Brief Introductions to the Books of the Bible

Table of Contents

1. The Bible
2. Genesis
3. Exodus
4. Leviticus
5. Numbers
6. Deuteronomy
7. Joshua
8. Judges
9. Ruth
10. 1 Samuel
11. 2 Samuel
12. 1 Kings
13. 2 Kings
14. 1 Chronicles
15. 2 Chronicles
16. Ezra
17. Nehemiah
18. Esther
19. Job
20. Psalms
21. Proverbs
22. Ecclesiastes
23. The Song of Songs
24. Isaiah
25. Jeremiah
26. Lamentations
27. Ezekiel
28. Daniel
29. Hosea
30. Joel
31. Amos
32. Obadiah
33. Jonah
34. Micah
35. Nahum
36. Habakkuk
37. Zephaniah
38. Haggai
39. Zechariah
40. Malachi
41. Matthew
42. Mark
43. Luke
44. John
45. Acts
46. Romans
47. 1 Corinthians
48. 2 Corinthians
49. Galatians
50. Ephesians
51. Philippians
52. Colossians
53. 1 Thessalonians
54. 2 Thessalonians
55. 1 Timothy
56. 2 Timothy
57. Titus
58. Philemon
59. Hebrews
60. James
61. 1 Peter
62. 2 Peter
63. 1 John
64. 2 John
65. 3 John
66. Jude
67. The Revelation

The Bible

Wonder of wonders is God’s blessed Book and its origin. Strange as it may seem it was written mostly by Jews, of various stations, living in various places, in various ages, stretching out over 1500 years, so that they could not come together to plan in concert the composing of its sixty-six books into one harmonious whole, with perfection of design interwoven throughout. Only God, its divine author, could produce such a revelation for man. Out of two “dead languages,” Hebrew and Greek, have sprung translations in more than 1100 tongues, and in English alone over 144. More than 25 million are sold annually, besides the great host of books, poems and hymns that are published about the Bible. The precious Word of God is alone worthy of so much attention, yea worthy of much more.
No other book can with it compare for enduring the ages of time, in spite of the fiercest and incessant Satanic opposition of apostate Jews, enraged pagan Rome, burning untold thousands of copies as well as its readers. Then there has been the subtle misusing it through false teachings, and impudent attacks of bold infidels. Nowadays infidels are corrupting it in “Theological Seminaries” and “liberal” pulpits! “Wolves in sheep’s clothing,” “blind leaders of the blind.” William Kelly has aptly said, “Higher criticism is mere rubbish.”
Withstanding all the tests of time,
It stands unchanged, unique, sublime,
Proving to every tongue and race,
God’s wisdom, power and wondrous grace.
“Thou hast magnified Thy word above all Thy name.” Psa. 138:2.
“The word of God is pure,” “very pure,” “purified seven times,” “and abides forever.” “As it is in truth the Word of God.” “Holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit,” so that “all scripture is given by inspiration of God,” who also “has revealed them unto babes.” “Meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written,” yea “excellent things,” “wondrous things,” “precious promises,” “hid treasure.”
Word of God, within thy covers
What exhaustless treasures lie!
Revelation of the Father
By the Son who came to die!
Depths are there which know no sounding,
Fathomless beyond compare;
Rich the mines of wealth there treasured,
All I need to know is there!
All of it was supernaturally given from heaven by the Holy Spirit, “God-breathed.” It is eternal, infallible, unique, infinite in scope (from eternity through the history of time to eternity), unfathomable, inexhaustible, universal, authoritative, living and powerful. It insists on man’s responsibility, yet total ruin, laying bare his wicked heart. It quickens, convicts, converts, transforms, enlightens, comforts, guides, fills with peace, joy and hope. It unfolds unseen things to faith, reveals the nature of God morally, and also that of “man, His creature, first as innocent, and then as fallen, with its sad consequences. It shows man’s responsibility and how man has been tested in various ways, each resulting, alas, in his failure.”
The Old Testament records how God in grace chose Abraham and gave unconditional promises, and later adopted the nation of Israel by delivering them out of Egypt, and then giving them the conditional law. It relates the history of their failures, because of which God sent them prophets, but finally had to deliver them into Assyria and Babylon. Later He caused a remnant to return, (Ezra, Neh., Hag., Zech.) which gradually degenerated into the Pharisaism that instigated the crucifixion of their Messiah! The “hour of Jacob’s trouble,” unparalleled “great tribulation,” is about to fall upon them; nevertheless God will restore a remnant to enter Christ’s kingdom. A large part of the prophetic word concerns all this.
The New Testament reveals Christ the Savior of sinners, God manifest in human, sinless flesh. Through matchless grace He was made sin in our stead, in those three dark hours on the cross. He died and shed His precious blood to wash our sins away. He was raised again for our justification and glorified-the pledge of our place in glory with Him. In the meantime He, as our Great High Priest, is sustaining us, and leading us by the Holy Spirit; who dwells in us, and has united us into the one mystic body of Christ. Soon Christ will take us as His Bride to be forever with
Himself. The false church, “Babylon the Great” will be judged (Rev. 17, 18-19:3). After the 1000 years of His reign over restored Israel and the spared nations, and all evil is done away and this earth burned, He will bring forth the new and eternal heavens and earth. (2 Pet. 3.)
The Bible is hated because it exposes man’s wicked heart; it is loved because it reveals God’s loving heart.


Beginnings. The original creation, “He spake, and it was,” followed by geological ages and chaos, after which in six days He re-formed it for man. Innocence, lordship, marriage (a type), sin, fig leaves, coats of skin. Cain offers fruit, Abel of his flock, and then was slain. Cain goes his way, builds a city. Enoch (as type of the Church) walks with God and is raptured before the judgment of the flood, above which Noah is spared to the renewed earth. Then government was given and God divided the nations. Out of Shem a new head, Abraham, who pays honor to Melchizedek, in contrast with earthly-minded Lot, who nevertheless was delivered from judgment. In Isaac we see the son offered up, then the bride brought. Jacob becomes Israel of whom are the twelve tribes. The beloved son Joseph is rejected, but becomes exalted and takes to himself a Gentile bride.
Chapter 1:26 commences 4004 B.C. (according to Ussher), and then covers 2,315 years.
Genesis is quoted about 60 times in 17 N.T. books.
Author: Moses.


(going out)
Redemption from Egypt to Himself, introducing worship, priesthood and service. The commencement of Israel nationally, about two and a half million redeemed from judgment by blood and by power, and from slavery; all are essential to relationship with a holy God, (whether under law-testing or by grace) with the purpose of dwelling with them. Then the tabernacle, and consequently the need of maintaining them suitably in holiness by priesthood. Moses, mediator and deliverer. Aaron, high priest and sustainer. Amalek (type of Satan affecting the flesh). Grace for nearly three months until law at Sinai. Mixed law and grace (chap. 34).
From 1706-1490 B.C. Author: Moses.


Approach by a redeemed people through sacrifice and priesthood. The priest’s directions as to the way of approach through sacrifice and then the state suited through priesthood to worship in the presence of our holy God who dwelt in the midst of His redeemed people through grace. Levites are seldom mentioned.
“Holiness” 87 times, “atonement” 49 times.
B.C. 1490 occupying about one month, being mostly instructions.
Author: Moses.


Wilderness testings. The numbering (twice: ch. 1 and ch. 26:61, 64, 65) and arrangement around their God for assigned service (1 Cor. 12 and Rom. 12), walk by faith, trials and humiliating testings with many failings, nevertheless the patient grace of their faithful Guide, for nearly thirty-nine years of wilderness journey, in view of possessing the promised land. (1 Cor. 10:1-12; Heb. 3 and 4).
This fourth book of Moses, in the title in the Hebrew, means “In the Wilderness.” Most happened in the second and the thirty-ninth years.
B.C. 1490-1451 includes thirty-nine years.
Author: Moses.


(second [giving of the] law)
Review in view of Canaan conflicts. The parting counsels of Moses reviewing their disobedience, yet God’s goodness (40 yrs.) in view of soon entering into possession of the promised land, in spite of failure under law (9:4, 5), stressing the sure results of obedience and disobedience. Relationship is direct, almost omitting intermediate links of priests and Levites. There is very little typical truth as it is more for the conscience, heart, life and ways. God’s one chosen center is stressed twenty-one times from chapter 12 on.
B.C. 1451.
Author: Moses.
2 Kings 14:6; Acts 3:22, 23; 7:37; Rom. 10:19; 1 Cor. 9:9.


(Jehovah the Savior, in Greek “Jesus”)
Conquest and dependence to maintain the establishing of Israel in the promised land by the way of Jordan (death and resurrection with Christ as in Col.); and Gilgal, (the place of power, by “no confidence in the flesh” but “strong in the Lord and the power of His might” through self-judgment); circumcision (Col. 2:11) and conflict (Eph. 6) testing their obedience and dependence to conquer and maintain in divine power. It is the Ephesians of the Old Testament.
B.C. 1451-1427, a period of 26 years.
Author, evidently Joshua, excepting the last five verses, probably added by Ezra.


Their failures and His faithfulness. Key verse 2:18. It fits 2 Tim. for these “last days.” “From Gilgal to Bochim” (2:1 and see verses 10-19 with 17:6 and 21:25); that is, from self-judgment of the flesh in His presence (which is the secret of power), to disobedience and weeping (powerlessness). God intervenes in mercy from time to time, raising up from unlikely material, twelve judges (Eli and Samuel after them. Abimelech in chapter 9 is not called a judge.) It records 7 declensions, 7 servitudes, 7 nations, 7 deliverances. Chapters 17-21 actually precede chapters 1-16, although not according to the divinely moral design of the book.
B.C. 1427-1120 covering 307 years (Acts 13:20 “450 years” dates from Isaac).
Author, probably Samuel, see Acts 3:24.


Israel’s future reception through grace. Typical of Israel’s departure among Gentiles, Naomi (Israel) loses her husband, then with Ruth (type of the remnant to be restored) who was debarred by the Jaw and titleless, returns to Boaz (Christ) who redeems and marries Ruth. The operations of grace surmounting Jaw, failure and improbabilities preparing the way for the Promised One. David’s Greater Son. Matt. 1:5.
B.C. 1322-1312, ten years during first third of Judges (Judges 4:3), or earlier (3-11).
Author, probably Samuel.

1 Samuel

(heard of God)
The government of Saul. Through failure priesthood connection is broken (in the family of Eli), the ark taken, the prophet (Samuel) is given, theocracy rejected (8:7), Saul (“asked for”), their choice (“profiteth nothing”) reigned 40 years. David, in rejection,-the place of power for faith until he reigns, which Jonathan lacked courage to take. David means “beloved.” He, as his greater Son later, was barn in Bethlehem and was a shepherd, a type of The Good Shepherd. Samuel was a Nazarite from birth, a descendent of Korah, a Levite, last of the judges and first of the writing prophets. The two books were originally one, The first 24 chapters were probably written by Samuel and the balance by Gad and Nathan (1 Chron. 29:29).
B.C. 1171-1056, covering 115 years.

2 Samuel

The government of David. Saul fails, David rises to the throne after reigning in Hebron 71/2 years (chap. 5) and subdues all enemies. The ark was at Mt. Zion, the tabernacle at Gibeon. Where God delivered, in connection with sacrifice, the temple-site was purchased, and provision made before David’s death for building the temple. (Christ made provision by His death for building the Church). To him mercies and the kingdom were assured. He excelled in showing kindness to his enemies, Saul, Mephibosheth, Absalom, etc.
B.C. 1056-1016, making 40 years.

1 Kings

The government of Solomon. David’s death, Solomon’s reign in peace and building of the Temple, followed by declension and division. The history of Israel (rather than Judah), having 19 wicked kings, and the prophet Elijah sent to Israel, on the ground of responsibility. The temple in Kings is a figure of heaven our future reigning place, and therefore the veil is not mentioned (in 2 Chron. 3:14 it is). Both books were originally one.
B.C. 1015-897, making 118 years.

2 Kings

The decline of the kingdom of Israel until the captivity of the 10 tribes to Assyria, then lost! Then 130 years later Judah was carried to Babylon and Jerusalem was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. After the ascension of Elijah to heaven, Elisha represents resurrection power and grace during His absence. At the same time Amos and Hosea also prophesied in Israel, while Obadiah, Joel, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah and Jeremiah, (23 years) prophesied in Judah.
B.C. 896-588, makes 308 years.

1 Chronicles

(records in order of time)
The royal power of David. The chronology of Saul and David. The blessing of God’s earthly people in connection with David, typical of millennial glory, thus David’s faults omitted. Judah is prominent. The combined Chronicles were placed at the end of the Hebrew Scriptures as a summary. The writer not known; perhaps Ezra.
B.C. 4004-1015.

2 Chronicles

Solomon typically and the decline of Judah, David’s posterity, especially Solomon, with a fuller account of Judah, ending in Babylonish captivity. Preparations for Solomon to build. More connected with the establishment of the kingdom on earth, so the veil and altar appear. Solomon’s faults are omitted.
B.C. 1015-588, a period of 427 years.


The returned Jews religiously. After the 70 years captivity (Jer. 29:10) the ecclesiastical history of the return of the remnant of Judah to Jerusalem; first about 50,000 headed by Zerubbabel (B.C. 536). The altar was set up, and the foundation of the temple was laid, and when finished its services attended to. Second, a select group of about 1750 headed by Ezra (B.C. 458) who meets the declension and mingling with the Gentiles by using God’s word. The ark is not mentioned. There are foreshadowings of how the wealth of the Gentiles will flow to Jerusalem. Ezra was a priest. It is supposed that he compiled the Old Testament. Chapters 4:8 to 6:18 and 7:12-26 were written in Aramaic.
B.C. 536-456 covering a period of 80 years.


(comfort of Jehovah)
The returned Jews civilly. Thirteen years after Ezra, Nehemiah, having God’s interests at heart, felt the state, prayed, confessed, and returned to the place (1:9) where God had chosen to put His name (Deut. 12). There they worked and warred on the wall and sought the civil welfare of God’s people, especially the poor. Encouraged by the word of God he rejected the help of the subtle enemy from without and within, preferring God’s help and consequently drew down persecution. In “difficult times,” “troublous times” (Dan. 9:26), a day of ruin, a humble remnant represents the whole body, returns to the word, feels the ruin but finds “the joy of the Lord” (that is, His joy in them thus gathered) gives them “a little strength.” This younger “layman,” Nehemiah, has to supplement and revive the venerable priest and scribe, Ezra, who preceded him years before, and diligently correct the abuses of the declining people. Malachi records the still further shameful declension.
Nehemiah is the author, chapter 1 verse 1.
B.C. 455-443, just 12 years (5:14 and 13:6, 7).


Jehovah (although hidden and not mentioned) providentially cares for His indifferent dispersed earthly people, who are “Lo Ammi.” The Gentile queen (a type of the church) fails to show her beauty (see Ezek. 16:14); the Jewish bride supersedes her. The Gentile opposer of the Jews is judged, and Mordecai is exalted as head. Peace and prosperity flow with rejoicing. It typifies preservation through Gentile supremacy and judgment of their enemies, to deliver them for glory in the Kingdom.
Vashti is set aside for Esther. Haman is set aside for Mordecai. Enemies are set aside for the Jews. Esther was a Benjamite orphan.
The author may have been Mordecai.
B.C. 485-473, 12 years between Ezra 6 and 7.


The godly suffer because God disciplines His own for their good (withering Job’s self-righteous tendency) overruling Satan. This is unintelligible in a world where just deserts are expected. His three friends say many righteous things applying to others than Job’s case. Eliphaz, experience (4:8); Bildad, tradition (8:8); Zophar, legality (11:14, 15). Elihu is a type of Christ as mediator. When God declares His almighty power Job discovers Him and loathes himself prior to God’s doubly blessing him abundantly. The book is undispensational, yet may be typical of Israel. Chapter 3 to 4:7 is poetry.
B.C. 1520
(between Abraham and Moses, the latter may have written it).


(sacred rhythmical composition. Some were
sung and accompanied by musical
Christ, and His connection with future remnant, anticipating the Kingdom. The Spirit of Christ as wrought in the hearts of the suffering remnants of Judah and Israel in the last days, only therewith showing the Person and part Christ has taken to pave the way for them through sufferings that He might exercise sympathy in their tribulation sorrows up to the millennium (but not entering into it, excepting prophetically), issuing in praise to their exalted Deliverer from their enemies. Having moral design, it is not ever chronological.
“It is the heart of the Bible.” (J.G.B.)
Book 1, 1-41, Messiah identified with the suffering Jewish remnant (past and future) before driven out of Jerusalem (Matt. 24: 16). “Jehovah” is prominent.
Book 2, 42-72, The suffering Judah-remnant driven outside Jerusalem (cast on “God”) as antichrist prevails there.
Book 3, 73-89, The history of all Israel from Egypt to Messiah’s reign. The sanctuary is prominent.
Book 4, 90-106, The assurance and hope of Messiah’s coming and reign in righteousness and blessing. Jerusalem, the metropolis of the earth.
Book 5, 107-150, The restoration of Israel amid dangers; the exaltation of their Messiah who destroys their enemies and introduces universal praise.
Authors: David 73, Asaph 12, Sons of Korah 11, Solomon 2, Moses 1, Ethan 1, totaling 100, leaving 50 unnamed.


Divine guidance for a righteous walk. The wisdom of God showing its path to man, to walk daily in “the fear of the Lord,” in contrast to the corruption and violence in man to be avoided. The heart, eye and feet must be kept at a distance from every snare, enabling escape without knowing all the labyrinth of evil in the world, by being made wise to that which is good, in order to maintain a serious walk with God, under His government. Human prudence and sagacity will not do. Chapters 1-9 Christ the wisdom of God. Chapter 10 on, the proverbs (maxims of poetry) themselves entering into details of practical everyday life. The great general principles, revealing the consequences of giving reign to our own foolish and lustful hearts instead of taking heed to God’s will.
The first 29 chapters were compiled by Solomon, about 1000 B.C.


Search for happiness in this world is vain. After God had permitted all the wealth, pleasures, power, honor and human wisdom
that man could wish for happiness, upon King Solomon, and he had ransacked creation to satisfy his every craving, he concludes that the quest is vain, that all was but an alluring phantom, for all is transitory and disappointing, while man deteriorates until he reaches his inevitable end. Thus this peak of human philosophy is but “the sigh of sighs.” Although limited by its being merely the greatest of human wisdom, the record is given by divine inspiration, near the close of Solomon’s life.
Written by Solomon, B.C. 977.

The Song of Songs

The changing feelings of the spouse and the unchanging affections of the King. The spouse’s yearning affection for her King, with occasional glimpses and joy, to be realized in the anticipations of the godly remnant of Israel. Hos. 2:16, 19. Not established known relationship, as is true of the church now before the marriage.
The carnal minded see not the pure marital propriety as ordained by the Creator, whereas the spiritual minded reap sweet communion of heart with the coming Bridegroom.
Writer: Solomon, B.C. 1014.


(Salvation of the Lord)
This prophecy of Isaiah is the most comprehensive and evangelical, the longest and the one most quoted in the New Testament next to the Psalms. Mostly in poetry, it declares God’s dealings with Judah and Babylon, also Israel and the Assyrian, ending in deliverance and universal blessings through their once rejected and suffering Messiah.
Chapters 1-12, reprove Judah, sinful in the land, Immanuel promised, ending in their song of triumph in chapter 12.
Chapters 13-27, pronounce judgment on Babylon (where Israel is captive) and the surrounding nations.
Chapters 28-35, declare five woes on Israel, ending in deliverance from the Assyrians, and the joy of the Kingdom.
Chapters 36-39, record what is now history as to Judah, mostly in prose.
Chapters 40-48, give God’s controversy with Israel because of their idolatry. Cyrus is a type of their Deliverer.
Chapters 49-57, give God’s controversy with Israel because of having rejected their Messiah.
Chapters 58-66, foresee the remnant delivered and blessed.
Writer: Isaiah
B.C. 760-700, covering 60 years.


(God is exalted)
Judah’s captivity, and regathering with Ephraim, and the nations judged. Jehovah God’s pleadings with rebellious Judah, ending in their captivity to Babylon (B.C. 599529, 70 years) and Jerusalem destroyed (B.C. 588). From chapter 30, Jehovah, their Righteousness, declares His love to all Israel, pledging a New Covenant to re-establish them in Jerusalem and to judge the nations and Babylon their enemies.
For 40 years “the weeping prophet” unsparingly warned them, yet to no avail. B.C., about 40 years, 629-588.


(expression of deep sorrow)
Heart sorrow over Jerusalem’s miseries. The Spirit of Christ entering sympathetically into the sorrows of them whom He is chastening. Jerusalem had been utterly destroyed and abandoned, nevertheless through grace producing contrition, there was hope of the restoration of the remnant.
Chapters 1, 2 and 4 each have 22 verses commencing with the Hebrew alphabet.
Chapter 3 has 22 stanzas of 3 verses, each of which begins with its letter.
Chapter 5 is a prayer of 22 verses. B.C. 588.


(strength of God)
Israel is judged by the Chaldeans and then fully restored, but the nations judged. It opens with visions of God’s government and providence and then gives prophecies of the impending Chaldean invasion, the abominations and the destruction of Jerusalem, scattering and ruin of all Israel, chapters 1-24 (see same chapters in Isaiah). Judgment of seven nations around, chapters 25-32. Judgment upon Israel, chapters 33-35. Restoration of Judah with Israel by new birth and new heart promised in chapters 36, 37; followed by the judgment of Gog (Russia) and northern and eastern allies after the Lord has come and set up His kingdom, chapters 38, 39. The millennial temple measurements, service, feasts, sacrifices, established under the new covenant of grace when all the tribes will be in their allotments blessed by the glorious presence of their adorable Lord. Ezekiel is like Daniel and John, prophets in exile, given visions and symbols.
B.C. 595-574, 21 years.


(God is judge)
The prophet of “the times of the Gentiles” with their four successive deteriorating empires ending in judgment, clearing the scene for setting up of Messiah’s Kingdom of Israel. More particular attention is given to the last phase of the fourth, the Roman empire, in connection with the Jews in their land under the antichrist.
Chapters 1-6, give the history of these four empires, with their moral features and future prophetic bearing.
Chapters 7-12, the saints in connection with these empires.
Visions are seen in chapter 7, 8 and 10. The “little horn” of chapter 7 is the future head of the Roman empire, but the “little horn” of chapter 8 is the “king of the north.”
The seventy weeks (490 years) of chapter 9 is called “the backbone of prophecy.”
From chapter 4:2 to end of chapter 7 is in Syriac.
B.C. 607-534, 73 years.


The abandonment and restoration of Israel and Judah.
Jehovah’s adulterous wife put away, then ultimately to be restored.
From chapter 4 most earnest dealing with the conscience of sinful Israel, warning Israel of coming judgment by the Assyrian, and Judah by the Chaldean, closing with their return in repentance to the gracious blessings of Jehovah. Hosea is the testimony of the ways of the Lord.
B.C. 785-725, 60 years.


(Jehovah is God)
The Day of the Lord judgments and blessings. The prophet uses God’s scourge of devastating locusts as a figure of the yet greater and more terrible inroads of the northern Assyrian armies in the last days, ending in the coming of Jehovah to judge the whole power of man, all nations in the Day of the Lord. It is a solemn summons to repentance to all who have ears to hear, especially Jerusalem and Judah. To such will be deliverance and full kingdom blessings. Thus it will be after the commencement of the Day of the Lord that the Holy Spirit will be poured out upon them and “all flesh.”
B.C. 800.


Judgment pronounced upon the six troublesome nations remaining within the bounds of Palestine and upon idolatrous and hypocritical Israel, as well as privileged Judah, rehearsing the patience of God’s dealings in contrast to their wicked response, foretelling their captivities to Assyria and Babylon, with promises of future restoration and blessings when the tabernacle of David would be built up.
Only Amos, Hosea and Jonah were writing prophets of Israel; all others of Judah.
Amos has been thought likely to be the father of Isaiah but “Amos” and “Amoz” are quite different in the Hebrew.
B.C. 787.


(servant of Jah)
Edom’s (descendants of Esau with an external relationship to Israel) ways and doom, because of their hatred shown to Israel. (Num. 20:14-25; Psa. 137:7-9; Isa. 34; Ezek. 35). Recompense will be meeted out by the Jews (verse 18); Isa. 11:14; 63:1-6; Ezek. 25:14 and the judgment of the Day of the Lord will be upon all nations, but deliverance and blessing shall be in Mt. Zion when the kingdom shall be the Lord’s.
Perhaps B.C. 887. (599, J.N.D.)


The naughty Jew, Jonah, was reluctant to pronounce judgment upon the Gentiles and disappointed when God graciously spared them. God had to teach His self-important, disobedient and jealous Jewish prophet-of-judgment-to-the-Gentiles, by the hard way, out of the depths, that “salvation is of the Lord,” that God may mercifully spare whomsoever He pleases, in spite of Jonah’s displeasure, who feared that God’s being gracious would impair his own reputation! Our corrupt nature would rather misuse God’s gifts to exalt ourselves! nevertheless “Mercy glories over judgment,” and Nineveh was spared for about 256 years. See Nahum.
Jonah the Galilean (3 miles from Nazareth) is a type of the Lord’s rejection, death, resurrection and testimony of both grace and judgment to the Gentiles (Matt. 12:39-41; Rom. ]1:11-15), also of Israel disobedient, cast out, in distress, then delivered and missionaries to the Gentiles.
B.C. 862. Jonah was one of the earliest prophetic writers.


(who is like Jah)
Judgment on Israel, Judah and the nations by the Assyrian king of the north, followed by the richest millennial blessings for the righteous in the glorious kingdom. Because of their heartlessness, hypocrisy, rejection of testimony and their Messiah, they were to be ousted from the polluted promised land, yet God will restore, pardon and bless a remnant.
B.C. 750-710, 40 years.


Final judgment on haughty Nineveh, (within a century, B.C. 606), about 256 years after its being spared in the days of Jonah. Thus this ancient city of Nimrod and capital of Assyria (over 1500 years old) was utterly destroyed, So too in the last days the destroying Assyrians will be destroyed and but few spared, (Isaiah 19:23-25). But to “them that trust in the Lord” will be exceptional blessings.
B.C. 713.


Deeply exercised over God’s silence as to the iniquitous state of Judah, the prophet pronounces their punishment by the proud and fierce Chaldean, whom God will yet judge. Habakkuk represents a waiting godly remnant. Faith trusts and waits God’s deliverance, come what will, which is the theme of “the Psalm” of the last chapter. Chapter 2:4 is quoted three times by Paul.
B.C. 626.


(whom God hides)
Judgment on hypocritical Judah and all nations; but a remnant blessed. During the shallow (and temporary) revival under the godly young king Josiah, the prophet, points out the moral state of Judah and Jerusalem, the center of iniquity and hypocrisy, and declares that the captivity (as also the great and terrible Day of the Lord) is inevitable, but grace to the afflicted remnant who wait for Jehovah to deliver and delight in them.
B.C. 630.


(feast of Jehovah)
A sad record of how quickly declension sets in after restoration, yet how faithful God’s dealings and encouragements.
After a lapse of fourteen years neglecting to build the Lord’s house, while building their own, Haggai and Zechariah encouraged the remnant to build, even though God’s dealings in disciplining them had not been appreciated— “consider your ways.” Nevertheless He was with them as also His Spirit and His word and the hope of His coming, assuring them of the future last and lasting glory of “this house,” (in its fifth character) when He would overthrow all kingdoms to establish His own.
B.C. 520.


(whom Jah remembers)
Judgment upon all oppressors of the remnant and Jerusalem—the center of worship. Eight apocalyptic visions in chapters one to six, encourage the returned remnant to build, justifying, pledging the future judgment on their Gentile oppressors, and the blessed reign of their Messiah, with their temple in Jerusalem. Their moral state (chapter 7) is superseded by gracious promise of blessing (chapter 8) and then (from chapter 9-14) Christ’s humiliation and rejection to be followed by regathering Israel. The apostate mass under Antichrist and then the Gentile powers will be judged but the remnant are brought to mourn in the presence of their once despised, rejected and crucified Savior—Jehovah’s Fellow. The first siege of Jerusalem is in chapter 14:1, 2; the last in 10:5; 12:2, 3, 9. Then Jerusalem will become glorious in holy splendor with her temple, throne and King, the center of worship for all nations. The last chapter records a series of the surprising miraculous changes in their renewed land, as well as the plague upon all rebels.
B.C. 518-510.


(messenger of Jah)
Jehovah’s last pleadings with the returned remnant. In spite of God’s special love and His having restored the remnant (Ezra and Neh.), they had sunken to the lowest ebb of moral insensibility and impudent reasoning of unconcern. Nevertheless, God would send His two forerunners: John the Baptist, at Christ’s coming in grace, and Elijah, preceding His coming in judgment at the great and terrible Day of the Lord.
A feeble remnant within the formal remnant are encouraged by the assurance of their becoming His peculiar treasure in His glorious day.
B.C. 397.


(gift of Jehovah)
Presents Christ as the fulfiller of all prophesy pointing to Israel’s Messiah, Emmanuel, King, His rejection, crucifixion, and coming kingdom (3-17), referring to their Old Testament scriptures about 80 times. His genealogy is given as principally from David, “the beloved” but rejected King, and His birth as divinely unique (charters 1 and 2). The announcement of the kingdom and declaring the spiritual principles which would characterize the hearts of those who would qualify (chapters 3-7). The manifestations of His power to bless and His rejection (chapters 8-12). The introduction of the new mysteries of the kingdom as committed into the hands of men during this age of His rejection (chapters 13-20). His final presentation and rejection resulting in Israel now being set aside (chapters 21-23). Prophecy as to the conditions that will prevail until He returns and judges the living nations (chapters 24, 25). The crucifixion, resurrection, the revelation of the new name, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, and commission (chapters 26-28).
The book is dispensational; the term “kingdom of heaven,” used 30 times, is here alone used.
Written A.D. 37, some say in Hebrew, but that has not been proven. Fragments of an apocryphal “Gospel according to the Hebrews” may have been confounded with Matthew’s Gospel.


(a defense)
Briefest of the gospels, yet giving more details, and in historical order, presents Christ as the humble Servant, (giving no genealogy) ever prompt “to minister, and to give His life a ransom for many,” “obedient unto death.” “He hath done all things well” (7:37).
The rubbish of “higher criticism” has cast a doubt as to the genuineness of the last twelve verses of this gospel, but “no good version of antiquity omits... the vast mass of positive testimony and the internal character prove not only that it is inspired scripture, but from none other than from Mark” (William Kelly).
Written 67-63 A.D. by the Lord’s failing, yet later restored, servant, Barnabas’ cousin, and not an apostle nor eye-witness of what the Holy Spirit gave him to pen.


“The beloved physician” and frequent companion of Paul acquaints us with our blessed Lord Jesus as the lowly Son of Man, amongst men, emphasizing the perfect moral beauties of His humanity as Jehovah visiting and sympathizing with His poor and needy people. He traces His human genealogy back to Adam, calls attention to His mother, His incarnation, His boyhood, His age as thirty, on the cross “expires” (23:46 lit.), and finally “carried up into heaven” (24:51).
“Written by a Gentile to a Gentile” (W.K.), as a man writes to a man, unfolding the grace of God in a real man, for all men, emphasizing the moral excellencies which suit God, and may be displayed in the new man by the power of the Holy Spirit as we see it in Luke’s Acts, its sequel.
According to the Spirit’s design its arrangement is moral rather than historical.
Written about 65 A.D.


(Jehovah has graciously given)
The personal glory of the eternal Son of God the Creator, co-equal, co-eternal with the Father whom He revealed, and His love, as the sent One, becoming flesh, full of grace and truth, who ever glorified His Father as the doer of His will until He could cry out “It is finished.” Blessed Lamb of God who shed His precious blood that whosoever believeth on Him might have eternal life and the Holy Spirit, and be with Him in His glory.
“I am the bread of life.” chapter 6.
“I am the light of the world.” chapter 8. “I am.” chapter 8:58.
“I am the door.” chapter 10.
“I am the good shepherd.” chapter 10.
“I am the resurrection and the life.” chapter 11.
“I am the way, the truth and the life.” chapter 14:6.
“I am the true vine.” chapter 15.
At the outset (1:10, 11) He is rejected by the world and His own remnant of Judah! He deals especially with individuals (chapters 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11), no parables are given, and all occurs in Judea, thus differing widely from the other gospels.
It is the only gospel that uses the Roman time as to hours of the day as we now do.
The buddings of Christianity are especially found in John.
“The disciple whom Jesus loved,” perhaps the youngest and first disciple of the 12 apostles (1:35-40), as he was the last; miraculously escaped out of a caldron of boiling oil in AD. 94, (according to tradition), banished to Patmos but released A.D. 96 and the only apostle that escaped martyrdom; lived to the age of 100.


Rather the acts of the Holy Spirit, especially in the apostles of the circumcision (Peter), and the uncircumcision (Paul), consequent upon the Lord’s death, resurrection, ascension and glorification. The descent of the Holy Spirit, (see Lev. 23:15, 17) incorporating and establishing the church of His redeemed ones with many signs as God’s witness, instead of Israel. Acts is the continuation of Luke’s gospel, recording the transitional history between the gospels and the epistles, ten of which were written during these thirty years.
“Careful reading of the Acts afforded me a practical picture of the early Church, which made me feel deeply the contrast with its actual present state” (J.N.D.). The unorganized primitive simplicity in the energy and leading of the Holy Spirit is beautiful, leaving it to God to outwit the enemy and encourage His own. They were not trammeled by our modern elaborate machinery and human innovations.
Written by Luke, A.D. 63.


The great foundation truths of Christianity, emphasizing God’s righteousness and His rejecting all human righteousness (1-3:20). In virtue of the blood and resurrection of Christ, God in pure grace, bestows His righteousness upon the believer, giving him peace as to all his sins and the Holy Spirit (3:21-5:11). Then as to sin in the flesh, our old nature, the Christian is freed from its power by its having been dealt with once and for all in the death of Christ, with whom we have died (chapter 6). In Romans we are not risen with Christ (as in Col. and Eph.) but wait for the resurrection of the body. (Chap. 8:11, 23)
The powerless efforts of a quickened soul (having not the Spirit) in the bondage of the law, in experience precedes 3:22, 28 (7:7-24). The Christian, having life in Christ and the Spirit is “free from the law of sin and death,” certain of no separation, while waiting for the resurrection and the liberty of the glory, (8). The present setting aside of Israel during the opportunity afforded to the Gentiles will not defeat God’s eventually fulfilling His promise to restore Israel (9-11). Then practical exhortations for Christian life and service.

1 Corinthians

( satiated)
The interior ordering of the Church by the Spirit in the apostle, in contrast to fleshly wisdom, worldliness, tendency toward sects, in the lap of luxury and licentiousness; making this epistle most needful for our present like state! No mention is made of any official bishops or deacons. He emphasizes that only the Holy Spirit can unfold the mind of Christ in His word; the responsibility of all who profess as to how they build; that holiness must be maintained in the assembly, in marriage, in keeping the body under; that the place of subjection becomes sisters; that our lives be consistent with the remembrance of the Lord in His death and this at HIS table. Then are given the operations of the Spirit in all the members of the one body, in love, for the edification of all; then Christ’s resurrection and glory insuring ours.
Written by Paul A.D. 60 from Ephesus (16:8).

2 Corinthians

Consoled by the news that his first epistle had had its effect in producing repentance and putting away of the offender, he now enjoins them to forgive and receive him. He contrasts the ministry of the two covenants; shows how God passes the treasure-laden earthen vessel through circumstances in order that the life of Jesus might shine out; the love of Christ constraining His own of the new creation to live unto Him, so as to commend His grace and salvation to others, while avoiding all links with unbelievers. He rejoices because of the results of their godly sorrow and encourages them to abound in graciously caring for their poorer brethren. He contrasts his ministry with that of the deniers of his apostleship, reciting his own life of escapes, and then, after fourteen years keeping it secret, tells of his having been caught up into Paradise, and afterward being given a humbling thorn to keep him entirely dependent upon the grace of Christ.
Written by Paul 60 A.D. from some place in Macedonia.


In accord with Acts 15 the apostle uncompromisingly refutes the enemies’ legal Judaizing teachings (the bane of Christendom) which perverts the pure grace, (plus nothing) of the gospel (which was received direct from heaven), by the admixture of law-keeping, either as a means of justification or as the rule of life for the Christian. The law, works, flesh and the world are diametrically opposed to grace, faith, the Spirit and the cross. If they were justified by the law they had “fallen from grace.” See Rom. 6:15; 7:4; 11:6.
Written by Paul’s own hand A.D. 56.


(full purposed)
What the church is to Christ, emphasizing her heavenly place in Christ, and the mystery (known only to the initiated) of the body, by the Spirit uniting Jew and Gentile believers to their hidden Head. God con- fides His plans, according to the riches of His grace as having chosen us in Christ and adopted us as sons to Himself. The saints are not the inheritance (1:18) but co-heirs with whom He will share it. “Out of the depths He lifted me” (ch. 2). “The breadth, and length and depth and height” is the immensity and blessedness which God’s eternal glory fills, centering in Christ.
“Of the vast universe of bliss,
The center Thou and Sun.”
Then practical exhortations commence in chapter 4:1-3 and continue from verse 17 on. In verses 4-16, by annulling Satan’s power of death, He captures Satan’s captives and makes them His own instruments of delivering others and building them up, Next comes guidance for walk, as His dear children, wives, husbands, children, fathers, bondmen and masters; and then the need of the whole armor “of God” in entire dependence on the strength of the Lord. His word and praying in the Spirit.
The absence of personal salutations, as well as the name of the epistle in the Vatican and the Sinaitic manuscripts, also Basil’s verification, has caused some to believe that it may have been a circular epistle, such as is suggested by Col. 4:16.
Written by Paul about A.D. 62 from the Roman prison.


(lover of horses)
The epistle of normal Christian experience, rejoicing in the Lord in spite of adverse circumstances, living Christ I cross myself out (chapter 1); as He emptied Himself, humbled Himself, and was obedient unto the death of the cross, so may I serve Him, crossing myself out (chapter 2); abhorring religious flesh, seeing a resurrected Christ in glory, by the energy of the Spirit, crossing myself out, and disregarding the hardships, I pursue towards that goal where I shall win Him, the prize, and be found in Him, having “the righteousness which is of God” (chapter 3). Drawing on His strength and the abundant supply of His riches in glory, Who is near to come, I need not be anxious and I need “not insist on rights,” verse 5 (J.N.D. footnote), but can well afford to cross myself out and trust Him for everything.
Written by Paul 62 or 63 A.D. from the Roman prison.


What Christ is to the church. His preeminence and personal glories; “Son of His love,” the Creator, Sustainer, Victor over death, Reconciler, Head of the body, our fife, our hope of glory, our all. “In Him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily, and ye are complete in Him.” Having died and risen with Him, it becomes us to live wholly for Him, avoiding human philosophy and fleshly religion. Wives, husbands, children, fathers, bondmen and masters are exhorted to do all things as to the Lord.
Written by Paul about A.D. 62 from the Roman prison.

1 Thessalonians

(victory over false)
The epistles to the Thessalonians are the capital seat of the truth of the Lord’s coming (in both aspects; first, for His saints; later with His saints) and alluded to in every chapter. As the inspiring hope of the young convert in chapter one; as the encouraging hope for the servant, chapter two; as the purifying hope of the believer, in chapter three; as the comforting hope of the bereaved, in chapter four; and as the arousing hope of the drowsy, in chapter five. He delights in these newborn babes who, amidst persecution, were living in the freshness of affections and power of the Christian hope. Concerned in their continuing and becoming more firmly established in the faith, he encourages their simplicity with added light to preserve them from fears and dangers.
Shortly after his three weeks’ stay with them this first of Paul’s epistles was written from Corinth in A.D. 52.

2 Thessalonians

Paul exposes the false alarm of the enemy, who had taken advantage of their persecutions to enfeeble their hope, using as means a feigned letter as if from Paul, that the Day of the Lord was present! (Chap. 2:2. J.N.D.) Their present trouble proved their future rest when their troublers would be judged. In chapter 2 he shows the prophetic development of the apostasy and the antichrist, after we are gathered home, and up until the Lord comes in judgment. Chapter 3 is exhortation to avoid idlers and idleness while waiting for the Lord to come.
Written by Paul from Corinth A.D. 53.

1 Timothy

(to honor God)
Young and frail, but godly, Timothy is encouraged and enjoined as to the responsibility of the conduct of every one in God’s house, the maintainer of the truth. Although the house is in order, sound doctrine is stressed because legalizers were at work and in the latter times some would apostatize by giving heed to deceiving spirits. The moral qualifications of overseers and deacons are given without any official character or appointment. See J.N.D. Trans. The testimony of our Savior God concerning the Mediator is for all. The woman’s place, the care of widows, and the love of money are considered. “The King of Kings and Lord of Lords” is here God. See J.N.D. Trans.
Written by Paul, from Macedonia, when free, about A.D. 64.

2 Timothy

(to honor God)
Paul, about to depart, pens his last epistle, not to the assembly at Ephesus, where Timothy lived, but to the frail young devoted individual who had a willing heart to suffer for the truth’s sake, (See Phil. 2:20, 21; Prov. 23:23). He sees the need of stirring up exceptional divine “energy in the darkening state of the assembly,” these very difficult times in which we are now living, when many prefer not the whole truth of God. All is compared to a house in disorder. Nevertheless in the midst of the cumbersome religious machinery of Christendom, with so much that dishonors the Lord, there still remains the narrow path of Paul’s doctrine of the “one body” and the “unity of the Spirit” to be kept, outside of all divisions, counting on His faithfulness, His word and His grace to continue therein until He comes. (See Hag. 2:4-7). Wonderful stay for the weak remnant.
He closes this fourteenth epistle and his one hundredth chapter with, “The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit. Grace be with you.”
Written by Paul in prison at Rome, before Nero beheaded him. A.D. 67.


In some things similar to 1 Timothy, but the apostle delegated Titus to establish godly order in all their relationships, and to appoint elders in the assemblies on the island of Crete, and then to return to the mainland (3:12). In chapter one “the faith of God’s elect” is all the truth which lets us into the secrets of His love. Qualifications of overseers follow. In chapter two, we have proprieties in all relationships that we might adorn the doctrine of our Savior God, and then in four verses is given the gist of Christianity in view of the “blessed hope.” In chapter three it is His sovereign mercy in saving us, morally cleansing us from the old order, and fitting us for the entirely new sphere of Christianity into which we have been brought. The Holy Spirit also continually renews us according to His abundant outpouring. Sound teaching accompanied by good works is stressed. A heretic is one who induces others to follow him in his pet view of some doctrine.
Written by Paul about A.D. 65.


A love letter from a mediator reflecting the heart of God in grace’s concern for a prodigal slave. Even though burdened with the care of all assemblies, the aged apostle in prison evangelized this prisoner and then in practical righteousness, brotherly love, and the spirit of Christ, sends him back as the bearer of this touching appeal to Philemon to secure a kind welcome for his “son” and “brother beloved.”
Paul does not demand that the slave be freed, (as Christianity did not come to set the world right) but Philemon may have done so, verse 21.
Written about A.D. 62.


(to pass over)
God finally fully expressed in the blessed Person and work of His Son, now in heavenly glory, opening up approach to God in the holiest by virtue of His blood. As our great High Priest He is bringing many dependent sons by faith through the wilderness to His eternal rest. Many Old Testament scriptures are utilized for the sake of these Jewish professed Christians who were still clinging to Judaism and in danger of apostatizing. All bonds with Judaism are broken by God’s Son eclipsing angels, Melchisedec, Moses, Aaron, Joshua, law, tabernacle, sacrifices and all earthly hopes, leading the remnant to gather to Himself outside the camp.
This treatise was undoubtedly written by Paul (2 Pet. 3:15), about A.D. 63 or 64.


Probably James, “son of Alphaeus,” one of the twelve and “a pillar” in the church at Jerusalem, wrote this final word to Israel. He exhorts the believing remnant, who were in the midst of many mere professors, to consistency of life. He insists upon works as the evidence before men (chapter 2), whereas Paul refuses works as the means before God (Rom. 3:28). The law of Moses (2:10), “the law of liberty” (1:25; 2:12) is obedience of the new man (1:18 with Psa. 40:8), and “the royal law” (2:8). He warns the unruly tongue, friendship with the world, the rich in this world, but comforts the tried with the hope of the soon coming of the Lord. It is regarded as the earliest Christian epistle, when both the “Synagogue” (2:2) and the “church” (5: 14) were not yet separated.
Written very likely about A.D. 41-45.

1 Peter

(a stone)
Elect dispersed remnant of Jewish Christians suffering needed trials from God (ch. 1), from unrighteous ones (eh. 2), for righteousness (ch, 3), from Satan (ch. 5), during their sojourn between Christ’s sufferings and His appearing in glory. It is God’s government in favor of His own, who are “born again,” “redeemed” and “kept” for heavenly glory. Peter shows that Christ is the “Corner Stone” and all believers are “living stones” and “priests” (2:4-6). He exhorts servants, wives, husbands and all. “In the days of Noah” the Spirit of Christ by Noah preached, but the souls then “disobedient” are reserved for judgment (3:19, 20; 4:6). Practical obedience to God’s will at all cost of suffering to the flesh was the mind of Christ and our example (4:1, 2 with 2:19; 3:17; Phil. 2:5-8).
Written by Peter about A.D. 60 from the ancient district of Babylon.

2 Peter

Peter’s farewell to Jewish Christians to exercise diligence in view of the Lord’s coming, kingdom and glory, in spite of apostate teachers, corrupters and mocking skeptics. It is God’s government to judge the wicked and to burn the earth, in order to introduce the new eternal heavens and earth.
What is commendable is in chapter one. What is deplorable is in chapter two. Then we have virtually five days in chapter three; the day of “salvation” (verses 15-19); “the day of eternity” (verse 18, J.N.D. Trans.), which is in contrast to “now”; “the day of the Lord” (verse 10); “the day of judgment” (verse 7); and “the day of God” (verse 12) in which He will share with all His own His undisturbed rest.
Written by Peter A.D. 66.

1 John

(Jehovah has graciously given)
“Eternal life manifested in Jesus and communicated to us” and then manifested in our walk that we are in the light and enjoying the fellowship of the apostles with the Father and His Son, whose blood cleanseth us from every sin. Although sin dwells in us, we should not sin, but if we do, we have an Advocate who restores our communion, if we confess it. We are characterized by obedience, practicing righteousness and loving one another. We know the Father, that our sins are forgiven, that we have passed from death unto life, and like Him are beyond judgment, that we have eternal life in the Son, that we have the Holy Spirit, who teaches us so that we know the truth that was from the beginning, and which exposes what is of the world, counterfeits, antichrists and error. We know that the whole world lieth in the wicked one. Since He eclipses all, we should allow nothing to eclipse Him.
Written by John A.D. 90-95.

2 John

The only epistle addressed to a sister. Because “many deceivers are entered into the world” the aged apostle warns her against receiving any who bring not the true doctrine as to Christ. True love is accompanied by obedience to the truth and proof that the work is of God. There is no room for adding anything to the revelation God has given nor for compromising it.
Written after A.D. 90.

3 John

The only apostle on earth, without mentioning his authority, expresses his concern for the health of Gaius and commends him for walking in the truth in its primitive simplicity, also for receiving and aiding the Lord’s itinerant ministers of the truth, and thus doing good. But he sternly condemns the arrogant spirit of clericalism in Diotrephes who loved to have the first place in the assembly, running everything and everybody as a dictator, thus doing evil. He might not have realized how obnoxious was his self-importance, and no doubt detested this faithful exposure.
Beware of too sublime a sense of your own worth and consequence.
The man who deems himself so great, and his importance of such weight,
That all around and all that’s done, must move and act through him alone,
Will learn by deep humiliation, the folly of self-exaltation.
“It cheered Gains not to mind the frown of Diotrephes.” W.K.
Written after A.D. 90.


Similar to the wicked teachers of 2 Pet. 2, but JUDE describes apostates “crept in” to undermine the Christian testimony. It is natural religion departing from and hating the truth, for the sake of temporal gain. Jude enumerates their lack of every essential and declares their solemn end.
He therefore exhorts the “beloved” to contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the saints, by remembering the words of the apostles and building themselves up in their most holy faith, praying in the Holy Ghost, keeping themselves in the continual enjoyment of the love of God, while awaiting the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, who will joyfully present them blameless before His glory.
Written A.D. 66, by Jude the apostle and brother of James.

The Revelation

Of all the 66 books none is so highly commended for our special consideration as this one. Through its perfect symbolic language the Lord reveals secrets of how He will judge and set aside all evil preliminary to His glorious Kingdom. It is most instructive as to the principles of everything at work around us in the false church, Israel and the nations. No other book so marvelously unfolds the future glories of Christ and the Church.
The seven stages of the church as a responsible witness are in chapters 2 and 3. From chapter 4 on, the true church is in heaven until 19:11, but the false left to be cast off and destroyed in the middle of the seven years when Satan is cast out of heaven onto the earth, the antichrist revealed, Jewish religion abolished, and the ten-horned Beast casts off the Harlot, with its last vestige of Christianity, to make room for enforced worship of the Beast and his image during the last 3 ½ years. Armageddon and the end of the times of the Gentile nations is described in the 16th and 19th chapters. The six seals of chapter six are in the first 3 ½ years, “the beginning of sorrows.” Six trumpets and corresponding six vials occur during the last 3 ½ years, leaving the seventh trumpet and the seventh vial for the very end when the Lord comes in judicial wrath. After the 1000 years reign and the white throne judgment of the wicked for the lake of fire, the new heaven and earth will provide God His eternal rest and dwelling place with His redeemed.
Prayerful carefulness will help to discover the actual order of events in the parenthetical chapters, 7, 10-14, 17, 18, and 21:9-22:5. The martyred remnant are referred to in 5:9, 10, J.N.D. Trans.; 6:9-11; 11:3-12; 12:11; 13:7, 15; 14:2; 15:2; 20:4, J.N.D. Trans.