Boyd's Bible Dictionary: S

Table of Contents

1. Sabachthani
2. Sabaoth
3. Sabbath
4. Sabbath Day’s Journey
5. Sabbatical Year
6. Sabeans
7. Sabta, Sabtah
8. Sabtecha, Sabtechah
9. Sacar
10. Sackbut
11. Sackcloth
12. Sacrifice
13. Sadducees
14. Sadoc
15. Saffron
16. Saint
17. Sala, Salah
18. Salamis
19. Salathiel
20. Salcah, Salchah
21. Salem
22. Salim
23. Sallai
24. Sallu
25. Salma, Salmon
26. Salmone
27. Salome
28. Salt
29. Salt, City of
30. Salt Sea
31. Salt, Valley of
32. Salu
33. Salutation
34. Salvation
35. Samaria
36. Samaritans
37. Samgar-nebo
38. Samlah
39. Samos
40. Samothracia
41. Samson
42. Samuel
43. Sanballat
44. Sanctify
45. Sanctuary
46. Sand
47. Sandal
48. Sanhedrim, Sanhedrin
49. Sansannah
50. Saph
51. Saphir
52. Sapphira
53. Sapphire
54. Sara
55. Sarah
56. Sarai
57. Saraph
58. Sardine, Sardius
59. Sardis
60. Sardites
61. Sardonyx
62. Sarepta
63. Sargon
64. Sarid
65. Saron
66. Sarsechim
67. Saruch
68. Satan
69. Satyr
70. Saul
71. Saw
72. Scapegoat
73. Scarlet
74. Sceptre
75. Sceva
76. Scorpion
77. Scourging
78. Scribe
79. Scrip
80. Scripture
81. Scythian
82. Sea
83. Seal
84. Seba
85. Sebat, Shebat
86. Secacah
87. Sechu
88. Sect
89. Secundus
90. Seed
91. Seer
92. Seethe
93. Segub
94. Seir
95. Seirath
96. Sela, Selah
97. Selah
98. Sela-hammahlekoth
99. Seled
100. Seleucia
101. Sem
102. Semachiah
103. Semei
104. Semel
105. Senaah
106. Senate
107. Seneh
108. Senir
109. Sennacherib
110. Senuah
111. Seorim
112. Sephar
113. Sepharad
114. Sepharvaim
115. Sepharvites
116. Septuagint
117. Sepulchre
118. Serah
119. Seraiah
120. Seraphim
121. Sered
122. Sergius Paulus
123. Serpent
124. Serug
125. Servant
126. Servitor
127. Seth
128. Sethur
129. Seven
130. Shaalabbin
131. Shaalbim
132. Shaalbonite
133. Shaaph
134. Shaaraim
135. Shaashgaz
136. Shabbethai
137. Shachia
138. Shaddai
139. Shadrach
140. Shage
141. Shaharaim
142. Shahazimah
143. Shalem
144. Shalim, Land of
145. Shalisha, Land of
146. Shallecheth
147. Shallum
148. Shallun
149. Shalmai
150. Shalman
151. Shalmaneser
152. Shama
153. Shamariah
154. Shambles
155. Shamed
156. Shamefacedness
157. Shamer
158. Shamgar
159. Shamhuth
160. Shamir
161. Shamma
162. Shammah
163. Shammai
164. Shammoth
165. Shammua, Shammuah
166. Shamsherai
167. Shapham
168. Shaphan
169. Shaphat
170. Shapher
171. Sharai
172. Sharaim
173. Sharar
174. Sharezer
175. Sharon
176. Sharonite
177. Sharuhen
178. Shashai
179. Shashak
180. Shaul
181. Shaulites
182. Shaveh
183. Shaveh Kiriathaim
184. Shavsha
185. Shaving
186. Shawm
187. Sheal
188. Shealtiel
189. Sheariah
190. Shearing-house
191. Shear-jashub
192. Sheba
193. Shebah
194. Shebam
195. Shebaniah
196. Shebarim
197. Shebat
198. Sheber
199. Shebna
200. Shebuel
201. Shecaniah
202. Shechaniah
203. Shechem
204. Shechemites
205. Shechinah
206. Shedeur
207. Sheep
208. Sheepfold
209. Sheep-gate
210. Sheep-market
211. Shehariah
212. Shekel
213. Shelah
214. Shelanites
215. Shelemiah
216. Sheleph
217. Shelesh
218. Shelomi
219. Shelomith
220. Shelomoth
221. Shelumiel
222. Shem
223. Shema
224. Shemaah
225. Shemaiah
226. Shemariah
227. Shemeber
228. Shemer
229. Shemida
230. Shemidah
231. Shemidaites
232. Sheminith
233. Shemiramoth
234. Shemitic
235. Shemuel
236. Shen
237. Shenazar
238. Shenir
239. Shepham
240. Shephathiah
241. Shephatiah
242. Shepherd
243. Shephi
244. Shepho
245. Shephuphan
246. Sherah
247. Sherebiah
248. Sheresh
249. Sherezer
250. Sheriff
251. Sheshach
252. Sheshai
253. Sheshan
254. Sheshbazzar
255. Sheth
256. Shethar
257. Shethar-boznai
258. Sheva
259. Shewbread
260. Shibboleth
261. Shibmah
262. Shicron
263. Shield
264. Shiggaion
265. Shigionoth
266. Shihon
267. Shihor
268. Shilhi
269. Shilhim
270. Shillem
271. Shillemites
272. Shiloah
273. Shiloh
274. Shiloni
275. Shilonite
276. Shilonites
277. Shilshah
278. Shimea
279. Shimeah
280. Shimeam
281. Shimeath
282. Shimeathites
283. Shimei
284. Shimi
285. Shimeon
286. Shimhi
287. Shimi
288. Shimites
289. Shimma
290. Shimon
291. Shimrath
292. Shimri
293. Shimrith
294. Shimrom
295. Shimron
296. Shimronites
297. Shimron-meron
298. Shimshai
299. Shinab
300. Shinar
301. Ship
302. Shiphi
303. Shiphmite
304. Shiphrah
305. Shiphtan
306. Shisha
307. Shishak
308. Shitrai
309. Shittah, Shittim
310. Shiza
311. Shoa
312. Shobab
313. Shobach
314. Shobai
315. Shobal
316. Shobek
317. Shobi
318. Shoco, Shocho, Shochoh
319. Shoe
320. Shoham
321. Shomer
322. Shophach
323. Shophan
324. Shoshannim
325. Shoulder
326. Shovel
327. Shua
328. Shuah
329. Shual
330. Shubael
331. Shuham
332. Shuhamites
333. Shuhite
334. Shulamite
335. Shumathites
336. Shunamite
337. Shunem
338. Shuni
339. Shunites
340. Shupham
341. Shuphamites
342. Shuppim
343. Shur
344. Shushan
345. Shushan-eduth
346. Shuthalhites
347. Shuthelah
348. Shuttle
349. Sia
350. Siaha
351. Sibbecai
352. Sibbechai
353. Sibboleth
354. Sibmah
355. Sibraim
356. Sichem
357. Sickle
358. Siddim
359. Sidon
360. Sidonian
361. Siege
362. Sieve
363. Sihon
364. Sihor
365. Silas
366. Silk
367. Silla
368. Siloah
369. Siloam
370. Silvanus
371. Silver
372. Silverlings
373. Simeon
374. Simon
375. Simri
376. Sin
377. Sin-money
378. Sin-offering
379. Sina
380. Sinai
381. Sinim
382. Sinite
383. Sion
384. Siphmoth
385. Sippai
386. Sirah
387. Sirion
388. Sisamai
389. Sisera
390. Sitnah
391. Sivan
392. Slave
393. Slime
394. Sling
395. Smith
396. Smyrna
397. Snail
398. Snow
399. Snuff-dishes
400. Snuffers
401. So
402. Soap
403. Socho
404. Sochoh
405. Socoh
406. Sodi
407. Sodom
408. Sodoma
409. Sodomites
410. Solomon
411. Solomon’s Pools
412. Solomon's Porch
413. Solomon’s Servants
414. Solomon’s Song
415. Son
416. Son of God
417. Son of Man
418. Song of Solomon
419. Soothsayer
420. Sop
421. Sopater
422. Sophereth
423. Sorcerer
424. Sorek
425. Sosipater
426. Sosthenes
427. Sotai
428. Soul
429. South Ramoth
430. Sow
431. Sower, Sowing
432. Spain
433. Span
434. Sparrow
435. Spear
436. Spearmen
437. Speckled Bird
438. Spice, Spices
439. Spider
440. Spikenard
441. Spinning
442. Spirit
443. Spoil
444. Sponge
445. Spouse
446. Sprinkling
447. Stachys
448. Stacte
449. Standard
450. Star
451. Stater
452. Steel
453. Stephanas
454. Stephen
455. Stocks
456. Stoics
457. Stomacher
458. Stones
459. Stoning
460. Stork
461. Strain at a
462. Stranger
463. Straw
464. Suah
465. Succoth
466. Succoth-benoth
467. Suchathites
468. Sukkims
469. Sun
470. Surety
471. Susa
472. Susanchites
473. Susanna
474. Susi
475. Swallow
476. Swan
477. Swearing
478. Sweat
479. Swine
480. Sword
481. Sycamine
482. Sycamore
483. Sychar
484. Sychem
485. Syene
486. Synagogue
487. Syntyche
488. Syracuse
489. Syria
490. Syriac
491. Syria-maachah
492. Syrian
493. Syro-phenician
494. Syrtis


(hast thou forsaken me?). An Aramaic, or Syro-Chaldaic, word, part of Christ’s exclamation on the cross (Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34). [ELI.]


(hosts). Used usually with Jehovah—“Lord of hosts”—hosts being comprehensive, and signifying the powers of earth and heaven (Isa. 1:9; Rom. 9:29; James 5:4).


(rest). Rest day, the seventh day of the week (Gen. 2:2-3). Under the Law given to Israel through Moses, it was to be kept as a day of rest (Ex. 16:23-30; 20:8-11; Lev. 19:3,30; 23:3; 25:4-9; Deut. 5:12-15). Day for consulting prophets (2 Kings 4:23). A day of teaching and joy (Neh. 8:1-12; Hos. 2:11). A whole week of time is implied (Matt. 28:1; Mark 16:1; Luke 24:1; John 20:1; Acts 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2). The first-day of the week, the resurrection day of Christ, is called “the Lord’s Day” (John 20:26; Acts 20:6-11; 1 Cor. 16:2; Rev. 1:10).

Sabbath Day’s Journey

Travel on the Sabbath was limited
(Ex. 16:29). Custom seemed to sanction 2000 paces from the walls of a city as sufficient for all needs on the day of rest (Acts 1:12).

Sabbatical Year

By the Mosaic code, each seventh year was sacred
The land rested, the poor were entitled to what grew, and debtors were released (Ex. 23:10-11; Lev. 25:2-7; Deut. 15:1-18).


(1) Descendants of Sheba, son of Joktan (Joel 3:8). (2) Evidently the descendants of Seba, son of Cush (Isa. 45:14). (3) Perhaps a third tribe, though it may be one of the two just mentioned. (4) A wrong translation (Ezek. 23:42, “drunkards,” in margin.).

Sabta, Sabtah

(striking). Third son of Cush (Gen. 10:7; 1 Chron. 1:9).

Sabtecha, Sabtechah

(striking). Fifth son of Cush and grandson of Ham (Gen. 10:7; 1 Chron. 1:9).


(hire). (1) Father of one of David’s warriors (1 Chron. 11:35). Sharer (2 Sam. 23:33). (2) A Levite porter (1 Chron. 26:4).


(pull and push). A wind instrument, trombone. But in Dan. 3:5-15, a stringed instrument of triangular shape with from four to twenty strings.


(coarse cloth). A coarse, goat-hair cloth used for making sacks and rough garments. The latter were worn next the skin by mourners and repentants (Gen. 37:34; 42:25; 2 Sam. 3:31; 1 Kings 21:27; 2 Kings 6:30; Esther 4:1-2; Job 16:15; Isa. 50:3; Rev. 6:12).


(making sacred). Propitiatory, atoning or thanksgiving offering to God. An ordained rite (Lev. 17:4-9; Deut. 16:5-19). Sacrificial offerings numerous; but chiefly, the “burnt-offering” (Lev. 1:1-17); “sin-offering,” and “trespass-offering” (Lev. 7:1-10); “peace-offering” (Lev. 7:11-34); the latter also a “free-will” offering. These offerings could not satisfy God’s holy requirements for removing sin, but they were required of all under the law, until Christ’s sacrifice of Himself, which can and did once and for all put away sin for the believer (Heb. 9-10).


(disciples of Zadok). A Jewish sect, supposedly Zadokites (1 Kings 1:32-45), whose chief tenets were (1) rejection of the divinity of the Mosaic oral law and traditions; (2) rejection of the later O. T. books, but acceptance of the Mosaic teachings; (3) denial of angel and spiritual existence, and consequent immortality of the soul; (4) belief in the absolute moral freedom of man. Their hatred of Christianity was as bitter as that of the Pharisees (Matt. 3:7; Mark 12:18; Luke 20:27; Acts 4:1; 5:17; 23:6-10). Though composed of men of position, the sect was never very numerous nor influential, and it disappeared from history after the first century of the Christian era.


(just). One in the genealogy of Christ (Matt. 1:14).


(yellow). The fall crocus, much cultivated in the Orient for its perfume and medicinal properties (Song of Sol. 4:14).


(sanctified). In O. T., a pious Jew (Psa. 16:3). In N. T., a Christian believer (Rom. 1:7; 8:27; Heb. 6:10).

Sala, Salah

(sprout). A descendant of Shem (Gen. 10:24; 11:12-15; Luke 3:35). Shelah (1 Chron. 1:18,24).


(shaken). A city of the island of Cyprus, visited by Paul. It was afterward called Constantia (Acts 13:5). The old city was once the capital of the island and carried on a large trade in fruit, wine, flax, and copper with adjacent continents. The Jewish population was large. Its site is now traced by masses of ruins.


(asked of God). Son of Jechonias (1 Chron. 3:17; Matt. 1:12; Luke 3:27). Shealtiel elsewhere.

Salcah, Salchah

(moving). A city in Bashan which fell to Manasseh. Now Sulkhad (Deut. 3:10; Josh. 12:5; 13:11; 1 Chron. 5:11).


(peace). The place over which Melchizedek was king, supposedly Jerusalem (Gen. 14:18; Psa. 76:2; Heb. 7:1-2).


(peace). The place near Aenon, where John baptized (John 3:23).


(basket-maker). (1) A returned Benjamite (Neh. 11:8). (2) A returned priest (Neh. 12:20).


(measured). (1) A Benjamite (1 Chron. 9:7). (2) A priest (Neh. 11:7; 12:7).

Salma, Salmon

(clothed). (1) Father of Boaz and husband of Rahab (Ruth 4:20-21; 1 Chron. 2:11; Matt. 1:5; Luke 3:32). (2) One of the high hills surrounding Shechem, which afforded pasturage for Jacob’s flocks (Psa. 68:14). Zalmon (Judg. 9:48).


(clothed). Eastern promontory of Crete (Acts 27:7).


(clothed). (1) Wife of Zebedee (Mark 15:40; 16:1). Mentioned indirectly (Matt. 20:20-22; 27:56). (2) The daughter of Herodias, who danced before Herod (Matt. 14:6; Mark 6:22).


(sea product). Abundant in Palestine. Used with food and sacrificial offerings (Job 6:6; Lev. 2:13; Num. 18:19; Mark 9:49). Monument of divine displeasure (Gen. 19:26); token of indissoluble alliance (Lev. 2:13; Num. 18:19; 2 Chron. 13:5); used to rub new-born children (Ezek. 16:4); type of maintenance (Ezra 4:14 marg.); emblem of sterility (Judg. 9:45; Jer. 17:6); a manure (Luke 14:35); emblem of holy life and conversation (Matt. 5:13; Mark 9:50; Col. 4:6).

Salt, City of

Fifth of the six cities of Judah, situate in the wilderness of Judah
(Josh. 15:62).

Salt Sea

The Dead Sea
“Sea of the plain” (Deut. 4:49; 2 Kings 14:25). “Salt sea” (Deut. 3:17; Josh. 3:16; 12:3). “East sea” (Ezek. 47:18; Joel 2:20; Zech. 14:8). “The sea” (Ezek. 47:8). “Vale of Siddim” (Gen. 14:3). Title “Dead Sea” not found among Hebrew writers, but introduced by Greek authors. Situate 16 miles E. of Jerusalem; 46 miles long by 10 wide; 1300 feet below the level of the Mediterranean; waters intensely salt; receives waters of Jordan from the north; no outlet.

Salt, Valley of

Supposedly the valley, or depression, of Akabah, extending from Dead Sea to Gulf of Akabah
(2 Sam. 8:13; 2 Kings 14:7; 1 Chron. 18:12; 2 Chron. 25:11; Psa. 60 title). But many excellent authorities limit it to a section of Edom near Petra.


(weighed). Father of Zimri, a chief of Simeon (Num. 25:14).


(good health, greeting). Personal salutation very formal in East. The “peace be with thee,” or similar expression, was accompanied by a profound bow, kiss, embrace, or other courtesy (Gen. 19:1; 1 Sam. 25:23; Matt. 10:12; Luke 1:41). Epistolary salutation took the form found in the opening and closing of the epistles (Rom. 1:7; 1 Cor. 1:3).


(deliverance). Temporal deliverance (Ex. 14:13). Spiritual deliverance (2 Cor. 7:10; Eph. 1:13; Heb. 2:3).


(watch mountain). (1) The kingdom of Samaria, synonymous with the kingdom of Israel, lay to the north of Judah. It varied in size at different times, but in general embraced the territory of the ten revolting tribes on either side of the Jordan (1 Kings 13:32). Named from its capital, Samaria. In N. T. times, Samaria was one of the three subdivisions of Palestine, lying between Judea on the south and Galilee on the north. (2) Capital of the kingdom of Samaria or Israel, and located 30 miles north of Jerusalem. Founded by Omri, king of Israel, about B. C. 925, and called Samaria, after Shemer, from whom he bought the ground (1 Kings 16:23-24). It became a beautiful and strong city and remained the capital till Shalmaneser, the Assyrian, destroyed it and the empire, B. C. 721 (2 Kings 18:9-12). Herod rebuilt it and restored much of its ancient splendor, naming it Sebaste in honor of Augustus, who gave it to him. Philip preached the gospel there (Acts 8:5-9). It is now a modest village called Sebastiyeh, which perpetuates the name Sebaste, and is noted for its many ruins, chief of which is the famous colonnade, 3000 feet in length, 100 columns of which are still standing. Respecting the city, the prophecy (Mic. 1:6), has been literally fulfilled.


Inhabitants of Samaria
(2 Kings 17:29). The planting of Assyrian colonists in Samaria (2 Kings 17:24-34), led to a strange admixture of people, language, laws, religions, and customs, and brought the name Samaritan into reproach with Jews (Matt. 10:5; John 4:9-26; 8:48; Acts 8:1; 9:31).


(sword of Nebo). A general of Nebuchadnezzar at the taking of Jerusalem (Jer. 39:3).


(raiment). A king of Edom (Gen. 36:36-37; 1 Chron. 1:47-48).


(height). An island of the Grecian archipelago, on the coast of Lydia. Visited by Paul on his third tour (Acts 20:15).


(Thracian Samos). An island in the northern Aegean belonging to Thrace. Visited by Paul on his first tour (Acts 16:11).


(sunlike). Son of Manoah, of Dan, and judge of Israel for 20 years (Judg. 13:3-25). Noted for his great strength, marvelous exploits, and moral weakness. Contrary to the wishes of his parents, and to the law as laid down in Exodus 34:16, Deuteronomy 7:3, he married a Philistine woman of Timnath, whom he deserted on account of her treachery (Judg. 14). Wishing to return to her, and finding her given to another, he wreaked his vengeance on the Philistines by burning their crops and slaughtering great numbers of them (Judg. 15:1-8). He was surrounded by 3000 of his enemies, while he dwelt on the rock Etam, and surrendered to them, but burst his bands, and routed them with great slaughter (Judg. 15:9-19). Again he was surrounded by enemies in Gaza, but escaped by carrying away the gates of the city. The secret of his strength was finally detected by Delilah, and he was imprisoned and made blind. He finally killed himself and numerous enemies by pulling down the pillars of the house in which they were feasting (Judg. 16).


(God hath heard). Son of Elkanah and Hannah, celebrated Hebrew prophet and last of the judges (1 Sam. 1:19-28). Educated under Eli (1 Sam. 3:4-14), and became his successor in the prophetic office. His sons proved so recreant that the people demanded a king, and Samuel anointed Saul, and resigned his authority to him (1 Sam. 12). He also anointed David, Saul’s successor (1 Sam. 16:13). He died at Ramah (1 Sam. 25:1). The two books which bear his name, the 9th and 10th of O. T., are called also First and Second Books of Kings. They were originally one book and contain the lives of Samuel, Saul, and David. The authorship is ascribed to a period subsequent to the secession of the ten tribes. In Kings the Exile is alluded to; it is not so in Samuel. The plans of the two works vary; Samuel is biographical, Kings annalistic.


(strong). A Persian officer in Samaria who opposed Ezra and Nehemiah and persistently misrepresented them at court (Neh. 2:10; 4:1-9; 13:28).


(to make holy). To prepare or set apart persons or things to holy use (Ex. 13:2). Believers are “sanctified through the offering of the body of Christ once for all” (Rom. 15:16; 1 Cor. 1:2; Heb. 10:10). In this there is no progress, for it is all God’s work. But believers are to yield themselves as “servants of righteousness unto holiness.” In this there is progress (1 Thess. 5:23).


(made holy). A holy or sanctified place (Psa. 20:2). The secret part of the temple in which the ark of the covenant was kept, and which none but the high priest might enter, and he only once a year, on the day of solemn expiation (Lev. 4:6). Also applied to the furniture of the holy place (Num. 10:21); to the apartment where the altar of incense, table of shewbread and holy candlestick stood (2 Chron. 26:18); to the whole tabernacle or temple (Josh. 24:26; 2 Chron. 20:8). “Sanctuary of strength,” because belonging to God (Dan. 11:31). Any place of public worship of God (Psa. 73:17). Heaven (Psa. 102:19). Place of refuge (Isa. 8:14; Ezek. 11:16). Land of Israel called God’s sanctuary (Ex. 15:17). “Worldly sanctuary,” one of an earthly type (Heb. 9:1).


(whirling). Abundant in the wastes of Palestine, Arabia, and Egypt. Used much figuratively. Innumerable multitudes (Gen. 32:12); abundance (Gen. 41:49); weight (Job 6:3; Prov. 27:3); sea boundary (Jer. 5:22); hiding place (Ex. 2:12; Deut. 33:19).


(board). A sole of wood, leather, or plaited material, bound to the foot with straps. The shoe of the Bible. Not worn in the house nor in holy places (Ex. 3:5; Deut. 25:9; Josh. 5:15).

Sanhedrim, Sanhedrin

(seated together). The supreme council of the Jewish nation, whose germ was in the seventy elders (Num. 11:16-17), and further development in Jehoshaphat’s tribunal (2 Chron. 19:8-11). In full power after the captivity, and lasted till A. D. 425. The “great Sanhedrim” was composed of 71 priests, scribes, and elders, and presided over by the high priest. The “lesser Sanhedrims” were provincial courts in the towns, and composed of 23 members appointed by the “great Sanhedrim.” The word usually appears as “council” in N. T. (Matt. 5:22; Mark 14:55; John 11:47; Acts 4:5-7). The members of the Sanhedrim embraced the three classes, priests, elders, and scribes. After the Roman conquest it had no control of the death power, but the confirmation and execution of capital sentences rested with the Roman procurator. Thus it was that while the Sanhedrim condemned Christ for blasphemy, he was not brought under the Roman judgment of death till accused by the Jews of treason (Matt. 26:65-66; John 18:31; 19:12). The stoning of Stephen (Acts 7:57-59), was either due to mob excitement, or else illegal.


(branch). A town in southern Judah (Josh. 15:31).


(giant). A Philistine giant of the race of Raphah (2 Sam. 21:18). Sippai (1 Chron. 20:4).


(fair). A village addressed by Micah (Mic. 1:11).


(handsome). Wife of Ananias, and participator in his crime and punishment (Acts 5:1-10).


A light blue gem, next to the diamond in hardness
(Ex. 24:10). Second stone in second row of high priest’s breastplate (Ex. 28:18). A foundation stone of the holy Jerusalem (Rev. 21:19).


(Heb. 11:11; 1 Peter 3:6). [SARAH.]


(princess). (1) Wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac (Gen. 11:29; 21:2-3). Name changed from Sarai to Sarah (Gen. 17:15-16). At Abraham’s request she passed herself on as his sister during their sojourn in Egypt (Gen. 12:10-20), which angered the Pharaoh and led to their banishment. Relentless toward Hagar (whom she had given to Abraham as a concubine) when she bore Ishmael, and caused her to be banished to the desert (Gen. 16:5-16); deceitful when Isaac was promised (Gen. 18:15); cruel again toward Hagar on the occasion of Isaac’s weaning, causing her to be banished finally from the household (Gen. 21:9-21). Commended for her faith (Heb. 11:11); and obedience (1 Peter 3:6). Died at age of 127 years and buried at MachpeIah (Gen. 23). (2) Daughter of Asher (Num. 26:46).


(Gen. 11:29). [SARAH.]


(burning). A Judahite, a descendant of Shelah (1 Chron. 4:22).

Sardine, Sardius

(stone of Sardis). The sard or carnelian, a blood-red or flesh-colored stone, first in first row of high priest’s breastplate (Ex. 28:17; Rev. 4:3).


Capital of Lydia in Asia Minor
Once noted for beauty and wealth; now the miserable village of Sert-Kalessi (Rev. 3:1-6). It was the residence of Croesus, renowned for riches, and Cyrus, when he conquered it, B. C. 548, is said to have captured fabulous treasure there. Alexander captured it from the Persians, and it was again sacked and captured by Antiochus, B. C. 214. It was destroyed by an earthquake. A. D. 17, but was speedily rebuilt. The art of wool-dyeing was discovered there. Seat of one of the seven churches of Asia (Rev. 3:1).


Descendants of Sered
(Num. 26:26).


A precious stone combining the sard and onyx varieties, whence its name
(Rev. 21:20).


Greek form of Zarephath
(Luke 4:26).


(sun-prince). An Assyrian king whom recently discovered inscriptions make the successor of Shalmaneser and father of Sennacherib, B. C. 722-705 (2 Kings 17:6; Isa. 20:1).


(survivor). A landmark of Zebulun (Josh. 19:10-12).


(Acts 9:35). [SHARON.]


(master of wardrobes). A prince of Babylon at taking of Jerusalem (Jer. 39:3).


(Luke 3:35). [SERUG.]


(adversary). In O. T. a common noun, meaning enemy or adversary in general (1 Sam. 29:4; 2 Sam. 19:22); except in Job 1:6,12; 2:1; Zech. 3:1, where the word becomes a proper noun, and spiritual representative of evil. In N. T. sense, chief of the evil spirits; great adversary of man; the devil (Matt. 4:10; 25:41; Rev. 20), and elsewhere. Called also “the prince of this world;” “the wicked one;” “the tempter;” and in Rev. 12:9, the old serpent, the devil, and Satan.


A mythical creature, half man, half goat, inhabiting woods and waste places
(Isa. 13:21; 34:14).


(wished). (1) An early king of Edom (Gen. 36:37-38). Shaul in 1 Chron. 1:48-49. (2) A Benjamite, son of Kish, and first king of Israel. Anointed by Samuel; reigned B. C. 1095-1055; slain with his sons at Gilboa. His versatile career is described in 1 Samuel 9-31. He stands in Bible history for the stature, strength, and ruggedness of character so essential to judges in times of danger or necessary reform, and for the bravery, generalship and self-confidence of one called on to institute a new empire. Of boundless ambition and erratic judgment, he usurped the priestly function, and drew the reproaches of the aged prophet Samuel, who had surrendered his line in anointing him. The announcement that royalty could not be perpetuated in his family drove him to inexcusable follies, yet with the courage of youth he fought his last despairing battle with the Philistines, and finished his course on his own sword. (3) Hebrew name of Paul (Acts 13:9).


(cutter). Hebrew saws doubtless patterned after those of Egypt, being single-handled, with teeth inclined toward the handle, so that cutting was done by pulling. Used for sawing wood (Isa. 10:15); stone (1 Kings 7:9); torture (2 Sam. 12:31; 1 Chron. 20:3; Heb. 11:37).


(Lev. 16:7-26). [GOAT.]


(orange-red). A Tyrian color much prized by ancients (Ex. 25:4; Prov. 31:21).


(prop). Any rod or staff. A shepherd’s crook or tithing rod (Lev. 27:32; Mic. 7:14). A symbol of royal power (Gen. 49:10; Num. 24:17); overlaid with gold (Esther 4:11).


(fitted). An Ephesian priest (Acts 19:14-16).


(crawler). A venomous creature allied to the spider, but resembling the lobster. Its sting is painful and often fatal (Deut. 8:15; 1 Kings 12:11; Rev. 9:3-10). A dangerous gift (Luke 11:12).


(thonging). A common Hebrew punishment. The scourge was made of three lashes of leather or cord. Not more than forty stripes could be administered (Deut. 25:1-3; Matt. 10:17; 23:34). Rods or twigs were also used (2 Cor. 11:25).


(writer). The Hebrew scribe or writer appears to have been at first a court or military official (Ex. 5:6; Judg. 5:14); then secretary or recorder, for kings, priests, and prophets (2 Sam. 8:17; 20:25); finally a secretary of state, doctor, or teacher (Ezra 7:6). Scribes became a class or guild, copyists and expounders of the law, and through their innovations fell under the same denunciations as priests and Pharisees (Matt. 23:1-33; Mark 7:5-13; Luke 5:30).


(bag). A shepherd’s bag (1 Sam. 17:40). A wallet for carrying food and traveler’s conveniences (Matt. 10:10; Luke 10:4).


(written). By way of preeminence, the sacred writings contained in the Old and New Testaments. [BIBLE.]


(fierce-looking). Name applied to the fierce, nomadic nations north of the Black and Caspian seas (Col. 3:11).


The Hebrews so designated any large body of water, whether lake, river, sea, or ocean
(Gen. 1:10; Deut. 30:13; Job 14:11; Isa. 19:5; Jer. 51:36; Ezek. 32:2). (1) “Molten sea” was the immense brass layer of Solomon’s temple (1 Kings 7:23-26). (2) “Sea of the Plain” (Deut. 4:49). [SALT SEA.] (3) “Great Sea” (Josh. 15:47), “uttermost sea” (Deut. 11:24), the Mediterranean, between Europe and Africa. (4) “Sea of Tiberias” [GENNESARET.] (5) “Sea of Merom” [MEROM.]


(little mark). Much used by ancients to authenticate documents and secure packages and doors, the impression being made in clay or wax. Seals were frequently engraved stones set in rings (Gen. 41:42; Job 38:14; Jer. 32:10; Matt. 27:66).


A son of Cush
(Gen. 10:7; 1 Chron. 1:9). Mentioned as a nation or country (Psa. 72:10; Isa. 43:3; 45:14), and associated with Meroe on the upper Nile.

Sebat, Shebat

(rod). Fifth month of Jewish civil and eleventh of sacred year, corresponding to parts of February and March (Zech. 1:7).


(thicket). A city in Judah (Josh. 15:61).


(tower). A place between Gibeah and Ramah, noted for its well (1 Sam. 19:22).


(way, school). A party adhering to a doctrine, as the sect of Sadducees (Acts 5:17), or Pharisees (Acts 15:5; 26:5). Christians in general were for a long time called by the Jews, in a spirit of contempt, “the sect of the Nazarenes” (Acts 24:5). The word is also applied to a certain set of doctrines or mode of life (Acts 24:14; 2 Peter 2:1); and to heresies proper, or perversions of Christian truth (Gal. 5:20).


(second). A Thessalonian friend of Paul (Acts 20:4).


(sowed). Seed for sowing must not be mingled (Lev. 19:19). Children, descendants (Gen. 17:12; Gal. 3:16). Pedigree (Ezra 2:59). The male fertilizing element (Gen. 38:9).


(oho sees). (1 Sam. 9:9). [PROPHET.]


(boil). To boil (Ex. 16:23).


(lifted up). (1) A son of Hiel who rebuilt Jericho (1 Kings 16:34). (2) A Judahite (1 Chron. 2:21-22).


(hairy). (1) A Horite chief (Gen. 36:21; Deut. 2:12). (2) Land or country corresponding with valley and mountains of Arabah, stretching from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Akaba (Gen. 14:6; 32:3; 33:14-16). The region was first occupied by the Horites, and fell into possession of Esau and his posterity (Gen. 36:8-9). Hence Seir and Edom are sometimes spoken of as identical. The Israelites, when refused permission to march through Edom to Moab, marched round the granite ranges of Seir and entered Moab by the east and north. (3) A boundary mark of Judah (Josh. 15:10).


(hairy). Place to which Ehud fled after putting Eglon to death (Judg. 3:26).

Sela, Selah

(rock). A rock-founded city of Edom, the Petra of the Greeks, half way between the Dead Sea and Gulf of Akaba. Subdued by King Amaziah and called Joktheel, “subdued of God.” Remarkable now for its ruins, among which are a rock-hewn temple and amphitheater (2 Kings 14:7; Isa. 16:1). The complete destruction and desolation of the place fulfills the prophecy of Jeremiah (Jer. 49.16-17).


A word of frequent occurrence in Psalms, and supposed to mean an interlude in vocal music, or a pianissimo of all parts
(Psa. 9:16; Hab. 3:3,9,13).


(rock of escapes). Rocky stronghold in wilderness of Maon, where David escaped from Saul (1 Sam. 23:28).


(lifted up). A Judahite descendant of Jerahmeel. Oldest son of Nadab (1 Chron. 2:30).


(city of Seleucus). The seaport of Antioch in Syria (Acts 13:4). It was the port whence Paul and Barnabas started on their first missionary journey, and lay sixteen miles to the west of Antioch. The city was founded by Seleucus Nicator about B. C. 300, and to distinguish it from other cities of the same name was frequently called “Seleucia by the sea.” The harbor is now choked with sand, and the once beautiful city is but the insignificant village of Elkalusi.


Greek form of Shem
(Luke 3:36).


(God-sustained). A Levite porter, a son of Shemaiah (1 Chron. 26:7).


(distinguished). Father of Mattathias (Luke 3:26). Semein in R. V.


(Esther 11:2). [SHIMEI.]


(brambly). His sons were returned captives (Ezra 2:35; Neh. 7:38).


(elders). First body, or class, of Hebrew Senhedrim; the other two being priests and scribes (Acts 5:21).


(bramble). One of two rocks in the pass of Michmash (1 Sam. 14:4-5).


(glistening). Amorite name for Mount Hermon (1 Chron. 5:23; Ezek. 27:5).


(not the first-born). Son and successor of Sargon, king of Assyria, B. C. 702-680. He extended his conquests to the Mediterranean and to Egypt (2 Kings 18:13-37; 19). Most powerful and magnificent of eastern sovereigns (Isa. 36, 37). He made Nineveh his capital and adorned it with many palaces and public structures. His monuments have been found in many places, and a record of his arrival in Egypt has been unearthed close by an inscription of Rameses the Great.


(bristling). A Benjamite, second in rule over Jerusalem after the captivity (Neh. 11:9). Hasenuah (1 Chron. 9:7).


(bearded). Head of fourth priestly course (1 Chron. 24:8).


(number). A Joktenite border in Arabia (Gen. 10:30).


(severed). Unlocated place whence captive Jews would return to possess the cities of the south (Obad. 20).


(two Sipperas). One of the two cities of Sippera in Syria, whence colonists were sent to Samaria (2 Kings 17:24-34; 19:13; Isa. 37:13).


Inhabitants of Sepharvaim
(2 Kings 17:31).


(seventy). The traditional 70 or 72 translators of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek; but especially, the Greek version of the O. T. made by 72 learned Jews at Alexandria, at command of Ptolemy Philadelphus, about B. C. 270. The beginning of active work on this, the best known of ancient Bible translations, is fixed for the years B. C. 280-285, and it covered a long period of time, the translation of the Apocryphal books having been gradually added. It was made from Egyptian Hebrew manuscripts, and in its completed form is designated by the Roman numerals LXX. It was the version used by Hebrews in Christ’s time and by the Greek Fathers and early N. T. writers, and the Latin version was made from it.


(ker) (bury) (2 Kings 23:16; Isa. 22:16; Matt. 27:60; Mark 16:2; Luke 23:53). Though the Egyptians and nearly all peoples adjacent to the Hebrews have made the name of sarcophagus familiar as a stone coffin, a chest-like tomb, often ornamented and inscribed, there seems to have been nothing akin to it in all the mention of funeral customs and burial rites in the Scriptures, if we except certain titles and inscriptions over tombs such as are mentioned in 2 Kings 23:17. [BURIAL.] [TOMB.]


(lady). A daughter of Asher (Gen. 46:17; 1 Chron. 7:30). Sarah (Num. 26:46).


(warrior of God). (1) David’s scribe (2 Sam. 8:17). Sheva (2 Sam. 20:25). Shisha (1 Kings 4:3). Shavaha (1 Chron. 18:16). (2) A high priest, slain at Riblah (2 Kings 25:18-21). (3) One who submitted to Gedaliah (2 Kings 25:23). (4) A Judahite (1 Chron. 4:13-14). (5) A Simeonite (1 Chron. 4:35). (6) A returned priest (Ezra 2:2; Neh. 10:2). (7) Ancestor of Ezra (Ezra 7:1). (8) One of the officers who arrested Jeremiah (Jer. 36:26). (9) Jeremiah’s messenger to Babylon (Jer. 51:59-64).


(burning). An order of celestial bearings, pictured in Isaiah’s vision as around the throne of God (Isa. 6:2-7).


(fear). First-born of Zebulun (Gen. 46:14; Num. 26:26).

Sergius Paulus

(little net). Proconsul of Cyprus at time of Paul’s visit (Acts 13:7,12).


(creeper). The Hebrew original embraces the entire serpent genus. Serpents numerous and venomous in Bible lands. The word appears in Scripture under various names; adder, supposedly the cerastes (Gen. 49:17); asp, or cobra (Deut. 32:33); cockatrice (Jer. 8:17); viper (Job 20:16). Subtile (Gen. 3:1); wise (Matt. 10:16); poisonous (Prov. 23:32); sharp-tongued (Psa. 140:3); charmed (Psa. 58:5); emblem of wickedness (Matt. 23:33); cruelty (Psa. 58:4); treachery (Gen. 49:17); the devil (Rev. 12:9-15); fiery serpents sent as a punishment (Num. 21:6); sight of “brazen serpent,” an antidote for poison of bite (Num. 21:8-9); “fiery flying serpent,” a probable allusion to dragon (Isa. 14:29).


(branch). Son of Reu and great-grandfather of Abraham (Gen. 11:20-23). Saruch (Luke 3:35).


(server). In a broad Bible sense, subject, assistant, person under tribute; in special sense, bondman or slave, by right of purchase, pledge for indebtedness, or indenture; which relationship was carefully guarded by Mosaic law (Lev. 25:39-55; Deut. 15:12-18). [SLAVE.]


(server). A servant (2 Kings 4:43).


(pay). Third son of Adam (Gen. 4:25; 5:3-8).


(hidden). An Asherite spy (Num. 13:13).


A favorite, and often symbolic, number among Hebrews
(Gen. 2:2; 7:2; 41:2-3). Used as a round number (1 Sam. 2:5; Matt. 12:45). Type of abundance and completeness (Gen. 4:15,24; Matt. 18:21-22). These references, and other places, show a seventh day and seventh year sabbath and a seven times seventh year of Jubilee; also sacrificial animals limited to seven, and the golden candlesticks. Seven priests with seven trumpets surrounded Jericho for seven days, and seven times on the seventh day. In the Apocalypse we find seven churches, seven candlesticks, seven stars, seven seals, seven trumpets, seven vials, seven plagues, seven angels.


(place of foxes). A boundary place of Dan (Josh. 19:42). Shaalbim (Judg. 1:35; 1 Kings 4:9).




One of David’s heroes, so called
Place unknown (2 Sam. 23:32; 1 Chron. 11:33).


(division). (1) A Judahite (1 Chron. 2:47). (2) Son of Caleb by Maacah, his concubine (1 Chron. 2:49).


(two gates). (1) Town in Judah (1 Sam. 17:52). Sharaim (Josh. 15:36). (2) Town in Simeon (1 Chron. 4:31).


(lover of beauty). Keeper of concubines in palace of Xerxes (Esther 2:14).


(my rest). An assistant to Ezra (Ezra 10:15; Neh. 8:7; 11:16).


(God-protected). A Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:10).


(mighty). El-Shaddai, “God Almighty.” The name used by Hebrews for God, before “Jehovah” acquired its full significance (Gen. 17:1; Ex. 6:3).


(royal). Chaldean name given to Hananiah (Dan. 1:7-21; 2; 3).


(erring). Father of one of David’s guard. A Hararite and father of Jonathan (1 Chron. 11:34).


(double morning). A Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:8).


(heights). Town in Issachar (Josh. 19:22).


(peaceful). For “to Shalem” (Gen. 33:18), read “in peace to.”

Shalim, Land of

(land of foxes). The wild place through which Saul passed when searching for his father’s asses (1 Sam. 9:4).

Shalisha, Land of

(triangular). A wild district near Mt. Ephraim through which Saul passed, in search of his father’s asses (1 Sam. 9:4).


(thrown down). A westward gate of the temple at Jerusalem (1 Chron. 26:16).


(revenge). (1) Fifteenth king of Israel, B. C. 771; slew King Zachariah, and usurped his throne; reigned one month; slain and succeeded by Menahem (2 Kings 15:10-15). (2) Husband of Huldah the prophetess (2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chron. 34:22). (3) A descendant of Sheshan (1 Chron. 2:40-41). (4) Fourth son of Josiah king of Judah, who became King Jehoahaz, B. C. 610, and reigned for three months (1 Chron. 3:15; Jer. 22:11-12; 2 Kings 23:30-31; 2 Chron. 36:1-4). (5) A Simeonite (1 Chron. 4:25). (6) A high priest (1 Chron. 6:12; Ezra 7:2). (7) Shillem, a Naphtalite (1 Chron. 7:13). (8) A chief of porters (1 Chron. 9:17; Ezra 2:42). (9) A porter (1 Chron. 9:19,31). (10) An Ephraimite (2 Chron. 28:12). (11) Uncle of Jeremiah (Jer. 32:7). (12) Four Levites (Ezra 10:24,42; Neh. 3:12; Jer. 35:4).


(revenge). A wall-repairer and governor of part of Mizpah (Neh. 3:15).


(thanks). His children were returned captives (Ezra 2:46).


(Hos. 10:14). [SHALMANESER.]


(Shalman is lenient). An Assyrian king, B. C. 727-722, who twice conquered Hoshea, king of Israel, the last time capturing his capital, Samaria (2 Kings 17:3-6; 18:9-12).


(dutiful). The oldest son of Hothan, one of David’s guard (1 Chron. 11:44).


(God-kept). Son of King Rehoboam (2 Chron. 11:19).


(little benches). In general, slaughterhouses, but meat-market in 1 Cor. 10:25.


(destroyer). A Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:12).


Wrong writing of shamefastness, modesty
Corrected in R. V. (1 Tim. 2:9).


(keeper). (1) A Levite (1 Chron. 6:46). (2) An Asherite (1 Chron. 7:34). Shomer (1 Chron. 7:32).


(sword). A judge of Israel who slew 600 Philistines with an ox-goad (Judg. 3:31; 5:6).


(destruction). One of David’s captains (1 Chron. 27:8).


(thorn). (1) A town in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:48). (2) Residence of Tola, the judge, in Mount Ephraim (Judg. 10:1-2). (3) Son of Michah (1 Chron. 24:24).


(desolation). A chief of Asher, son of Zophah (1 Chron. 7:37).


(desolation). (1) A duke of Edom (Gen. 36:13,17; 1 Chron. 1:37). (2) Third son of Jesse (1 Sam. 16:9; 17:13). Called also, Shimea, Shimeah, and Shimma. (3) One of the three greatest of David’s mighty men (2 Sam. 23:11-17,33). (4) Another of David’s mighty men (2 Sam. 23:25). Shammoth (1 Chron. 11:27). Shamhuth (1 Chron. 27:8).


(desolated). Three Judahites (1 Chron. 2:28,32,44-45; 4:17).


(1 Chron. 11:27). [SHAMMAH, 4.]

Shammua, Shammuah

(heard). (1) The Reubenite spy (Num. 13:4). (2) A son of David, born in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5:14; 1 Chron. 14:4). Shimea (1 Chron. 3:5). (3) A Levite (Neh. 11:17). (4) A priest representing the family of Bilgah (Neh. 12:18).


(hero). A Benjamite, son of Jeroham (1 Chron. 8:26).


(bare). A Gadite (1 Chron. 5:12).


(rabbit). Scribe or secretary of King Josiah (2 Kings 22:3-14; 2 Chron. 34:8-20).


(judge). (1) The Simeonite spy (Num. 13:5). (2) Father of the prophet Elisha (1 Kings 19:16,19; 2 Kings 3:11; 6:31). (3) One in the royal line of Judah (1 Chron. 3:22). (4) A Gadite chief (1 Chron. 5:12). (5) A herdsman of David (1 Chron. 27:29).


(bright). A desert encampment of the Israelites (Num. 33:23).


(set free). A descendant of Bani, who had married a foreign wife (Ezra 10:40).


(Josh. 15:36). [SHAARAIM.]


(navel). Father of one of David’s warriors (2 Sam. 23:33). Sacar (1 Chron. 11:35).


(prince). Son of Sennacherib, who helped to murder his father (2 Kings 19:37).


(plain). (1) The plain skirting the Mediterranean coast from Judah to Caesarea. It is an extension of the “shefelah” or lowlands of Judah, and was renowned for its fertility. Called Saron in Acts 9:35. First mentioned as Lasharon (Josh. 12:18). David’s flocks fed there (1 Chron. 27:29). Celebrated (Song of Sol. 2:1; Isa. 35:2; 65:10). (2) A town or district east of Jordan, and perhaps in Gilead (1 Chron. 5:16).


Designation of Shitrai, one of David’s herdsmen
(1 Chron. 27:29).


(gracious house). A town first allotted to Judah and then to Simeon (Josh. 19:6).


(noble). A son of Bari, who had taken a foreign wife (Ezra 10:40).


(eager). Son of Beriah, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:14,25).


(asked). (1) A son of Simeon and founder of the Shaulites (Gen. 46:10; Num. 26:13). (2) A king of Edom (1 Chron. 1:48-49). Saul (Gen. 36:37).


Descendants of Shaul
(Num. 26:13).


(plain). The unidentified place in Palestine mentioned as the “king’s dale” (Gen. 14:17; 2 Sam. 18:18).

Shaveh Kiriathaim

(plain of Kiriathaim). Spot where the Emims dwelt when smitten by Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:5). It is supposedly the place that afterward belonged to Reuben, under the name of Kirjathaim (Num. 32:37; Josh. 13:19).


(God’s warrior). Royal secretary or scribe in time of King David (1 Chron. 18:16). Seraiah (2 Sam. 8:17). Sheva (2 Sam. 20:25). Shisha (1 Kings 4:3).




(pipe). A cornet or clarionet. Only in Prayer-book version of Psalm 98:6.


(asking). One who had a foreign wife, son of Azel (Ezra 10:29).


(asked of God). Father of Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:2,8; 5:2; Neh. 12:1; Hag. 1:1,12,14; 2:2,23).


(prized of God). A descendant of Saul (1 Chron. 8:38; 9:44).


A spot between Jezreel and Samaria where Jehu slaughtered the royal family of Judah
(2 Kings 10:12-14).


(a remnant shall return). Symbolical name given by Isaiah to his son (Isa. 7:3).


(oath). (1) Son of Bichri, a Benjamite, who revolted from David and was beheaded (2 Sam. 20:1-22). (2) A Gadite chief (1 Chron. 5:13). (3) A descendant of Ham (Gen. 10:7; 1 Chron. 1:9). (4) Son of Joktan (Gen. 10:28). (5) Son of Jokshan (Gen. 25:3; 1 Chron. 1:32). (6) The kingdom of Sheba, whose queen visited Solomon (1 Kings 10:1-13; 2 Chron. 9:1-12). This country has been variously located in Africa, in Arabia, on the Persian Gulf, and in Arabia, on the Red Sea. The burden of authority identifies it with Yemen or Arabia Felix, on the Red Sea, and peopled by descendants of Sheba, son of Joktan. (7) A town in Simeon (Josh. 19:2). Probably the Shema of Joshua 15:26.


(oath). The famous well, or series of wells, dug by the servants of Isaac, in accordance with his compact with the Philistines. It gave name to Beersheba (Gen. 26:31-33).


(odor). A town east of Jordan, given to Reuben and Gad (Num. 32:3). [SIBMAH].


(grown by God). (1) A priestly trumpeter at the bringing up of the ark (1 Chron. 15:24). (2) Three co-covenanters with Nehemiah (Neh. 9:5; 10:4,10,12; 12:14).


(ruins). Place near Ai to which the defeated Israelites were pursued (Josh. 7:5).




(breaking). A son of Caleb by his concubine, Maacah (1 Chron. 2:48).


(strength). (1) Prefect of the palace under King Hezekiah (Isa. 22:15-25). (2) Scribe under King Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18,37; 19:2; Isa. 36:3).


(captive of God). (1) A descendant of Moses (1 Chron. 23:16; 26:24). Shubael (1 Chron. 24:20). (2) A Levite minstrel, son of Heman (1 Chron. 25:4). Shubael (1 Chron. 25:20).


(dweller with God). (1) A priest in time of David (1 Chron. 24:11). (2) A Levite (2 Chron. 31:15).


(dweller with God). (1) A descendant of the royal line (1 Chron. 3:21-22). (2) Levites and returned captives (Ezra 8:3,5; 10:2; Neh. 3:29; 6:18; 12:3).


(shoulder). (1) The Canaanite who abducted Dinah and was slain by Simeon and Levi (Gen. 34). (2) An ancient and highly historic city, between mounts Ebal and Gerizim, 34 miles N. of Jerusalem. Called also Sichem, Sychem, Sychar, later Neapolis, now Nablus. Halting place of Abraham (Gen. 12:6). A Hivite city in time of Jacob (Gen. 33:18-20; Josh. 24:32). Captured by Simeon and Levi (Gen. 34). Joseph buried there (Josh. 24:32). Destroyed by Abimelech (Judg. 9). Rebuilt by Rehoboam, and fortified and made capital of Israel by Jeroboam (1 Kings 12: 1-19,25; 2 Chron. 10). A center of Samaritan worship after the captivity (John 4:5,39-42). (3) A Manassite, of Gilead (Num. 26:31). (4) A Gileadite, nephew of former (1 Chron. 7:19).


The family of Shechem of Gilead
(Num. 26:31).


(dwelling place). The visible majesty of God, as in the “pillar of cloud” and the “glory” which covered the tabernacle and filled Solomon’s temple. A word found only in the targums, Chaldaic version of Bible, and among early Christian writers. Alluded to (Luke 2:9; John 1:14; Rom. 9:4).


(light-sender). Father of Elizur, chief of Reuben at time of exode (Num. 1:5; 2:10; 7:30,35; 10:18).


An important animal among Hebrews, and a main source of wealth
Shepherd’s occupation highly respectable (Gen. 4:2; Ex. 3:1; 1 Sam. 16:11; Job 42:12), though odious to Egyptians. Used for sacrifices (Ex. 20:24; 29:38; Lev. 9:3); for food (1 Sam. 25:18). Wool used for clothing (Lev. 13:47). Skins used for tabernacle coverings (Ex. 25:5). Paid as tribute (2 Kings 3:4). Sheep and shepherd employed much figuratively (2 Chron. 18:16; Psa. 119:176; Matt. 9:36; John 10:11; Heb. 13:20). The common sheep of Syria and Palestine was the broad-tailed variety.


Place for herding sheep, especially at night
Usually built strong to keep out wild animals (Num. 32:16; 2 Sam. 7:8; John 10:16). The bold, cote, or enclosure was also the place where the sheep were collected at shearing time (Jer. 23:3; Zeph. 2:6), which was a season of festivity (1 Sam. 25:7-11; 2 Sam. 13:23). Hence “shearing-house” (2 Kings 10:12-14).


One of the gates of Jerusalem as rebuilt by Nehemiah
(Neh. 3:1,32; 12:39).


Should read “sheep-gate” as above
(John 5:2).


(Jehovah dawns). Son of Jeroham of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:26).


(weight). A weight for weighing uncoined money, of Assyrian and Babylonian origin. There seem to have been two standards, that of the sanctuary and the king (Ex. 30:13; 2 Sam. 14:26). Both approximated half an ounce, valued in silver at about 64 cents. Later, a Hebrew silver coin, with bronze half and quarter shekels. Probably the “pieces of silver” (Matt. 26:15), though the “pieces of silver” in Luke 15:8 are clearly the Greek drachmas. The first Jewish coins were struck by Simon Maccabeus, who obtained permission to coin money from Antiochus, King of Syria. His shekel showed a vase on one side, representing a pot of manna, and on the other an almond branch with flowers, representative supposedly of Aaron’s rod.
Bronze Quarter Shekel


(prayer). (1) Youngest son of Judah by the daughter of Shua and founder of Shelanites (Gen. 38:5-26; Num. 26:20). (2) (1 Chron. 1:18,24). [SALAH.]


Descendants of Shelah, son of Judah
(Num. 26:20).


(God repays). (1) (1 Chron. 26:14). [MESHELEMIAH.] (2) Two who married foreign wives (Ezra 10:39,41). (3) Father of Hananiah (Neh. 3:30). (4) A priest appointed treasurer (Neh. 13:13). (5) Father of Jehucal (Jer. 37:3). (6) Father of one of Jeremiah’s accusers (Jer. 38:1). (7) Father of the officer who arrested Jeremiah (Jer. 37:13).


(drawn out). Son of Joktan (Gen. 10:26; 1 Chron. 1:20).


(strength). Son of Helem, an Asherite chief (1 Chron. 7:35).


(my peace). The father of Ahihud, an Asherite (Num. 34:27).


(my peace). (1) Daughter of Dibri, of Dan (Lev. 24:11). (2) Daughter of Zerubbabel (1 Chron. 3:19). (3) Two Levites (1 Chron. 23:9,18). (4) A descendant of Eliezer (1 Chron. 26:25-28). (5) A returned captive (Ezra 8:10).


(1 Chron. 24:22). [SHELOMITH, 3.]


(God’s peace). The son of Zerishaddai, a prince of Simeon (Num. 1:6; 2:12; 7:36,41; 10:19).


(name). Oldest son of Noah, preserved with his father in the ark (Gen. 5:32). Blessed by Noah for his conduct (Gen. 9:18-27). His descendants are the Hebrews, Arameans, Persians, Assyrians, and Arabians, whose languages are called Shemitic.


(hearing). (1) A Judahite (1 Chron. 2:43-44). (2) A Reubenite (1 Chron. 5:8). (3) A Benjamite chief (1 Chron. 8:13). (4) An assistant of Ezra (Neh. 8:4). (5) (Josh. 15:26) [SHEBA, 7.].


(God hears). A Benjamite whose sons joined David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:3).


(God hears). (1) Prophet and chronicler in reign of Rehoboam (1 Kings 12:22; 2 Chron. 11:2). (2) Twenty-four others, mostly priests, Levites, and returned captives (1 Chron. 3:22; 4:37; 5:4; 9:14; 9:16; 15:8,11; 24:6; 26:4-7; 2 Chron. 29:14; 17:8; 31:15; 35:9; Ezra 8:13,16; 10:21,31; Neh. 6:10; 10:8; 12:6,18,34,36,42; Jer. 26:20; 29:24-32; 36:12).


(God keeps). (1) An adherent of David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:5). (2) Two who took foreign wives (Ezra 10:32,41).


(high flight). King of Zeboiim and ally of the king of Sodom (Gen. 14:2).


(guarded). Owner of the hill which King Omri bought, and on which he built Samaria, giving it the former owner’s name (1 Kings 16:24).


(wise). A son of Gilead and founder of the Shemidaites (Num. 26:32; Josh. 17:2). Shemidah (1 Chron. 7:19).


(1 Chron. 7:19). [SHEMIDA.]


Descendants of Shemida
(Num. 26:32).


(eighth). A musical term, variously surmised to mean the instrument, one of eight strings, the octave, the time of the piece, the part, air, pitch, or key (1 Chron. 15:21; Psa. 6; 12 titles).


(heights of heaven). (1) A musical Levite in time of David (1 Chron. 15:18,20; 16:5). (2) A Levite in reign of Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 17:8).


The family of languages spoken by the descendants of Shem


(heard of God). (1) Representative of Simeon during the apportionment of Canaan (Num. 34:20). (2) Samuel the prophet (1 Chron. 6:33). (3) A chief of Issachar (1 Chron. 7:2).


(tooth). An unknown place (1 Sam. 7:12).


(ivory keeper). A descendant of David (1 Chron. 3:18).


(Deut. 3:9; Song of Sol. 4:8). [SENIR.]


(wild). A landmark on eastern boundary of Promised Land (Num. 34:10).


(God judges). A Benjamite (1 Chron. 9:8).


(God judges). (1) Fifth son of David (2 Sam. 3:4; 1 Chron. 3:3). (2) A Benjamite warrior (1 Chron. 12:5). (3) A chief of Simeon (1 Chron. 27:16). (4) Son of Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 21:2). (5) Four others (Ezra 2:4,57; Neh. 7:9,59; 11:4; Jer. 38:1-4).


(herder of sheep). A highly honorable occupation among pastoral Hebrews, engaged in by both sexes (Gen. 29:6; 30:29-35; Ex. 2:16-22). Often arduous and dangerous employment (Gen. 31:40; 1 Sam. 17:34). Equipment consisted of a sheepskin mantle, a scrip or wallet, a sling and crook. He led the flock to pasture in the morning, tended them by day and folded and watched them at night (Job 30:1; Luke 2:8; John 10:4). The office of sheep-master or chief shepherd was one of great trust as well as honor (2 Kings 3:4; Heb. 13:20; 1 Peter 5:4). It was the shepherd’s duty to count the sheep daily and to tithe them, and he was held responsible for lost ones (Gen. 31:38-39; Ex. 22:12-13; Isa. 27:32; Jer. 33:13). Shepherd is used figuratively for Jehovah (Psa. 80:1; Jer. 31:10); for kings (Ezek. 34:10); in N. T. for Christ (John 10:11; Heb. 13:20; 1 Peter 5:4). It is applied also to teachers in the synagogue and to those who preside over it. Hence pastor and minister of the gospel.


(barren). Son of Shobal, a descendant of Seir (1 Chron. 1:40). Shepho (Gen. 36:23).


(Gen. 36:23). [SHEPHI.]


(serpent). A grandson of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:5). Shupham (Num. 26:39). Shuppim (1 Chron. 7:12,15). Muppim (Gen. 46:21).


(relation). A daughter of Ephraim (1 Chron. 7:24).


(heat of God). A co-covenanter with Nehemiah, and assistant to Ezra (Ezra 8:18,24; Neh. 8:7; 9:4; 10:12).


(root). Son of Machir, of Manasseh (1 Chron. 7:16).


(fire prince). A messenger of the people (Zech. 7:2).


(shire officer). A Babylonian official (Dan. 3:2).


(from the goddess Shach). Symbolical name for Babylon (Jer. 25:26).


(princely). A son of Anak, slain by Caleb (Num. 13:22; Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).


(princely). Son of Ishi, a Judahite. Had no sons and gave his daughter to an Egyptian (1 Chron. 2:31-35).


(fire-worshipper). Zerubbabel’s name at the Persian court (Ezra 1:8-11).


(tumult). (1) (1 Chron. 1:1). [SETH.] (2) For Sheth (Num. 24:17), read “tumult,” as in Jeremiah 48:45.


(star). A Persian prince (Esther 1:14).


(star of splendor). A Persian officer in Syria (Ezra 5:3,6; 6:6,13).


Corruption of Seraiah
(1) A son of Caleb (1 Chron. 2:49). (2) The scribe of David (2 Sam. 20:25). Shavsha (1 Chron. 18:16). Shisha (1 Kings 4:3). Seraiah (2 Sam. 8:17).


(showbread). Unleavened bread baked in twelve loaves corresponding to the twelve tribes, and placed fresh every Sabbath on the golden table of the sanctuary. Eaten only by the priests (Ex. 25:30; Lev. 24:8; 1 Sam. 21:1-6; Matt. 12:3-4). The arrangement of loaves on the table was in two rows of six loaves each. Salt and frankincense were put on each row. It was called “showbread,” “bread of the face,” or “bread of the setting before,” because it stood continually before the Lord. In later times it was called the “bread of ordering” (1 Chron. 9:32 marg.; Neh. 10:33).


(ear of corn, stream). Pronounced sibboleth by Ephraimites, and shibboleth by Gileadites. When the latter conquered the former, and held the fords of Jordan, they exacted the pronunciation of this word in order to distinguish friend from foe. Any other word beginning with sh would have answered the same purpose (Judg. 12:6).


(fragrant). A town in Reuben, east of Jordan (Num. 32:38). Shebam (Num. 32:3). Sibmah (Josh. 13:19).


(drunkenness). A boundary mark of northern Judah (Josh. 15:11).


(cover). A defensive piece of armor, varying in size and shape, and made of skin or metal. Worn on left arm. Metaphorically, divine protection (Judg. 5:8; 1 Kings 10:17; Psa. 3:3).


(mournful). A word which probably designates the character of the ode (Psa. 7 title).


Plural of Shiggaion
(Hab. 3:1).


(ruin). A town in Issachar (Josh. 19:19).


(blackness). (1) Southern boundary of David’s empire (1 Chron. 13:5). [SIHOR.] (2) Shihorlibnath, a boundary of Asher, and probably identical with the stream called “Blue River,” which empties into the Mediterranean eight miles south of Dor (Josh. 19:26).


(armed). Grandfather of King Jehoshaphat (1 Kings 22:42; 2 Chron. 20:31).


(armed). A city in southern Judah (Josh. 15:32).


(retribution). Son of Naphtali and founder of Shillemites (Gen. 46:24; Num. 26:49).


Descendants of Shillem
(Num. 26:49).


The softly flowing waters of Siloam
(Isa. 8:6).


(peace). (1) A disputed rendering; referred to a town and to the Messiah (Gen. 49:10; Isa. 9:6). (2) A city in Ephraim, midway between Bethel and Shechem. Now Sellun. Joshua’s capital and site where he apportioned his conquests. The ark remained there for three hundred years, till captured by the Philistines (Josh. 18:1,8-10; Judg. 21:19-23). Residence of Eli and Samuel (1 Sam. 3), and it was there that Eli received word of the capture of the ark, and died (1 Sam. 4). The ark was not returned to Shiloh after its capture, and the tabernacle was removed to Nob and thence to Jerusalem, but the odor of sanctity clung about the venerable city for generations, and it was long a place for annual pilgrimages and religious festivals. The prophet Ahijah dwelt at Shiloh (1 Kings 14:1-18). Jeremiah pictures Shiloh as desolate in his day (Jer. 7:12-14; 26:6-9).


A descendant of Shelah
(Neh. 11:5).


Dweller in Shiloh
(1 Kings 11:29; 12:15; 15:29; 2 Chron. 9:29; Neh. 11:5).


Members of the family of Shelah
(1 Chron. 9:5).


(third). Son of Zophah, an Asherite chief (1 Chron. 7:37).


(hearing). (1) A son of David by Bathsheba, born in Jerusalem (1 Chron. 3:5). (2) A Levite (1 Chron. 6:30). (3) Another Levite (1 Chron. 6:39). (4) A brother of David, called also Shammah, Shimeah, and Shimma (1 Chron. 20:7).


(hearing). (1) Brother of David, called also Shammah, Shimma and Shimea (2 Sam. 21:21). (2) A descendant of Jehiel, founder of Gibeon (1 Chron. 8:32).


(hearing) (1 Chron. 9:38). [SHIMEAH, 2.]


(hearing). Mother of one of the murderers of King Joash (2 Kings 12:21; 2 Chron. 24:26).


A family of scribes
(1 Chron. 2:55).


(famed). (1) A son of Gershon (Num. 3:18).


(Ex. 6:17). (2) A Benjamite who cursed David (2 Sam. 16:5-13; 1 Kings 2:44-46). (3) One of David’s warriors (1 Kings 1:8). (4) A commissary of Solomon (1 Kings 4:18). (5) Brother of Zerubbabel (1 Chron. 3:19). (6) A Simeonite (1 Chron. 4:26-27). (7) A Reubenite (1 Chron. 5:4). (8) A Levite (1 Chron. 6:42). (9) Leader of 10th musical course (1 Chron. 25:17). (10) David’s vineyardist (1 Chron. 27:27). (11) Ancestor of Mordecai (Esther 2:5). (12) Levites in 2 Chron. 29:14; 31:12-13; Ezra 10:23,33,38).


(hearing). One who married a foreign wife and divorced her (Ezra 10:31).


(famed). A Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:21).


(Ex. 6:17). [SHIMEI, 1.]


Descendants of Shimei
(1) (Num. 3:21).


(hearing). Third son of Jesse (1 Chron. 2:13).


(waste). A Judahite (1 Chron. 4:20).


(watcher). Ninth son of Shimei, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:21).


(vigilant). (1) A Simeonite (1 Chron. 4:37). (2) Father of Jediael, one of David’s guard (1 Chron. 11:45). (3) A Levite (2 Chron. 29:13).


(vigilant). A Moabitess, mother of Jehozabad, one of the murderers of King Joash (2 Chron. 24:26). Called Shomer (2 Kings 12:21).


(1 Chron. 7:1). [SHIMRON, 2.]


(watch place). (1) An ancient Canaanite city allotted to Zebulun (Josh. 11:1; 19:15). (2) Fourth son of Issachar and founder of Shimronites (Gen. 46:13; Num. 26:24).


Descendants of Shimron
(2) (Num. 26:24).


(Josh. 12:20). Probably complete name of Shimron (1).


(bright). A scribe and Persian satrap in Judea. He, together with the chancellor, Rehum, wrote a letter to King Artaxerxes in opposition to the rebuilding of the temple by Zerubbabel (Ezra 4:8-9,17,23).


(splendor). A king of Admah in time of Abraham (Gen. 14:2).


(two rivers). The alluvial plain through which the Tigris and Euphrates pass, and probably inclusive of Babylon and Mesopotamia (Gen. 10:10; 11:1-9; Isa. 11:11; Dan. 1:2). It was the seat of the kingdom founded by Nimrod, and which reckoned among its cities, as beginnings, Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh (Gen. 10:9-10). Asshur went forth from Shiner to found Nineveh (Gen. 10:11). It was in the plain in the land of Shinar that the migrating nation undertook to build the tower of Babel, and where the confusion of tongues occurred (Gen. 11:1-9).


Ships of Scripture dependent on oars and sails for propulsion
Hebrews not sailors. The ships of Acts 21:1-6; 27:6-44; 28:11-13, were capable of carrying many people and much freight. Primitive ships were generally coasters. They were mounted with figure-heads and had figures painted on the sides of the bow. These composed the ship’s “sign” (Acts 28:11). Among their furnishings were under-girders, anchors shaped like those of modern times, but without flukes, sounding-lines, rudder-bands (Acts 27:40). Ancient ships, being wholly or in part propelled by oars, were properly called galleys.


(many). A prince of Simeon, in time of Hezekiah (1 Chron. 4:37).


Probably a native of Shepham, and a designation of Zabdi, David’s overseer of vineyard increase and wine cellars
(1 Chron. 27:27).


(handsome). A Hebrew midwife in Egypt (Ex. 1:15).


(judging). Father of Kemuel, a prince of Ephraim (Num. 34:24).


(God’s strife). Father of Solomon’s scribes (1 Kings 4:3).


The king of Egypt to whom Jeroboam fled
(1 Kings 11:40). He invaded Judea, B. C. 969, defeated Rehoboam, and spoiled the temple (1 Kings 14:25-26; 2 Chron. 12:2-9). Inscriptions, reliefs, and statuary at Karnak, on the Nile, record his invasion of Palestine.


(scribe). Keeper of David’s herds in Sharon (1 Chron. 27:29).

Shittah, Shittim

(thorny). (1) An Asiatic tree, a species of acacia, producing a close-grained, yellowish wood used in making the sacred furniture of the tabernacle (Ex. 25:10-13; 26:15,26; 27:1; Isa. 41:19). (2) Last encampment of the Israelites before crossing the Jordan. Scene of the completion of the law and farewell of Moses (Num. 25; 31:1-12; Josh. 2:1; 3:1). The spies were sent out from Shittim to Jericho, and there the final preparations were made for crossing the Jordan. It was also called Abel-shittim, “meadow of acacias,” and was the well-watered, fertile plain stretching from the foot of the mountains of Moab to the banks of the Jordan. (3) “Valley of Shittim” (Joel 3:18), is doubtless same as Shittim (2), which was also known as Abel-shittim.


(loving). Father of a Reubenite captain (1 Chron. 11:42).


(fruitful). An undetermined name or place (Ezek. 23:23).


(hostile). (1) A son of David (2 Sam. 5:14; 1 Chron. 3:5; 14:4). (2) A son of Caleb by his wife Azubah (1 Chron. 2:18).


(enlarging). A Syrian general whom David defeated (2 Sam. 10:15-18). Shophach (1 Chron. 19:16-18).


(captive). A family of temple doorkeepers who returned from captivity (Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45).


(current). (1) Second son of Seir, and a Horite duke (Gen. 36:20; 1 Chron. 1:38). (2) A son of Caleb (1 Chron. 2:50,52). (3) (1 Chron. 4:1-2), probably same as above.


(forsaken). A co-covenanter with Nehemiah (Neh. 10:24).


(captive). An Ammonite who succored David during Absalom’s rebellion (2 Sam. 17:27-29).

Shoco, Shocho, Shochoh

(2 Chron. 11:7; 28:18; 1 Sam. 17:1). [SOCOH.]




(onyx). A Levite (1 Chron. 24:27).


(keeper). (1) An Asherite (1 Chron. 7:32). Shamer (1 Chron. 7:34). (2) Mother of Jehozabad, a co-murderer of King Joash (2 Kings 12:21). Called Shimrith (2 Chron. 24:26).


(1 Chron. 19:16-18). [SHOBACH.]


(burrow). A fenced city east of Jordan, which fell to Gad (Num. 32:35).


(lilies). Variously construed as a melody, bridal-song, and musical instrument (Psa. 45; 69; 80 titles). In the latter, eduth, “testimony,” is added.


Baring of, signified servitude
(Gen. 49:15); withdrawing of, denoted rebellion (Neh. 9:29); bearing upon, meant to sustain (Isa. 9:6; 22:22).


(shove). [FAN.] [WINNOW.]


(wealth). Father-in-law of Judah (1 Chron. 2:3). Shuah (Gen. 38:2,12).


(pit). (1) A son of Abraham (Gen. 25:2; 1 Chron. 1:32). (2) Brother of Chelub (1 Chron. 4:11). (3) (Gen. 38:2,12). [SHUA.]


(fox). (1) An Asherite (1 Chron. 7:36). (2) An unlocated land (1 Sam. 13:17).


(God’s captive). (1) Shebuel, son of Gershon (1 Chron. 24:20). (2) Shebuel, son of Heman the singer, and leader of the thirteenth musical course (1 Chron. 25:20).


(well-digger). A son of Dan (Num. 26:42). Hushim (Gen. 46:23).


Descendants of Shuham
(Num. 26:42).


Designation of Bildad, one of Job’s friends; associated with Tsukhi, an Arabic tribe
(Job 2:11).


One belonging to Shulem or Shunem
(Song of Sol. 6:13).


One of the four families of Kirjath-jearim
(1 Chron. 2:53).


A native of Shunem
The nurse of David and hostess of Elisha were so called (1 Kings 1:3; 2 Kings 4:12).


(double sleeping place). A city of Issachar, near Jezreel. Place where the Philistines encamped before the great battle of Gilboa; home of David’s nurse and wife, Abishag; residence of the woman who entertained Elisha. Now Solam (Josh. 19:18; 1 Sam. 28:4; 2 Kings 4:8).


(resting). A son of Gad (Gen. 46:16).


Descendants of Shuni
(Num. 26:15).


(Num. 26:39). [SHUPPIM.]


Descendants of Shupham
(Num. 26:39).


(serpents). (1) Great-grandson of Benjamin (1 Chron. 7:12). Shupham, (Num. 26:39). (2) A Levite gatekeeper (1 Chron. 26:16).


(wall). A desert region of Arabia, and its town, bordering on Egypt (Gen. 16:7; 25:18). “Wilderness of Etham” (Num. 33:8). Inhabited by Amalekites (1 Sam. 15:7; 27:8).


(lily). The Greek Susa, ancient capital of Elam, a province in Mesopotamia. A seat of wealth and power after the Persian conquest of Babylon. The events of Esther’s history occurred there. Spot of Daniel’s visions. Nehemiah commissioned there (Gen. 10:22; 14:1; Neh. 1:1; Esther; Isa. 21:2; Jer. 49:34; Dan. 8:2). The decline of this ancient city dates from its capture by Alexander the Great, or from its later conquest by Antigonus, B. C. 315. The site, nearly due east from Babylon and north of the Persian Gulf, is marked by ruins, some three miles in circumference, in the midst of which have been found the remains of the great palace of Darius, scene of the events narrated in the book of Esther.


Abbreviated form of Shoshannim-eduth, which see, Psalm 60 title


Descendants of Shuthelah
(Num. 26:35).


(discord). Head of the Ephraimite family of Shuthalhites (Num. 26:35; 1 Chron. 7:20-21).


(shooter). This weaver’s device for throwing the filling thread between the warp threads is figurative of fleeting time in Job 7:6.


(assembly). His children returned from captivity (Neh. 7:47). Siaha (Ezra 2:44).


(Ezra 2:44). [SIA.]


(1 Chron. 11:29; 27:11). [SlBBECHAl.]


(weaver). One of David’s guard, and eighth captain of eighth month (2 Sam. 21:18; 1 Chron. 20:4). Sibbecai (1 Chron. 11:29; 27:11). Mebunnai (2 Sam. 23:27).


(Judg. 12:6). [SHIBBOLETH.]


(fragrant). A fortified city of Reuben, east of Jordan (Josh. 13:19). Shebam (Num. 32:3). Shibmah (Num. 32:38). Noted for its grapes (Isa. 16:8-9; Jer. 48:32).


(twice hopeful). A boundary mark of northern Palestine (Ezek. 47:16).


(Gen. 12:6). [SHECHEM.]


(cutter). The reaping and mowing implement of the ancients. In its size and curvature, as represented on Egyptian monuments, it resembled the implement as known to us (Deut. 16:9).


(pitted vale). A vale, full of slime-pits, supposedly near the Dead Sea, in which the kings of the plain cities met their invaders (Gen. 14:1-10).


(Gen. 10:15,19). [ZIDON.]
Old Gate at Sidon


(Deut. 3:9; Josh. 13:4,6; Judg. 3:3; 1 Kings 5:6).


(sit) (Deut. 20:19). [WAR.]


Ancient sieves, or sifters, were crudely made of rushes, though the Gauls are credited with their manufacture from horsehair
They were used for separating the flour from the bran, or broken kernels, and what was left in the sieve was thrown back into the mill to be reground (Isa. 30:28).


(rooting out). An Amorite king, defeated by the Israelites, who occupied his country between the Arnon and Jabbok (Num. 21:21-31; Deut. 1:4; 2:24-37; Josh. 13:15-28).


(blackness). The Sihor, or Shihor, of Egypt (1 Chron. 13:5; Isa. 23:3; Jer. 2:18), has ever been construed as “the Nile.” But when unqualified, some Arabian ravine or wady may be meant.


(Silvanus, woody). An eminent member of the early Christian church. Written Silvanus in Paul’s epistles. Resided at Jerusalem as teacher, but accompanied Paul on his tours, and was his fellow-prisoner at Philippi. Said to have been bishop of Corinth (Acts 15:22, 32-34,40; 17:14; 18:5; 2 Cor. 1:19; 1 Thess. 1:1).


(Seric stuff). Silk hardly known to ancient Hebrews. Some fine linen fabric is supposed to be meant (Prov. 31:22; Ezek. 16:10,13). Undoubtedly known in N. T. times (Rev. 18:12).


(branch). The place near which King Joash was slain (2 Kings 12:20).


(Neh. 3:15). [SILOAM.]


(sent). (1) The celebrated pool, or tank, at Jerusalem, on the south side, near the opening of the Tyrophean valley into the Kidron valley. Originally a part of the water supply of the city (Neh. 3:15; Isa. 8:6; John 9:7-11). (2) An Unlocated tower whose fall killed eighteen men (Luke 13:4). Siloam still retains its ancient name under the form of the Arabic Silwan. It is partly hewn from rock and partly built with masonry. A flight of steps leads down to it. It is no longer a natural spring of fresh, limpid water, but is fed from the Fountain of the Virgin through a rock tunnel over 1700 feet in length. The waters are brackish and colored, and the walls and steps in ruins.


(woody). [SILAS]


(white). Used by Hebrews from earliest times for money, vessels, and ornaments, but not in form of coins till after the captivity (Gen. 13:2; 24:53; 44:2; Job 28:1; Matt. 26:15; Acts 19:24). Silver supplied to Jerusalem from Arabia and Tarshish (2 Chron. 9:14,21).


(little silvers). Evidently bits of silver money, but whether by weight or coinage is not known (Isa. 7:23).


(who hears). (1) Son of Jacob and Leah (Gen. 29:33). For the crime in Genesis 34:25-30 his father denounced him (Gen. 49:5-7). His tribe was small (Num. 1:22-23; 26:14), and their inheritance a scattered portion of Canaan (Josh. 19:1-9). (2) Son of Judah in genealogy of Christ (Luke 3:30). (3) Simon Peter (Acts 15:14). (4) A venerable and pious Jew who blessed the child Jesus in the temple (Luke 2:25-35). (5) Simeon Niger (Acts 13:1). [NIGER.]


(Simeon). (1) Several distinguished Jews bore this name during the Maccabean period. (2) A native of Samaria and famous sorcerer, who professed Christ for mercenary purposes (Acts 8:9-24). (3) Simon Peter (Matt. 4:18). [PETER.] (4) Simon the Canaanite, or Simon Zelotes, was a member of the party of Zealots who advocated the Jewish ritual, and an apostle (Matt. 10:4). (5) Simon the brother of Jesus (Matt. 13:55; Mark 6:3). (6) Simon the Pharisee, in whose house a woman anointed the feet of Jesus (Luke 7:36-50). (7) Simon, the leper of Bethany (Matt. 26:6). (8) Simon of Cyrene, who was compelled to bear Christ’s cross (Matt. 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26). (9) The tanner of Joppa with whom Peter lodged (Acts 9:43). (10) Simon the father of Judas Iscariot (John 6:71; 13:2,26).


(alert). A Merarite Levite in David’s time (1 Chron. 26:10).


(clay). (1) A city of Egypt identified with Pelusium, “town of clay or mud,” on eastern mouth of Nile near the sea (Ezek. 30:15-16). (2) A desert portion of Arabia between Gulf of Suez and Sinai (Ex. 16:1; 17:1; Num. 33:11-12). It was in this wilderness that the Israelites were first fed with manna and quails. It skirts the eastern coast of the gulf for a distance of 25 miles.


Money sent from a distance to buy offerings
The surplus, if any, became a perquisite of the priest, and was called sin-money (2 Kings 12:16).


Like the trespass-offering, the sin-offering was expiatory
It was presented on the great day of atonement, when one confessed the sins of the nation with his hand on the head of the scapegoat (Lev. 16:1-34; Num. 18:9).


Greek form of Sinai
(Acts 7:30,38).


(bushy). The peninsula of Sinai lies between the two great arms of the Red Sea, Gulf of Araba on the east, and Gulf of Suez on the west. This region contains the mountain system of Horeb or Sinai, on one of whose mounts, or peaks, God appeared to Moses in the burning bush (Ex. 3:1-5), amid whose surrounding wilderness the wandering Israelites encamped, (Ex. 19:1-2), and from whose cloud-obscured heights the law was delivered to Moses (Ex. 19:3-25; 20-40 Lev.). The numbering also took place there (Num. 1:1-10:1-12). The peninsula is a triangle whose base extends from the head of Suez to Akaba. This base is pierced by the plateau of Tih, the “desert of wandering,” south of which are those tumultuous mountain clusters above mentioned, central among which is Mount Sinai. The coast ranges along Akaba and Suez are systematic and elevated. The region was a dependency of Egypt from earliest times, but became subject to Rome.


An unidentified land mentioned in Isaiah 49:12
Referred by some to China.


A tribe descended from Canaan
(Gen. 10:17; 1 Chron. 1:15).


(lofty). (1) An ancient name of Mount Hermon (Deut. 4:48). (2) Greek form of Zion (Matt. 21:5; John 12:15; Heb. 12:22; Rev. 14:1).


(fertile). A haunt of David, while an outlaw, in South Judah (1 Sam. 30:28).


(threshold). Saph, the Philistine giant slain at Gezer (1 Chron. 20:4).


(retreat). The well, now Ain Sarah, from which Abner was called by Joab. It was near Hebron (2 Sam. 3:26).


Zidonian name of Mount Hermon
(Deut. 3:9; Psa. 29:6).


(famed). A descendant of Sheehan, of Judah (1 Chron. 2:40).


(ready for war). (1) Captain of King Jabin’s forces when defeated by Barak. Slain by Jael (Judg. 4; 5). (2) His children returned (Ezra 2:53; Neh. 7:55).


(strife). Second of the two wells dug by Isaac in valley of Gerar, over which the herdsmen disputed (Gen. 26:21).


Third month of Jewish sacred and ninth of civil year, beginning with the new moon of June
(Esther 8:9).


(Sclavonian). Slavery came about under Hebrew institutions. (1) By poverty, when a man sold himself to cancel debt (Lev. 25:39); (2) by theft, when restitution could not be made (Ex. 22:3); (3) by parents selling their daughters as concubines (Ex. 21:7-11). It ended (1) when the debt was paid; (2) on the year of Jubilee (Lev. 25:40); (3) at the end of six years of service (Ex. 21:2; Deut. 15:12). This as to Hebrews. As to non-Hebrew slaves, by far the most numerous class, they were purchased (Lev. 25:45); or captured in war (Num. 31:26,40). They were freed if ill treated (Ex. 21:26-27); to slay one was murder (Lev. 24:17,22); they were circumcised and had religious privileges (Gen. 17:12-13).


The slime of Babel, and that of the pits of Siddim, and the ark of Moses, was mineral pitch or bitumen
(Gen. 11:3; 14:10; Ex. 2:3).


The weapons of shepherds and light troops
It consisted of leather or sinew strings with a pouch at the end for the missile (Judg. 20:16; 1 Sam. 17:40).


(smiter). An artificer in iron, brass, or other metals (Gen. 4:22; 1 Sam. 13:19-22).


(myrrh). A coast city of Ionia, Asia Minor, 40 miles north of Ephesus. Mentioned in Revelation 2:8-11 as site of one of the seven churches of Asia. The old city of Smyrna dates back to Theseus, 1300 years B. C. Alexander the Great built the new city B. C. 320. It became subject to Rome and was noted for its beauty. Christianity got an early foothold there and the city sent a bishop to the council of Nice, A. D. 325. It is still a large city of mixed nationalities and creeds, and of considerable commercial importance.


(snake). A lizard is meant (Lev. 11:30). The common snail, slug, or slime-snake is meant (Psa. 58:8). Snails abound in the Orient and are not eschewed as a food.


Only mentioned once as actually falling
(2 Sam. 23:20; 1 Chron. 11:22); but of frequent poetic and metaphoric use (Ex. 4:6; Num. 12:10; 2 Kings 5:27; Psa. 51:7; Isa. 1:18).


Small dishes, made of gold, for receiving the snuff from the tabernacle lamps
(Ex. 25:38).


Scissor-like instruments, made of gold, for snuffing the wicks of the tabernacle lamps
(Ex. 37:23).


A king of Egypt with whom Hoshea formed an alliance against Assyria
The discovery of this led to the imprisonment of Hoshea, the siege and capture of Samaria, and the captivity of the ten tribes of Israel (2 Kings 17:4,6).


(sap, resin). The Hebrew word for soap implies any alkaline substance used for cleansing (Jer. 2:22; Mal. 3:2).


(1 Chron. 4:18). [SOCOH.]


(1 Kings 4:10). [SOCOH.]


(brambly). (1) A town in lowlands of Judah (Josh. 15:35). Shocho (2 Chron. 28:18). Shoco (2 Chron. 11:7). Shochoh (1 Sam. 17:1). (2) A town in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:48).


(secret). Father of the spy from Zebulun (Num. 13:10).


(consuming). Most prominent of the cities in the plain of Siddim. Destroyed by fire from heaven (Gen. 10:19; 13:10-13; 19:1-29). Site of “the cities of the plain” is not known, but variously referred to the southern end, the northern end, and bottom of the Dead Sea. Sodom is often referred to in Scripture as a symbol of wickedness and warning to sinners (Deut. 29:23; Isa. 1:9-10; 13:19; Jer. 23:14; 49:18; Ezek. 16:49-50; Matt. 10:15; 11:23; Rev. 11:8).


Greek and Vulgate form of Sodom
(Rom. 9:29).


Dwellers in Sodom, or, by figure, those who practice the abominations of Sodom
(Deut. 23:17; 1 Kings 14:24; 15:12).


(peaceful). Last of David’s sons by Bathsheba. Named Jedidiah, “beloved of God,” by Nathan (1 Chron. 3:5; 2 Sam. 12:25). Placed in Nathan’s care. Secured the throne according to David’s pledge (1 Kings 1:13-53), and much to the consternation of Adonijah, the legal successor. Reigned forty years, B. C. 1015-975. Confirmed his father’s conquests, built the palace and temple, extended commerce, contracted favorable alliances, grew famous for wisdom, raised his kingdom to great wealth, splendor, and power, mingled justice with cruelty, endorsed true and false worship, encouraged literature, and wrote largely himself, fell a prey to the sensibilities of his time and position, died leaving his kingdom under the eclipse of faction and on the edge of decay (1 Kings 2-11; 2 Chron. 1-9).

Solomon’s Pools

Reservoirs erected by Solomon near Bethlehem, whence water was conveyed to the distributing pools at Jerusalem
They are still in partial use (Eccl. 2:6).

Solomon's Porch

The colonnade on east side of the temple
(John 10:23; Acts 3:11; 5:12).

Solomon’s Servants

Returned captives, and probable descendants of a class of servants favored by Solomon
(Ezra 2:55,58; Neh. 7:57,60).

Solomon’s Song



In Hebrew sense, any descendant however remote
(Gen. 29:5; 2 Sam. 19:24). Applied also to pupils, adopted persons, those of kindred faith (Gen. 48:5; 1 Sam. 3:6; Acts 13:6).

Son of God

A term applied to the angels
(Job 38:7); to Adam (Luke 3:38); to believers (Rom. 8:14; 2 Cor. 6:18); but preeminently to Christ, signifying his divine origin and nature (Dan. 3:25; Matt. 11:27; 16:16; John 1:18; 5:19-26; 9:35).

Son of Man

In a limited sense, “man”
(Num. 23:19; Job 25:6; Psa. 8:4). In a broader, higher, and perhaps more generally received Hebrew sense, “the Messiah.” In the N. T. sense, where the term is used some eighty times, it means Christ in Incarnate form and relation (Dan. 7:13; Matt. 9:6; 12:8; 18:11; Mark 2:10; John 1:51; 3:13; 6:53).

Song of Solomon

“Song of Songs,” or “Canticles,” in Latin
The book outlines the future return of Jehovah’s earthly people Israel in affection and position to Himself, when they will call Jehovah, husband (Hos. 2:16,19). Many good applications can be made to those in bridal relationships.


(truth-sayer). One who pretends to foretell future events (Dan. 2:27). [DIVINATION.]


(sip). Bread dipped in soup, milk, wine, sauce, or other liquid (Ruth 2:14; John 13:26).


(father saved). A Berean companion of Paul on his return from his third missionary journey (Acts 20:4).


(scribe). His children were returned captives (Ezra 2:55).


(fate-worker). [DIVINATION.]


(vine). A valley of Philistia, where Delilah lived (Judg. 16:4).


(Sopater). A friend of Paul; probably Sopater (Rom. 16:21).


(saviour). (1) A ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who was beaten by the Greeks (Acts 18:17). (2) Perhaps the former, after conversion (1 Cor. 1:1).


(fickle). His children were returned captives (Ezra 2:55; Neh. 7:57).


The Hebrew ideal of man was threefold:
(1) The body, or material part. (2) The vital part, seat of sensations, passions. (3) The sentient, thinking, or spiritual part (Gen. 1:20; 2:7; Num. 16:22; 1 Thess. 5:23; Heb. 4:12).

South Ramoth

A place in southern Judah, bordering on the desert, and one of the resorts of David during the period of his outlawry by Saul
(1 Sam. 30:27).



Sower, Sowing

Cereal seeds were sown by hand
(Psa. 126:6; Amos 9:13; Mark 4:3-29). In moist ground seeds were tramped in by cattle (Isa. 32:20). Mixed seeds prohibited (Lev. 19:19; Deut. 22:9).


Anciently the whole peninsula of southwestern Europe, embracing Spain and Portugal; known to Greeks as Iberia and to Romans as Hispania
If identical with Tarshish, then known to Hebrews in Solomon’s time; certainly to Phoenicians. Known to Paul, who contemplated a visit to it (Rom. 15:24-28). Christianity early introduced there.


(bind). Distance from tip of thumb to that of little finger, when stretched apart; about nine inches. Also any small interval of space or time (1 Sam. 17:4; Isa. 40:12; Lam. 2:20).


(spurrer). The Hebrew word signifies “twitterer” and is mostly rendered “bird” or “fowl.” Though tree-sparrows abounded in Palestine, any small bird meets the sense (Psa. 84:3; 102:7). In N. T. the reference is directly to the sparrow species, used as a cheap food (Matt. 10:29; Luke 12:6-7).


(spar). In general, a wooden staff with a sharp metallic head. Some were light for throwing, others long and heavy for attack either by footmen or horsemen (1 Sam. 13:22; 17:7; 26:7; 2 Sam. 2:23).


Light-armed troops are evidently meant
(Acts 23:23).

Speckled Bird

(Jer. 12:9). [HYENA.]

Spice, Spices

(species). Hardly, as with us, the entire list of aromatic vegetable substances, but rather the fragrant gums, barks, and so forth, of ceremonial, medicinal, and toilet value, and for embalming (Gen. 37:25; 43:11; Song of Sol. 4:14; Mark 16:1; John 19:39-40).


(spinner). The common spider is meant (Job 8:14; Isa. 59:5); but the gecko, or lizard, is probably intended (Prov. 30:28). The lightness and frailty of the spider’s web are made emblematic of visionary hopes and wicked schemes.


(pointed leaf yielding perfume). An ancient fragrant and costly ointment made from the spikenard plant of India (Song of Sol. 1:12; 4:13-14; Mark 14:3; John 12:3).


(spanning, drawing). A well-known and necessary female occupation among Hebrews. The instrument—distaff and spindle—permitted of much the same drawing and twisting process as is now employed in the East, in the absence of the more modern spinning-wheel (Ex. 35:25; Prov. 31:19; Matt. 6:28).


(breath). The breath (2 Thess. 2:8). The vital principle (Eccl. 8:8). Elsewhere, the soul. [SOUL.] Holy Spirit is a person of the Godhead (Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14). Though Holy Spirit and Holy Ghost are synonymous in meaning.


Plunder seized by violence, as the spoils of an army or of bandits
(1 Sam. 30:19-22); but in Ex. 3:22, the sense is that of recovery without violence of unjustly taken property. David instituted very strict regulations for the division of spoils of war among his soldiers (1 Sam. 30:20-25).


Only mentioned in N
T., though probably known to ancient Hebrews (Matt. 27:48; Mark 15:36; John 19:29).




(springing). The blood of the sin-offering was sprinkled with the finger of the priest upon the mercy-seat of the inner sanctuary as an atonement for the holy place because of national uncleanness (Lev. 16:14-16). The “blood of sprinkling” or mediatorial blood of the new covenant (Heb. 12:24), is made antithetical with the blood of vengeance (Gen. 4:10).


(ear of corn). A Roman Christian saluted by Paul (Rom. 16:9).


(drop). An oriental gum or spice, one of the components of the holy incense (Ex. 30:34).


Roman Standards


(strew). All the heavenly bodies, except sun and moon, called stars by Hebrews (Gen. 15:5; Psa. 147:4). The “star in the east,” seen and followed by the “wise men,” and designed to announce the birth of the Messiah, was, according to some, wholly phenomenal, and to others, natural. Stars symbolize rulers and princes (Dan. 8:10); angels (Job 38:7); ministers (Rev. 1:16-20). Christ is “the bright and morning star” (Rev. 22:16).


(standard). The standard gold coin of ancient Greece, worth about $4.00. Later, the silver stater, containing four drachmae, or about sixty cents. This is thought to be the “piece of money” (Matt. 17:27).


Hebrews were not acquainted with carbonized iron, or steel
Wherever the word is found in Scripture, copper is meant (Psa. 18:34).


(crown). One of Paul’s earliest converts at Corinth (1 Cor. 1:16; 16:15).


(crown). Chief of the first seven deacons, and first Christian martyr. A Greek convert of strong faith and great eloquence. Arrested and tried before the Sanhedrim, but stoned to death by an angry mob, before he had time to finish his defense. The date of his martyrdom is fixed at about A. D. 37. It was followed by the conversion of Saul, who was present at the stoning, and a bitter persecutor of early Christians at the time (Acts 6:5-15; Acts 7; Acts 8:1-3).


(sticks). Tree-trunks (Job 14:8); idols (Jer. 2:27); instruments of punishment made of beams of wood which closed over the arms or ankles (Job 13:27; 33:11; Jer. 20:2; Acts 16:24).


(porch scholars). Members of a Grecian philosophical school, or sect, founded by Zeno, 308 B. C., who taught in the stow, or porch, of the Agora at Athens. They held to a high morality, proud independence of spirit, fateful, in place of providential, superintendence, wisdom as the source of happiness (Acts 17:18). Paul encountered both Stoics and Epicureans at Athens, and, on being taken into Areopagus by them, delivered to them the oration (Acts 17:22-31).


An article of dress worn over breast and stomach
Much affected in the 17th century; but whether that of Isaiah 3:24 was similar is not known.


Used for building
(1 Kings 5:17; Amos 5:11); memorial marks (Gen. 28:18; 35:14); knives (Ex. 4:25); ballots (Rev. 2:17). Symbols of hardness (1 Sam. 25:37); of firmness (Gen. 49:24); Christian aggregation (1 Pet. 2:4-6). Precious stones highly prized by Hebrews and much used on priestly vestments and as ornaments. Twenty gems are mentioned in the Bible (Gen. 2:12; Ex. 28:9-21). India, Arabia, and Syria were the sources of gems used by Hebrews (Ezek. 27:16-22).




(vulture). A large wading bird, plentiful in Palestine, gregarious, migratory, nesting in trees and noted for tenderness to its young. Unclean under the law (Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18; Psa. 104:17; Jer. 8:7).

Strain at a

(Matt. 23:24). “Strain out the,” in R. V.


(without). One away from his country (Gen. 23:4). One not a Jew (Ex. 20:10). One not of Aaron’s family (Num. 3:10). One not of royal blood (Matt. 17:25-26). One alienated or neglected (Psa. 49:8). But, in general, any naturalized foreigner in the Jewish State (Deut. 17:15). Strangers, in Hebrew acceptation, were numerous in Israel, owing to the mixed multitudes which were permitted to follow the wanderers in the wilderness, to the fact that very many Canaanites remained in the land, and to the liberal regulations respecting captives taken in war.


Straw used for cattle fodder and litter
(Gen. 24:25; 1 Kings 4:28; Isa. 11:7; 65:25); in making bricks (Ex. 5:7,16).


(sweeping). An Asherite (1 Chron. 7:36).


(tents). (1) The place east of Jordan where Jacob built a house and booths (Gen. 33:17; Josh. 13:27; Judg. 8:5-16). Between Succoth and Zarthan, in the plain of Jordan, lay the clay ground in which were cast the brazen utensils for the temple (1 Kings 7:46; 2 Chron. 4:17). (2) First station of the Israelites after starting from Egypt, a day’s journey from Rameses (Ex. 12:37; 13:20; Num. 33:5-6).


(tents of daughters). Some refer it to a Babylonian idol set up by colonists in Samaria, others to booths or tents in which the daughters of Babylon prostituted themselves in honor of their goddess (2 Kings 17:30).


A family of scribes at Jabez
(1 Chron. 2:55).


An African people who supported Shishak when he invaded Judah
(2 Chron. 12:3).


The greater light
(Gen. 1:15-18). Worshipped by idolatrous Hebrews (2 Kings 21:3,5; 23:5); and by other nations (Job 31:26-27; Gen. 41:45); furnishes many metaphors (Psa. 84:11; John 1:9; Rev. 1:16).


(security). Suretyship in the older sense of pledge was regulated by the Mosaic law (Gen. 44:32; Ex. 22:25-26; Deut. 24:6-17). When Solomon opened Palestine to commerce, suretyship took the forms of general law and trade (Prov. 6:1; 11:15; 17:18; 20:16; 22:26). [LOANS.] [PLEDGE.]


(Esth. 11:3). [SHUSHAN.]


Dwellers in Shushan or Susa
(Ezra 4:9).


(lily). One of the women who ministered to Christ (Luke 8:3).


(horseman). Father of Gaddi, the Manassite spy (Num. 13:1,11).


(throat sweller). The common swift or swallow abounds in Palestine, and its habits, according to Bible mention, are such as we observe: building under the eaves of houses, beneath temple cornices and porticos, and in the sides of cliffs, and rapidly circling above their homes in search of their aerial food (Psa. 84:3; Prov. 26:2; Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7).


Swans rare in Palestine
Unclean (Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:16). The original seems to imply some other bird, as the ibis or water-hen.




The bloody sweat of the agony is known to medical science, and ascribed to violent mental emotion
(Luke 22:44).


The hog was pronounced unclean
(Lev. 11:7; Deut. 14:8). Priests and Arabians abstained from the meat for dietetic reasons. Swine-keeping a degrading business (Luke 15:15); yet swine were kept (Matt. 8:32). To cast “pearls before swine” was to waste truth on those who despised it (Matt. 7:6).


A short, two-edged, dagger-like weapon, carried in a sheath or scabbard, and suspended to the girdle or belt
(Gen. 27:40; Judg. 3:16; 2 Sam. 20:8; Jer. 47:6; Ezek. 21:9,30).


(Luke 17:6). [SYCAMORE.]


(fig-mulberry). Not our sycamore or plane-tree, but a tree of the fig species growing in Egypt and Palestine and valued for its fruit and light, soft, durable wood (1 Kings 10:27; 1 Chron. 27:28; Psa. 78:47; Luke 19:4). Sycamine (Luke 17:6). Sycamore fruit grows singly or in clusters and in almost direct contact with the branches. It resembles the fig in shape, and though of acrid taste when first pulled soon becomes sweetish. Egyptian mummery-cases were made of the wood of the sycamore tree.


(John 4:5). [SHECHEM.]


(Acts 7:16). [SHECHEM.]


(key). A city of Egypt bordering on Ethiopia. Situated on the Nile below the first cataract, and noted for its quarries of syenite stone (Ezek. 29:10; 30:6). Syene was an important city during the reigns of the Hyksos, or Shepherd Kings, in Egypt. It is now represented by the Arab village of Aswan.


(led together). The Jewish assembly for social and religious purposes seems to have had its origin during the captivity, or to have been an outgrowth of it (Ezra 8:15; Neh. 8:2; 9:1). The casual, or house, assemblages soon ran into regular congregations, with suitable buildings and stated meetings, at requisite points. These were the synagogues, often elaborate and costly, presided over by a chief, or rabbi, assisted by a council of elders (Mark 5:22,35; Luke 4:20; John 16:2; Acts 18:8).


(fate). A woman of the church at Philippi (Phil. 4:2).


A noted city on eastern coast of Sicily, where Paul spent three days on his voyage to Rome
(Acts 28:12).


The Hebrew Aram
So indefinitely bounded at different times as to have been associated with Assyria (whence its name) and Babylon. More definitely the country to the north of Canaan, extending from the Tigris to the Mediterranean, and northward to the Taurus ranges. Damascus was the capital, and center of wealth, learning, and power. Joshua subdued its petty kings (Josh. 11:2-18); David reduced it to submission (2 Sam. 8; 10). During Solomon’s reign it became independent (1 Kings 11:23-25). The earliest recorded settlers in Syria were Hittites and other Hamitic races. The Shemitic element entered it from the southeast under Abraham and Chedorlaomer. After Syria became independent it was a persistent enemy of the Jews (1 Kings 15:18-20; 20; 22; 2 Kings 6:8-33; 7; 9:14-15; 10:32-33; 13:3,14-25). The attempt of the Syrian king to ally Israel with him for the overthrow of Judah led Ahaz to call in the help of Assyria, and Syria was soon merged into the great Assyrian empire. It was conquered by Alexander the Great, B. C. 333, and finally fell to the lot of Seleucus Nicator, who made it the central province of his empire, with the capital at Antioch. The Syriac language was closely allied to the Hebrew.


The ancient language of Syria, an Aramean dialect
In Daniel 2:4, the word “Syriac” should read “Aramaic,” the court language of Babylon at the time.


(1 Chron. 19:6). [SYRIA and MAACHAH.]


Inhabitant of Syria
(Gen. 25:20), and elsewhere.


A Phoenician at the time Phoenicia was part of the Roman province of Syria; or it may mean one of half Syrian and half Phoenician blood
(Mark 7:26).


In Acts 27:17 (RV). The dangerous quicksands or shallows on the African coast, southwest of Crete.
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