old one; it will be grand and capacious, according to Divine plan and measurement, and the glory of Jehovah will fully occupy it.
Both Phinehas and Aaron were set in the priesthood, the latter by the choice of Jehovah (Lev. 8), the former by earning his title to it (Num. 25).
We have no mention of rain during the first sixteen and a half centuries of the world's history (Gen. 7:4); the ground was watered by a mist which went up from the earth (Gen. 2:6).
The first recorded instance of Egypt invading Judah is in the reign of Rehoboam. The temple and palace were plundered of their wealth; but Jerusalem itself and the country were spared for a time (1 Kings 14; 2 Chron. 12).

Prophetic Notes

Prophecy necessitates the resuscitation of the fourth or Latin empire and its distribution into ten kingdoms, and possessing a strong and powerful chief at its head; this it will have in the "little horn" of Dan. 7 This fourth monarchy is the fourth of the metals in the great image of Dan. 2 and the fourth beast of Dan. 7; there are also four distinct stages in its progress and history, as noted in Rev. 17:8:- "The beast that thou sawest was," i.e., its imperial form in John's day; "and is not," i.e., its present broken up state as having no political existence; "and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit," i.e., will be revived by direct satanic origin; "and go into perdition," i.e., its future awful doom.
The seventy weeks of Daniel (Dan. 9) are weeks of years, and, when multiplied by seven, give us a period of 490 years. After 483 of these years had run out, Messiah was cut off, and, in consequence, the seven years necessary to complete the whole prophetic period was postponed, and is still future. Between, therefore, the close of the 69th week and the opening of the 70th, the present interval of grace to the world, and Israel's degradation come in, this latter is the subject of Dan. 9:26 of the prophecy which, when complete, the 70th week or seven years will have their fulfillment. The various dates in Rev. 12; 13; Matt. 24:15, and in Daniel, refer to the last part of this celebrated prophetic week. After the rapture of the church to heaven, the restoration of the Jews to Palestine, the temple rebuilt, antichrist accepted, and the Roman power revived, the last seven years will commence.
The Great Image (Dan. 2) and Wild Beasts (Dan. 7) represent the governmental powers on earth, transferred from Judah at the epoch of the Babylonian captivity, to the Gentiles. In the four metals composing the image and four wild beasts we have the four successive empires represented. In the decreasing inferiority and value of the several metals we have pictured the gradual departure from the source of all power, and the inferior character of each of the empires, not only from the gold, but from each other; while in the wild beasts we have those same powers represented, but as acting without conscience or feeling towards God.
The complete overthrow of the mighty and extensive Persian Empire; its destruction by Alexander the Great, and rapid growth of the Grecian power: its break-up and subsequent four-fold division, are all described with wonderful circumstantiality of detail in the prophet Daniel, 7:6; 8:1-8.
The awful condition of the Jews during the great siege of Jerusalem in the year 70, and the character of the Roman power, are minutely described by Moses more than a 1000 years before (Deut. 28:44-67).
The "little horn" of Dan. 7, is a power arising in the west, and to be distinguished from the "little horn" of Dan. 8, which arises in the east.
The following are the various names and titles applied to the future Antichrist in the Scriptures:-1, The King (Dan. 11:36); 2, The Idol Shepherd (Zech. 11:17); 3, Bloody and Deceitful Man (Psa. 5:6); 4, Antichrist (1 John 2:22); 5, False Prophet (Rev. 19:20); 6, Another Beast (Rev. 13:11); 7, Man of Sin (2 Thess. 2:3); 8, Son of Perdition (2 Thess. 2:3); 9, Wicked One (2 Thess. 2:8); 10, Come in his own Name (John 5:43).
The seven heathen nations inhabiting the land of Canaan, and which God ordained to be exterminated root and branch, were: (1) the Canaanites, (2) the Perizzites, (3) the Hivites, (4) the Jebusites, (5) the Hittites, (6) the Gergashites, (7) the Amorites. Israel failed in driving out these nations, hence their descendants will once again inhabit the land of Palestine, but will be utterly destroyed by the Lord at His second coming; "And in that day there shall be no more the Canaanite in the house of the Lord of Hosts " (Zech. 14:21).
The last prophetic book in the Old Testament is Malachi.
Interesting details as to the closing days are given us in the book of Zechariah.
A comprehensive outline of the prophetic outline is found in the book of Isaiah.
The religious and civil state of Israel during the millennium is given in the prophecy of Ezekiel.
The rise, course, and doom of the Gentile powers of the west is unfolded in the prophecy of Daniel.
The feelings, exercises, and sorrows of the Israel God-fearing remnant in the future crisis of her history, are fully detailed in the book of Psalms.
The judgment and ruin of the Edomites was prophetically foretold by Obadiah.
The judgment and ruin of the Assyrians was prophetically foretold by Nahum.
The judgment and ruin of the Chaldean was prophetically foretold by Habakkuk.

Words and Expressions Explained

Abib, Ex. 13:4.-The Jewish year, like our own, was one of twelve months (1 Chron. 27), only about half of which, however, are named in the Old Testament; they are generally spoken of as the first, second, third month, etc. Abib was the seventh month of the civil year; but, consequent, upon the people's redemption from Egypt, it appropriately became the first month of the ecclesiastical year (Ex. 12:2). It was called "Nisan" after the captivity from Babylon (Neb. 2:1). Abib corresponds to our month April.
Abjects, Psa. 35:15.- This word signifies slanderers: occurs but once in the Old Testament.
Acre, 1 Sam. 14:14.- Signifies as much as a yoke of oxen can plow in a day, hence not a term of exact land measurement.
Adar, Esther 3:7.- The sixth Jewish month, and twelfth of their ecclesiastical; only named in the post-captivity books. Adar corresponds partly to our months of February and March.
Advisement, 1 Chron. 12:19.- Means full and careful consideration.
Affinity, 1 Kings 3:1.-Relationship through marriage.
Age, Job 8:8.-Generation. In Isa. 38:12, it should be dwelling or habitation. Generally used to express the duration of a man's life, or a period of time.
Aha! Psa. 70:3.-The language of insolent contempt and triumph.
All-to, Judg. 9:53.-Meaning completely or thoroughly.
Amen, Deut. 27-The Hebrew form for "truly" or "verily." An affirmative response, implying the soul's assent to the truth of what is uttered. Used as a substantive, it signifies truth, as in Isa. 65:16—" the God of truth." Used also in the Christian assembly (1 Cor. 14:16).
Anakims, Josh. 11:21,22.-A giant race of Canaanites. Goliath-about nine feet high-was a descendant of Anak, the original head of these gigantic men.
Apothecary, Ex. 30:35.-One who seasons. A compound of sacred and other perfumes.
Appertain, Num. 16:32.-Belonging to.
Arcturus, Job 9:9.-Name of a star in the northern hemisphere.
Ariel, Isa. 29-Meaning Lion of God. Figuratively the strong city of Jerusalem.
Artificer, Gen. 4:22.-A skilful workman.
Artillery, 1 Sam. 20:40.-Weapons, as bows and arrows.
Away with, Isa. 1:13.-Signifies I cannot endure it.
Azzah, Deut. 2:23, or Gaza.-A capital city of the Philistines, and situated on the shores of the Mediterranean.
Assayed. 1 Sam. 17:39.-To attempt or try.
Baca, Psa. 84:6. Weeping, thus "the Valley of Baca" would be "the Valley of Weeping.
Bakers' Street, Jer. 37:21.-In the East persons of the same occupation generally resided in the same street, hence Bakers' Street.
Beeves, Lev. 22:19.-Signifies domestic animals.
Behemoth, Job 40:15.-A gigantic animal, generally understood as the huge Hippopotamus.
Belial, Deut. 13:13. Worthless. Frequently used of wicked, worthless persons; "Wicked heart" (Deut. 15:9), "Ungodly men" (2 Sam. 22:5), "evil disease" (Psa. 41:8), "wicked thing" (Psa. 101:3), "naughty person" (Prov. 6:12), "wicked counselor" (Nah. 1:11), etc., are translations of the word Belial.
Bestead, Isa. 8:21.-Literally, distressed.
Beulah, Isa. 62:4.-Meaning married, and thus expressing the relationship which Immanuel's land sustains to Jehovah.
Bewray, Isa. 16:3.-Discover. See also Prov. 27:16.
Blain, Ex. 9:9, 10.-Ulcerous sores; one of the Egyptian plagues.
Blaspheme, 1 Kings 21:13.-In its theological signification this word denotes speaking against God or His Word, and is so used in the Holy Scriptures, as in Matt. 12:31,32, etc.
Boaz, 1 Kings 7:21.-In him is strength; one of the brazen pillars in Solomon's Temple, alluded to in Rev. 3:12.
Boils, Job 2:7.-Severe and inflammatory swellings on various parts of the body. The "sore botch" of Deut. 28:27,35, is the same as Job 2:7 and Ex. 9:9.
Bonnets, Isa. 3:20.-Female head-dresses of various kinds. Bonnet (Ex. 28:40), the priestly miter.
Bravery, Isa. 3:18.-Finery, characteristic of the maidens of Judah.
Bow the knee, Gen. 41:43.-Marginal reading, tender father.
Borrowed of the Egyptians, Ex. 12:35.-The word "borrowed" means asked or demanded, and does not at all imply a return.
Branch and Rush, Isa. 9:14; 19:15.-The "great and small."
Brass, Deut. 8:9.-This metal is a compound of copper and zinc, and was unknown previous to the 13th century. The Scripture "brass" was a native production, and would be more correctly translated "copper."
Breakings, Job 41:25.-Judgments.
Breaches, Judg. 5:17.-Creeks or harbors.
Breaker, Mic. 2:13.-The Messiah dealing with every hindrance and enemy opposed to the blessing and rest of His people.
Brigandine, Jer. 51:3.-A coat of mail or light armor.
Bolled, Exod, 9:31.-So swollen as about to burst.
Bruit, Jer. 10:22; Nab. 3:19.-Report or rumor.
Buttocks, Isa. 20:4; 2 Sam. 10:4.-Hind-parts.
Calves of the lips, Hos. 14:2.-Should be praises of the lips.
Caulkers, Ezek. 27:9, 27.-Ship carpenters.
Caphtor, Jer. 47:4, etc.-The original location of the Philistines, who were descended from Mizraim (Egypt), Gen. 10:14.
Carriage, 1 Sam. 17:22; Judg. 18:21.-The goods or baggage, i.e., not what carried, but what was carried. See also Acts 21:55.
Cauls, Isa. 3:18.-Female head covering of net work, and of an ornamental character.
Chains, Isa. 3:19.-This word signifies ear-drops.
Chambers of imagery, Ezek. 8:12.-Egyptian idolatry occupying the rooms, and generally the interior of the temple.
Champaign, Deut. 11:30.-That part of a country not intersected by hills, but open and easily traversed. Applied to any open field or plain.
Chancellor, Ezra 4:8, 9, 57.-A Persian officer of high rank, and connected with the granting of the decrees of the realm.
Chapiters, Ex. 36:38, etc.-The upper and ornamental parts of the columns or pillars of public buildings.
Chapman, 2 Chron. 9:14.-In England we would say a "hawker;" only in the East the employment was a respectable one.
Chariot of Israel, 2 Kings 2:12.-The Divine defense and safeguard of Israel.
Chemarim, Zeph. 1:4,-The priests of Baal and of other idols. Translated idolatrous priests in 2 Kings 23:5; Hos. 10:5; in these Scriptures the margin reads chemarim.
Cherubim, Gen. 3:24, etc.-Ministers of the governmental and judicial power of Jehovah.
Chief prince, Ezek. 38:2, 3; 39:1.-The Septuagint or Greek version of the Old Testament, reads correctly 'Prince of Rosh," i.e., of Russia. It was only toward the close of the ninth century that Russia, as such, became known, or rather, that her history as a kingdom commenced, hence our translators took the word "rosh" as signifying the "chief," or great prince.
Child an hundred years old, Isa. 65:20.-Refers to the great prolongation of life in the millennium.
Children of the East, Judg. 6:3,33.-Dwellers in the desert lying between Canaan and the river Euphrates.
Chimney, Hos. 13:3.-Denotes any aperture covered over with interlaced lattice-work for the escape of smoke; it is the same word translated windows (Gen. 7:11; 8:2).
Chittim, Dan. 11:30.-The historical fulfillment of the first part of this chapter (Dan. 11:1-35) prove that Rome is the power here meant.
Choler, Dan. 8:7; 11:11-This Greek word signifies great rage and anger.
Charger, Num. 7:13.-A salver, or large dish.
Churl, Isa. 32:5, 7.-A niggardly person; also, surly and ill-tempered, as Nabal (1 Sam. 25).
Cleave is used in exactly opposite meanings, as to cut or divide in Psa. 141:7, and to a close and inseparable union, as in Gen. 2:24.
Coal, quench my, 2 Sam. 14:7.-Ruin me in my circumstances and prosperity.
Coasts, Judg. 18:2.-Borders of territory, whether of sea or land.
Cockle, Job 31:40.-An exceedingly poisonous plant.
Convocation, Ex. 12:16.-This Latin word signifies a religious gathering duly called and constituted.
Converts, Isa. 1:27.-The remnants of Israel and Judah returned to their city and God. The root idea in this word, and in that of "conversion," is "turned," or a radical change in life and character.
Cotes, 2 Chron 32:28.-Chambers or other enclosures for the protection of sheep; see also 1 Sam. 24:3.
Coulter, 1 Sam. 13:20,21.-An implement of husbandry, generally regarded as a plowshare.
Countervail, Esther 7:4.-Could not avail against the king, or damage him in any way.
Covenant of Salt, Num. 18:19, etc.-An agreement or league of a perpetual and enduring character; yet practiced to a large extent in eastern countries, where, if a visitor eats salt in your house, he has thereby secured your help and protection, and for the time under your special safeguard.
Covereth his Feet, Judg. 3:24.-See margin; also 1 Sam. 24:3.
Crisping Pins, Isa. 3:22. -Small bags or purses; translated bags in 2 Kings 5:23.
Cunning, Ex. 26:8, etc.-Clever or skilful; not to be understood in a bad sense, as with us.
Cush, Isa. 11:11.-That part of Africa known as Ethiopia.
Darling, Psa. 22:20.-The life or soul as being dear; see also Psa. 35:17.
Dark Sayings of Old, Psa. 78:2.-The true spiritual design of Israel's early history.
Daysman, Job 9:33.-Arbiter or umpire.
Deal of flour, Num. 15:4, etc.-A part or portion of flour.
Denounce, Deut. 30:18.-Announce or declare.
Desert of the sea, Isa. 21:1.-Babylon and its utter desolation.
Desired, 2 Chron. 21:20.-Lamented or mourned for; 2 Chron. 21:18, 19 clearly enough show this to be the force of the word desired as here used.
Dote, Jer. 50:36.-Stupid; but in Ezek. 23 where the word doted occurs six times, it implies intense and all-absorbing affection.
Doves' dung, 2 Kings 6:25.-Valuable for vegetation; also a vegetable resembling pigeons' dung, and largely used for food.
Dukes, Gen. 36-Patriarchal chiefs or rulers, not as with us a title of nobility.
Dumah, Isa. 21:11.-Edom or ldumea.
Ethiopia, beyond the rivers of, Isa. 18:1.-Rather, Cush, i.e., beyond the rivers Nile and Euphrates, as the descendants of " Cush " (Gen. 10) settled on the borders of both rivers.
Earing time, Ex. 34:21, etc.-Seed-time.
Ears Tingle, 1 Sam. 3:11.-Horror and astonishment.
East and West, Isa. 45:6.-The whole earth.
Ed, Josh. 22:34.-A witness. The name of the altar erected by the two Tribes and a-half on the western side of Canaan.
Emerods, Deut. 28:27.-Hemorrhoids or piles.
Ends of the Earth, Psa. 72:8.-Most distant parts of the globe.
Enlightening the Eyes, Psa. 19:8.-Imparting Divine light. Intelligence, perception; see also 1 Sam. 14:27.
Ethanim, 1 Kings 8:2.-Flowing or streaming rivers. The seventh Jewish ecclesiastical month and first of the civil year, corresponding to our September and October.
Eunuchs, Isa. 56:4.-Persons incapacitated for marrying, and forbidden to enter the congregation of the Lord (Deut. 23:1). In the east generally employed as guardians of the bed-chamber.
Exact upon him, Psa. 89:22.-Shall not vex or persecute him.
Fairs, Ezek. 27-Six times repeated in the chapter. Established emporiums for the sale and barter of all kinds of goods.
Fallow ground, Jer. 4:3, etc.-Uncultivated ground.
Fats, Joel, 2:24.-Special vessels for pressing out the juice of the grape.
Felloes, 1 Kings 7:33.-The whole circumference of a wheel.
Fellow, Ex. 2:13, etc.-Neighbor or companion. For the latter, compare Psa. 45:7, with Heb. 1:9; so also, Zech. 13:7. In these three Scriptures the word should be companions or associates. Scripture does not use the word in a contemptuous sense as we do; hence delete the italicized word "fellow" in Gen. 19:9; Matt. 26:61; Acts 24:5.
Fillet, Ex. 27, etc.-Silver fastenings, whereby the pillars of the tabernacle supporting the curtains were secured.
Finer, Prov. 25:4.-A worker in precious metals; hence goldsmith, Isa. 41:7.
Firmament, Gen. 1:17, etc.-Expanse or sky-covering over our heads. In Isa. 40:19, and Num. 16:38,39, it is spoken of as that which covers or spreads.
First-born, Psa. 89:27.-A title of dignity; not necessarily one of birth.
Fish-gate, Neh. 3:3, etc.-So termed because the fish for the city of Jerusalem was sold there.
Fitches, Isa. 28:25,27.-A vegetable used for food and medicine, and resembling our English pea.
Ford, Gen. 32:22 etc.-The word simply denotes a passage across either land or water.
Footman, 1 Sam. 22:17.-A guard or foot soldier.
Fray, Deut. 28:26 etc.-To send away by fright, or to frighten.
Gathering of the people be, Gen. 49:10.-Reads: gathering of the peoples be; Gentiles as well as Jews will be gathered to Christ.
Generation, who shall declare? Isa. 53:8.-"Manner of life who would declare?"
Gentiles, Isa. 11:10 etc.-All were spoken of as Gentiles who were not Jews.
Galley, Isa. 33:21.-A large decked boat propelled by oars.
Glory, afterward receive me to, Psa. 73:24.-Should be, after the glory receive me, Israel being received to fullness of Divine favor after the glory has been set up; while Christians are received before it is established over the earth.
Glede, Deut. 14:13. Vulture, as translated in Lev. 11:14.
Glory of this latter house, Hag. 2:9.-Literally "Latter glory of this house." The contrast is not between the house or temple then and the future one; but between the glory then and the glory to come.
Gin, Isa. 8:14.-A trap for catching birds.
Goads, Judg. 3:31, etc.-Poles armed with iron spikes to urge on the oxen; about 8 feet in length.
Go to, Gen. 11:7.-An ejaculation, not meaning "go away" but rather come.
Gods, Dent. 32:17:.-Idols; used also of angels (Psa. 97:7) and of persons in authority (Ex. 22:28).
Gog and Magog, Ezek. 38; 39-"Gog a symbolic designation for the future head of all the Russias; "magog," also symbolic, his land. The term in the apocalypse is a moral and not a geographical one (Rev. 20:8).
Grave made with the wicked, Isa. 53:9.-Literally "grave appointed with the wicked;" that was man's appointment, but God ordered otherwise (John 19:38-42).
Great Sea, Josh. 9:1, etc.-Or Mediterranean Sea.
Graven on the Palms of the hands, Isa, 49:16.-Beautifully explained by the eastern custom of engraving, by puncturing on the palms any person or place much loved, and thus having a continual remembrance of the object before one.
Grisled, Zech. 6:3, 6.-Party-colored, see also Gen. 31:10, 12.
Gutters, Gen. 30:41.-Water-troughs. In 2 Sam. 5:8, the word would have a wider meaning, probably the aqueduct.
Habergeon, Neh. 4:16.-A Coat of Mail, especially for the protection of the neck and shoulders.
Hap, Ruth 2:3.-"Her hap," i.e., fortune.
Harnessed, Ex. 13:18.-By five in a rank, see margin which gives the correct reading.
Head sick and Heart faint, Isa. 1:5.-King and Priest. Descriptive condition of the then civil and ecclesiastical state of Israel.
Head and tail, Isa. 9:14.-King and False Prophet.
Headbands, Isa. 3:20.-Rather girdles.
Hephzibah, Isa. 62:4.-Means my delight is in her; expression of Jehovah's delight in Israel in the coming days of glory.
Herd, Gen. 18:7, etc.-Sheep, and generally small cattle were ordinarily termed the "flock," while bullocks and larger cattle were termed the herd.
Hireling, Job 14:6, etc.-A mere paid servant.
Holpen, Psa. 83:8.-Helped.
High Places, were altars, etc., erected on hills and mountainous parts, where Jehovah was worshipped before the erection of the temple (Judg. 6:25,26; Gen. 22:2, etc.). Afterward they became consecrated to idolatry of the grossest kind, as the books of Kings abundantly testify. The people were prohibited from worshipping on these "high places" on their entrance into the land (Deut. 12:3).
Ichabod, 1 Sam. 4:21. The glory has departed. The ark—the proper glory of Israel—being in the hands of the Philistines.
Idumea, Isa. 34:5.-The country of Edom.
Immanuel, Isa. 7:14; 8:8.-God with us. Fulfilled in, and applied to Christ (Matt. 1:23).
Indignation, the, Isa. 10; 28-Apart from the general use of the word, it is technically applied as the expression of God's special period of, and appointed wrath against His guilty people in the coming days.
Inn, Gen. 42:27, etc.-The word often denotes a resting place merely, and not as it is generally regarded in the western world.
Islands, Isa. 11:11, etc.-Western parts, bordering upon the Mediterranean or Great Sea.
Jachin, 1 Kings 7:25.-Established; name of the right-hand brazen pillar of Solomon's temple, referred to in Rev. 3:12.
Jah, Psa. 68:4, etc.-An abbreviated form of Jehovah, and signifying Majesty.
Javan, Isa. 66:19.-Ancient name of Greece.
Jebus, Judg. 19:10.-Ancient name for Jerusalem.
Jegar-Sahadutha, Gen. 31:47.-Heap of witness, an Aramean word so called by Laban, but Jacob called it "Galeed," a Hebrew word, also signifying heap of witness.
Jehovah-Jireh, Gen. 22- The Lord will provide.
Jehovah-Nissi, Ex. 17-The Lord my banner.
Jehovah-Rophecha, Ex. 15:26.-The Lord that healeth thee.
Jehovah-Shalom, Judg. 6:24.-The Lord send peace.
Jehovah-Shammah, Ezek. 48:35.-The Lord is there.
Jehovah-Tsidkenu, Jer. 23:6.-The Lord our righteousness.
Jeshurun, Deut. 32:15.-Meaning righteous. Applied to Israel, "God's justified or righteous people."
Jewry, Dan. 5:13.-The land of Judea.
Jezreel, Hos. 2:22.-God shall plant, i.e., restored Israel.
Jubilee, Lev. 25:8-15, etc.-Every fiftieth year, termed from its character, "the year of liberty" (Ezek. 46:17).
Justle, Nah. 2:4.-Jostle or clash.
Justify many, Isa. 53:11.-Reads instruct many, as in Matt. 5; 7. the life-work of Jesus.
Kerchiefs, Ezek. 13:18-21.-Female veils or coverings for the head.
Lancets, 1 Kings 18:28.-Short spears or lances.
Lap, I shook my, Neh. 5:13.-An ancient and eastern expression of judgment.
Large Place, Ps. 18:19, etc.-Enlargement or place of liberty.
Lattice, Judg. 5:28, etc.-A window made of net work.
Leasing, Psa. 4:2.-This old English word signifies lying, or generally what is false.
Left-handed, Judg. 3:15.-Both-handed, i.e., capable of using either hand.
Leviathan, Job 41:1-A huge aquatic animal.
Lieutenants, Ezra 8:36.-Persian deputy governors.
Lifted up his hand, 1 King 11:26, 27,-Or rebelled.
Little way, a, Gen. 35:16.-This was about four miles in length.
Line of Samaria, 2 Kings 21:13.-The same lot or judgment which befel Samaria is appointed to Jerusalem; see whole verse and context.
Looking glasses, Ex. 38:8.-Plates of finely polished metal reflectors.
Lo-ammi, Hos. 1:9.-Not my people. The present rejection of Israel by Jehovah.
Lo-ruhamah, Hos. 1:6.-Not having obtained mercy. Israel at present outside the pale of national mercy.
LORD, Gen. 4, etc.-Jehovah. When "Lord " thus printed, as in Psa. 8, etc., it is used in the sense of Master, Proprietor.
Lubims, 2 Chron. 12:3, etc.-Or Africans.
Lust, Psa. 78:18.-Strong desire for anything.
Lucifer, Isa. 14:12.-Morning, Star. Title of the King of Babylon, who is a figure of the future head of the revived Roman power.
Ludim, Gen. 10:13.-Probably Egyptians.
Mantles, Isa. 3:22.-This word signifies to wap, hence wappers would correctly convey the meaning.
Made a Road, 1 Sam. 27:10.-A military attack for purpose of plunder or spoil.
Mandrakes, Gen. 30:14.-Has been termed love apple, and supposed to assist in the propagation of the species; it is still grown in various parts of Syria; its odor is most offensive to Europeans, although prized by the natives for its taste and smell.
Many, Dan. 9:27; 11:33; 12:3.-Reads the Many, a special class distinguished from the mass of the nation.
Matrix, Ex. 13:12, etc.-The Womb.
Mete-yard, Lev. 19:35.-A measuring rod.
Mattock, Isa. 7:25, etc.-An instrument used in agricultural and other work.
Mazzaroth, Job 38:32.-The marginal reading gives the twelve signs, i.e., of the zodiac.
Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin, Dan. 5:25.-Literally it reads "Numbered, Numbered, Weighed, Divided." The words were in Hebrew characters. The kingdom was numbered and ended; was weighed and found light; was divided and given to the Persians.
Meshech, Ezek. 38:2, 3; 39:1.-Moscow, the metropolis of European Russia till beginning of this century.
Messiah, Dan. 9:25, etc.-A Hebrew word meaning "Anointed," the corresponding Greek word "Christ " also means anointed.
Minished, Psa. 107:39.-Diminished or reduced in number.
Minni, Jer. 51:27.-Understood to be "Armenia" or part of it.
Mizraim, Gen. 10:6.-The word as here used is in the dual form, referring to lower and upper Egypt, and is the word generally used in the Hebrew Scriptures, and translated in all versions, "Egypt."
Mufflers, Isa 3:19. Veils for the face, still used by eastern women.
Munition, Isa. 29:7.-A fortress or place of defense.
Murrain, Ex. 9:3.-This fifth plague was one of death, as the word "murrain" signifies, and was inflicted upon all the Egyptian cattle and beasts of burden.
Necromancer, Deut. 18:11-One who impiously inquires as to the state of the dead.
Neesings, Job 41:18.-"Sneezings " would sufficiently express the thought to us.
Nehushtan, 2 Kings 18:4.-"Piece of brass," significantly applied to the "brazen serpent," which had been worshipped till the days of the godly King Hezekiah.
Nethinims, Ezra 2:43, etc.-"Dedicated persons." A portion of the Gibeonites (Josh. 9) set apart to perform the meanest services for Israel.
Oracle, 2 Sam. 16:23.-An authoritative, because Divine, revelation; also the most holy place. 1 Kings, 6:5, etc.
Orion, Job 9:9, etc.-A southern constellation seen in winter.
Ouches, Ex. 28; 39-Sockets, probably in the form of rings for fastening the shoulder pieces, precious stones and breast-plate of the High Priest.
Overflowing Scourge, Isa. 28:15.-Restored Israel's great enemy in the future day, spoken of by the prophets as the "Assyrian" and "King of the North."
Pannag, Ezek. 27:17.-An untranslated word referring to a herb or spice.
Pate, Psa. 7:16.-Crown of the head.
Pilled, Gen. 30:37, 38.-Peeled or stripped off the bark.
Plot, 2 Kings 9:26.-Place or portion of ground.
Pleiades, Job 9:9, etc.-In Amos 5:8 the word is rendered the seven stars. A cluster of stars which, when seen, intimate the return of spring; thus the word is derived from pleein, to sail, because in those ancient times, when navigation was much more difficult than now, spring weather would be a favorable opportunity.
Potsherds, Isa. 45:9; Psa. 22:15.-Broken earthenware.
Pottage, 2 Kings 4:38-40.-Flesh, vegetables, and other ingredients boiled together.
Prevent, Psa. 79:8, etc.-Anticipate or go before; see also 1 Thess. 4:15; thus the Scriptural use of the word and common usage are diametrically opposite.
Printed, Job 19:23.-Inscribed. The art of printing is said to have been known to the people of Sinim (China) five centuries before the Christian era. Its use in Europe is comparatively of recent date—the fifteenth century—and greatly contributed to the work of the Reformation.
Pur, Purim, Esther 3:7, etc.-Words of Persian signification, meaning Lot, Lots. A Jewish feast in remembrance of their deliverance from Haman's wicked efforts to destroy them, observed on the 14th and 15th of the month, Aaar or March.
Rahab, Psa. 87:4, etc.-Descriptive of Egypt, and also of its king (Ezek, 29:3); the words "great dragon" are the signification of "Rahab," which, however, must not be confounded with the "Rahab" or Racal) of Jericho; they are really different words.
Rentest thy face, Jer. 4:30.-Distend the eyes.
Salem, Gen, 14:18,-Peace. The name given to Jerusalem in the days of Abram.
Scepter, Gen. 49:10.-The tribal character of Israel; used elsewhere for righteous government, as in Ps. 45:6, etc.
Scum, Ezek. 24:6, 11, 12.-The worst, the very wicked.
Seed, seeds, Gen. 22, compare with Gal. 3-It is an interesting thought that when "seed," irrespective of number, is used, it refers to Christ, but when not so used it refers to Israel.
Seer, 1 Sam. 9:9.-The prophets were originally termed seers, because they alone unfolded the future.
Seethe, 2 Kings 4:38, etc.-Boil.
Selah, Hab. 3-Pause, Consider, occurs three times in Hab. 3, and about seventy times in the book of Psalms.
Seraphim, Isa. 6-Attendants upon and proclaimers of the holiness of Jehovah and of His throne. Seraph is singular, and "Seraphim" is plural.
Servitor, 2 Kings 4:43.-A servant.
Several House, 2 Kings 15:5.- Dwelling alone.
Sheep-gate, Neh. 3:1, 32, etc.-The gate through which the animals entered Jerusalem required for sacrifice.
Sherd, Isa. 30:14.-A small piece or portion.
Sheriffs, Dan. 3:2, 3.-Chaldean officers whose precise functions, cannot with certainty be determined.
Sheshach, Jer. 25:26, etc.-Babylon.
Shiloh, Gen. 49:10.-To whom the Government belongs, i.e., to the Messiah.
Shinar, Isa. 11:11.-Babylonia
Shoe over Edom will I cast, Psa. 60:8.-A significant action expressing the thorough subjection of the country of Edom.
Silk, Ezek. 16:10-13.-Probably very fine linen. Silk was first manufactured in China, and introduced into the East by Alexander the Great, after the overthrow of the Persian power.
Silverlings, Isa. 7:23.-Pieces of silver.
Sinim, Isa. 49:12.-China. There is but little doubt that the very ancient and interesting kingdom of China is referred to in the above passage. There are great numbers of Jews located in that country.
Sister, Gen. 12:13, etc.-A term not exclusively confined to members of one family, but applied to near female relatives.
Sith, Ezek. 35:6.-Because or since.
Sivan, Esther 8:9.-Ninth month of the Jewish civil year, and third of their ecclesiastical; corresponding to part of our June and July.
Sluices, Isa. 19:10.-Ponds or enclosures for catching fish.
Smite mine hands together, Ezek. 21:17.-This action significantly betokens indignation.
Smith, 1 Sam. 13:19, etc.-A worker in metals.
Snow water, Job 9:30.-Regarded as possessing peculiar cleansing properties.
Sod Pottage, Gen. 25:29.-Boiled pottage.
Sons of God, Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:7.-Angelic beings. "Son of God" occurs but once in the Old Testament (Dan. 3:25).
Sprinkle many nations, Isa. 52:15.-The Messiah in grace reaching the Gentiles in fullest blessing.
Streets, Psa. 144:13.-Large open spaces.
Stomacher, Isa. 3:24.-A garment worn round the chest.
Tablets, Isa. 3:20.- Perfume boxes or scent bottles.
Taches, Ex. 26, etc.-Or hooks.
Tale of the bricks, Ex. 5:8.-Full measure.
Taught the men, Judg. 8:16.-Chastised the men.
Tempt, Gen. 22:1, etc.-Means to try or prove.
Thrum, Isa. 38:12.-End of a web; see margin.
Thrones were cast down, Dan. 7:9.-Read, Thrones were set up.
Time, Times, and half-a-time, Dan. 7:25; 12:7, etc.-(Time) a year; (times) two years; (half-a-time) six months. Thus, three years and a half, or 1260 days or 42 months (Rev. 12 and 13.); all these refer to the same future period.
Tires, Isa. 3:18, etc.-A female covering for the head wreathed in folds.
Tirshatha, Neh. 7:65, etc.-A Persian title, meaning "August," only conferred on persons of distinction.
To wit, Gen. 24:21, etc.-To see or understand. See also 2 Cor. 8:1
Tubal, Ezek. 38:2, 3; 39:1.-The modern "Tobolsk," and capital city of Asiatic Russia.
Unicorns, Psa. 22:21.-Wild horned animals.
Urim and Thummim, Ex. 28:30, etc.-Precious stones put in the breast-plate worn by the high priest before Jehovah. The words literally signify "lights" and "perfections."
Vail, Ruth 3:15; Isa. 3:23.-A cloak or mantle.
Vagabond, Psa. 109:10.-This Latin word signifies a wanderer.
Valley of Decision, Joel 3:14.-The gathering of the north-eastern powers for judgment at the commencement of the millennial reign of Christ.
Verily, Verily, Gen. 42:21; Psa. 111:7.-Truly Truly.
Vestry, 2 Kings 10:22.-Chamber containing the robes and vestments of the idolatrous priests.
Volume, Psa. 40:7. Written scroll rolled up.
Wall they digged down, Gen. 49:6.- Houghed or slaughtered the oxen.
Weeks, Dan. 9:24.-The Hebrew word simply denotes sevens;-of days, weeks, months, or years can alone be learned from the context of each passage. Here it is weeks of years-70 weeks or 490 years.
Wilderness, Ex. 14, etc.-The word does not necessarily mean a desert, but rather a pastoral tract of country, not agricultural.
Wimples, Isa. 3:22.-Cloaks or shawls.
Woe to the Land, Isa. 18:1.-He to the Land.

The Tabernacle: Its Materials, Vessels, and Coverings

The tabernacle was constructed by Divine command and according to Divine plan, and when set up in the wilderness became the center of the many thousands of Israel, and the meeting place between Jehovah and His people (Ex. 29:42-46). In it God dwelt, surrounded by His happy and redeemed people, and out of it He addressed them in strains of richest grace (Lev. 1:1). It is several times termed "the tabernacle of witness," as eloquent in its teaching of heavenly and better things to come.
The tabernacle was set up in the wilderness on the first day of the first month of the second year of Israel's departure from Egypt (Ex. 40:17); its flooring was the sand of the desert, unlike that of the temple, which was of pure gold, but the majesty of Jehovah abode thereon, and the glory of Jehovah filled it (Ex. 40:34). The tabernacle and all that pertained to it, even to the cords, pins, and tacks, was intended to teach Christ, to shadow His work and priesthood, and to illustrate various relationships between God and His heavenly and earthly peoples. In its general arrangement and structure, down to the minutest detail recorded, all was planned and constructed by the Spirit of God (Ex. 31), who, many centuries afterward comments upon His own workmanship (Heb. 9:8). The tabernacle was made according to a pattern shown to Moses (Heb. 8:5), and served as a shadow of good things to come (Heb. 9:11); the patterns, too, of things in the heavens (Heb. 9:23, 24), but it figured also the whole scene of creation (Heb. 3.)
The building was divided into three parts, first, the innermost recess, into which the high priest alone could enter once a year, and only with incense and blood—Christ's person and work. Here stood the ark, covered by the pure gold mercy-seat and supported by the golden, overshadowing cherubim, between which, Jehovah sat enthroned in Divine majesty and glory. This apartment is called "the holiest of all," and "most holy," and figures the immediate presence of God—the heaven of heavens. Second, the holy place divided from the "holiest" by the beautiful veil, and from the "court" by the hanging. Here rested the incense or golden altar, the gold-covered table of shewbread, and seven-branched golden candlestick. It was in this holy apartment where the priests daily worshipped and served, which represents the heavenly places, the scene of the church's blessing; there we burn the fragrant incense in the presence of our God—the merits of Christ's person and accomplished sacrifice; there, too, does the Holy Spirit exhibit the varied glories of Christ as the lamps shone upon the beautifully carved shaft of the candlestick, displaying its beauties; and there, too, do we feed upon Christ, as the priests did upon the shewbread. Third, we are now in the "outer court" where stood the brazen altar and the brazen laver filled with water. The former told its own tale of judgment; surely the ever burning fire, fed by continual sacrifice, impressively pointed to the "Lamb of God," bearing sin's judgment on the cross, and the value of which is eternally ascending to God; the brazen laver, on the other hand, which stood between the entrance to the holy place and the altar of burnt-offering, pointed to the necessity of God's priests having clean hands to hold up, and clean feet wherewith to tread the courts of the Lord's house, for both hands and feet were to be constantly cleansed in the laver. The vessels then in the outer court would express the ground, place, and means by which God could righteously meet any sinner coming out of the world, yes, and meet him too in richest grace.
The main design of the tabernacle was two-fold. First, as the scene and manifestation of God to man; and, secondly, as revealing the holy means by which man could be righteously and in grace presented to God. If this two-fold design in the construction of the tabernacle and in the enumeration of its vessels be borne in mind, it will sufficiently account for the singular omission of the laver in the description of the outer court (Ex. 27), and of the incense altar in the account given of the holy place (Ex. 25); both those vessels will be found fully described after the consecration of the priesthood (Ex. 30). Here we are furnished with a fine example of the perfection of Holy Scripture. From Exodus 25 till Exodus 27, we have God manifesting Himself to man through those wondrous types and shadows, hence the marked omission of certain vessels; but from Exodus 28 till Exodus 30, we have the priests, their holy garments, and the vessels previously omitted, as all these refer to the means of man's approach to God.
The studies of the Christian reader on the subject of the tabernacle generally, and of its spiritual teachings, will be considerably facilitated by carefully noting the force of three expressions in Hebrews 9: "The tabernacle," the "first tabernacle," the "second" tabernacle. The first expression refers to the whole structure, as in first clause of Heb. 9:2: "for there was a tabernacle made;" the second expression refers to the holy place, and the third to the most holy. Now, the first tabernacle, or holy place, the scene of constant service and worship, figures the whole Jewish economy, characterized by continual doing, yet unfinished service, and which necessarily kept man at a distance from God (Heb. 9:8-10).
MATERIALS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE TABERNACLE AND THE VESSELS, THE PRIESTS' HOLY GARMENTS, &c. (Ex. 35)
1. GOLD-Divine glory; Divine righteousness; Divine nature of the Lord Jesus Christ.
2. SILVER-Jesus in the value of His person and work for the sinners' redemption.
3. BRASS-Christ sustaining the judgment of God against sin.
4. BLUE-Heavenly character of the blessed Lord.
5. PURPLE-Royalty of Christ.
6. SCARLET-Earthly glory of Christ.
7. FINE LINEN-Spotless purity of the blessed One in His person and ways.
8. GOATS' HAIR-Christ's absolute separation from all outward evil and sin.
9. RAMS' SKINS DYED RED-Life-and-death devotedness of Christ to God.
10. BADGERS' SKINS-Absolute holiness of Jesus, repelling every form of outward evil.
11. SHITTIM WOOD-The holy humanity of our Lord Jesus.
12. OIL FOR THE LIGHT-The Spirit of God the efficient power of all true testimony.
13. SPICES FOR ANOINTING OIL, AND FOR SWEET INCENSE-The moral graces and perfections of Christ expressed in the energy of the Holy Spirit (the oil), and also in Christ's intercession for believers.
14. ONYX STONES-The variegated glories of Christ.
15. STONES FOR THE EPHOD AND BREASTPLATE-Moral glories and beauties of Christ.
THE PROMINENT VESSELS, ETC., OF THE TABERNACLE.
1. ARK, made of shittim wood, and covered all over with gold inside and outside, surmounted with a golden crown, and with its rings and staves-Highest type of Christ in the two-fold glory of His person as man (shittim wood), as Divine (gold) and now crowned with glory and honor, and His perfect adaptation to all our wilderness circumstances (the rings and staves).
2. ALTAR of incense, made of shittim wood, and overlaid with pure gold, with its rings and staves, and surrounded with a golden crown-Christ the holy meeting-place between God and the saint in respect to worship. By Him we offer the sacrifice of praise to God (Heb. 13:55). Crowned on high (Heb. 2:9) and seated in the highest
place (Heb. 8:5), He presents the merits of His own glorious person and the infinite perfection of His own accomplished sacrifice before the face of God, and that too for us, who there act as kings and priests to God (Rev. 1:6). In yonder Man, "Who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens," my heart doth rest, in Him my affections delight; on Him I feed, and find present, full, and eternal satisfaction. As we gaze on Him, the heart is filled with worship, and we fill the holy place with songs of praise to Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood.
3. ALTAR of judgment, made of shittim wood and overlaid with brass (copper) with its rings and staves, grating, etc.-Christ the righteous meeting-place between God and the sinner in respect to sin.
Christ on the cross measuring the distance and the responsibility of sinner to God. There my need as a sinner is fully met, and my guilty conscience perfectly satisfied. The golden altar in the holy place is the expression of my nearness to God as a happy saint; the brazen altar in the court is the expression of distance from God and of the judgment due to the sinner.
4. BREASTPLATE of judgment, made of gold (divine), blue (heavenly), purple (royalty), scarlet (earthly glory), and of fine-twined linen (spotless humanity), with stones engraved (reflections of the glories of Christ) and set in the breastplate in gold enclosing (Divine securities)-Believers ever borne on the heart of Jesus before God in divine love and righteousness, and according to all that Christ is personally and officially.
5. CHERUBIM (plural) made out of the same piece of gold as the mercy-seat or lid of the ark, one on either side covering, it with outstretched wings-Divine attributes judicially displayed, or the moral supports of Jehovah's throne, as " justice and judgment " (Psa. 89:14).
6. CANDLESTICK, of pure gold, with beautifully carved shaft, and with its branches, bowls, knops, and flowers-The Holy Spirit's perfect display of Christ in the exquisite and variegated glories of His person as the wondrous Light of a heavenly people.
7. GOLDEN BELLS AND POMEGRANATES, of blue, purple, and scarlet, hung alternately round the hem of the blue robe of the ephod worn by the High Priest in the presence of God The "golden bells" set forth the testimony of the Holy Ghost to us as to the acceptance of Christ in all that He is, as now within the veil. The "golden pomegranates" sets forth the fruit Christ has gathered out of this scene, and which He now presents to God in all the glorious efficacy of His person. The "bells" are testimony to us; the "pomegranates" are fruit to God.
8. LAVER, of brass, with its foot also of brass and filled with water-The ability of Christ in meeting His people's defilement, so as to keep them practically clean for priestly service and priestly worship. The water figures the Word of God (Eph. 5:26) as constantly applied to our walk, ways, words, thoughts, and actions.
9. MERCY SEAT, of pure gold; the golden cover of the ark-On this, and between the cherubim, rested the cloud—symbol of Jehovah's presence. It was on the mercy seat, and thus before the eye of God, that the high priest sprinkled the blood once on the yearly atonement day, and before it seven times, as giving us a standing in the Divine presence. The mercy seat was also the trysting-place between God enthroned in Divine majesty and the people represented by the high priest, who entered with incense and blood. Christ is our mercy seat (Rom. 3:25).
10. TABLE OF Show-BREAD, made of shittim wood, overlaid with pure gold, surrounded with a golden crown, and show-bread set before the Lord alway-Christ, now crowned with glory and honor in the double glory of His person as God and man, is the table; and Christ too the food set thereon, and all this He ever is before our God. He is our light—the candlestick; our food—the bread; and our object in worship—the golden altar: all these standing in the holy place. Is not Christ everything in these shadows?

Veil of Blue, Purple, Scarlet and Find-Twined Linen: With Cherubim

We Know From Hebrews 10:20, that the veil represents "His Flesh."
His varied glories and judicial and governmental attributes all center in Him, Who is the man Christ Jesus.
The glory of Jehovah filled the Tabernacle (Ex. 40:34-38).
The glory of Jehovah filled the Temple (1 Kings 8:10-11).
The glory of Jehovah will occupy the Millennial Temple (Ezek. 43:5-5).
"To Him be glory in the church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages. World without end. Amen."

The Burnt Offering: Leviticus 1

The sacrifices, as a whole, pointed to the person, life, and work of the Lord Jesus; but when examined in detail, they will be found to yield precious instruction and abundant material for the meditation and worship of the believer.
The burnt offering is the first in Divine order and the highest in character of all the sacrifices. But our apprehension of these sacrifices and their adaptation to our need is uniformly opposite to the order of their institution (2 Chron. 29, etc.). As sinners, we first know Christ as the trespass offering "delivered for our offenses;" and as led on by the Spirit in the fuller revelation of Christ and His precious work and person, we travel upward till we stand as worshippers around the altar of burnt offering, and wonder and adore as the ascending flame laden with the divinely-prepared perfume goes up to Jehovah for the satisfaction and rest of His heart. Most blessed it is, however, that God in the order in which these offerings are presented would teach our souls that the self-same sacrifice in which He finds present and eternal delight, is the answer to our need as sinners and our communion as saints. Atonement could be effected by the burnt offering and the various classes of sin offerings, but not by either meat or peace offerings.
This sacrifice points to the voluntary surrender, to the freewill offering of Jesus to accomplish in death the Divine will, as written of Him in the volume of God's eternal counsels: "Lo, I come to do Thy will, O God" (Heb. 10:7). It is that aspect of the sacrifice of Jesus which directly and exclusively regards God "who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God." In the sin offering there was atonement (Heb. 4; 5) as in the burnt offering; but with this profound difference, that in the former it was to secure forgiveness—hence the frequent recurrence of the phrase, "it shall be forgiven him"—while in the burnt offering it was atonement for the acceptance of the person.
Is it not therefore of priceless value to us that Christ, in the absolute devotedness of a will wholly set upon His Father's glory, gave Himself up to God on the altar, and there in the scene where man had so terribly dishonored God and trailed His glory in the dust—yea, in the place of sin-bearing itself, the fire of Divine judgment was kindled and all went up to God as a sweet savor, and in that we are accepted.
The unblemished animal was killed, flayed, and cut in pieces. The parts enumerated are the "head," the "fat," the "inwards," and the "legs"—denoting the intelligence, will, motives, and walk of the blessed One in thus offering Himself—a WHOLE Christ and an intelligent surrender to the glory of God. All were laid upon the altar and subjected to the fire—the searching judgment of God. "The priest shall burn all upon the altar to be a burnt sacrifice, an offering made by fire of a sweet savor unto the LORD." What the offering was ceremonially, being washed in water, that Jesus was intrinsically. The fire of Divine judgment searched Him inwardly and outwardly; the motives and springs, as well as the walk and ways—and in result all went up to God as a sweet savor.
We, through Divine grace and in the power of the Holy Ghost, identify ourselves with Jesus thus so thoroughly glorifying God—entering into its blessedness, knowing our acceptance in His most precious acceptance, and as thus set down in the holiest of all, in all the value of Christ's person and work. All this is significantly expressed in the identification of the offerer and the victim: "And he shall put his hand upon the head of the burnt offering (this significant act only stated in the case of the 'herd,' Lev. 1:4), and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him." God's eternal delight in Jesus as the burnt offering is beautifully told out in the words: "The fire shall ever be burning upon the altar; it shall never go out" (Lev. 6:13).
The reader's careful attention is called to the distinction between the sweet savor offerings in which the saint is identified in all the Divine acceptance of the sacrifice, and the sin offerings in which the sinner is identified in the judgment of the victim.

The Meat Offering: Leviticus 2

This is another of the "sweet savor offerings" in which God's portion and delight in Jesus is fully brought out. True in one sense all that Jesus did, all that He was in life and death was "for us;" but His work to God for the expiation of sin is surely a different thing from His work to God for the acceptance of the offerer. In the former, Gods hatred to sin and outpouring of wrath upon the sinner's Substitute is expressed; in the latter, God's delight in holiness and in the infinite perfection of Christ in His person and work. "Christ made sin for us," characterize the various sin and trespass offerings. Christ giving Himself for us "an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweet smelling savor," describe the distinguishing feature of the other sacrificial offerings.
If the burnt offering sets Jesus before us coming up to the altar—the cross—of His own free will, and there, in the place of sin, and where only it could be expiated, offering Himself to accomplish the will and glory of God in death; the meat offering presents Him offering a whole unblemished life to God, and that too, in the place of sin and sorrow. The material of which it was composed was "fine flour"—humanity in perfection; its adjuncts were "oil"-the Holy Ghost; "frankincense"-the moral graces; and "salt"—incorruption and perpetuity. What was forbidden was "leaven " (save in one marked exception), figure of evil; and "honey," type of mere human affection. The "oil poured" upon the offering is the expression of Christ's anointing by the Spirit and power, as in Acts 10:38; while the offering mingled with oil sets forth the profound teaching of Matt. 1:20 -"conceived of the Holy Ghost." This "most holy of the offerings of the LORD made by fire," was brought to the priests; a handful taken out with all the frankincense and burnt upon the altar. Thus Jesus in all His blessed life, His words, His ways, His actions, and in all the moral graces and beauties and lovely traits of that wondrous path, trod to the glory of God, was subjected to the trial of fire. And what was the result? A sweet savor of rest to God. That part of the offering not put upon the altar, became the food of the priests. Thus we enjoy communion with God in His expressed delight of His Beloved One as a man on earth. Wondrous privilege!
Neither leaven nor honey were to be burned on the altar (Lev. 2:11). The meat offering of first fruits being baked with "leaven" (Lev. 2:12; see Lev. 23:17), was an exception, but this, as setting forth the church at Pentecost, sanctified and presented to God by the Holy Ghost, could not be "burnt on the altar," for the simple but weighty reason that there was "leaven" or sin there; hence, when the "meat offering," typical of the church was offered, the loaves made of fine flour were baken with leaven, but there was also offered with them a sin offering, to meet the actual state of the church, which, of course, on this side of glory is necessarily one of imperfection (Lev. 23:15-21); for the meat offering representing Christ personally - in which there was the most careful exclusion of "leaven," see Lev. 2:1-10. The vital connection between the God-glorifying life and death of priceless worth, of Jesus, was carefully maintained by an abiding statute when the people were settled in the land, every burnt offering (death of Jesus), was to be accompanied with a meat offering (life of Jesus). Num. 15:8-11.
We would again call attention to the interesting and important distinction in these offerings. The four classes of sacrifice were the burnt, meat, peace, and sin offerings, the three former specially expressive of God's delight therein, while the latter expressed His judgment upon sin.

The Peace Offering: Leviticus 3

The essential character of the peace offering being communion, a female animal could be offered. In the Church's communion there is necessarily a measure of imperfection and weakness. This seems to be set forth in the "female." But "without blemish" is an indispensable requisite here as in all the sacrifices. God cannot deny Himself. Holiness is an absolute necessity of His nature.
We can readily understand and appreciate surely, in our measure, the appropriate place of this sacrifice as coming after the two already named, the burnt and meat offerings. Our communion in the person and work of Jesus is not only based upon His sacrifice, but partakes of the character of what has already been presented to God, and what He has accepted. Jehovah has already fed upon that which represented Christ in death and life, and according to His delight therein our souls are maintained in communion. We are thus privileged to feast and joy in common with God, with Christ, and with each other. What an exalted privilege! The portions which Jehovah claimed, here called "food of the offering," were all the "fat" and the "inward parts," that is, the excellency and energy of will, and the feelings, motives, and affections of the Blessed One, which none but God could fully appreciate. All was proved by fire; everything in Jesus was divinely tested, and the trial only brought out His deep perfections. Hence all went up to Jehovah as a sweet savor; yea, more, God fed upon it, found delight and rest in every movement of the heart and will of His Beloved One. In connection with this sacrifice God claimed as a perpetual statute, the "fat" and the "blood," the will and life.
As nothing, in all connected with the Jewish sacrificial ritual, was left to the imagination of man, but all carefully, minutely, and divinely prescribed, so they, as we, have only to obey, hence the importance of attending to the law regulating the observance of these sacrifices (Lev. 6, 7.). In this latter chapter we are told what was done with the rest of the animal. The "breast," the devoted love of Jesus, was fed upon by Aaron and his sons, that is, Christ and His people. The "right shoulder," the mighty strength of Jesus, was the special portion of the priest who offered the blood and burnt the fat. Who could be thus typified save Jesus? He is both sacrifice and priest, offerer and victim. The rest of the sacrifice was eaten on the day or day after it was offered by the offerer and his friends. On the third day whatever remained must be burnt on the altar, setting forth the weighty truth that communion cannot be prolonged beyond the measure of one's spiritual power and capacity. Working oneself into fellowship with God, or the fleshly effort to maintain communion, is most certainly an abomination to the Lord (Lev. 7:18). The peace offering presents a truly wonderful sight; God, Christ, the Christian, and the Church together feeding-together delighting in Jesus, and in His love, person, and work.
Precious Savior, Thou joy of our hearts, Thou infinitely Blessed One, maintain our communion uninterrupted until we see Thee face to face.

The Sin Offering: Leviticus 4

The various sin offerings being identified with that which was in itself abhorrent to God, were not burnt on the altar, but were wholly consumed "outside the camp;" God thus marking His sense of the terrible character of sin, even when laid on Jesus—His soul's delight—who "suffered without the gate," saying, as the expression of His soul's agony in that awful hour, "My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?" But let it ever be remembered, that even in those sacrifices which represented Jesus made sin for us, and thus only on the cross, officially obnoxious to God, that personally He never was more dear to His God and Father; for the blood (the life) was sprinkled before Jehovah, and in certain cases put upon the horns of the golden altar—worship; and upon the brazen altar - approach; while all the fat was burnt upon the altar, ascending to Jehovah and heaven as a sweet savor.
The various grades in the offerings express the various measures of apprehension found amongst God's people in respect to the one sacrifice of Christ If we have measures of apprehension, we have also degrees of sin, and this latter is specially pointed out here. The gravity of sin must be measured by the dignity of the offended One, and the relative position of the offender. First, then, we have the sin of the anointed priest (Lev. 4:3-12); secondly, of the whole congregation (Lev. 4:13-21); thirdly, of the ruler (Lev. 4:22-26); fourthly, of any of the common people (Lev. 4:27-35). If the priest, who represented the people before Jehovah, or the congregation, sinned, the blood—the witness of death—was sprinkled seven times (spiritual perfection) before the Lord, and also put upon the horns of the golden altar; this latter use of the blood was in order that the worship and communion of the redeemed congregation might be righteously and holily maintained, or, if lost, restored; but when a prince or ruler, or one of the common people transgressed, the worship of the Lord's host was not necessarily interrupted, and hence, in their case the blood was merely put upon the horns of the brazen altar. The sin of the anointed priest, and the corporate sin of the whole congregation, were the most serious cases of any; on their sin the judgment of God rested more heavily than in the other cases, for in theirs only is it said that the sin offering was to be wholly burned outside the camp. It may be remarked, that so thoroughly is this aspect of the death of Jesus identified with the sin of man, that in the original it is the same word for "sin" and "sin offering."
All these sacrifices and the teachings based thereon have a solemn voice to us, and read us deeply impressive lessons, which may God grave upon our hearts.

The Trespass Offering: Leviticus 5 and 6:7

The distinction between sin and trespass may here be pointed out. Trespass refers to acts done against God or man, sin to the root from whence these acts proceed. It will be observed that in the sin offerings, particular acts are not specified, as the immediate object is the condemnation of sin itself, there the man is regarded as a sinner, but in the various trespass offerings particular offenses are carefully enumerated, and the man regarded as a transgressor. All transgression is sin, but all sin does not necessarily partake of the character of transgression. In the sin offerings the victim and the offerer are identified, the laying on of hands on the head of the victim being the fit expression of this identity; but this was never done in cases of trespass, although confession, full and ample, was required. Thus in the sin offerings the condemnation of sin is the great point, while in the trespass offerings the confession of sin is a necessity.
It is of profound importance to note carefully that sin is not measured by conscience or knowledge of what is evil, but by the holiness of God. Thus sins of ignorance were not excusable or passed lightly over, but had to be provided for in the most solemn manner possible (Lev. 4).
In the trespass offerings, to meet offenses done against the Lord, whether known or unknown, the blood of a victim alone could suffice, besides the offender making ample amends for the harm done. In the first thirteen verses of Lev. 5, the prescribed ritual is to meet sin and trespass together.
In cases of trespass against one's neighbor, restitution for the wrong done must be full and ample, the principal had to be restored and a fifth part added. This would satisfy man's claim, but even in these cases, forgiveness and atonement, as always, can only be obtained through the death of another, "for without the shedding of blood is no remission." After these sacrifices had been duly instituted, and the laws regulating their due observance been established, the consecration of the priesthood naturally follows, which we do not enter upon here. Sacrifice necessarily precedes priesthood; yea, more, is the basis of all true acceptable worship, and the ground of the priestly grace of Jesus.

Wilderness Defilement: Or the Red Heifer

This was a special provision to meet wilderness defilement. Our standing as Christians before God is founded on the accomplished work of the cross (Lev. 16). Our whole condition as sinners has been divinely met, and that for God and eternity, by the blood of Jesus. Our weakness, infirmity, and sorrow as saints have their blessed answer in the unchangeable priesthood of the Son of God on high; while positive failure and defilement, contracted while passing on to our eternal rest, are securely provisioned for in the advocacy of Christ with the Father, in answer to which the spirit brings the written Word (the running water, Num. 19) and the remembrance of Christ in agony and death (the ashes, Num. 19) to bear upon the conscience of the erring one. Confession full and thorough follows, and the result is that the impaired communion with God is again restored. But be it carefully noted that this is Divine provision for a saint of God, one whose standing is in Divine righteousness, and of whose eternal safety there is not the least doubt.
The red heifer must be spotless, unblemished, "wherein is no blemish," and "upon which never came yoke." Thus is Christ set forth in the absolute perfection of His nature, and in the holiness of His life. Like the sin offering, the animal was wholly consumed outside the camp, but with this marked peculiarity that the fat and the blood—the excellency and the life—were also consumed, save a little of the blood, which was reserved, and sprinkled seven times (perfection) before the Tabernacle. Thus the witness of death was brought before the eye of God. Cedar wood, hyssop, and scarlet were then cast into the midst of the burning. Human nature in its best estate (cedar), in its lowest forms (hyssop), and all earthly glory (scarlet) for the Christian, went in the cross of Jesus. The ashes—remembrance of Christ's agony and wrath of God—were carefully gathered up as a "purification for sin," and along with running water—figure of the searching and convicting Word of God—were sprinkled by a clean person on the defiled one, on the third and seventh days. The third day's sprinkling was in view of his sin, the second sprinkling was in light of God's grace. The first would lead to a deepening sense of what sin is in light of what Jesus suffered, and the other application of the ashes and water would as surely lead to a more profound sense of what grace can accomplish as the fruit of the cross.
Blessed Savior, we will soon be with Thee, and our sinning and our suffering will be all over.

The Thirteen Judges of Israel

Paul in his summary of Israelitish history (Acts 13) says-"And after that He gave unto them judges about the space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet" (Acts 13:20). In the following list we have not included Eli, who exercised the priestly functions as well as judging in a civil capacity; nor Samuel, who, while ruling Israel, also filled the prophetic office. We have noted only those recorded in the book of Judges—from Othniel to Samson.
These judges were extraordinary deliverers raised up by God from time to time, in answer to His people's cries and tears. Their condition was most deplorable. The wonders of God in Egypt and at the Red Sea; and the still more recent marvel of the Jordan affording a dry passage into Canaan, with all the forty years' story of grace in the wilderness—were fading from their memories, and certainly losing their freshness and power in their souls. Departure from the Lord is ever the effect of resting upon the demonstrations of Jehovah's love and care, instead of knowing and resting upon that love itself. In order to recover the wandering heart of Israel, and wean the people from the idolatry and sin of the surrounding heathen, they were delivered into the hands of the nations whom they had failed to drive out; there to learn through bitter experience the folly of departing from the living God. Upon their repentance, God raised up a class of saviors, who, in themselves, and by their mode and way of deliverance, were fitted to humble Israel, and, besides, vindicate the sovereignty and grace of Jehovah.
1. OTHNIEL, Lion of God.-Judg. 3:5-11.
It was out of Mesopotamia that Israel's great progenitor was called (Acts 7:2,3); and into the hands of that power Israel was first delivered. This period of servitude lasted eight years. The deliverer from Mesopotamian bondage was Othniel, whose courage and valor was put to the test in the capture of the strong city Kirjath-sepher; and, as reward, received Caleb's daughter, Achsah, to wife (Josh. 15:15-17). Forty years' rest was the result of the mighty deliverance wrought by "Caleb's younger brother." The sovereignty of God in the choice of a younger brother is not to be overlooked.
2. EHUD, Unity.- Judg. 3:12-30.
The second captivity lasted eighteen years, and that under a people peculiarly obnoxious to Israel, whose origin was disgraceful (Gen. 19), and who were forever debarred entering into the congregation of the Lord (Deut. 23:3-6). As in the previous deliverance, a forty years' rest and quiet was secured, so by this second intervention of Jehovah in the judgment of Moab and deliverance of His people, they enjoyed a rest of 80 years. The deceit practiced upon the fat King of Moab, and the extermination of all the men of war—ten thousand in all—may be safely left as written. The Word of God records facts, states things as they occurred, neither explaining nor defending the actions of men. God makes the wrath of man to praise Him, and so turned to the blessing of His people the death of Eglon, King of Moab, and his men of war. The sovereignty of God in the choice of Ehud, a "left-handed" man, is once more observable.
3. SHAMGAR.- Judg. 3:31.
The Philistines next come upon the scene as the oppressors of the southern tribes of Israel. How long this third captivity lasted, or how long Shamgar judged Israel, we are not informed. The whole history of this time is briefly summed up in one verse. The bold and daring exploit of Shamgar killing 600 Philistines with an ox-goad reminds us of the doings of Samson amongst that same people; and one cannot fail to remark upon the sovereignty of the mode of deliverance. Who ever heard of victories obtained over a brave and warlike people by the use of such an instrument as an ox-goad, and that, too, wielded by a single arm? One man successfully opposing and overcoming 600!
4. DEBORAH and BARAK, bee, lightning.- Judg. 4, 5
The tribes located in northern Palestine now come under the cruel and iron yoke of Hazor, king of Canaan, who for twenty years "mightily oppressed Israel." This king seems to have had a large army, well supplied with war chariots, and commanded by an able and experienced captain. The Israelites, on the contrary, could oppose no cavalry to the 900 iron chariots of Sisera, nor could a weapon of war be found amongst 40,000 of the people (Judg. 5:8). But what of the mighty host of Sisera or his iron chariots, were they ever so strong and countless? Dare the puny arm of man be bared in presence of Jehovah's power? The cry of the oppressed people again enters the ear of God, and He raises up an instrument which certainly reflected no honor upon Israel. Deborah, a woman, not only judged the people, but also prophesied in the Lord's name, so that the moral condition of the people could scarcely be lower. Barak, the son of Abinoam, refused to take the leadership of the Lord's host, save as directed by, and in the presence of, a woman (Judg. 4:8, 9). The truly humbling death of the Canaanitish captain, and the utter destruction, even to a man, of his mighty army, covered with renown the name of the Lord of Hosts (Judg. 5.). A forty years' quiet was the result of this mighty victory.
5. GIDEON, Breaker.- Judg. 6-8
The next oppression was from the east. The Midianites, a powerful people, were joined by the Amalekites and the nomade tribes of the desert, who, with their camels and cattle entered the land in countless numbers, and pitched their tents in the very heart of the country. Plunder was evidently the object of this motley host; "they entered the land to destroy it." In a short time they turned a large portion of the fairest part of the country almost into a desert, sweeping away the growing crops and removing all the beasts of burden and domestic animals. The heavily burdened and cruelly oppressed people had to flee from their dwellings and betake themselves for safety to the mountains. This awful time of distress lasted seven years, when the people again turning to Jehovah were faithfully addressed by a prophet whose name is not recorded. Then Gideon was raised up, but first he must clear his father's house of idolatry ere he could become a suited vessel in Jehovah's hands for the deliverance of the people. The moral training to which Gideon was subjected, is well worthy of being carefully pondered by those serving in the church of God, while the numbers, manner, and instruments employed in the glorious and complete discomfiture of the mighty and numerous hosts opposed to Israel, conspicuously displayed the weakness of man and the power of Jehovah. What a lesson we learn in that 300 tried and tested men approached the host of Midian with neither sword nor spear in hand! The broken pitchers were the fitting expression of human weakness; and the trumpets giving forth their blast were a call to Jehovah as in ancient days, when it was said-"Rise up, Lord, and let Thine enemies be scattered; and let them that hate Thee flee before Thee" (Num. 10:35). As the result of the mighty victory gained over Midian and his confederates, another forty years' peace was secured. The total inability of man to hold himself in the place of blessing is sorrowfully demonstrated in the closing years of Gideon's administration. His sun, which rose so fair, went down in a dark back-ground of worldliness and idolatry (Judg. 8:24-27).
6. ABIMELECH, Father of the King.- Judg. 9
The signal deliverance obtained over the allied forces of Midian kindled quite a loyal feeling among the men of Israel. They entreated Gideon to assume the royal prerogative, and to transmit the same to his sons, of whom he had a goodly number, "three score and ten." Most nobly was the proffered crown rejected, and Jehovah's rule over the people maintained: "I will not rule over you, neither shall my son rule over you; the LORD shall rule over you" (Judg. 8:22, 23). It would have been well for the people of Shechem, and well, too, for Abimelech if he had caught the spirit of his father. But ambition and love of power obtained the mastery in the mind of Abimelech, who of all the sons of Gideon had least right to assume royal or other power in Israel, being the son of a concubine. By craft he secured the good-will of the inhabitants of Shechem, and then cruelly murdered, "upon one stone," his sixty-eight brothers, Jotham, the youngest, escaping. Abimelech was the first person in Israel who usurped royal power. It was on the occasion of Abimelech's accession to the throne, when the elders and men of Shechem were gathered in the valley beneath, that Jotham, standing on a commanding position on the cliffs above, addressed to the assembled congregation the most ancient parable recorded. It was a keen, pointed home-thrust to the conscience of both king and people.
Craft and cruelty inaugurated Abimelech's accession to the throne; but a throne established on iniquity and blood cannot prosper, as the men of Shechem found to their cost, as also the king, who died a shameful and humbling death, especially so regarded by an eastern monarch, and that after a short-lived, troublesome reign of but three years (Judg. 95:3-57).
7. TOLA, Worm.- Judg. 10:1, 2
The next defender of Israel was Tola, of whose actions, and of the state of the people during the twenty-three years of his administration we know nothing. His parentage is given, and where he dwelt and died, but nothing more.
8. JAR, whom God enlightens.- Judg. 10:3-5.
The successor of Tola occupied the territory east of the Jordan, in the country of Gilead. He seems to have been a man fond of pomp and display, and withal very ambitious, as in the brief record we are told that his thirty sons rode on "thirty ass colts," and they had "thirty cities" termed "Havoth-Jair," meaning the cities or villages of Jair. Three verses have been deemed sufficient by the recording Spirit to chronicle the twenty-two years of Jair's administration.
9. JEPHTHAH, the Opener- Judg. 10:6-12; 7.
Israel again lapsed into idolatry. The debasing, cruel, and generally obscene rites which formed an integral part of heathen worship amongst the nations in and surrounding the land of Canaan were quickly learned and practiced by the people, to whom it was said by God Himself, "Thou shalt have no other gods before Me" (Ex. 20:3). The anger of Jehovah burned hot against His people, and He delivered them into the hands of the Philistines and Ammonites; the former people oppressed the tribes lying south and west, while the latter not only crushed those on the eastern boundary of the Jordan, but crossed over the river, and made the tribes of Ephraim, Judah, and Benjamin also suffer. This double and sore oppression lasted eighteen years. Once again, the deliverer arises from the land of Gilead, and from a quarter which least of all reflected honor upon Israel. Jephthah, the son of a harlot-a degree worse even than the parentage of Abimelech, son of a concubine - and expelled from home by his indignant brethren, had gathered around him a troop of bold, bad men, who lived by making raids or incursions into the surrounding parts of the country. This was the man who, in the wisdom and sovereignty of God, was destined to deliver Israel from a captivity of eighteen years. Jephthah, with all his shortcomings, was yet a man who turned to God; personally "a mighty man of valor," yet he did not rely on the strength or bravery of his arm to accomplish deliverance for Israel, but "vowed a vow unto the Lord, and said, If Thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into mine hands." Jephthah judged Israel six years.
10. IBZAN, illustrious.- Judg. 12:8-10.
The only incident recorded about this judge is that he had an equal number of sons and daughters, and, failing to get them married at home, he procured elsewhere thirty daughters for his thirty sons, and sent away his daughters where they could more readily obtain husbands. Ibzan was buried at Bethlehem, after a judgeship of seven years.
11. ELON, Oak.- Judg. 12:11, 12
The next judge was Elon, who directed the affairs of his country for ten years. Nothing is known of this ruler, save that he was a Zebulonite.
12. ABDON, Servile.- Judg. 12:13-15.
Again the record is brief, and the materials exceedingly scanty, but enough is told us to warrant the conclusion that Abdon was a man fond of display, and bent upon the aggrandizement of his family, for not only were his sons privileged to ride on ass colts, but so were his nephews. This honorable distinction was conferred upon seventy members of his family. Abdon judged Israel eight years.
13. SAMSON, Sun.- Judg. 13-16.
The circumstances narrated previous to the birth of Samson are interesting and instructive. Probably, with the exception of Isaac, he is the only one whose birth was announced before-hand, at least the only one recorded in the Old Testament. Samson was a Nazarite from his birth, and although many of his actions and ways were erratic, still so long as he preserved his Nazariteship intact, he was invincible. Practical separation from an evil world is the Christian's only power for God, and the moment he sinks down to the level of things around, he can only become the sport of an unbelieving world, and, robbed of his strength, become weak as water. With Israel, so with the Christian. We can never be on a level with the world. Israel never did stand on equal terms with the surrounding nations; either she formed a footstool for their feet, or they were in as perfect and thorough subjection to her. As Israel walked with and confided in Jehovah, her place amongst the nations was one of headship and supremacy; but when she sank into idolatry and wickedness, she forfeited her exalted, national standing, and became a downtrodden and tributary people. What a lesson to us in all this! Israel was under the rigorous rule of their old and bitter enemies—the Philistines, then in the zenith of their power, for forty years—the longest captivity recorded. During the twenty years of Samson's administration, he seems to have been but feebly, if at all, supported by the nation. The acts of individual prowess are truly wonderful, and have never been equaled, much less surpassed, but Samson falls before the seductions of nature, and although classed amongst the judges who are held in everlasting remembrance (Heb. 11:32), yet, the close of his eventful life is full of solemn warning and instruction. Beware of nature's enticements; beware of tampering with the world from which ye have been delivered (Gal. 1:4).

Sovereigns of the United Kingdom of Israel

1. SAUL (asked for), Israel's first king, reigned forty years.-The history is fully recorded in the first book of Samuel. Man's choice. Type of the future anti-christian king who will reign in Palestine before the Lord will assume the sovereignty of the world (Dan. 11:36).
2. DAVID (beloved), Israel's second king, and the only one born in Bethlehem, the Savior's birthplace, reigned forty years. God's choice. Type of the Lord in millennial conflict and successful warfare. Although Saul was the first king, yet David is always regarded as the head and root of royalty in Israel, as being the object of Jehovah's choice in contrast to Saul, man's choice.
3. SOLOMON (peaceable), Israel's third king, reigned forty years—Is spoken of as "the king and the king's son " (Psa. 72). Type of the Lord in millennial peace and glory. The united reigns of David and Solomon are typical of the millennial reign of the Lord Jesus Christ.
The Christian reader will find it interesting and instructive to note that, as a rule, types bearing upon the system of glory to be set up in the millennium are presented in pairs as Joseph and Benjamin - union of glory and power; Melchizedek and Abraham - priesthood and successful conflict; David and Solomon - righteousness and peace.

Sovereigns of the Kingdom of Judah

Jerusalem, the capital (1 Kings 14:21), distant from the Mediterranean about thirty miles. The kingdom, which consisted of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, existed nearly 400 years under twenty sovereigns, and was finally destroyed by the Chaldeans, under Nebuchadnezzar, 588 B.C.
. REHOBOAM (enlargement of the people), reigned seventeen years.-For the first three years of this monarch's reign, both prince and people walked in the ways of David and Solomon; afterward, however, the land became filled with Sodomite wickedness and idolatry (2 Chron. 12).
2. ABIJAM, or ABIJAH (signification doubtful), reigned three years.-This king trod closely in the steps of his father, but for David's sake the lamp continued to burn at Jerusalem (2 Chron. 13).
3. ASA (physician), reigned forty-one years.-A pious king and zealous uprooter of idolatry; in his old age diseased in his feet (2 Chron. 16).
4. JEHOSHAPHAT [whom] (the Lord Judges), reigned twenty-five years.- Under the reign of this pious monarch, who walked in the godly ways of his father, the kingdom was greatly blessed. The commandments of the Lord, and not the ways of Judah, were the guide of his conduct and ways (2 Chron. 20).
5. JEHORAM (the Lord is exalted), reigned eight years.-This was a wicked king, a murderer and an idolater, walked in the ways of wicked Israel, and died unlamented, besides being denied a grave in the sepulcher of the kings (2 Chron. 21).
6. AHAZIAH [whom] (whom Jehovah sustained), reigned one year.-A wicked king, and who walked in the wickedness of the house of Ahab, according to their and his idolatrous mother's counsel. Slain by Jehu (2 Chron. 22).
7. ATHALIAH [whom] (the Lord afflicts), reigned six years. -A cruel woman, who murdered all the seed royal of Judah, save Joash, who was almost miraculously preserved. Athaliah was slain by her captains and officers (2 Chron. 23).
8, JEHOASH [whom] (the Lord has given), reigned forty years.-This youthful monarch walked well when counseled by Jehoiada, the priest, but on his death, the princes of Judah aided the king in the affairs of the state, and both king and kingdom thereby suffered. Slain by his servants (2 Chron. 24).
9. AMAZIAH [whom] (Jah - a form of the Divine title "Jehovah"—has strengthened), reigned twenty-nine years. -This king was very unsteady in his conduct. For a time he walked well, but very soon forsook the Lord, and brought a violent death upon himself, and war and distress upon the kingdom (2 Chron. 25).
10. AZARIAH or UZZIAH (help of the Lord), reigned fifty-two years.- For a considerable time this king earnestly sought the Lord and walked according to Divine counsel. Hence God prospered him in battle, and caused his name to be widely spread abroad. But when thus exalted his heart became filled with pride, and impiously usurping priestly functions, he was struck with leprosy, and continued a leper in a separate house assigned him till the day of his death (2 Chron. 26).
11. JOTHAM (the Lord is perfect), reigned sixteen years.- This good king "became mighty, because he prepared his ways before the Lord his God." Beautiful testimony! (2 Chron. 27)
12. AHAZ (possessor), reigned sixteen years.-This was probably the most wicked and idolatrous of all Judah's kings, and almost brought the kingdom to ruin. The more he was afflicted, the more he sinned. He was buried in Jerusalem, but not in the sepulchers of the kings (2 Chron. 28).
13. HEZEKIAH (strength of the Lord), reigned twenty-nine years.-This godly and devout king was next to Solomon, the most honored of all the Judean monarchs; his zeal and earnestness were remarkable (2 Chron. 32).
14. MANASSEH (forgetting), reigned fifty-five years.-This long-lived monarch, spite of faithful warnings and earnest remonstrances, did more evil than any of his predecessors. He filled Jerusalem with innocent blood, and the temple with the vilest forms of idolatry; he instigated Judah to work wickedness of a character worse than the very heathen, and thus greatly hastened the ruin of all Israel. In his old age he turned to the Lord (2 Chron. 33).
15. AMON (artificer), reigned two years.-Amon trod closely in the wicked ways of his father, but not in the after repentance, and was slain in his own house (2 Chron. 33).
16. JOSIAH (may the Lord heal) [him], reigned thirty-one years.- In the eighth year of his reign, Josiah sought and found the Lord, and four years afterward began to extirpate idolatry out of the land—root and branch. This godly king's reign was signalized by close attention to the written word of God (2 Chron. 35).
17. JEHOAHAZ [whom] (the Lord holdeth), reigned three months.-This bad king's reign was brought to an abrupt termination by the king of Egypt, who deposed him, sending him in chains to Egypt, and making Judea a tributary province (2 Chron. 36).
18. JEHOIAKIM (may the Lord establish) [him], reigned eleven years.-A wicked king, seated on the throne by the king of Egypt, and deposed by the king of Babylon (2 Chron. 36).
19. JEHOIACHIN (may the Lord establish) [him], reigned three months and ten days.-A wicked king, deposed and taken captive to Babylon for thirty-seven years; afterward released from his long imprisonment and raised to dignity (2 Chron. 36).
20. ZEDEKIAH (righteousness of the Lord), reigned eleven years.-The third son of the godly Josiah, and last king of Judah, who perfidiously broke his oath to Nebuchadnezzar, and hardened himself against the faithful ministry of Jeremiah the prophet; he was carried captive to Babylon where he died (2 Chron. 36).
NOTES.
About the half of those sovereigns were good; hence the long continuance of the kingdom over that of Israel.
It will be observed that, as a rule, the mothers of the Judah kings are specially named, but not so in the case of the kings of Israel.
There is only one female sovereign amongst those of Judah, and not one amongst the sovereigns of Israel.
The fathers of the godly kings, Hezekiah and Josiah, were bad men, thus illustrating the sovereign goodness and choice of God.
It is worthy of careful observation that, according to the personal piety and faithfulness of the monarch, Judah was blest, and the country enjoyed peace and prosperity.
The longest reign was that of Manasseh's, fifty-five years; while the shortest was that of Jehoahaz, which lasted only three months.
The books of the Chronicles specially detail the doings of these kings.

Sovereigns of the Kingdom of Israel

Tirzah, in the first instance, became the capital city and seat of government, but during the reign of Omri, Samaria, which was distant from Jerusalem about forty-two miles, became the royal city. The kingdom, consisting of the revolted ten tribes, existed for nearly 260 years under nineteen kings, till completely overthrown by the Assyrians under Shalmaneser, 721 B. C.
1. JEROBOAM [whose] (people is numerous), reigned twenty-two years.- The kingdom established on idolatry, and a vile priesthood instituted. Jeroboam was a noted idolater, and gave character to the after history of the kingdom (1 Kings 14).
2. NADAB (liberal or noble), reigned two years.-This wicked king followed in his father's evil courses, and was conspired against and slain by Baasha 1 Kings 15).
3. BAASHA (wickedness), reigned twenty-four years.- True to the meaning of his name, a most wicked king; the destroyer of the house of Jeroboam, and his own house threatened with a like total and utter destruction (1 Kings 16.).
4. ELAH (to be strong), reigned two years.- Another bad king and a drunkard, conspired against and slain by his captain, Zimri (1 Kings 16.).
5. ZIMRI (my song), reigned seven days.- A kingdom founded on treason and murder, cannot possibly stand. This wicked king employed the one week of his brief reign in utterly destroying the wicked house of Baasha, and then in despair, burned the king's house and himself along with it (1 Kings 16.).
6. OMRI (servant of Jehovah), reigned twelve years.- This popular captain of the host was unanimously chosen king by the army. He excelled his predecessors in wickedness. After reigning six years in Tirzah, he bought Samaria and made it his capital, which was ever afterward continued as such (1 Kings 16).
7. AHAB (father' s brother), reigned twenty-two years.- This apostate monarch bore a cordial dislike to the faithful Elijah. He married Jezebel, a noted idolatress, and patron of Baal worship. This king exceeded in wickedness and idolatry all the kings before him; his house was to be totally destroyed (1 Kings 22).
8. AHAZIAH [whom] (Jehovah sustained), reigned two years.-A most wicked king. He "walked in the way of his father (Ahab), and in the way of his mother (the wicked Jezebel), and in the way of Jeroboam" (the noted idolater) (2 Kings 1).
9. JEHORAM or JORAM (the Lord is exalted), reigned twelve years.- This was another bad king who walked in the idolatrous courses of Jeroboam, and followed his mother—Jezebel's wicked ways. Baal worship, to which his father, Ahab, was so warmly addicted, was to some extent, at least, put down, although other forms of idolatry were practiced (2 Kings 9).
10. JEHU (He [is] Jehovah), reigned twenty-eight years.- The stern destroyer of the house of Ahab, and zealous uprooter of Baal worship; he afterward, himself turned to idolatry, and worshipped the calves set up by Jeroboam (2 Kings 10).
11. JEHOAHAZ [whom] (the Lord holdeth), reigned seventeen years.- Another wicked king, but in an extremity he "besought the Lord." During this reign the royal power was greatly curtailed by the incursions of the Syrians (2 Kings 13).
12. JEHOASH or JOASH (the Lord is gathering together), reigned sixteen years.- A brave king, but one of the many who trod in the steps of wicked Jeroboam, the founder of the kingdom. This monarch's touching appeal to the dying Elisha, is really beautiful, and displays the feelings of a heart not wholly turned aside from God (2 Kings 13).
13. JEROBOAM II [whose] (people is numerous), reigned forty-one years.- This king followed in the steps of his namesake—the first king of Israel, but the Lord pitying the infliction of His people, used Jeroboam greatly in restoring the northern coasts of the kingdom according to the prophecy of Jonah. A brave and warlike monarch (2 Kings 14).
14. ZACHARIAH [whom] (the Lord remembered), reigned six months.-This king sinned liked his fathers. He was conspired against by Shallum, and publicly slain in presence of the people, and in his death, the house of Jehu became extinct (2 Kings 15).
15. SHALLUM (retribution), reigned one month.- Ascended the throne by conspiracy and murder, and himself slain in turn (2 Kings 15).
16. MENAHEM (comforter), reigned ten years.- Another bad king, and, withal, exceedingly cruel (2 Kings 15).
17. PEKAHIAH (the Lord has opened his eyes), reigned two years.- A wicked king, conspired against by his captain and slain (2 Kings 15).
18.. PEKAH (open-eyed), reigned twenty years.- Another wicked king, who, like his father, was conspired against and slain (2 Kings 15).
19. HOSHEA (help, deliverance), reigned nine years.- A wicked king, but sinned not like his fathers; a wily diplomatist (2 Kings 17).
NOTES.
Not one of these kings were really good men; of only one (Jehoahaz), is it said he "besought the Lord," and that under deep pressure, and at a time of real distress.
Idolatry from first to last characterized the reigns of these kings, and it would be well to note carefully that oft recurring expression "walked in the ways of Jeroboam," as Israel's first king really gave character to the kingdom during its entire history.
The longest reign was that of Jeroboam II, and the shortest reign Zimri's—the former reigned forty-one years, and the latter seven days.
Observe that there are two kings of the name of "Jeroboam."
The fifth king of Judah and the ninth king of Israel were both named "Jehoram;" and the sixth king of Judah and the eighth king of Israel were named "Ahaziah;" the seventeenth king of Judah and the eleventh king of Israel were called "Jehoahaz;" while the eighth king of Judah and the twelfth king of Israel were both called "Jehoash."
The books of Kings specially detail the history of these kings.
There were eight dynasties in the history of this kingdom, the founders of which were Jeroboam, Baasha, Omri, Jehu, Shallum, Menahem, Pekah, Hoshea.

Identification of the Nations Noted in Gen. 10

The oldest document extant for the chronologist is Gen. 5, and for the historian, Gen. 10. In these chapters we have Divine sources to draw from, and a Divine basis to work upon. The instructions, therefore, upon those useful branches of study, chronology and history, is authoritative and invaluable. All conclusions drawn from other sources ever prove misleading, and are generally overturned by others better taught. The moment we leave the sure pages of inspiration we are off the ground of authority, and all is mere theory and guess work.
In this chapter, and only here, have we an account of the rise of nations, peoples, and tongues, and of the dispersion of mankind. The peopling of the earth by families, all speaking one language, having one common interest, and dwelling together in unity, was certainly part of the Divine plan in the wise and beneficent government of God: "Be fruitful and multiply and replenish the earth" (Gen. 9:1). This gracious provision for the blessing of man and creation was not accepted, and men sought to centralize them selves on the earth in direct independence of God. But what God would have accomplished in goodness, had man been obedient, He has brought about in judgment, because of man's self-will.
A name and a center were sought for in the "city" and "tower," which men began to build on the plains of Shinar, but which, blessed be God for His intervention, was not finished, for "they left off to build the city." This was the first general confederacy amongst mankind. How God viewed this daring and impious attempt, and how it was utterly defeated, we are informed in the early part of Gen. 11. "And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower which the children of men builded. And the LORD said, Behold the people is one, and they have all one language: and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them which they have imagined to do.
Go to, let us go down and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech. So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth and they left off to build the city." Thus the very thing they sought to avert—scattering abroad—was what God accomplished in judgment. Surely, too, there is mercy mingled in all this, for while self-will is as rampant now as on the plains of Dura, the numerous tongues and nationalities effectually hinder an intelligent combination of mankind. Most blessed it is that the many tongues given as an expression of governmental judgment are afterward found publishing the wonderful works of God in grace at Pentecost (Acts 2), and will yet be used in proclaiming the glories of the Lamb (Rev. 7).
Part of the Gen. 11, down to verse 19, precede the historical account of the separation of mankind into nations, as detailed in Gen. 10. This seems to us clear, from the fact that the moral reason of the dispersion is given in Gen. 11; and further, that "Peleg," in whose days the dispersion took place (Gen. 10:25), is named in chronological sequence in Gen. 11:19.
Adam is the one common head of the human family; the root and source of mankind. But the rise of nations as such, and origin of the many tongues—which ethnology resolves into three fountain heads—are in this highly important chapter traced up to the three sons of Noah. As individuals of the race, Adam was, of course, there as our progenitor; but viewed as heads and sources of families and nations, they stand in a peculiar and distinct relation to the world.
It must not be supposed that any of the peoples here named are extinct, that they have passed off the scene forever; for man, many of them are, but certainly not for God. It is a principle of great importance in the ways of God on earth, that every individual and every people who have here acted their part, and, as such, are accountable to God—the moral Governor of the universe—will re-appear in the closing days, to give an account of their stewardship. This is generally admitted in the case of individuals, but collective responsibility will as certainly have to be answered for, and this is not so readily allowed. All the peoples named in Gen. 10, will nationally or representatively re-appear in the coming crisis. All must come up for judgment, and the bearing of this truth upon the prophetic future, imparts immense solemnity and completeness to the dark period prior to the setting up of Christ's millennial reign on the earth.
The three sons of Noah were Japheth, the eldest, Shem, the second, and Ham, the youngest. When the order of grace is given, Shem is first named (Gen. 9:26); when the order of birth or nature, Japheth comes first (Gen. 10:2). Apart from the plural ending "im" of many of the names, as Mizraim, Ludim, it is clear that the persons here named do not appear as individuals merely, but as denoting races and nations.

Descendants of Japheth

1. Gomer, the eldest son of Japheth, is the father of the ancient Cimmerians, who settled on the northern shore of the Black Sea. The modern and familiar name "Crimea," and the "Cimbri" of olden times, are derived from the Cimmerians, the immediate descendants of Gomer. The Gauls and Celts of ancient times, and of more modern date the Germans, French, and English, or British rather, are descended from Gomer.
2. Magog evidently refers to the Scythians or Mongolian tribes who settled on the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea.
3. Madai is readily identified as the well-known Medes, who were allied to the Persians in after years (Isa. 13:17).
4. Javan is the ancient name of Greece (Dan. 8:21).
5. Tubal we identify as the modern Tobolsk, capital of Asiatic Russia. The peoples descended from Tubal were located between the Black Sea and the Caspian.
6. Meshech, from its association with Tubal and connection with Gog, or Russia, in Ezek. 38, 39, we identify as Moscow, not only a large and populous province, but the city of that name, forming, till the beginning of this century, the metropolis of the whole Russian Empire.
7. Tiras is in all probability the progenitor of the Thracians.
8. Ashkenaz, whose descendants settled in the northern and southern side of the Black Sea.
9. Riphath, the father of the tribes who located themselves on the Rhipean or Carpathian mountains, pretty far north of Tiras or Thrace.
10. Togarmah, better known as Armenia, the people of which assert that they are descended from "Targom," or the Togarmah of Scripture.
11. Elishah, a portion of the Greek race inhabiting the isles of the ֶgean Sea (Ezek. 27:7).
12. Tarshish is identified by many as Tuscany, in Italy; it may be so, but the proof is not so satisfactory as we would wish. There was an eastern city and a western one both of that name.
13. Kittim or Chittim is the ancient name for the now noted island of Cyprus, but we regard it as denoting the islands and sea coast of the Mediterranean under the yoke of Rome (Dan. 11:30).
14. Dodanim. believed by many to signify an ancient Greek race.
"By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands, everyone after his tongue, after their familes in their nations." It will be observed from the foregoing brief geographical notes, that the "seas round which the descendants of Japheth located, were the Mediterranean, Caspian, and Black Seas; this will help us to understand what is meant by the "isles of the Gentiles." A similar expression occurs in Zeph. 2:11, etc.

Descendants of Ham

1. Cush is wrongly translated "Ethiopia" in Isa. 18:1, and elsewhere. The Cushites settled partly on the Nile and partly on the Euphrates. "Rivers of Ethiopia" or Cush, are therefore the rivers Nile and Euphrates.
2. Mizraim is a plural word, denoting both Upper and Lower Egypt.
3. Phut, an African people, known as the Libyans, and from whom the Moors are in turn descended.
4. Canaan is the general designation of the nations inhabiting the country from the Mediterranean on the west, to the Jordan on the east, and prior to Israel's occupation.
5. Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, Sabtecha, Sheba, and Dedan, these seven names all refer to peoples settled at or near the Persian Gulf.
6. Babel, Erech, Accad, Calneh, these four cities originally formed the strength of the Babylonian kingdom.
7. Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah, Resen, these four cities originally constituted the strength of the Assyrian kingdom.
8. Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim, Pathrusim, Casluhim, these six, it will be observed, have the dual ending, and denominate various African tribes or nations.
9. Philistim are the well-known people who settled within the western borders of Canaan, namely, the Philistines.
10. Caphtorim are the original inhabitants of the Isle of Crete, now known as Candia in the Mediterranean, once a mighty kingdom of 100 cities, - so sang Homer.

Descendants of Shem

1. Elam is the ancient name for Persia.
2. Asshur is the country of Assyria.
3. Arphaxed is the northern portion of Assyria.
4. Lud refers to a people who settled in Asia Minor.
5. Aram, is the Bible designation of Syria (Num. 23:7).
Here several of the names, as Salah, Peleg, must be read simply as the heads of races or peoples.
6. Eber or Heber, from whence sprung the Hebrews.
The most of the other names refer to tribes inhabiting various parts of Arabia.
The principal peoples descended from JAPHETH, were the Medians, Greeks, Romans, Russians, Gauls, and Britons.
The principal peoples descended from HAM, were the Egyptians Africans, Babylonians, Philistines, and Canaanites.
The principal peoples descended from SHEM, were the Hebrews, Persians, Assyrians, and many of the Arabian Tribes.
Most of the nations sprung from Japheth are distinctly pointed out as reappearing in the closing days under GOG, the then Emperor of all the Russias (Ezek. 38, 39 for Greece, see Zech. 9:13). Egypt and Assyria are spoken of in the past and future, as king of the south and king of the north (Dan. 11). The ancient enemies of Israel are the Philistines, Edomites, Moabites, Ammonites, and others are also named, as gathering in concert against the beloved people of Jehovah, when restored to their land, for which, see that prophetic Psa. 83. Speaking generally, the descendants of Noah's sons will be found in the closing days, either under the chieftainship of Gog (Russia) -expressing their hatred and hostility to the jews; or under the Beast (the revived Roman power)—in open antagonism to the Lamb and His heavenly people.
The place which these nations occupy in the coming future, suppose the restoration of Israel—at least, Judah—to her land, and the old enmity to that people breaking out afresh; yea, more bitterly than before. The day of glory and blessing for Israel is nigh at hand; but first, the church will be translated to heaven, then will follow the restoration of the Jewish people (Isa. 18), to be succeeded by judgment upon the congregated nations, closed by the grand and glorious reign of Jesus over the millennial earth for 1000 years.

The Holy Land and Its Capital City, Jerusalem

Palestine is not the most ancient, but it is by far the most memorable of all lands, as Jerusalem, its capital, is the most renowned of all cities, and its people the most interesting of all nations. Here the pilgrim fathers of Israel wandered, lived, and died—traversing the country from its northern limit to its southern entrance. This, too, was the goodly land which Moses longed to enter, but which he was only permitted to see, its glories being exhibited to him by its Creator and Beautifier. Into the Holy Land Jehovah led His redeemed host through the dry bed of Jordan. The impetuous torrent was driven back, and stood silent at the presence of the God of Jacob (Psa. 114). What a land of cloud and sky, of darkness and light—a land of abounding evil, and yet of super-abounding grace. What miracles, moral and physical, have been witnessed in the land of Canaan. Here Samson, the Nazarite judge, displayed his strength and personal prowess against the war-like Philistines. David, too, the warrior king of Israel, performed those wonderful exploits which were not only celebrated by the maidens of Judah, but which have been rehearsed in song and story ever since, and his strange eventful life written in tablets which will never perish. Here, too, reigned Solomon, whose glory and wealth, whose wisdom and power were world-wide, and even formed the subject of converse and inquiry in far-distant courts and lands. Here were the sovereigns of Judah and Israel interred, some of whom await the blast of the trump to rise and enter a glory prepared for them by David's Son and Lord; while others, alas! will answer to the voice of Christ at the close of the future earthly era of blessing, and will come forth to the "resurrection of damnation." The pen of the historian and the pencil of the artist have made us familiar with the scenes where Isaiah uttered his grand and comprehensive prophecies, which fill the soul with their grandeur, and which sweep the whole range and extent of the Divine purposes as to the future. Here, too, the weeping prophet, Jeremiah, poured out his lamentations, and for three-and-twenty years ceased not to warn the Judah part of the nation of near judgment. John the Baptist also lifted up his solitary voice in this land, preparing a people for the Messiah and His kingdom. But surely all is eclipsed by the brighter light which shone upon Zion when Jehovah-Jesus entered His country and visited His people. What an undying interest attaches to those cities and towns trod by the feet of the Son of God.
"Thou land of the cross and the glory,
Whose brightness at last will shine
Afar through the earth - What a story
Of darkness and light is thine."
Palestine was anciently regarded as occupying the center of the known world, and certainly its geographical situation is somewhat remarkable. Jerusalem at least occupies a central position in midst of the inhabited world, for "thus saith the Lord God: This is Jerusalem: I have set it in the midst of the nations and countries that are round about her (Ezek. 5:5). Palestine is protected on the north by the Lebanon range of mountains, the summits of which are almost perpetually capped with snow; on the west it is washed by the waters of the Mediterranean; on the south lies Egypt and adjoining desert, the scene of the forty years' wanderings; while on the east from the Jordan stretches out the great Arabian desert to the Euphrates, a distance of about 300 miles. It is difficult to give the exact length of the country in miles, as geographers considerably differ in defining the limits of the land from north to south, and even from west to east; but it has been computed that its extreme length is from 140 to 150 miles or thereby, having an average breadth of about 40 miles, but in some extreme points it is about double that. If the territory east of the Jordan, occupied by the two tribes and a half, be embraced, then the land of Canaan would nearly cover 20,000 square miles.
During the time of our Lord the whole country was divided into three parts, the northern one being Galilee (the intellectual), the middle province being Samaria (the defiled), while the southern portion was Judea (the religious). In the glorious reign of Solomon the country rivaled all the kingdoms of the earth for grandeur. Its population was immense (1 Kings 3:8), its social prosperity great (1 Kings 4:20), its commerce successful and extensive (1 Kings 9:26-28). The treasures and rarities of India were imported into Palestine by a regularly established merchant navy (1 Kings 10:22), and gold and silver were so abundant that the latter was "nothing accounted of" in these palmy days (1 Kings 10:21). Soon, however, the fine gold became dim, for what is the glory of man but the flower of grass which withereth and perisheth in a day. Solomon's sins are recounted in first Kings, 1 Kings 11, as also the Divine threat to rend the kingdom in twain (1 Kings 11:12, 13), which was fulfilled on the accession of his son Rehoboam (1 Kings 12). Thenceforth, within the limits of the hitherto undivided kingdom, two independent monarchies were established, respectively known as the kingdom of Israel, or tentribed kingdom, first Tizri, afterward Samaria, being the capital; and second, the kingdom of Judah, or tribes of Judah and Benjamin, Jerusalem being as formerly the capital.
The former possession of Canaan was entered upon, held for a brief period, and lost on the ground of the people's obedience (see book of Deuteronomy where the principle is fully stated), but the future entrance into Canaan and lasting possession of the country will be solely on the ground of sovereign grace and unconditional promise made to Abram and the fathers. Thus the future Palestine will stretch from the Nile on the west, across the great Arabian desert till the Euphrates on the east; its northern boundary, too, will be somewhat enlarged (Gen. 15:18; Ezek. 48). This we suppose will increase the country to about three times its present size, if not more. We do not see that a future return of the Jews to their land in unbelief and by the aid of an unnamed maritime power (Isa. 18); the greatly increased size of the country as already pointed out; the regular settlement of the tribes after their national conversion, and orderly arrangement in parallel bands across the breadth of the country from west to east-from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates (Ezek. 48), and the erection of a magnificent temple, constructed according to Divine plan, and of immense size, so as to form an house of prayer for "all people," are statements to be set aside by any system of allegory or figure. Most certainly, no past fulfillment of them can be adduced, and we are convinced, that the more carefully the prophetic Scriptures are read, and their connection with Israel seen, that their future and literal fulfillment must be admitted by all candid and reflecting minds.
The names by which Palestine is spoken of are as follows:-
(1) Canaan, Lev. 14:34; (2) Palestine, so named by the ancients; (3) The Holy Land, Zech. 2:12; (4) The Lord's Land, Hos. 9:3; (5) Thy Land, O Immanuel, Isa. 8:8; (6) Land of Israel, 1 Samuel 13:19; (7) Land of the Hebrews, Gen. 40:15; (8) Land of Judah, Isa. 26:1; (9) Land of Promise, Heb. 11:9; (10) The Pleasant Land, Dan. 8:9.
Jerusalem, the ancient capital of the kingdom, is named in the Scriptures upwards of 800 times, and although she has suffered more than any city on the face of the earth, having been besieged and pillaged about 20 times, and her present degradation under the Turk is complete, and her restoration humanly impossible, yet, a little while, and Jerusalem will rise from the dust of ages, and become the earthly metropolis and center of the coming era of glory (Isa. 60). This wonderful city—wonderful in its very ruins and sacred associations, will be rebuilt in a style of surpassing magnificence. The whole extent of the "oblation" or holy part of the land lying between the portions assigned to Judah and Benjamin, has been computed to form a square of about fifty miles; within this area, the temple, gardens, and city will be situated, the latter forming a square of about thirty-six miles (Ezek. 48:8-22). The temple, not on the site of the old one, will be a costly structure, and may be about a mile in length (for these and other particulars, consult the prophet Ezekiel, last nine chapters). Jehovah Shammah, meaning "the Lord is there," will be Jerusalem's new name in the day of her gladness.
We forbear a detailed account of Jerusalem's past and present, as in almost all biblical works of reference this is done, and nothing new can at present be furnished.

Jerusalem

Fallen is thy throne, O Israel!
Silence is o'er thy plains;
Thy dwellings all lie desolate,
Thy children weep in chains.
Where are the dews that fed thee
On Etham's barren shore?
That fire from heaven that led thee
Now lights thy path no more.
Lord, Thou didst love Jerusalem;
Once she was all Thine own:
Her love Thy fairest heritage,
Her power Thy glory's throne,
Till evil came and blighted
Thy long-loved olive-tree,
And Salem's shrines were lighted
For other gods than Thee.
Then sank the star of Solyma,
Then pass'd her glory's day,
Like heath that in the wilderness
The light wind whirls away.
Silent and waste her bowers,
Where once the mighty trode;
And sunk those guilty towers
Where Baal reign'd as God.
"Go," said the Lord, "ye conquerors,
Steep in her blood your swords,
And raze to earth her battlements,
For they are not the Lord's.
Tell Zion's mournful daughter
O'er kindred bones she'll tread,
And Hinnom's vale of slaughter
Shall hide but half her dead."
But soon shall other pictured scenes
In brighter vision rise,
When Zion's sun shall sevenfold shine
On all her mourner's eyes;
And on her mountains beauteous stand
The messengers of peace;
"Salvation by the Lord's right hand,"
They shout and never cease.
MOORE

Scripture Information Respecting Jerusalem

Jerusalem's future is the special testimony of the Hebrew Prophet's (see especially that magnificent millennial description, Isaiah 60).
[History records no less than thirty-four instances of Jerusalem being besieged. Besides the foregoing, Jerusalem has been attacked by the Grecians, Syrians, Egyptians, Parthians, Romans, and Europeans.]
ITS DESOLATION.
RESTORED JERUSALEM.
Jerusalem, when reconstructed anew, will cover the site of the old and present city, but will be greatly enlarged, probably occupying with its suburbs and gardens an area of about fifty miles (Ezek. 48), and lying between the portions assigned to Judah and Benjamin. The city proper, will probably be about thirty-six miles in circumference. The millennial temple will be built anew from its foundation, and according to Divine patterns and measurements-not on the site of the old one, nor on that to be erected and afterward destroyed, upon the removal of the church to heaven. Zechariah 14, also the prophets Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel, supply particulars of deep and abiding interest as to the Jewish future.
"Joy to His ancient people!
Your bonds He comes to sever-
And now, 'tis done! the Lord hath won,
And ye are free forever."

The Ancient Country of Edom

Edom extended from the Dead Sea on the north to the Elanitic Gulf on the south, the eastern arm of the Red Sea. It was about one hundred miles in length, and about twenty miles broad. The country, although not wanting in rich meadows and fertile plains, was, yet on the whole, a mountainous one, rising in some places to an altitude of 3000 feet. It was anciently a kingdom of considerable importance and figures largely in prophecy and history, the ruins of no less than thirty towns, and that within a three days' journey of the Red Sea, fully attest to the eyes of the western world the position which Edom at one time occupied.
The Edomites were governed by dukes and kings long before Israel was formed into a kingdom (Gen. 36), and maintained a haughty independence until subdued by David, after an immense slaughter of its people. The country was then garrisoned, and the Edomites became tributary to David (1 Chron. 18:12, 13); afterward a deputy was appointed for its government under the Judean kings (1 Kings 22:47). Hadad, an Edomite, singularly preserved from the almost universal massacre of his countrymen by Joab (1 Kings 11:14-25), attempted in vain to regain his country's independence. They revolted on several occasions, but suffered a terrible check under Amaziah, king of Judah, who took their principal city, Sela, and cruelly killed ten thousand of the people. The awful cliffs and precipitous rocks, some of which rise to a height of a thousand feet, were the scene of a truly dreadful deed. Ten thousand of the Edomites, spared from the destruction under Amaziah, were led up to the top of their own heights, and then cast down to the awful depths beneath (2 Chron. 25:11, 12). It was a cruel act, and although the
Edomites were Israel's bitterest enemies, and the people against whom Jehovah hath a perpetual hatred, yet without direct Divine sanction, such a mode of stamping out a revolt is indefensible. After the destruction of their renowned and almost impregnable city, Sela, better known as Petra, the cities Teman and Bozrah, became important centers of commerce, and are frequently referred to in the Prophets. It was in the harbors of Edom on the Red Sea, then under Israel, that Solomon built and equipped, a navy, which brought the produce of the south and east to Jerusalem.
Again and again was Edom "impoverished" and her mountains laid waste by Israel, and as often did she resolve to return and build her desolate places, but in vain, for they are "the people against whom the Lord hath indignation forever" (Mal. 1:1-4). They were closely allied to Israel, being the descendants of Esau, Jacob's brother. The seeds of discord sown between the brothers, the founders of the nations of Israel and Edom (Gen. 27), in course of time ripened into open and determined hostility on the part of the Edomites. Their haughty refusal to allow their brethren of Israel to pass through their country out of the Arabian desert, although permission to do so was most courteously requested (Num. 20:14-21), was the first decided act of animosity. Their hatred to the people of Jehovah's choice intensified as time wore on, and at the capture of Jerusalem by the Babylonians, the Edomites voluntarily joined the besiegers, and greatly rejoiced in the opportunity afforded them of wreaking their vengeance on the land and people of Judah. "Rase it, rase it, even to the foundation thereof" (Psa. 137:7) was the bitter cry of the Edomites, as they eagerly hastened to assist in the destruction of Jerusalem. Alas! the Chaldeans needed no such cry to urge them on in executing judgment upon the guilty city. Jehovah says,. "I am very sore displeased with the heathen that are at ease: for I was but a little displeased, and they helped forward the affliction" (Zech. 1:15). The help the Edomites afforded the Chaldeans in the ever memorable invasion of Judea and successful capture of Jerusalem, with their exultation and triumph on the complete downfall of the kingdom, is the great burden of the prophet Obadiah, and forms the main ground of judgment upon the land and people of Idumea, foretold by the prophets Isaiah, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, and others. On the deportation of Judah to Babylon, the Edomites took possession of Judean territory on the south. The degradation of Judah was complete, and the triumph of the Edomite also, when not only Judea became a mere province of the Roman Empire, being governed by a procurator sent from the imperial city, but when in Jerusalem itself, sat a race of Idumean kings. After the sack and destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, Edom or Idumea disappears from the page of history until the time of the Crusaders, who, seeing its importance in a military point of view, entered it on several occasions, and built a pretty strong fortress, ten or twelve miles from Petra. From that time till the year 1812, when the traveler Buckhardt, wandering in the desolate regions of the east, accidentally discovered Petra—the ancient country of Edom was quite unknown. The English people have now been made acquainted with that grand region of departed greatness from the splendid drawings and sketches which successive travelers from the year 1828 have furnished.
Is the cry of the Edomite hushed forever? Will those rock-hewn dwellings ever again be inhabited? Will those mountain fastnesses be occupied, those precipitous cliffs ever be scaled, those awful and gloomy defiles again trod by the descendants of its ancient inhabitants? Yes. And here we turn, gladly turn, to the precious pages of Inspiration, in which the veil is lifted as to Edom's future doom. The prophetic lamp is turned to the Mount of Seir, once more occupied by the people having a "perpetual hatred" to Israel (Ezek. 35:5). It is only of recent date that the fearless children of the Desert could be prevailed upon to pass through the gloomy recesses of Petra, and then only during daylight. The whole district is one shunned and dreaded by the Arabs, who regard it as specially under the ban of the Divine displeasure, and in this they are right (Ezek. 35:9; 25:13). But the might and wisdom of Edom will again be gathered on her mountains, and play her part in the scenes of the coming crisis. From the prophet Daniel, (Dan. 11), we learn that the future king of the North (then occupying the present Asiatic possessions of the Sultan) will assault the nations lying contiguous to the Holy Land, but Edom, Moab, and Ammon will escape out of his hand, while the stronger and more powerful country of "Egypt shall not escape" (Dan. 11:40-43). Why is Edom spared? Why is not full and final judgment then executed upon that proud and bitterly hostile people to Israel? Why? because the sword of Jehovah must first be bathed in the land of Idumea, and the glorious apparel of the Conqueror stained in the blood of its people (Isa. 63:1-6). But besides this awful judgment which the Lord will alone execute (Isa. 63:5) in accomplishing the redemption of His earthly people, there is another reason why Edom escapes the vengeance of the king of the North, or "the Assyrian." The prophets Isaiah (Isa. 11:14) and Ezekiel (Ezek. 25:14) foretold that these very nations, Edom, Moab, and Ammon, were to be destroyed by Israel in the day that her captivity is turned by Jehovah, and so the prophetic lamp reveals their doom.
The discoveries of travelers in late years in the mountains and plains of Edom have brought to light numerous interesting facts bearing upon the history of that people—a history more ancient even than that of Israel's. These ruins "present such a collection of novelties as can be seen nowhere else on this globe." The first historical notice in Scripture of Edom is in Gen. 14:6, where Edom is called " Mount Seir," the name of the progenitor of the Horites, the original inhabitants of the country; the last historical notice of Edom is in Malachi 1, and between these, the first and last books of the Old Testament, the notices regarding it are very numerous. The capital of this very ancient kingdom is one of the grandest sights in the east. What a full and corroborative testimony to the written Word of God is furnished by these grand and solitary ruins. The cliffs and perpendicular rocks, rising from 80 to 250 feet—the ruined temples, with their solitary Corinthian pillars and really handsome architecture and masonry—the theater cut out of the solid rock, and evidently seated to contain from three to four thousand spectators—the numerous chambers, rooms, and recesses cut out of the front of these overhanging cliffs, and other monumental remains too numerous to mention, make Petra one of the grandest spectacles in these eastern lands. Why have those rock-hewn dwellings, tombs, and stately edifices stood amidst the general crash? Empires have risen, flourished, and fallen; but here is a kingdom, hoary with age, whose antiquity is unquestionable, standing before us after a history of nigh 4000 years, a silent, standing and eloquent protest against the unbelief of the nineteenth century. Has God preserved these noble ruins from decay merely to feast the eyes of the traveler with their rare grandeur? Nay, the attacks now so freely hurled against the Pentateuch and Prophets, are sternly rebuked by the incontestible evidence of their Divine inspiration, furnished by the ruins of Petra.
The discovery of this old city from the era of the "Crusades" by the traveler Burckhardt, afterward visited by Laborde, and since fully described by pen and pencil by succeeding explorers, is thus spoken of by Dr. Kitto in his Bible Illustrations:—
"Of the Edomites not even a name remains; and their city has for ages remained broken and desolate. The very site, indeed, was long uncertain, and its place was undetermined in the maps. But, as in the index which closes a book, the various events of centuries are crowded into a few pages: so in these latter days, events that used to be spread over centuries are crowded together into days and years, and the old world history seems tame to the history we live. In this wonderful age events come in ‘multitudes—multitudes to the valley of decision;' and old nations and cities—Egypt, Assyria, Edom; Thebes, Nineveh, Petra—are called forth from their tombs... Edom was called—and Petra answered to her name. There she stands, beautiful in her coat of many colors; yet empty, and void, and waste... Singularly beautiful even in ruin, and with the freshness of youth still upon her brow, the utter desolation in which the daughter of Edom' lies shut up amidst the silence of her mountains, is most impressive, and even affecting. But all this was foreseen and foretold with great distinctness by the prophets; and these fearful denunciations and their exact fulfillment furnish an invulnerable argument for the inspiration of the Scriptures; while the present state of the rich and beautiful region in which Edom dwelt, is a most awful monument of the Lord's displeasure against idolatry and wickedness... With the book ( Malachi) containing this prediction concerning Edom, the roll of Old Testament prophecy closes."

Scripture Information Respecting Edom

Historical Account of Babylon

The Chaldean kingdom, the oldest on record, of which Babylon was the capital, lay between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and was about 400 miles in length and about 100 in breadth.
Babylon was undoubtedly the grandest city ever built by man. "Of all the seats of empire—of all the cities that the pride or power of man has built on the surface of the globe—Babylon was the greatest. Its greatness, as it was originated so, in large measure was secured by its natural position. Its founders took advantage of the huge spur of tertiary rock, which projects itself from the long inclined plain of the Syrian desert into the alluvial basin of Mesopotamia, thus furnishing a dry and solid platform on which a flourishing city might rest, whilst it was defended on the south by the vast morass or lake, if not estuary, extending in that remote period from the Persian Gulf. On this vantage-ground it stood, exactly crossing the line of traffic between the Mediterranean coast and the Iranian mountains; just, also, on that point where the Euphrates, sinking into a deep bed, changes from a vast expanse into a navigable river, not wider than the Thames at London; where also out of the deep rich alluvial clay it was easy to dig the bricks, which from its earliest date came floating down the rivers from the springs in its upper course."
The founder of Babylon was Nimrod, also the founder of the Assyrian monarchy (Gen. 10), and the original strength of both kingdoms consisted of four cities each (Gen. 10:10-12). Babylon, the first and ancient of all cities, occupies a large place in the Word of God, and is there viewed as the representative of man in his pride, glory, power, and idolatry, and we might add wickedness. It was out of Egypt that Israel was redeemed, but it was into Babylon the people, were sent for their sins; they were slaves in the one and captives in the other. The historical connection of Babylon with the national history of Israel, and of the mystical city with the professing church (Rev. 17; 18), are subjects of very great importance, the former of which is largely developed in the Old Testament Scriptures. "The times of the Gentiles" took their rise from the downfall of Judah and the ascendancy of Babylon. Soon all that now represents Babylon historically and figuratively, which is ever viewed as the dominant power on the earth, acting in proud independence of and in opposition to God and His people, will crumble into dust: "For the Lord will have mercy on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel and set them in their own land, and the strangers shall be joined with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob: and the people shall take them and bring them to their place, and the house of Israel shall possess them in the land of the Lord for servants and handmaids, and they shall take them captives whose captives they were, and they shall r