On the Greek Article

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The doctrine which, for nearly thirty years, has satisfied my own mind on the subject of the use of the Greek article is so simple, and at the same time (as being merely the intelligent application of a universally well-known principle of Greek grammar) so readily appreciable, that I have been surprised no one has stated and developed it. Nothing but my own habits, the conviction of how little I could pretend to critical scholarship, and the pressure of other service, has hindered my giving it publicity. But as it is a material help to the study of Scripture, I venture to do so.
The rule is simply this-illustrated in the known form of a proposition in Greek, that whenever a word presents an OBJECT about which the mind is occupied, as objectively present to it, the article is used; whenever a word is merely characteristic, it is not.
In most simple cases, this will be self-evident. It will confirm, also, many subordinate rules given in treatises on the subject; as, for example, those relating to abstract nouns, previous references, and the like. In some cases it will leave a choice of using or not using the article, so far as the sense is concerned, and merely affect vigor of style: in some it will require the power of abstraction, a power absolutely demanded for the critical study of the Greek Testament. But it will explain all, and give the special force of a vast number otherwise left uncertain. This last reason, and the more perfect understanding of Scripture connected with it, is what leads me thus to give it publicity.
The metaphysical reasons may be subordinately interesting, and confirm the rule. It may cause the article to retain its name of "definite", though I should perhaps prefer "objective." It may explain its early Homeric pronominal use. It may show, that in translating Greek into English, "a," or "the," or neither, may be required; for that depends on the genius of English; our inquiry, on the genius of Greek. Our great point will be the truth of the fact.
If I say ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐστὶ ζωὸν λογικὸν, the object before my mind to be described is ὁ ἄνθρωπος. Ζωὸν λογικὸν is the description-that which characterizes, in an explanatory way, the object about which I am occupied: it is not an object, but the character given to an object. The object is ἄνθρωπος. It may be the archetypal idea of the race (that is, an ideal object), or an actual individual previously spoken of; but it is the object before my mind to be spoken of; ὁ designates it; ἄνθρωπος names the thing designated. The anarthrous word describes, or attaches a descriptive idea to, the designated object. Hence, though the usage was subsequently lost, we can easily conceive that where some one had been named, it stood alone as a pronoun, answering to " he;" and in many phrases is rightly rendered "this," or "that," when in English the reference is specific, though equally well in general "the."
Hence, too, the well-known usage in reciprocal propositions-that both nouns have it. That is, they are coextensively predicable, one of the other; or, rather they both name or designate one identical object. This will only be the case as to the terms themselves, when the two words stand alone. When one is limited by the annexation of a governed noun or otherwise, it will only be true, of course, within that limit; i.e., of the terms so modified. Thus, in n ἡ ἁμαρτία ἐστὶν ἡἀνομία, the terms are reciprocal, because both are taken in the abstract totality of the things in their nature. But ἡ ζωὴ ἠν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων necessarily limits the reciprocity to the historical, facts by the verb, and to a certain sphere of fact by the genitive following τὸ φῶς. That is, the article, as presenting an object, presents the whole thing named. If it be abstract, it is the whole thing in its nature, as ἡ ἁμαρτία, ἡ ἀνομία; and in this case the terms are properly reciprocal. If not, it affirms it as a fact within the limits given in the sentence. It requires some close attention of mind to see that limited propositions are reciprocal; but they are really so. In practice and in translations it is little attended to. The mind generally makes an ordinary proposition of it, and has all that is really important; but it would not have become me to pass over the case, as explaining the use of the article. The doctrine that an article to each noun makes the proposition reciprocal, is one universally admitted; so that it does not affect my idea of the article. It was the limited case which had to be explained.
And now to open a little more the metaphysical order hi the mind. The mind is ignorant; that is, has to receive, and be directed to, an object whose existence is assumed, or recognized: it has to be informed about that object. Ὁ turns its attention to an object (designates it, as an intellectual finger-post), supposed, I suspect, in all cases to be before the mind, named or unnamed; and next, what accompanies gives the object its name, as ἄνθρωπος. The predicate informs the mind about the object. Now, in a reciprocal proposition, both are names attached to the same object. Hence both are objective, and both descriptive. Ἡ ἀνομία ἐσὶν ἡ ἁμαρτία. Ἀνομία, lawlessness, is the object before my mind-that is, sin. So also sin is ἀνομία is. They are different titles of the same object. But ζωὸν λογικὸν is not an object at all. It is a descriptive idea, to enlarge so far my idea of my object, ἄνθρωπος. It may be applied, perhaps, to other objects.
Hence, too, the effort of the ancient logicians to define by the genus and essential difference; because one gave the general race or character of being, and the other that.which distinguished the object from all other classes, and thereby made it one to itself. It was really classification, and so far well, but no more. Locke's attempt to give, instead of that, all the qualities, informed more but was not a remedy: first, because many of those qualities were common, and not distinctive; secondly, because some might be individual. Hence the various efforts at classification in different branches of natural history by collections of distinctive marks sufficiently generalized.
To take, now, various examples, as they present themselves in a chapter of the New Testament (John 1):- θεὸς ην ὁ λόγος, the question is not at all if θεὸς is supreme; it is something affirmed of λογος. Were it ὁ θεὸς, it would exclude from Deity the Father and the Spirit, and confine the unity of the Deity to the Word.
Ὁ λόγος ην is the object before my mind. It existed in the beginning.
Ἠν πρὸς τὸν θρόν. Here again God is an objective being to my mind, with whom the Word was. It has been supposed that there can no rule be given for prepositions. I believe, though, the cases require more power of abstraction and apprehension of the relation of ideas, the one rule holds.
Θεὸς ην ὁ λόγος. Here the same word characterizes λόγος. We have again πρὸς τὸν for the above reason (verse 2).
The passage now leads us to another case-the use of the article with a verb substantive. This is generally left as optional. It is true, the noun accompanying such verb is used with and without an article; but the meaning is not the same. Ἐν αὐτῶ ζωὴ ην. Is it not evident here that the possession of "con characterizes the person or being spoken of? And ζωὴ becomes a noun characteristic of the existence affirmed. Hence constantly with verbs substantive, when the thing is generally affirmed, the article is wanting. A thing which could be called life was found in him: that name characterized the existing thing. It might in many other cases too, and hence it is only-characteristic of the existence implied in the verb substantive. The existence is before the mind, and hence the verb is called substantive. There was.... what? Life. This will be entered into fully further on, for it is true of all impersonal verbs, there "was," "fell," etc. Had it been ἡ ζωὴ, there would have been no life anywhere else, for the whole thing designated by ζωὴ would have been in Him.
Next we have ἡ ζωή. Now it becomes the object before my mind. This life (life as in Him) was τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων: a reciprocal proposition. But it is directly affected by the use of ην instead of ἐστί. Ἠν confines the reciprocity to the time, place, and circumstances of which it speaks. It amounts to a revelation, that life, as in the Word, gave itself up to be exclusively that in the circumstances historically spoken of by the word ην. The light of men and the life in the Word, then and there, are names of one identical object. It is evident, that the addition "of men" gives it a particular application. It gives it exclusive application there, as does the ην. There is no other light of men: man is darkness. If I find light in man, true light, it is the life in the Word. In man himself was death and darkness. Christ alone was light there, whether it shines on or shines in, for both may be true. Nor was life, as here spoken of, light to others than men. But it does not state it in the whole extent of ζωὴ, as being an equivalent term in itself to φῶς, because τῶν ἀνθρώπων gives a specific application, and takes it out of the nature of the thing; nor is it life abstractedly, but life in the Word, under given circumstances; that is, it ceases to be purely abstract. Ἠ ζωη ἐστὶ τὸ φῶς would have made life and light names of the same object. The word ην, as we have seen, confirms this; it is historical, not affirmative of the constant nature of the thing like ἐστι. It supposes there may be ζωὴ in some other circumstances, and says nothing of it; i.e., it is historically, or in that fact, not abstractedly, though exclusively true. So of φῶς.
In the following words we have another case: τὸ φῶς Here it is the object still; abstractedly, I believe; but as there is none other than the one mentioned, the abstraction and the individual object previously mentioned coincide. Which, therefore, is specially meant, is a question of mental intelligence. It is the whole object represented by φὼς. If that has been recently mentioned in such a manner as that it should be the object before the mind, the mind recurs to it. If not, it is the abstract, mental idea.
Ἐν τη σκοτία. Here again it is abstract, that is, an ideal object, and presents no difficulty, only adding a clear example of a principle. This is common in cases of contrast, where, by the contrast, two objects are put definitely before the mind.
Ἐγένετο ἄνθρωπος ἀπεσταλμένος παρὰ θεοῦ. Here we have examples of the absence of the article, which at once raises a question. Were it ὁ Ἰωάννης, the object would be evident, and the mind would wait for this. This is evident; for if there were merely ἐγένετο ἄνθρωπος απεσταλμένος παρὰ θεοῦ, the mind asks, Who? What man? The answer is, ὁ Ἰωάννης. The previous phrase then would be characteristic of John-his description. He was a man sent from GOD-so as to be sent from GOD. It was characteristic of John. A man sent from GOD was what he was. Man in mission from God was the thing that described him. Παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, would have been true, but it would not have been merely descriptive of John, but introduced the Being, God himself, as an object before the mind. This would have explained all had it been ὁ Ἰωάννης. But, as it stands at present, another form of the principle is introduced; one, however, familiar, though perhaps undefined to the English reader-the impersonal use of verbs without any object; existence, or the event described by the verb, being itself the object. " There was," " there fell," "there lived," etc., the being, falling, living, first occupies the mind, and then the thing spoken of comes in as a descriptive circumstance; the anarthrous word in either case answering the question What? Ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐστὶ,... What? Ἐγένετο....What? In English: Man is... What? There was... What? the answer to "what" being the predicate, and therefore without the article. A verb substantive would not have the article after it, unless for some reason connected with other parts of the sentence or context, save in a reciprocal proposition, because the word following is a predicate. But the rule is wider; and every impersonally used verb contains within itself its object, and what follows is predicated of that. Hence we have a new phrase in the case before us-ὄνομα αὐτω Ἰωάννης. So again, εἰς μαρτυρίαν (for witness, i.e., not himself to be an object of faith) is characteristic of what he came for. The use of the article with φῶς has already been spoken of.
In verse 9, we have another case-that of an adjective -which is a common one, and will thus explain many others. The article here continues the designation of the object to the adjective, as that without which the real complete object would not be before the mind, φῶς, and ἀληθινὸν, making one idea in such a phrase. But though one idea, φῶς is presented as the primary substantive object, it must be corrected, or limited, by an ἀληθινὸν, or rather really by ὄ φωτίζει, κ. τ. λ.. The mind is in suspense till then, and hence the need of another article. The difference is this: τὸ φῶς , κ. τ. λ., makes me think of light as that which I am to pay attention to, as the thing importantly in question, and is thus my object. But it would not be true alone in this case, and I limit it by designating another thing, ὄ φωτίξει = τὸ φώτιζον. In τὸ ἀληθινὸν φῶς, I assume φῶς as the known subject, and give a characteristic word, τὸ ἀληθινὸν, to designate the particular kind. φῶς is added to avoid mistake where needed; but is assumed in the mind of the speaker, not presented as an object to which he calls attention. If in the mind of the hearer too, it is not mentioned. This, then, is the difference between τὸ ἀληθινὸν and τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινόν. The first gives ἀληθινὸν as a contrast, or at any rate distinctive (as a contrast with ψεῦδος, or any pretended light), and makes it the leading idea, φῶς being assumed as the subject. The idea comprised in the adjective and substantive together is one, marked by τὸ but its truthfulness is the thing referred to. Hence τὸ ἀληθινὸν τὸ φῶς would give two objects (for ἀληθινὸν would refer to something else, of which, qualified by ἀληθινὸν, φῶς would be declared to be truly the name); or it would be the idea of truthfulness and the abstract idea of light; τὸ ἀληθινόν having fixed the mind already on an object much more abstract than light. τὸ φῶς ἀληθινόν is not usual Greek; for the object really before the mind is the truthfulness of the light. Light is of course needed to characterize the truthfulness before the mind.*
(** Τὸ φῶς has fixed it on an idea complete in itself, that is light and then ἀληθινὸν qualifies it as a quality, which is a sort of mental contradiction. When τὸ ἀληθινὸν is used, it gives the true light as alone the object-not light, but true light. Τὸ ἀληθινὸν φῶς is equally one object, and of which the adjective qualifying character is put first. There are, perhaps, cases of the usage above; but, if real, they must be taken from peculiar circumstances, as mentally one word: as ἡ ζωὴ αἰώνιος, (1 John 5.20); but the reading is questionable.)
In τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινόν, φῶς is presented as the object; but in itself it would not be sufficient: it would be distinctively the light as contrasted with all other objects, and therefore the mind has to resume its exercise, and to fix it on a particular light; i.e., the true light. But the real mental, or logical order of the phrase we are considering is the following: τὸ φῶς ὄ φωτίζει, κ.τ.λ., ἐστὶ τὸ ἀληθινον (φῶς). Here the general abstract idea or object is φῶς, τὸ to φῶς; but there is an added object of the mind to which attention is substantively drawn: ὄ φωτίζει πάντα ἄνθρωπον, equivalent to τὸ φώτιζον, of which it is affirmed, not that it is ἀληθινὸν (a mere character in that case), but τὸ ἀληθινὸν φῶς, distinctly and definitely that one particular light. It is a reciprocal proposition. The last word, φῶς, comes in merely as repeated, to secure from mistake, as the subject-matter of the truthfulness contended for. Its being the true one, is the object of affirmation. This merely amounts to the mental phenomenon, that the mind can have not only existences for an object, but acts or qualities; that is the article can be used with verbs, or participles and characteristics (i. e., adjectives), as objects, the substantive being assumed, or expressed for clearness' sake. Were this not so, the mind could only have actual existences, and not actings or characters for its object; but that is not true. This designation by the article in the case of infinitives, participles, and adjectives, by making objects, makes, in fact, nouns of them in the mind. Thus, 1 John 5:2020And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life. (1 John 5:20), γινῶσκομεν τὸν ἀληθινὸν, where the person is absolutely designated by having that quality. So, in a bolder form, Mark 9:2323Jesus said unto him, If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth. (Mark 9:23), τὸ εἰ δύνασαι πιστεῦσαι, the question of power lies in believing, the man having said to Jesus, εἴ τι δύνασαι. Ἐστὶ being understood, gives πιστεῦσαι without any article; otherwise it would make believing absolutely identical with power as a reciprocal term. The verb-substantive constantly, indeed, takes away the article, as we shall see. In the same verse, we have the article with a participle, τῶ πιστεπυοντι, not exactly equivalent to " a believer" (though for most purposes it is), because it supposes the act, and not merely the abiding quality.
The next case which requires remark in the chapter of John we are examining, is ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσιάν. Now, δίδωμι, will regularly have a noun without an article, unless some other principle introduces one as being united to a possessive genitive, or reference to previous mention of the subject, or the like; so that it is the designation to the mind of a specific object for that reason. Otherwise the phrase is a general one, and the thing given comes in merely as characterizing the giver and the gift. This will apply to every ordinary case of a simply active verb, because the word governed is merely the complement, or explanation of the idea in the sentence, though many other rules may introduce it as a specifically designated object to the mind. It is merely the kind of thing given; i.e., characteristic. Were it a known object, it would' have it. Δέδωκε ξωὴν, "he gave life," τὴν ζωὴν, if a particular life before mentioned was already before the mind.
We next come, after obvious cases, to the cases in verse 13,-ἐκ without an article. This signifies the mode or manner of something else (which something else is the object), here, of being born. Hence all are without it. An important instance of this is ἐκ πίστεως (Rom. 1:1717For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith. (Romans 1:17)), the manner or principle of the revelation; εἰς πίστιν, the thing revealed to, still characterizing the manner of the revelation. Ἐκ πλιστεως again (Rom. 3:3030Seeing it is one God, which shall justify the circumcision by faith, and uncircumcision through faith. (Romans 3:30)), on the principle of faith, for they had sought it ἐξ ἔργνω νόμου by law-works; the Gentiles διὰ τὴς πίστεως, because here it is presented as the actual faith they had. Hence, inasmuch as it was ἐκ πίστεως, and not in virtue of being a Jew, they could be justified too. So διὰ τοῦτο ἐκ πίστεως ἴνα κατὰ χάριν(Rom. 4:1616Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace; to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed; not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham; who is the father of us all, (Romans 4:16)); so verse 14, of οἱ ἐκ νόμου a little after (verse 16), τω ἐκ τοῦ νόμου, i. e., the law; Jews, οἱ ἐκ νόμου, those who claimed it by law, on that principle. Then we have τω ἐκ πίστεως Ἀβραὰμ, a remarkable case, meaning " of Abraham-faith"; not by Abraham's faith, but on the same principle, that kind of thing. These may afford a clue to many passages, and skew how little also the prepositions are out of the rule. But it is so important a principle in Paul's writings, that we may consider it further hereafter.
To return:-ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετοneeds no remark, unless that ἐγένετο makes a proposition like ἐστι. Τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ;- αὐτοῦ gives the article as designating necessarily that glory as a specific object: δόξαν ὡς, "glory as of," evidently only characterizes the subject. Consequently, μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρὸς characterizes the glory. The glory is assumed to be before GOD, or it would not be true glory; but it was glory of an only-begotten from his Father. So χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας characterize his habitation here. It might have been said, τῆς σάριτος καὶ τῆς ἀληθείας, and stated the fact of these two things. But the whole passage is characteristic of the Word made flesh, and not relating facts, though of course the facts must have existed to make the character true. Of ὁ ἐρχόμενος, and ἐλάωομεν, καὶ χάριν, κ.τ.λ., the principle has been already given. Χάριτος cannot receive here the article; it would destroy the sense, because τῆς χάριτος would be the whole abstract thing, χάρις; and no other χάρις could be ἀντι that. It is some grace, some other grace or other. Hence, when it is used as an abstract idea, contrasted with ὁ νόμος given by Moses, we have ἡ χάρις, and ἡ ἀλήθεια.I am disposed to think that there is no article before Μωσέως and Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, not because they have not been mentioned, but as being the means and manner of the coming of law and grace. But we will consider proper names apart.
We come then, to a difficult case, but one which attaches to the nature of the word; speaking of that which is so little within the limit of human thought, and especially in the expressions of one whom the Holy Ghost employed to speak more profoundly than all but one on these subjects. Still the gracious Lord meant us to understand as far as it is conveyed, and as it is; and I judge, that while the application is special, it confirms the principle which we seek to use in the explanation of the word: I refer to θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακε πώποτε. I believe this absolute negative purposely sets aside objective personality here. If it had been τὸν θεὸν, it would have been a designated object, and hard to speak thus of; or inconsistently, as one seen by faith. But the object here was to keep him in the unseen, unseeable majesty of His being; it was not ὁ, that being pointed out to the mind, but one dwelling in the light unapproachable. And this is exceedingly confirmed by the absence of αὐτὸν after ἐξηγήσατο. If that had been there, it should have been τὸν, for He would have been an objective person known. It may perhaps partially confirm this, that in Matt. 5:88Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. (Matthew 5:8), we have αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ὄψονται. There He is the object of creature-vision as a person or being, in whose presence they are, as far as that can be.
In verse 19, ἡ μαρτυρια has it from τοῦ Ἰωάννου Αὔτη is the predicate, and is in fact ἡ αὔτη.
This leads me to a controverted passage, Luke 2:22(And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) (Luke 2:2): the natural rendering would be, " The enrollment itself first took place, Cyrenius ruling Syria." Otherwise the regular structure would have been αὔτη ἡ ἀπογραφὴ ἡ πρώτη, " this first enrollment", supposing others, and designating that one as the one in question; or, if not supposing others, supposing their previous possibility, and emphatically designating that there had been none before: as we say, " This is the first time he did so", though I might say as characteristic, " This is a first fault."
Αὔτη, however, constantly takes an article with the noun following. The difference of meaning when the order is different, though it be not sometimes more than a difference of style, will best explain the use of it.
Οὔτος ὁ τελώνης. (Luke 18:1111The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, God, I thank thee, that I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican. (Luke 18:11)). The publican had been spoken of before, thence he was a designated object, ὁ τελώνης. Οὔτος designates more emphatically, often so as to be contemptuous, specially where alone (given in the word " fellow' in the English version), the individual there. Οὔτος ὁ τελώνης designates, first, the individual and then designates him by his character; but the person being supposed, the character becomes the object, as we have seen in the case of the adjective, as τὸ φῶς τὀ ἀληθινόν. If ιὤν were there, it would not have the article: it would be merely characteristic, οὔτος τελώνης ὤν. The whole object is evidently οὔτος. Ὤν is a kind of copulative participle, giving τελώνης as a predicate, as σὺ ἄνθρωπος ὤν, κ.τ.λ. (John 10:3333The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God. (John 10:33)).
Both these forms continually occur. I cite sufficient to show the use.
In all these cases we have something mentioned immediately before, emphatically designated by οὔτος-this before our eyes or mind; this just spoken of, but requiring (or clearer by having) the name of what the object designated was, the added word sometimes giving special force, as ἀρχὴν, γἐνος, or enlarging, or peculiarly characterizing the particular object. The οὔτος is complete and emphatic-this, whether thing or person. And the noun with the article presents the object, the word οὔτος necessarily specifying one.
I add instances of the other use:-
In all these latter cases, the object is simply given first in the usual form, and then particularly recognized as an object already under consideration. These cases, and those previously mentioned, are examples of the general rule, that the mind naturally first mentions the object which occupies it. When οὔτος precedes, it is the individual case; when the descriptive adjective or noun, it is the designation of the object by its name found in the individual case.
Now, of these in the first three, the emphasis is particularly on the word to which οὔτος is joined; the other form would have weakened and made it unnatural in point of style, though the sense is the same as a fact, but not in mental apprehension. No English can mark the difference well. The first two are so distinctly thus, that " the rumor of this" and " the stranger from among all these" would have been nearly equivalent. Matt. 15:88This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoreth me with their lips; but their heart is far from me. (Matthew 15:8) deserves notice, because it is parallel with Mark 7:66He answered and said unto them, Well hath Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoreth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. (Mark 7:6). It is evident here the sense must be the same. I should say the passage in Matthew was the most energetic, as designating formally the Jewish people in their iniquity (represented by the Pharisees addressed). It is so in the LXX. Mark's is more historically given, contrasting them with other people. It is plain this is a mere question of style. Οὔτος so used has often in itself a contemptuous force; but I should doubt that in this case. The Lord was referring to them. He cared for this people. Others did not so draw nigh. In Matthew it is the character of the people. The whole people did so. It was their common guilt.
I would make the same remark on Acts 28:44And when the barbarians saw the venomous beast hang on his hand, they said among themselves, No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live. (Acts 28:4), and Rom. 4:99Cometh this blessedness then upon the circumcision only, or upon the uncircumcision also? for we say that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness. (Romans 4:9). The subject of the sentence is more present in the mind of the writer than the history of the fact referred to. Οὔτος is almost supplementary. Rom. 9:99For this is the word of promise, At this time will I come, and Sara shall have a son. (Romans 9:9) requires another remark. The translation should be, " For this word is of promise." Ἐπαγγελίας without the article characterizes the λόγος. Τῆς ἐπαγγελίας had preceded-" the promise;" and then the Apostle declares that promise characterizes the word he is going to quote about it. Further, the preceding remark is confirmed.
To continue our original chapter- ἱερεἴς καὶ Λευίτας is the character of the persons who went. Had it been said τοὺς, it would have held up the priests before the mind, and would have meant all of them.
Then ὁ προφήτης, the prophet, as has been remarked by others, before the mind of John and of the speakers, who should come. That Christian faith recognizes that the prophet spoken of by Moses was the Christ proves nothing to lead us to suppose any inconsistency in the ill-informed inquiry and expectation of those who went out.
We have another instance of the example already explained in ἀπόκρισιν. Ἐγὼ φωνὴ κ.τ.λ., requires more remark. It is a quotation, varying in some words, from the LXX., and a sort of public, prophetic title affixed by the Lord on John-" I am that passage," not merely that thing. Hence it is stronger than saying ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ φωνή. It is an oracle recited attached to εγω. Εἰμι (understood) does not indeed require the article, unless it is specifically reciprocal-i.e., exclusive of all others: as ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἄμπελος ἡ ἀληθινὴ, ἐγώ είμι ὁ ἄρτος τῆς ζωῆς, ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος ὁ καταβὰς ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ.
Κυρίου comes under the question of proper names, not meaning a title of Jesus, save as He is Jehovah.
Ἐν ὔδατι-the character of the baptism.
Ἔρχεται ἀνήρ. Here we have no article, because it is not any particular man designated as an object to the mind, nor the whole class as an ideal object, which, indeed, would be rather ἄνθρωπος, save used as husband. It is a man. It characterizes, or gives the quality of man to him of whom all this is said. 'Ο ἀνὴρ would have quite another sense. Ἐρχεται ἀνὴρ is, a being comes, he is not any other thing, he is a man: that is the quality of the comer. It is really impersonal, and comes under that rule.
In verse 26, John specifically characterized his baptism. Here (in verse 31), though many authorities have not the τω I judge it is well retained, because he is speaking of the fact that actually occupied him. He therefore does not refer to the manner merely, but to the fact, and the ὔδατι is referred to as the known matter employed. Hence, when he is again contrasting the character or nature of it, we have ἐν ὔδατι and ἐν Πνεύματι ἁγίω where, remark, therefore, the absence of the article does not touch the question of what πνεῦμα is meant. It is not there, because it only characterizes the baptism.
Verse 34-ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ is evidently a specific title, and complete ideal object in itself.
Τῆ ἐπαύριον was one particular to-morrow, i. e. of the day previously spoken of.
Ὁ ἀμνὸς, one particular lamb, the Lamb of GOD. A genitive following necessarily involves in such a case the article as designating a specific object. A Christian would understand ὁυἱὸς, or Ὁ ἀμνὸς, from his previous knowledge, as a reference to one particular known Son and known Lamb. But here it follows-the designation -by a subsequent genitive, which confines it to a designated object. Here we have also τῶν μαθητῶν- the whole body of them so called as an object, and δύο, some two of them, but specifically designated:-afterward οἱ τύο, because now we have them as such designated two, though unknown.
Verse 40-ἐκείνην coming after, necessarily makes a specific day as an object before the mind.
"Ωρα requires more attention. It is indeed an exception to general rules. It never receives an article with a noun of number, unless some other reason makes it an especial object, as previous mention, as a particular hour, or the like. Such idioms as to time are found in all languages. It is the haste of familiar style, being an accompaniment to any act in general, sheaving when anything was done.
There is one apparent exception to this, Matt. 20:33And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace, (Matthew 20:3); but the article there is rejected by all the editors. On the other hand, when the mind is to be directed to a particular hour as a point of time, as being a remarkable or definite one, the article is there, but attached to the numeral as the leading idea (Matt. 20:66And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle, and saith unto them, Why stand ye here all the day idle? (Matthew 20:6)). This exception remarkably confirms the rule. It is to be remembered that Spa did not mean " hour" in Greek till very late in the history of the language. When it is used in the original way as a word, it follows the usual rules in connection with numerals marking the hour of the day. It has become a kind of name, as a known thing every day, and the article is never used-the same when used for a portion of the day in general; as if " time" had become in English the name for an hour. We should speak of spring-time winter-time, etc., and also it was at seventh-time, eighth-time, which would show it then meant hour, and attach as to time a character to the act done. But when in Greek a specific point of time is meant, then Spa with the numeral takes the article. The cases of absence are too numerous to quote. We have περὶ τρίτην ὤραν, περί ἔκτην ὤραν, περὶ ἐννάτην ὤραν, κ.τ.λ. So ἔως ὤρας ἐννάτης. So we have when it merely means much of the day- ἤδη ὤρας πολλῆς, ἤδη ὤρα πολλὴ, (Mark 6:3535And when the day was now far spent, his disciples came unto him, and said, This is a desert place, and now the time is far passed: (Mark 6:35)). But then we have, when noticed as a critical point of time, Matt. 27:4646And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? (Matthew 27:46), περὶ δὲ τὴν ἐννάτην ὤραν-20:6, περὶ δὲ τὴν ἑνδεκάτην ὤραν, and so 20:9. So Mark 15:3434And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? (Mark 15:34), καὶ τῆ ὤρα τῆ ἐννάτη. Τῆ ὤρα τοῦ θυμιάματος and such cases are common and the word follows the usual rules. So John 12:2323And Jesus answered them, saying, The hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified. (John 12:23), ἐλήλυθεν ἡ ὤρα -Acts 3:11Now Peter and John went up together into the temple at the hour of prayer, being the ninth hour. (Acts 3:1), ἐπὶ τὴν ὤραν τὴς προσευχῆς τὴν ἐννάτην. So Acts 10:3030And Cornelius said, Four days ago I was fasting until this hour; and at the ninth hour I prayed in my house, and, behold, a man stood before me in bright clothing, (Acts 10:30), ταὐτης τῆς ὤρας..καὶ τὴν ἐννάτην ὤραν.
Thus its exceptional use, when used as a name of the hours of the day, does not affect the general rule. Nor is this confined to the word ὤρα: in expressions relative to time we have ἀφ'ἡμερῶν ἀρχαίων, ἀπὸ πέρυσι, ἀπὸ τετάρτης ἡμέρας (Acts 10:3030And Cornelius said, Four days ago I was fasting until this hour; and at the ninth hour I prayed in my house, and, behold, a man stood before me in bright clothing, (Acts 10:30)). In this last the ellipse or irregularity of construction is much greater than relates merely to the article; as indeed in the first also. The last means " four days ago" i.e. κατὰ τετάρτην ἡμέραν, ἀπὸ τετάρης ἡμέρας. It is contracted, and ἀπὸ attracts the government to itself. As regards these idiomatic expressions as to time, we are familiar with them in English. We say "last year," "next month"; whereas we must say " the next king that reigns," " the last that reigned." They are merely idiomatic habits when a word is very frequently used, and lead to no mistake or uncertainty of grammar.
I have owed this to the reader to show that ὤρα is no such exception as in the smallest degree to set aside the rule: being merely an idiom found in other languages where the general grammar is certain. The truth is, from the peculiar circumstances in such a case as the hours of the day, the number becomes the designating power to the mind as the article in other cases.
One other case remains in this chapter important to notice-δόλος οὐκ ἔστι (ver. 38). Two reasons might seem to deprive δόλος of the article here. First, the verb ἔστι,; because, unless in the case of a reciprocal proposition, ἔστι makes what follows is a character of the subject. And this is so much the case that when another verb is such as to make the following noun characteristic, it has not the article. So τίνος αὐτῶν ἔσται γυνη; Γυνὴ characterizes the relationship-" Shall she be wife?"-bear that character. Ἡ γυνὴ would have fixed the mind on the person in that relationship (Mark 12:2323In the resurrection therefore, when they shall rise, whose wife shall she be of them? for the seven had her to wife. (Mark 12:23)). So, in the same verse, ἔσχον...γυναἴκα, " to wife," as wife. Again, as, μόνος ἔχων ἀθανασίαν (1 Tim. 6:1616Who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach unto; whom no man hath seen, nor can see: to whom be honor and power everlasting. Amen. (1 Timothy 6:16)); ἔχοντες χρείαν very frequently; ἔχοντες ἐξουσίαν. This was the condition or state of the persons spoken of, of God himself. The anarthrous nouns are attributes or conditions of something. Yet grimy will have the article after it, whenever the word is not merely characteristic, but positively fixing the mind on a definite object. Ἐν ῶ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν (Eph. 1:77In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace; (Ephesians 1:7)). Redemption is more than a characteristic of us. It is a positive object marked out to the mind. So Phil. 1:2323For I am in a strait betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; which is far better: (Philippians 1:23), τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν ἔχων. The same principle very plainly applies to Eph. 3:1212In whom we have boldness and access with confidence by the faith of him. (Ephesians 3:12), ἐν ῶ ἔχομεν τὴν παρρησίαν. Now this might seem rather a contradiction, but if examined, illustrates remarkably the principle. It is not here a quality in Paul, but a special designated goodness to which he refers:-τὴν παρρησίαν καὶ τὴν προσαγωγὴν ἐν πεποιθήσει διὰ τῆς πίστεως αὐτοῦ, that boldness and confidence of access which we have before God through Him. Where παρρησίαν is used as a quality or state of the person, it has not the article as Heb. 10:19; 119Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, (Hebrews 10:19) John 2:28;3. 21.
But to return to δόλος οὐκ ἔστι -δόλος is not a predicate here, nor exactly characteristic of Nathanael. The negative modifies the sentence. It is not merely that the complete abstract idea-guile-is not in him, but there is none of it. To put it in another shape; you cannot make an object as existing before the mind of what is denied to exist. Hence we have δόλος οὐκ ἔστι, rightly translated "no guile." So in 1 John 3:55And ye know that he was manifested to take away our sins; and in him is no sin. (1 John 3:5), ἐν αὐτῶ ἁμαρτία οὐκ ἔστι, " in Him is no sin." The same holds with ἔχει used in a similar way, as John 4:4444For Jesus himself testified, that a prophet hath no honor in his own country. (John 4:44), τιμὴν οὐκ ἔχει. We have a confirmation of this by seeing that where it is a positive object- about which something is denied, and not the denial of the existence of the thing, οὐκ does not alter the common rule; thus: οὐκ ἔστι ὁ θεὸς, νεκρῶν (Matt. 22:3232I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. (Matthew 22:32)). It is not, " God is not." God is presented as the object, and He is denied to be Θεὸς νεκρῶν. Whereas in (LXX. Psa. 13:11<<To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David.>> How long wilt thou forget me, O Lord? for ever? how long wilt thou hide thy face from me? (Psalm 13:1), and 52:1), we have οὐκ ἔστι θεὸς, there is no God. In Mark 12:2727He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living: ye therefore do greatly err. (Mark 12:27), on the contrary, we have the idea in a different shape -οὐκ ἔστι ὁ Θεὸς νεκρῶν. If this be not elliptical, and if so, identical with Matthew, the sense is different, and ὁ θεὸς becomes a proper object of the mind based on what has been said, and is a term of relationship, as ὁ Θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ, κ.τ.λ. He is not the God of dead persons, as called their God. If this be so, the article as designating a positive object is positively necessary. It is a question of spiritual intelligence which is the meaning here. The grammatical rule is maintained equally by either. I incline to the latter. The cases of οὐκ ἔστι and similar forms without an article are too numerous to mention.
An English expression here may assist the reader. In "similar forms without an article," an article', is merely characteristic of form.' It is a form without an article. The article would fix my mind on the article itself as the subject of inquiry, or, if recently mentioned, refer to it as so mentioned; only that English is neither as accurate nor consequently as uniform, nor as universal in application of the principle.
This leads me to another principle-application, that is, of our principle: if a noun singular be taken distributively, or a noun plural partially, which is the same thing at bottom, there will not be an article; if the singular as already spoken of in totality, i.e. abstractedly, or the plural universally, there will. It is merely a case of the non-existence of the definite object pointed out to the mind. This connects itself with the employment of prepositions also. A singular noun is taken distributively when it is not an abstract complete idea, but as applied to any given existences of the case. Δόλος οὐκ ἔστι comes under this, and has led me to it. It is not merely that the abstract thing δόλος is not, but that nothing coming under that title is there. So of all the cases given above with οὐκ. Other cases are very numerous. (Mark 12:19,20, 2119Master, Moses wrote unto us, If a man's brother die, and leave his wife behind him, and leave no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother. 20Now there were seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and dying left no seed. 21And the second took her, and died, neither left he any seed: and the third likewise. (Mark 12:19‑21)). Ἐαν τινος ἀδελφὸς...καταλίπη γυναῖκα. Ἔλαβε γυναῖκα...Οὐδὲ αὐτὸς ἀφῆκε σπέρμα. So in the plural ἑπτὰ ἀδελφοὶ ἤσαν. Ὁ θεὸς νεκρῶν. Ὄταν γὰρ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῶσιν, dead people, that condition,- not as an object before the mind-all the dead. So ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν frequently, but Luke 14:1414And thou shalt be blessed; for they cannot recompense thee: for thou shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the just. (Luke 14:14). Τῆ ἀνάστασει τῶν δικαίων because all would rise as a definite object—these persons. So εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς, all these writings so designated. So εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων men's hands. It is characteristic. Instances of the converse are found in every page: οἱ μαθηταὶ, οἱ ἀδελφοί. So ὄλος involves the article, τινὰς excludes it. Hence we know vas with an article following has not the meaning it has with a noun without it. In the last case it is distributive-" every": in the former not, but means " the whole." Πᾶσα ἡ γῆ " the whole earth." Πᾶσα φυτεία, " every plant." Hence, note Eph. 3:1515Of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named, (Ephesians 3:15); πᾶσα πατριὰ " every family" (where ἐν οὐρανοῖς καὶ ἐπι γῆς γῆς characterizes the families and therefore have not the article); that is, as Jehovah knew only Israel of all the families of the earth (Amos 3:22You only have I known of all the families of the earth: therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities. (Amos 3:2)), the rest being not called by His name (Isa. 63:1919We are thine: thou never barest rule over them; they were not called by thy name. (Isaiah 63:19)). All the families-every heavenly, or earthly family, was ranged under the name and authority of the GOD and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
I will now go through several difficult cases in which, from the extreme exuberance of matter and the narrowness of the barium language to meet it; and yet the need of accuracy in Divine things, the certainty of it in revelation; we shall find the principle most severely tested, but most fully proved. And here I shall particularly take notice of prepositions which come as fully under the rule as every other case.
Eph. 1:11Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to the saints which are at Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ Jesus: (Ephesians 1:1). ἀπόστολος, characteristic of Paul. Διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ; the same thing. He was an apostle by Divine will.
2. χάρις καὶ ἐιρήνη are used distributively with ἔστω understood. It is not the abstract word pointed out as an object, but that these things may be with-characterize-the condition and state of the people. The apostle did not wish grace and peace in their abstract totality to be so, but that their state might be characterized by these qualities. Ἀπὸ θεοῦ κ.τ.λ. gives the character of the grace and peace, that kind. It is not a wish that it should come from Him, but that grace and peace thence might be with them.
3. In this verse we have the article, for θεὸς κ.τ.λ. is presented as a personal object. I will revert to this as an instance of an important point. Τοἴς, before ἐπουρανίοις, shows where they were, or had the blessing. It was not the blessing merely characterized by that place.
Eph. 1:44According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love: (Ephesians 1:4). Πρὸ καταβολής κόσμου characterizes the election by the date; does not relate the fact by a date: that is, it is not given as a specific date to which attention is drawn, but that which preceded, or the infinity preceding that, characterized the election. It renders it much stronger. " Ere a mountain was formed," or " a foundation of the world laid," would not give a date but contrast a period in character.
5. So ἐν άγάπη characterizes the saints, εἰς υἰεθεσίαν their predestination. It was predestination to adoption; but it was not κατ'εὐδοκίαν merely. The good pleasure of His will is made the object before the mind of the source from which it flowed.
6. We now come to some more difficult cases, because complicated, where they have in part, in part not, the article; but it flows from what we have been seeing we are to be; our whole state, and the work which has brought us there, εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης. That is to characterize the matter. But the grace is a positive designated object, which is thus glorified and praised, or gloriously praised. Hence we have τῆς (called for, indeed, by αὑτοῦ). His grace is set before us as praised and glorified. This apparent anomaly is therefore at once made easy by this simple 'principle.
7. I have noticed this already. We have all these as God's part, noticed as positive objects of
8. our soul (save σοφία καὶ φρωνήσει, which characterize the grace). So verse 9.
10. But εἰς οἰκονομίαν. It was a will, or purpose of, or for administering this will or purpose was such. This gave its character and quality to the will or purpose; but the fullness of times was a positive object before the mind. It did not characterize the administration. It is a direct subject of thought. We have seen before ἐν οὐρανοἴς καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς characterise every family. Here they are designated as places where the things are pointed out as such, and they have the article.
11. Again we have the unusual form κατὰ πρόθεσιν τοῦ. But κατὰ πρόθεσιν denotes the nature of the predestination, and connects itself with predestinated. We are predestinated according to purpose (not the particular purpose), of Him who, etc. And then we have again the article associated with this work in God where it has its source, and it is presented as a positive object of the mind. We are merely characterized, and our predestination by purpose. Our predestination was not δἰ ἔργ, but κατὰ πρόθεσιν, and that of Him who, etc.
Eph. 1:1212That we should be to the praise of his glory, who first trusted in Christ. (Ephesians 1:12). It was to praise. The τῆς, though disputed, is, I judge, rightly maintained. We are to praise as according to purpose, but it is of His glory, presented again as the direct object of the mind. We have then several with the article, evidently presenting positive objects, till we come to
14. ἀῤῥαβὼν, characterizing merely in this case the Holy Ghost. Ἐστὶν and ἡμῶν account grammatically for this, according to the principles previously stated. But the words which receive the article here are spiritually full of the most perfect interest and weight of instruction. Ὁ ἀῤῥαβὼν would be pretty much a reciprocal proposition: here it is a predicate of an ordinary proposition. The inheritance, again, is an object presented. Εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν characterizes ἀῤῥαβὼν, as εἰς οἰκονομίαν previously did the purpose, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκἰαν αὑτοῦ.
15. Τὴν ἀγάπην τὴν, I notice as merely a new form of the principle, the second τὴν necessarily making the first objective.
17. Ὁ πατὴρ τὴς δόξης is not the same as ὁ πατὴρ δόξης, or πατὴρ δόξης. He is the author, source, and head of glory; the glory that is actually to be, as Father, as GOD of our Lord Jesus Christ. Πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως characterized what was given to them. It was not τὸ, i.e. the whole of it abstractedly to them. It may be the Holy Ghost; but what is stated here from ὑμῖν to αὐτοῦ is the character of the thing given. I should translate "the Spirit." It is surely by the Holy Ghost, and the form of His presence and power in the mind; but it is that form of it which is spoken of here.
18. We get a succession of positive objects resented to the mind as so known.
20. So here, where we have only to remark the resurrection of Christ: it is not ἀνάστασις ἐκ τὼν νέκρων, that is, not from designated persons, but a state. It characterised the resurrection, and did not point out persons. It is ἀ. ἐκ νέκρων, that is, from that condition.
2: 2. In this verse, note, we have the evil system presented, not as characterizing the walk merely, but as a positive subsisting system, according to which they walked. And so all through till we get our resulting character. Τἐκνα φύσει ὀργῆς, this characterized us.
5. χάριτι, the principle which characterized the way of salvation, Then,
6. it was by goodness to us that He sheaved the positive things spoken of Him, that goodness (χρηστὸτης) characterized it.
8. We have τῆ γὰρ χάριτί ἐστε σεσωσμένοι διὰ τῆς πίστεως. Because it is a positive assertion about this thing presented directly to the soul-by that thing and by faith, existing faith: not merely as characterizing the salvation, but by these things, so set before our minds.
10, Ποίημα characterizes us; so ἐπὶ ἔργοις ἀγαθοἴς characterises the condition of the creation: ἐν σαρκὶ, the manner again.
11. Τὰ ἔθνη. He speaks of them as the whole class. It was not some having such a character, but living actual beings as such, taking in, in principle, the whole body of them not ἔθνη, in character from among τῶν ἔθων. You were " the Gentiles." Λεγόμενοι gives ἀκροβυστία the force of character evidently. I have only to remark repeated instances of the noun after an active verb being without the article, as giving the character of the result of activity. Where this is not the case it has the article. Ἀποκαταλλάξε τοὺς ἀμφοτέρους (verse 16), necessarily an object; but ποιῶν εἰρήνην (verse 15), εὐηγγελίσατο εἰρήνην (verse 17), this characterized the making and preaching. There are two classes of accusatives after an active verb: one the subject, the other the fruit of the action. Τήν ἔχθραν, the enmity, specially known and mentioned: first, assumed as a known object, and then referred to. It was not enmity that was to characterize the act, but a particular enmity, which was before their minds, that is referred to. Εἰς and κατὰ very often have anarthrous nouns (not always) simply because, from their meaning, they speak of what characterizes something else.
One point remains, of which this chapter gives two examples, and of which we may therefore speak here. I mean the use of one article with two nouns of different meaning, and even necessarily sometimes distinct. Thus we have ὁ θεὸς Πατὴρ (chap. 1.), τούς ἀποστόλους καὶ προφήτας (chap. 1, 3), and in chapter 4, τοὺς ποιμένας καί διδασκάλους. Now, our rule here is still the same, and much facilitates the apprehension of these cases. The article directs the mind to an object in view; or a whole class seen together in the speaker's mind, as one for the purpose for which he is speaking, as a unity, or as a whole. Thus, in the first, calls my attention to an object: two names are given to this object-GOD and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Again, τούς calls my attention to a whole class complete in itself, forming as one company the foundation, united in this, apostles and prophets. So shepherding and feeding with the word, present themselves as in one class of persons in the apostle's mind. They may be elsewhere separate ideas, but they are united in one class of persons here. So Matt. 16:2121From that time forth began Jesus to show unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day. (Matthew 16:21), the Lord Jesus should suffer many things ἀπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ ἀρχιερέων καὶ γραμματέων. They were a joint common band of enemies, and so spoken of as present to the mind of the speaker.
I now turn to an important instance of this, Titus 2:1313Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; (Titus 2:13). First we have τήν μακαρίαν ἐλπίδα δαὶ ἐπιφάνειαν τῆς δόξης. Δόξης is the governing idea here. Grace had appeared (verse 11). They were waiting for glory: that was their hope (i.e. object of hope, so used elsewhere), and it would appear hence, the object of hope and the apparition were identical, namely, the glory. Hence, τὴν marks both. But what glory? That is the question. Τοῦ μεγάλου θεοῦ καὶ σωτήρος ἡμὼν Ἰησοῦ Δόξης still governs the sentence, and GOD and our Lord Jesus Christ are identified-were in the apostle's mind in the Spirit, in the glory which was to appear. Hence, it was the glory of God and of our Lord Jesus Christ, viewed as perfectly one in glory. They are not the least separated in the mind of the apostle, when speaking of that glory. It is certain, that in saying Θεοῦ καὶ σωτῆρος, the apostle had but one object in his mind presented by the Holy Ghost. But I do not myself believe μεγάλου Θεοῦ and Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ are here names of one person, I have not the smallest doubt that Jesus is the true God-Jehovah; and I do not believe that this sentence could have been written, had not the glory of the Great God been ascribable to Him: but I do not see that this statement amounts to His being the same person as the great God (though I do not see how it could be true, were He not).
There are many other examples:-1 Thess. 3:11, 1311Now God himself and our Father, and our Lord Jesus Christ, direct our way unto you. (1 Thessalonians 3:11)
13To the end he may stablish your hearts unblameable in holiness before God, even our Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ with all his saints. (1 Thessalonians 3:13)
; 2 Cor. 11:3131The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is blessed for evermore, knoweth that I lie not. (2 Corinthians 11:31); Rom. 15:66That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. (Romans 15:6). We have 2 Peter 1:1, 61Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ, to them that have obtained like precious faith with us through the righteousness of God and our Saviour Jesus Christ: (2 Peter 1:1)
6And to knowledge temperance; and to temperance patience; and to patience godliness; (2 Peter 1:6)
, ἐν δικαιοσύνη τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμῶν καὶ σωτῆρος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. Here the same remark applies, I judge, as to the passage in Titus. The righteousness is one, as the glory there, and both are identified in it-which could not be said unless Jesus were God. But this last is not the statement of the passage. The righteousness here spoken of is, I judge, spoken of as the righteousness which has secured their having the faith, not the object of it. We have a phrase exactly similar, 2 Peter 2:2020For if after they have escaped the pollutions of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, they are again entangled therein, and overcome, the latter end is worse with them than the beginning. (2 Peter 2:20), ἐν 'πιγνώσει τοῦ Κυρίου καὶ σωτῆρος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. Now here the mind acknowledges the identity of person at once: but I judge the mind recognizes it in the words Κυρίου καὶ σωτῆρος. So in 2 Peter 1:1111For so an entrance shall be ministered unto you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. (2 Peter 1:11), εἰς τὴν αἰώνιον βασιλείαν τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν καὶ σωτῆρος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. So we have (verse 16) τὴν τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ δύωαμιν καὶ παρουσίαν. The power and presence are in one scene, or one object before the mind. Compare Rom. 1:2020For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: (Romans 1:20).
In two of the above passages, ἐπιγνώσειand δικαιοσύνη have not the article, because by ἐν they designate the manner or principle on which the main subject is received or escaped. So, verse 10 of 2 Peter 1 we have βεβαίαν...τὴν κλῆσιν καὶ ὲκλογὴν...ποιεῖσθαι. The two are identified as a common object to the mind, assured together; but they are not one thing, though united in one idea by τήν. And note the singular adjective. In French, where two ideas are sufficiently near to make one only an explanation of another, a similar idiom may be observed. " Sa tranquillite, son calme a", not " ont": because I have only one idea, which my first word imperfectly expressed. With that one idea in the mind, the verb agrees.
Note in Eph. 2:2222In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit. (Ephesians 2:22), κατοικητήριον characterizes the building in its use; but τοῦ Θεοῦ because you have God as a personal object there, not merely characterizing the house: ἐν Πνεύματι because this characterizes the manner of God's presence, and though it be a person, does not speak of the person of the Holy Ghost, but of the manner of God's presence. A multitude of examples show the fallacy of any conclusion that it is not the Holy Ghost personally, because of the absence of τω.
It is, I think, plain from the examination of a number of passages, that in cases where one article is used with several nouns, while the grammatical agreement of the article is by attraction, and the usual analogy partially with the nouns which follow, the object designated by the article is mentally another, to which all the nouns used apply, or with which they associate themselves. Where each is made a distinct definite object of, each will have the article. That mental object may be a person, who unites in himself the various names or titles. It may be association in a common object, or common circumstance. In a word, the nouns are united in some common fact which the mind has before it, so as to group them together. This may be expressed or understood from the context. Thus it is expressed in the following:-Titus 2:1313Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ; (Titus 2:13); Eph. 5:55For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God. (Ephesians 5:5); 2 Thess. 1:1212That the name of our Lord Jesus Christ may be glorified in you, and ye in him, according to the grace of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ. (2 Thessalonians 1:12); 2 Peter 1:11Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ, to them that have obtained like precious faith with us through the righteousness of God and our Saviour Jesus Christ: (2 Peter 1:1). In 1 Tim. 5:2121I charge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things without preferring one before another, doing nothing by partiality. (1 Timothy 5:21), it is contained in the preposition ἐνώπιον, which gives the idea of "the presence of"-the one idea which governs the mind. This may be a person, as Matt. 12:22; 13:2322Then was brought unto him one possessed with a devil, blind, and dumb: and he healed him, insomuch that the blind and dumb both spake and saw. (Matthew 12:22)
23But he that received seed into the good ground is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it; which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, some an hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty. (Matthew 13:23)
; Mark 16:1616He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned. (Mark 16:16). In Luke 11:2828But he said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it. (Luke 11:28), we have the plural class.—-Heb. 3:11Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus; (Hebrews 3:1) is a very plain and express case.-In Phil. 1:77Even as it is meet for me to think this of you all, because I have you in my heart; inasmuch as both in my bonds, and in the defence and confirmation of the gospel, ye all are partakers of my grace. (Philippians 1:7), it is the work in which the Philippians sympathized with Paul, which consisted in these two things: ;'απολογία καὶ βεβαιώσει. So in Rom. 15:66That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. (Romans 15:6). It is readily understood from the context. In a word, there is always one definite object before the mind, of which the various nouns come in, not merely descriptively, but as together, forming the completeness of that object. The grammar follows the noun, as the relative pronoun does, in its case, that to which it is related.
I shall now give some cases in which it evidently is not one person, and in which the common idea is not expressed in the passage.
I will here recall the principle I have laid down, as we are at one of the most important and difficult applications of it, The article points to some definite object of the mind. The noun following gives the name to this object. In some cases, where this is sufficiently certain by specific contrast, the name is not even added, as ὁ μὲν ὁ δὲ. Earlier in the language, this was more extensively the case, and hence became a pronoun, as in Homer. The object is assumed to be one we have before us, and known as an object, though we add a name (but a name known as designating that object), and much perhaps else about it.
Now in the cases we are about to mention, the object is not named, but the nouns used combinedly make it up. The article supposes the common object in which they are united.
To proceed to the cases:- Phil. 1:77Even as it is meet for me to think this of you all, because I have you in my heart; inasmuch as both in my bonds, and in the defence and confirmation of the gospel, ye all are partakers of my grace. (Philippians 1:7), τῆ βεβαιώσει καὶ ἀπολογία. It is evident that Paul is speaking of one single, common work which could only be expressed by using both words-confirming and defending: but he had but one object in his mind. So in a passage already quoted, 2 Peter 1:1010Wherefore the rather, brethren, give diligence to make your calling and election sure: for if ye do these things, ye shall never fall: (2 Peter 1:10), βεβαίαν...τὴν κλῆσιν καὶ ἐκλογὴν...ποιεῖσθαι, calling and election are united in the one thing to be secured, in the security they sought. They could not secure one without the other. They formed one object in the Apostle's mind in the diligence he recommended. God had chosen: God had called them. Being so chosen and called, they were to have this a settled and not uncertain thing in their minds, through the diligence recommended.
A still more remarkable case is where there are several decidedly distinct and independent persons, but who all form one object before the mind. Matt. 17 παραλαμβάνει ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὸν {΄ετρον καὶ Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάννην. Acts 3:1111And as the lame man which was healed held Peter and John, all the people ran together unto them in the porch that is called Solomon's, greatly wondering. (Acts 3:11). Κρατοῦντος δὲ αὐτοῦ τον Πέτρον καὶ Ἰωάννην. Acts 4:1919But Peter and John answered and said unto them, Whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye. (Acts 4:19). Ὁ δὲ Πέτρος καὶ Ἰωάννης. In the plural the same thing, Acts 14:55And when there was an assault made both of the Gentiles, and also of the Jews with their rulers, to use them despitefully, and to stone them, (Acts 14:5), ὁρμη τῶν ἐθνῶν τε καὶ Ἰουδαίων. This last would come under the class also of cases where the uniting idea is expressed. They were joined in one body in the assault. Gentiles and Jews made only one body, one object in the Apostle's mind, In 2 Cor. 13:1111Finally, brethren, farewell. Be perfect, be of good comfort, be of one mind, live in peace; and the God of love and peace shall be with you. (2 Corinthians 13:11), we have an example where the peace he desired the Corinthian disciples to be in, as a means of enjoying the presence of God, at once introduces, as thus speaking of God's presence, that love which necessarily accompanied it, and made one thought with the peace. Love and peace were together one idea of the blessed power and sweetness of the Divine presence.
There are many other examples in Scripture, but these sufficiently explain the principle, and, by this much debated point, confirm its soundness in the fullest way. Reference to Middleton, Green, etc. will furnish examples. I have examined them, and confine myself to having satisfied my mind that the same principle alike explains them all. Quotations from profane authors will be found there, equally proving the same general principle. Contrasted cases, where the object of the author was to make two separate objects before the mind, confirm also the doctrine. Thus Heb. 11:2020By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things to come. (Hebrews 11:20), εὐλόγησε...τὸν Ἰακὼβ καὶ τὸν Ἐσαῦ, where it is evident they were to be kept in mind as distinct objects. There is another text, which I will notice as presenting an interesting question of interpretation-2 Thess. 1:88In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: (2 Thessalonians 1:8), διδόντος ἐκδίκησιν τοῖς μὴ σἰδόσι Θεὸν, καὶ τοῖς μὴ ὑπακούουσι τω εὐαγγελίω, κ.τ.λ. Here the Apostle, rather the Holy Ghost, designates two classes or forms of guilt, which may be in the same persons. Openly hostile heathens and idolatrous enemies certainly are supposed, for they were the then persecutors; Jews who could not be said exactly not to know God, but who were disobedient to the Gospel. There were those who professed to obey the Gospel, yet did not really know God. There were these two moral classes designated by the Holy Ghost as objects of judgment: a description which must both have been applicable then, and be so at the return of the Lord to judgment.
Acts 15 furnishes notable instances of the introduction and omission of the article. Τενομένης οῦν στάσεως κα συζητήσεως οὐκ 'λίγης τω Παύλω καὶ τω ΒαρναΒα πρὸς αὐτούς. Here, they were the Paul and Barnabas whose history we have had in what precedes. ἔταξαν ἀναβαίνειν Παῦλον καὶ Βαρναβᾶν καί τινας ἄλλους. Here they are presented with several others as persons now chosen for the first time to go on this errand. Then we have τοὺς ἀποστόλους καὶ πρεσβυτέρους, apostles and elders being one company here (verse 2). Again (verse 12), ἤκουον Βαρναβᾶ καὶ Παύλου. Here again we have the relator of the facts brought for the first time before the assembl: in this character. Then (verse 22), ἐκλεξαμένους ἄνδρας ἐξ αὐτῶν πέμψαι εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν σὺν τῷ Παύλῳ καὶ Βαρναβᾷ. Here they were jointly concerned as representatives in this matter, and one article is used to both. They were associated in one objective idea in the mind of the writer. Paul and Barnabas have an article being known as already engaged in it; Judas and Silas are new persons, and hence their names are without the article.
I may remark, in passing; the evident sense of 2 Peter 1:1919We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: (2 Peter 1:19), is we have the prophetic word confirmed-namely by the vision of Christ's glory. And this passage lead me to remark, that when a word is characteristic of the action of the verb, it does not claim an article. ἡμέρα διαυγάσῃ, not the day, but day. It is the day-light. So φωσφόρος. It is the character of the rising in the heart.
The examples we have had afford sufficient to clea up the use of the article after prepositions, which indeed to the full as simple as any other part of th subject. We shall meet with others.
I will now proceed to notice-
A Few Idiomatic Cases.
In such cases as τὸ ὄρος, I judge it is idiomatic; from the locality being objectively contrasted with τὸ πεδίον. It is the same in French: " Il est a la montagne" is no particular mountain, but they go in summer there from the plain. We say it as to the plain. It is the whole tract in contrast with the plain. Τὸ πλοῖον-I believe also that is aboard. Middleton's reference to a ship which was to attend him would be good grammatically. Τὸν ἄρτον is occasionally used technically for the bread at the Lord's Supper, when the subject is spoken of, though in Matt. 26:2626And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. (Matthew 26:26), TO,: limy means the loaf on the table for the supper. These are questions of usage, not of grammar. Who would ask what particular loaf was meant, or what emphasis, if in a history of a family I should say, "The child said at the end of supper,' Give me the loaf or the bread.'" The only emphasis is that it is the one they had to eat. That made, it a particular object. So we should all feel the difference, if I said, " he spoke at breaking of bread," or " at the breaking of the bread." One refers to a common usage. The other gives a particular objective act. The Lord took bread, ἄτρον; or τὸν ἄρτον; the bread that was there. "Κλάσας is the fact given: τῆ κλάσει τοῦ ἄρτον is the specific act of the Lord's Supper (Acts 2:42,4642And they continued stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers. (Acts 2:42)
46And they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart, (Acts 2:46)
). Ἐν τῆ ἐπιστολῆ (1 Cor. 5) is clearly some letter known to them, to which he refers. The rest is matter of interpretation, whether the letter he was writing which would perfectly answer, or another letter, of which the Spirit of God has only preserved this. I apprehend τω ἐκτρώματι (1 Cor. 15:88And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. (1 Corinthians 15:8)), means the ἐκτρώμαof the set-like one in comparison with them, and then the article is required. We say the foot (as being of a body), the eye. He was τὸ ἐκτρώμαof those mentioned. In John 8:77So when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. (John 8:7), τὸν λίθον is the stone supposed in the stoning spoken of. Ὁ διδάσκαλος (John 3:1010Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things? (John 3:10)), is equally simple. It is teacher in contrast with scholar. We should say, as thus laying emphasis, " Are you the teacher of Israel, and yet do not know that?" Such a contrast always leaves out any other individuals who teach, or absorbs them all into one. In the expression, " The foot cannot say", it would be feeble to say, " a foot," and yet equally good grammar: a mere proposition to state, and not an idea which ought to be evident to the hearer, and hence emphasis laid on what gives weight to that idea. It is viewed as a part of a particular body; and hence, as in every such instance, is a positive object distinguished from another.
The Case of Proper Names.
I will now examine a little the case of proper names; and then, for profitable use and further evidence, take some of the more important cases to which the doctrine can be applied in the Epistle to the Rom. 1 recur to John 1:66There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. (John 1:6), ὄνομα αὐτω Ἰωάννης. Here it is evidently something referable to αὐτῶ. Εγένετο, as a verb of existence, gave the rest of the phrase the form of attributes of what existed: this, its name.
We might expect to find some apparent anomaly here, inasmuch as a name itself designates. But if this be carried in mind, we shall find the usual principles, viz., that where it has become an object (being named) in the sentence it will take the article: where it has not, it will take none. Verse 15, he is named. Here he is not an object; he has his name as the one bearing witness: so verse 17, Moses is a description of the giver of the law; Jesus Christ, of him by whom grace and truth came. Verse 12, we have an objective person introduced in a certain position before the Jews: he is the subject of the mind in the sentence. Ἠλίας points out the person, naming him for the first time here (verse 21). Ὁ Χριστὸς is not properly a name-it is the long expected Messiah the Anointed (verse 20). Ἠραίας (verse 23) designates the person again simply; whereas ὁ Ἠσαίας, would designate Isaiah himself the object, not the mere name of a person who did something. Verse 26, Ἰωάννης again becomes a distinctive object already known: in contrast with the others, and in respect of his conduct he is the subject of thought. Verse 28, Bethabara is just a name. Ἰορδάνουtakes the article, as designating the river specially as an object: it is an idiom of all languages from the nature of the thing-an object, not a mere name. We say "the Thames," "across the Thames," though we say "across London"; so in French: the division of the country by a river, and the continuity of it requiring an identification of the object, lead to this. I go forty miles, but it is still the same river, it is the Thames-the Jordan. The "the," or the article, gives unity or completeness as an object, to the whole course of that which would otherwise lose its identity to the mind in separate parts. This may be traced in many such objects, as oceans, tracts of country treated as one district. Ἰωάννης loses the article here: it is his name as acting merely, the acting itself being the object. Verse 29, Jesus is introduced as the positive object of the mind, so evidently is τώ Israel, verse 31. In verses 35, 36, both John and Jesus are so introduced; so verse 38. In verse 41, Ἀνδρέας is just a name, as Σίμωνος; so now again: John as having spoken, and Σίμωνα; again sheaving that recent mention does not annex the article when merely historical mention and not a definite object of the mind. It gives merely the name of this brother. Verse 43, Jesus is twice the object of the mind distinctly. The other names are evidently given as such characteristically. Verse 45, Philip becomes the object. It was the same Philip; and the evangelist proceeds to give an account about him who had been just mentioned; but in the next verse, historically mentioned, he loses it; so Moses, so Jesus. Joseph has it as particularly marked to designate who Jesus was, and τὸν ἀπὸ Ναξαρὲθ marks this distinctly. Ναξαρὲθ, as a mere name, has it not. Ναθαναὴλ is the only one peculiar here (verse 46). Who is he? Why is he thus designated as a special object? Not because he has been mentioned before, according to the ordinary rule; for he has not. As historically mentioned several times in the succeeding verses, he has it not. But it is to be remarked, the article is designative. It is first in the mind of the speaker. It points out an object of thought to the hearer. Hence when anything is such, it is used; though why it is, only comes out afterward. Hence it is used anticipatively. So here, Nathaniel is the subject specially of what follows, and whenever spoken of has the article, though not when mentioned historically. Galilee (2:1) is a district on the same principle as Ἰορδάνου: it gives unity to it as a whole. So Matt. 3:55Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judea, and all the region round about Jordan, (Matthew 3:5).
This, which many minds might overlook (I mean as to names), has made the readings sometimes uncertain, and the presence or absence of the article is with the name a delicacy of thought, of which, as far as I know, Greek alone is susceptible. But though in some cases, a careless or inattentive mind, not bred in Greek thought, may scarcely see it, and the historical substance of the passage be no way altered by it, I think enough has been given to spew that while a name designating a person is, so to speak, an article;-yet that when it becomes an object of thought, it comes completely under the usual rule, and singularly confirms it. A. name is evidently in itself either the designation of a person, or a mere attribute or character; that is, when I say:"John said"-it points one to a person itself. If I say, "His name was John", I attribute to him something characteristic. In neither case would there be an article. If I talk about John, as a subject in the sentence, this comes under the common rule of the objective article. In a rapid conversation, I apprehend, the names might have it, having practically the force of ὁ μὲν ὁ δὲ, that is, replying one to another animatedly, they would be kept up as objects before the mind. When it returned to the historical account, they would drop it again. Such distinctions as these would evidently demand entering into the spirit of the author; but they form good writing and style. The presence of the article constantly with the name of Jesus, would stand most clearly and evidently accounted for, on the principle here spoken of: he may be named historically, of course, but he was constantly the subject and object before the inspired historian's mind-the central and chief leading figure in the scene, on which the eye was, and was meant to be fixed. I suspect it will be found that Κυρίος is often a name, when used in the New Testament. Jehovah, as Luke 1;16, ἐπὶ Κύριον τὸν Θεὸν αὐτὤν. I doubt that it is simply conversion to the Lord, as characterizing conversion, but to Jehovah. But this would be a subject for inquiry in each case, so ἑτοιμάσαι Κυρίω λαόν. It may be questioned whether it be ever otherwise than a name, when used by itself, and not coupled with the name of Jesus, or the like, so as to ascribe Lordship to Him. If the first chapter of Luke be referred to, where there are many names, abundant confirmation will be found of the general principle.
Before noticing the peculiar cases in the Romans, I will state certain applications of the principle, one of which may, to many minds, bring out the principle itself more clearly. We have seen that the article, giving the object of the mind, necessarily gives the definite totality. This is true even of the plural, only that there the entire object is composed of parts, as of οἱ μαθηταὶ, is all the disciples, as one whole, but made up of many members. Now the evident consequence of this is, that when a noun does not embrace the totality, but means only some, it cannot be such an object. It gives these some, as characteristic of a class, so as fully to come under, and verify the principle. The use of nouns after active verbs, comes really under this head. When a nominative characterizes the action, it will be true of it, as of the accusative. Under this the historically used names, and characteristic plurals come. Ποιήσατε ἑαυτοῖς φίλους (Luke 16:99And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that, when ye fail, they may receive you into everlasting habitations. (Luke 16:9)), ἐκβάλλω δαιμόνια (12:32). But when it is a complete object, it has, ἐπέθηκε τὰς χεῖρας. So in singular, δοῦναι ὑμῖν τὴν βασιλείαν, but δότε ἐλεημοσύνην: so προςῆλθον αὐτῶ Σαδδουκαίοι. On the other hand, συνηγμένων δὲ τῶν φαρισαίων (Matt. 22.41), as a complete body of people in the mind, though, of course, all the individuals were not there. So ὄτι τὸ ἔν μέρος ἐστὶ Σαδδουκαίων, τὸ δὲ ἔτερον Φαρισαίων then στάσις τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ τῶν Σαδδουκαίων the body of them there. Σαδδουκαῖοι μὲν γὰρ... φαρισαἴοι δὲ, that kind of persons (Acts 23:6,7,86But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees, and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, Men and brethren, I am a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee: of the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question. 7And when he had so said, there arose a dissension between the Pharisees and the Sadducees: and the multitude was divided. 8For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit: but the Pharisees confess both. (Acts 23:6‑8)).
The same rule holds with the singular, where it requires more abstraction to see its force, because—(these differences, however, English fully represents)—every one could understand the difference of " Sadducees hold so and so," and " Pharisees so and so," i.e. that kind of persons. It is characteristic of any of a class. " The Sadducees" and " the Pharisees" affirm it as a fact of a whole class. I now give instances of the singular when used as a nominative, which is the more difficult case. Περιτομὴ ὠφελεῖ ἡ περιτομὴ giving an actual object, would be either the fact of circumcision physically, or, by a figure, the whole class. But it means neither, but the state of circumcision -that condition, or character; so καὶ περιτομὴ καρδίας ν πνεύματι.
Another remarkable example of this, δικαοσύνη γὰρ Θεοῦ ἀποκαλύπτεται...ἀποκαλύπτεται γὰρ ὀργὴ Θεοῦ, a righteousness which is of God, a wrath which is of God. Another case important to remark, is a time which is characterized, and not given as a date, as ἡμέρα κρίσεως. It is not the day of judgment, that is specifying a time, nor a day, as if there were many; but, in judgment-day, as contrasted in character with men going on their own way without judgment (Matt. 11:22,2422But I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment, than for you. (Matthew 11:22)
24But I say unto you, That it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment, than for thee. (Matthew 11:24)
, etc).
I turn to the Romans:-
Examples in Romans.
14. This kind of persons, not the body of persons themselves as an object.
17. is important. It is not the righteousness of God, as a known theological object presented to the mind, but righteousness which is of God. That is what man wants, and makes the Gospel a subject of boast, not shame. It is not man's presented, or claimed, but God's revealed.
18. The same remark on ὀργὴ θεοῦ. Wrath from God; this characterizes the revelation. It will often be found, that when a second noun is the most important, and is characteristic, it gives its characteristic form to the other, and forms one characteristic idea. Here the whole expression, ὀργὴ θεοῦ, δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ, characterizes the revelation; but when it is ἡ ὀργὴ, it must be τοῦ θεοῦ; properly, that particular kind of wrath which belongs to that being. The wrath is a wrath designated as an object, and then is of that being-Himself an object therefore too. But if wrath characterizes the revelation, I add, as characterizing the wrath, θεοῦ. Τοῦ θεοῦ, would suppose some wrath (or other thing) objectively known, which was of that being. θεοῦ gives a character merely to some instance of the thing. A wrath (a kind of wrath) which is of God, was revealed.
OM 2Rom. 2:44Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance? (Romans 2:4). Εἰς μετάνοιαν. The character of the leading: actually, it did not lead εἰς τὴν μετανοιαν.
5. τὴν σκλγρότητά σου καὶ 'μετανόητον καρδίαν:-σου gives, as in every case of a personal pronoun, the article; but I notice it as another case of the article with two nouns, completing the description of the one mental object, which accounts for ἀμετανόητον καρδίαν. ἐν ἡμέρα ὀρῆς κ.τ.λ.: the case already spoken of, a noun of time characteristic, not a date.
7. All the nouns characterize the seekers, or the search. Ζωὴν αἰώνιον, the gift as heretofore noticed.
8. τοῖς δὲ ἐξ ἐριθείας, καὶ ἀπειθοῦσι μὲν τῆ ἀληθεία, πειθομένοις δὲ κ.τ.λ.: several ideas completing the character of τοῖς, as verse 5.
There is a change of grammatical structure from ἀποδώσει to ἔσται.
9. τοῦ κατεργαζομένου, is attracted to ἀνθρώπου, but really governed by πᾶσαν ψυχὴν, as παντὶ τῶ ἐργαζομένω (verse 10).
12. ἐν νόμω, characteristic, evidently answering to ἄνομας; so διὰ νόμου.
13. τοῦ νόμου, the law.
14. ἔθνη, characteristic, Gentiles; not the Gentiles: such persons as they. They have no law, no such thing. τοῦ νόμου, the law, known well to a Jew.
15. Note here, the work, not the law, is written in the heart.
16. ὄτε κρινεῖstill only characterizes.
17. τῶ νόμω, presented as an object to designate the Jewish, law. Εν θέω, characterizes the boast.
Rom. 2:1818And knowest his will, and approvest the things that are more excellent, being instructed out of the law; (Romans 2:18). Τὸ θέλημα is remarkable as that will, namely of God, known only to a Jew; τοῦ νόμου. The Jewish known law.
19, 20, are plain; they characterize what the man is.
23. In law, in having law. Thou breakest the law.
25. περιτομὴ has been noticed; νόμον, a law-keeper, a law-transgressor, characterizes the parties: ἡ περιτομὴ, the thing; σοῦ also necessitates this.
26. ἡ ἀκροβυστία, the class: ἡ ἀκροβυστία αὐτοῦ, the actual state of such an one.
27. διὰ γράμματος καὶ περιτομῆς, character. δ.γ.κ.π. παραβάτην νόμου, is all characteristic of τόν. I notice this, for it takes the article from νόμου, which otherwise would have it.
OM 33: 5. ἡ ἀδικιά ἠμῶν θεοῦ δικαιοσύνην. This is a remarkable case. The first part is very simple; but the second, which seems the same grammatically, is changed by the sense. Our unrighteousness is a definite objective thing. Divine righteousness is characteristically opposed, not a defined object: τὴν ὀργὴν, the wrath implied in it. Whereas, verse 3, it is τὴν πίστιν τοῦ θεοῦ, because there it is not an opposed characteristic quality, but the actual faithfulness already known and shown, the faithfulness of God-Divine righteousness.
9. Jews and Greeks as characteristic classes, not τοὺς, the members of them.
11. οὐδὲ εἷς (verse 10) gives the ὁ to συνιῶν, and ἐκζητῶν τὸν θεόν. Not that one who, if there had been one, could have been pointed out objectively. As we say in English, there is not" the man living who could do it." This is a matter of style, and stronger than "a man," or συνιῶν, though both would be right. Hence we have (verse 12), οὐκ ἔστι ποιῶν, which must be used here, because it is added, οὐκ στιν ἔ ω ς ἑ ν ό ς. ὁ ποιῶν with this would have been out of place, for ἔως ἑνὸς was said in that form already. Hence we have δίκαιος αὐδὲ εῖς, and ὁ ἐκζητῶν.
17. ὁδὸν, any way.
19. ὁ νόμος...τῶ νομῶ, the known Jewish law.
20. διὰ νόμου, by law is knowledge of Win; ἐξ ἔργων νόμου, by law-works.
21. Without law, any law, not the Jewish: τοῦ νόμου, that particular known law. Also we have another example of a righteousness of GOD, of that character.
Rom. 3:2222Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference: (Romans 3:22). It is added that it is by faith of Jesus: that is the manner of it. ἐπὶ πάντας, still characteristic, being of GOD. It is towards all in character: ἐπὶ τοὺς πιστεύοντας, actually on them objectively considered.
25. The question of τῆς before πίστεως amounts to this. Is it the character or manner of being a mercy-seat? or is it the faith in the person who comes? Both would be true. εἰς ἔνδειξιν is the character of the thing. Αὐτοῦ gives the article to δικαιοσύνης. Διὰ τὴν πάρεσιν was an actual overlooking.
26. πρὸς not here εἰς, as it was not the immediate simple object or aim, but merely a collateral particular form, or circumstance, of the object marked in ἐν τῶ νῦν καιρῶ (compare Eph. 4:1212For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: (Ephesians 4:12)), included in the completion of that aim. Τὀν ἐκ πίστεως Ἰησοῦ, one so characterized.
27. Διὰ ποίου cannot have the article, for it inquires what is the law? Τῶν ἔργων makes it precise and objective: τοὺ νόμου τῶν ἐργῶν, is it that of works? The article disappears in διὰ νόμου πίστεως. It was excluded in that manner-a faith-law. There was no particular known law of this kind to refer to; it was the character of the excluding power: so 28, law-works; πίστει, in that manner.
29. Of Jews only: that character of persons, not " the Jews"; so Gentiles.
30. More remarkably in περιτονὴν, that state, not the Jews called ἡ περιτομὴ, though they are the people alluded to; but the apostle refers to the condition and character, not the people. Hence ἐκ πίστεως, in that manner-ἀκροβυστίαν διὰ τῆς πίστεως, because being in that manner, the uncircumcision having actually faith would be justified: hence faith, their faith, becomes a positive object to the mind.
Law, and again, law- not "the law." He did not establish that as a system; but he gave its full authority to law, in all its extent and requirement by the doctrine of faith.
OM 44: 2. ἐξ ἔργων in that manner.
5. τὸν δικαιοῦντα, a person known and supposed as an object, before the mind
11. offers a peculiar construction: more naturally it would seem to be περιτομὴν. Τὸ σημείου τῆς would not do, as σημεὶαν of anything, would specially mean what indicated that thing, not the thing's being a sign; σημεῖον regularly has not the article after ἔλαβε, as we have heretofore remarked. This, too, takes it away before περιτομὴν: δικαιοσύνης gets it from the following words, which make it a positive objective thing. Περιτομὴς is the character of the sign; but δικαιοςύ is a particular righteousness, characterized by the words which follow it.
4:12. Πατέρα περιτομὴς, his character; τοῖς ἐκ περιτομῆς, one class so characterized; τοῖς στοιχοῦσι τοῖς ἴχνεσι another class so characterized, namely believing Gentiles; τῆ ἀκροβυστία, that condition already spoken of.
13. διὰ νόμου, "not by law, but by faith-righteousness,' or "righteousness [which is] of faith."
14. οἱ ἐκ νόμου, those who adopt the principle.
16. τῶ ἐκ τοῦ νόμου, as a fact, the Jews under the law; τζ ἐκ πίστεως Ἀβραὰμ., of Abraham-faith, noticed before not of the faith which he had, but of that kind of faith.
OM 55:2. Τὴν προσαγωγὴν. The difficulty of this phrase is as to which reason is the true one for the use of τὴν. It might be that particular access there was by faith but I suspect, from its use in the three places it is found in, that it is a technical word for admission into some favored place; as we say, "those who have the entree," ἐπ' ἐλπίδι τῆς δόξης, and, verse 5, διὰ Πνεύματος ἁγίου τοῦ δοθέντος. These examples shows that a preposition, with an anarthrous noun, can be used characteristically, though there be added that which depends on it as a positive object. Ἐπ'ἐλπίδι characterized the joy, but τοῦ θεοῦ necessarily makes ἁγίοι a positive objective glory. So Πνεύματος ἁγίοι was the manner of the pouring forth in the heart, but when spoken of as given, the objective person must be marked.
6. κατὰ καιρὸν, seasonably: ὑπὲρ ἀσεβῶν, for such characters: so
7. ὑπὲρ δικαίου, not for all the persons, but for such a character; whereas τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ, points out in a special manner, a remarkable person; as in English, "for the goodman."
13. δμαρτία. There was sin: δμαρτία δὲ οὐκ ἐλλογεῖται is more obscure, but the obscurity arises only in an English mind. It is not reckoned (the real force ἐλλογεῖται, Philem. 1:1818If he hath wronged thee, or oweth thee ought, put that on mine account; (Philemon 18)), as sin, μὴ ὄντος νόμου, is clear. Indeed, the οὐκ more naturally takes the article away, as in general it does not admit an existing object, never in a general proposition.
16. εἰς κατάκριμα, the characteristic tendency or bearing of it: so εἰς δικαίωμα.
18. rather by one offense—towards all for condemnation, having that character and bearing; so by one accomplished righteousness towards all for justification of life. It was the bearing that characterizes this
accomplished righteousness. Life-justification expressed the bearing of this δικαίωμα.
19. οἱ πολλοὶ again contrasted with the ὁ εῖς, with which it is connected.
20. But law, not the law. " There entered"...What? "Law,"
21. ἐν τῶ θανάτω, in that actually well-known present thing. Διὰ δικαιοσύνης εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον, the bearing of the reign of grace.
OM 66: 4. θάνατον takes the article, because it is an actual known thing about which they were speaking, into which they were baptized. In verse 3, αὐτοὔ; gives it necessarily.
[Up to this point it may be remarked, that Χριστὸς and Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς never have the article, being used historically as the name of a person, not a proper subject of theological teaching].
13. ὄπλα ἀδικίας...ὄπλα δικαιοσύνης, affirmed about τὰ μέλη. "As," in English, often best renders the anarthrous noun.
9, 14. Θἀνατος and ἁμαρτία are taken as Names, by reason of κυριεύω.
14,15. "Under law...under grace;" the state they were in, not the law.
16. All these words are characteristic, dependent on ἑαυτοὺς already spoken of.
17. τῆς ἁμαρτίας, the plain moral fact; and note δοῦλοι, characteristic of the persons spoken of in ῆτε: τῆς ἁμαρτίας, that which the discussion had already introduced.
19. εἰς τὴν ἀνομίαν, because ἀνομία had been already mentioned, and it ended in that very ἀνομία. The first, with ἀκαθαρσία, are abstract nouns in their moral totality; εἰς ἁγιασμὸν, the characterizing tendency of the δικαιοσύνη to which they served. The remaining cases are easy, from the principles stated.
OM 7Rom. 7:11Know ye not, brethren, (for I speak to them that know the law,) how that the law hath dominion over a man as long as he liveth? (Romans 7:1). " who know what law is,"-not the law. Ὁ νόμος is put abstractedly here from the evident necessity of the argument; this thing, law, that we are speaking of. Τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, the man we suppose to be under it, whom κυριεύει.
2. "is legally bound." 3. Τοῦ νόμου, the law we ate speaking of.
4. τῶ νόμω. The Jewish law, or law abstractedly: which, is a question of spiritual interpretation. Further, we have here, for the first time, τοῦ Χριστοῦ; whence I judge that ὁ νόμος means the Jewish law, and that that well-known. subject of Jewish theology, the Messiah, is contrasted with the law. There was the law and the Messiah, both well known, and having their proper respective αἰὼν: hence ὁ νόμος and ὁ Χριστὸς. It is not merely an historical person.
ἑτέρω τῶ, rightly translated, even to him"; τῶ ἑτέρω τῶ would be " to the other who"; but it is another than the law—" Whom? Him who," etc.
6. I judge ἀποθανόντες, compare 4.
7. "but by law." 8. " for without law;"ἁμαρτία is, I apprehend, used as a name, exactly from its use in a pithy proverbial saying, as in other exact languages, as French; a short affirmation about a principle which does not stop to put an object before the mind. So indeed, in German. See note on proverbial sayings at the end.
21. τὸν νόμον...ὄτι. This, or the law that.
25. νόμω θεοῦ νόμω ἁμαρτίας, is special, like δικαιοσύνη ὀργὴ θεοῦ. It characterizes the service-it is service to God-law, i.e. Divine law, or sin-law, that is the state of the mind of me myself It was not presenting one or other as a definite object, but explaining the state of the mind serving. It is a mind that serves GOD'S law, a mind that serves sin's law.
OM 88: 3. We may notice the character of Christ's mission. Περὶ ἁμαρτίας is not affirming that it was about certain sin but that his mission was such, and, by a well-known phraseology, that this characterized his sacrifice.
4, 5. Κατὰ σάρκα...κατὰ πνεῦμα, their character, and principle of life and being. I notice this, as chewing that it does not raise the question of what Spirit, which the following words fully show to be the Hoy Spirit Himself. So verse 9, ἐν σάρκι ἀλλ'ἐν Πνεύματι, their state.
'We will examine all the texts before going further:-
10:20. So here one speaking-not they.
12:28. The manner of casting out.
4:18. A quotation of a prophetic title. It is the constant form of prophetic announcement. See Matt. 2:18;3. 3.
Acts 5:99Then Peter said unto her, How is it that ye have agreed together to tempt the Spirit of the Lord? behold, the feet of them which have buried thy husband are at the door, and shall carry thee out. (Acts 5:9). The Spirit of the LORD is a definite person presented. Κυρίου., I take to be a name; otherwise it would be used, as the name of GOD may be, to characterize an object.
8:39. first calls for special remark. And here I doubt not it is designed, in rapidity and abruptness, and intentionally, to drop the idea of the person. It is not as if the Holy Ghost as a person came and took him. He was rapt, not by man, nor by human means, but by the sovereign power of the Holy Spirit. This was the character and manner of his rapture. He was rapt in spirit from the Eunuch's sight; hence it is only said he was found at Azotus. The article is intentionally and expressly excluded. I do not think when it is Πνεῦμα θεοῦ, or Κυρίου, God's spirit, Jehovah's spirit, that the object is to present a person, but a power or agent emanating thence, as the spirit of a man.
16:16. is on usual principles.
Rom. 1: 4. Evidently characteristic of how.
8: 2. The grammar is regular and ordinary as to sense. Though doubtless the Holy Ghost is really the power of it, the object is not to present Him as a Divine person, but like Christ breathing that communication of life from Him which they had by and from a present Spirit. It was the power of life by the Spirit. Hence John 22:22, there is no article. Πνεῦμα ἄγιον, the Holy Ghost, I doubt not was there, but it was as more abundant life, and the power of it. It was not the Comforter sent. He that is joined, to the Lord is one spirit. This comes out more importantly in verse-
Rom. 8: 9. (compare verse 10), where, though doubtless personally the Holy Spirit, it is spoken characteristically of the state. You are ἐν πνεύματι, in that state, if such a spirit dwell in you, namely, GOD'S. If any man have not Christ's, he is none of His. So Χριστός: ὁ Χριστὸς would be his person as an object: here he is a life characteristic of the person, and we get σῶμα and πνεῦμα, two contrasted definite objects. The body is not the spring of living movement; it is a corpse: the Spirit is to such a one.
On the other hand, in verse 11, we find this Spirit brought forward (necessarily) as a definite personal object, for it is on account of His being there that we are raised; so τὸν Χριστὸν. It is Christ who was personally raised; so our bodies, because of the Spirit of Him who raised him dwelling in us. He could not, if such a one (even the Spirit of that life-giving Power or Being who raised the Head, Jesus) dwelt in us, leave us under death who were the members. Could the Spirit remain thus? It would belie His nature as the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus. But this is not characteristic. It is a living being.
14. characterizes the leading.
15. Πνεῦμα δουλείας is evidently characteristic, and a common case; so πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας.
15:19. The character of Christ's working.
1 Cor. 2:1010But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. (1 Corinthians 2:10). Here it is evidently a personal object, one acting. In verse 11, τὸ πνεῦμα ἀνθρώπου is marked out definitely as an object, and indeed personified. Τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ, is clear. In verse 12, τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου, it follows the ordinary rule, that when a genitive follows, it commonly marks out that particular case of the first noun, and hence is necessarily a definite object of the mind-not spirit, or any spirit, but the spirit of the world: so τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἐκ τοὺ θεοῦ.
3:16. He is the personal inhabitant, and definitely presented as such, not characterizing a man, but one dwelling in a temple.
1 Cor. 4:2121What will ye? shall I come unto you with a rod, or in love, and in the spirit of meekness? (1 Corinthians 4:21). Clearly the character of His coming. 12:10. is plain. It is the manner of speaking; so
17. οῦ δὲ τὸ Πνεῦμα Κυρίου. The Holy Ghost Himself personally. Κυρίου, I suppose here, is a name; or else it is used to characterize Πνεῦμα, τὸ πνεῦμα Κυρίου being as one word: in verse 16. Πρὸς Κυρίου, the direction in which it turns. But the Lord in question was actually the spiritual revelation of Him by the Holy Ghost, called τὸ πνεῦμα, verse 17: for there is not a setting aside of the person of the Holy Ghost, but often an introduction of Him into that in which He works. "The words I speak are spirit and life." " The letter killeth, the Spirit giveth life." But He is there, and there is liberty. Ὁ δὲ Κύριος τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν, is then-that the Lord (Jesus) is the thought and mind of the Spirit referred to (verse 6), actually known in Christ, revealed by a present Holy Ghost; so verse 8.
20. Ditto. 3:11. Ditto
1. Person objectively.
3. Their spirit as men; rightly, in English, 'In spirit." Ἐν πνεύματι would have much rather referred to the Spirit of God, as 22:43. (See 26:41).
12:31, 32. The person as an object.
26:41. Their spirit as men.
27:50. His spirit as a man.
28:19. A person objectively.
Mar. 1: 8. The character of the baptism.
10. The spirit objectively. 12. Ditto.
3:29. Ditto.
These cases are important as to the article with πνεῦμα, and confirm the doctrine as to the force of the article, the presence of which is no proof of its application to the Holy Ghost. As to that or man's spirit, it follows the usual rule.
Luke 1:1717And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord. (Luke 1:17) gives us another example of a preposition with a mere characterizing anarthrous noun, followed by a specific genitive, which gives its force to the anarthrous characteristic.
41. "Filled with the Holy Ghost" could hardly be used with an article, for the Holy Ghost would characterize this filling. Ile could hardly, as a person, be limited to a man's fullness. If used with an article, it would be rather the filling power, than that which filled. Of this there is but one example, viz. Acts 4:3131And when they had prayed, the place was shaken where they were assembled together; and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and they spake the word of God with boldness. (Acts 4:31); and then it is τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος, not πνεύματος ἁγίου, the force resting specially on ἀγόυ, the Holy Spirit having filled them; and this gives it personal objectiveness. The expression, " filled, or full of the Holy Ghost," is found only in Luke's portion of the Scriptures (Gospel and Acts). Eph. 5:1818And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit; (Ephesians 5:18) is ἐν πνεύματι (see Acts 4:3131And when they had prayed, the place was shaken where they were assembled together; and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and they spake the word of God with boldness. (Acts 4:31)**). I believe if we are to read, with some, τ.α.π., the difference will be easily found. It is not merely the state of the persons which is in question, hut that the Holy Child, or Servant, Jesus, whom God had anointed, being owned when dishonored by the opposition of kings and rulers, the Holy Ghost comes to fill and bear testimony with those who suffered according to their prayer in testimony to the name of GOD'S holy servant Jesus; and they do speak the word with boldness, so that we have the holy Child (Servant) Jesus, God's word, and the Holy Ghost filling and enabling the servants of Him who made heaven and earth, to bear the testimony. Hence we have the person of the Holy Ghost objectively brought forward.
(** All this is based on the fact -that I was using Tischendorf. All the other editors give ε.α.π.α., and it comes under the common term.)
Note here, the remarkable difference of the millennial consequences and address of Psa. 2, and that founded on it here in connection with the presence of the Holy Ghost.
The following are the passages where the phrase is used:-
15. καὶ Πνεύματος ἁγίου πλησθήσεται.
41. καὶ ἐπλήσθη Πνεύματος ἁγίου. Tischendorf reads τ.α.π.
67. Ἰησοὺς δὲ Πνεύματος ἁγίου πλήρης.
4: 8. Πέτρος πλησθεὶς Πνεύματος ἁγίου.
31. Καὶ ἐπλήσθησαν ἄπαντες Πνεύματος ἁγίου. See Tischendorf.
6:3. ἑπτὰ, πλήρεις Πνεύματος ἁγίου καὶ σοφίας.
5. ἄνδρα πλήρη πίστεως καὶ Πνεύματος ἁγίου.
7:55. Πλήρης Πνεύματος ἁγίου.
9: 17. Καὶ πλησθῆς Πνεύματος ἁγίου.
11: 24. Καὶ πλήρης Πνεύματος ἁγίου καὶ πίστεως.
13: 9. Πλησθεὶς Πνεύματος ἁγίου.
52. ἐπληροῦντο...Πνεύματος ἁγίου.
This last, " by the power of." Were it their spirit as a man, it would be, I am satisfied, τῶ πνεύματι. The man's spirit, as an object, contrasted with the body.
So Matt. 26:4141Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. (Matthew 26:41); 27. 50; John 19:3030When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost. (John 19:30); Matt. 5:33Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 5:3). So Mark 8:1212And he sighed deeply in his spirit, and saith, Why doth this generation seek after a sign? verily I say unto you, There shall no sign be given unto this generation. (Mark 8:12) (with ἁγίου, however). So Mark 14:3838Watch ye and pray, lest ye enter into temptation. The spirit truly is ready, but the flesh is weak. (Mark 14:38). (I have no doubt also Luke 10:2121In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight. (Luke 10:21); some editions add τῶ ἁγίω). John 11:33; 13:2133When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also weeping which came with her, he groaned in the spirit, and was troubled, (John 11:33)
21When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me. (John 13:21)
; Acts 18:55And when Silas and Timotheus were come from Macedonia, Paul was pressed in the spirit, and testified to the Jews that Jesus was Christ. (Acts 18:5), " pressed in spirit" (i.e., his, for I have no doubt of the ordinary reading). Acts 19:2121After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome. (Acts 19:21), "in his mind;" 20:22, "in his spirit within him." Hence Rom. 8:15, 1615For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. 16The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God: (Romans 8:15‑16), the sense is plain: " We have not received a spirit of bondage, but of adoption, crying Abba Father. The Spirit itself, or Himself, beareth witness with our spirit." We have the nature, or character, of our spiritual condition; then the Holy Ghost; then our spirit, or inner man. Note, such statements may suppose (but do not touch the question of) the renewal of our natures, that it should be so. See 1 Thess. 5:2323And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. (1 Thessalonians 5:23), where the use of τὸ πνεῦμα for the spirit of a man, contrasted with mere soul and body, is evident. See 1 Cor. 14:1414For if I pray in an unknown tongue, my spirit prayeth, but my understanding is unfruitful. (1 Corinthians 14:14), seq.; we have the man's spirit distinct from his intelligence; the vessel of the action, or power of the Holy Ghost.
Note also, in connection with θεοῦ Χριστοῦ, Κυρίου, there is an absence of the article, which is worthy of note. We have δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ, ὀργὴ θεοῦ, πνεῦμα θεοῦ, πνεῦμα Κυρίου, πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ: but in all these cases it is characteristic power, righteousness, etc., not an objective thing, separately considered from God, but the nature of the person characterizing something else; a refinement of language which English hardly bears; though it does by using divine in some cases-" for wrath divine is revealed," " divine righteousness." In the case of spirit, it does not. Θεοῦ; attached to πνεῦμα, evidently characterizes the man's state contrasted with flesh.
ἀπὸ Κυρίου Πνεύματος is, as regards our rule, the manner of the change. As to the passage, I should rather translate "the Lord the Spirit," perhaps more nearly conveyed in English by i the Lord in Spirit."
Moses looked at the Lord and was changed. We look at our Moses and see the glory of the Lord unveiled. We are changed into it thus as by the Lord. But it is only in spirit, that is, the Lord is to us known in the spiritual revelation of Him. It is really and solely (and indeed much more excellently) the revelation of the Spirit, whose presence and power is there; but as revealing, by which we know or see, the Lord. Compare verse 3.
6: 1. is the manner, and indeed, means also disposition.
Eph. 1:1717That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him: (Ephesians 1:17). A case already spoken of, δώη. It was not the whole person of the Holy Ghost as an object, was given. What was given was a spirit of wisdom; doubtless the power of this was the Holy Ghost.
4:23. requires no remark.
Phil. 1:1919For I know that this shall turn to my salvation through your prayer, and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ, (Philippians 1:19). Here the Spirit objectively as a person, or at any rate as a power, working in him. The remarkable point as to the article in this case is, one article with the request and reply for its common subject,—τῆς ὑμῶν δεήσεως καὶ ἐπιχορηγίας. These two made up the means of its turning to salvation; they could not be separated in the apostle's thought.
4:14. calls for no lei-nark, but that it skews that it is not merely a state, but one who is pointed out who rested on them. Further, it distinguishes the Holy Ghost as the Spirit of Glory and power on them, and the Spirit of God, or at any rate of Glory. The Spirit of Glory and the Spirit of God; not two spirits. but distinct objects in the mind. If we read δυνάμεως, δόξης and δυνάρεως are the united character connected with the object; θεοῦ, a distinct one. This reading, adopted by Scholz and Griesbach, I prefer.
1 John 4:22Hereby know ye the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God: (1 John 4:2). calls for no remark. We see, what has been remarked before, that the Holy Ghost is spoken of in that in which he acted. The doctrine as to this is fully taught in 1 Cor. 12 -the one Spirit that is in these various gifts. I say this, because of πᾶν πνεῦμα, where it is taken as it stands, as a πνεῦμα, in the man. Further, πᾶν cannot have the article, because τὸ giving, as we have seen, the object in its entirety, πᾶν τὸ πνεῦμα would be all the spirit, and the distributive πᾶν, every, cannot have the article. No passage in the Revelation calls for notice, as far as I am aware, unless 10:11, where it follows the case which gave rise to this examination. This was what characterized what entered, to set them on their feet,-a Spirit of life. It was not to present the Spirit as an object, but what characterized this sudden event in its source.
It would have been going too far to say, τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς ζωῆς: that would have amounted to a declaration that the Holy Ghost came and dwelt in them; but this was not the object, but, merely, that, of God, this living power changed the whole state of things. It is not a spirit, as- if there were many, nor the Spirit, as if it marked specifically the Holy Ghost. A spirit of life, or the spirit of life, may either be used in English; the latter giving emphasis to life only, and so making it characteristic, and a leaving indefinitely, with its force in life. Neither represents the extreme and perfect accuracy of the Greek, specially from a in English being a special sign of distributive unity. It was a man, not a woman; or, it was a man, not two men.' But we can hardly say, "spirit of life from God." So Luke 24:3939Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have. (Luke 24:39). Here we have πνεῦμα, "spirit hath not," a thing of that nature: τὸ πνεῦμα would have been evidently quite another sense, either from habit of Scripture- thought, the Holy Ghost, or else the abstract idea-spirit (hardly, from the ordinary use of πνεῦμα, a legitimate expression); but the abstract idea would he quite out of place to affirm anything about. Hence "a spirit," or "spirits," is the nearest in English.
Luke 1:3535And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God. (Luke 1:35). We have a remarkable case of the absence of the article; but I judge, though no other than the Holy Ghost is meant, yet it is looked at as power characteristic of the act. So δύναμις, as we have seen, δικαιοσύνη, ὀργὴ, and other cases. We have seen another case in the rapture of Philip (Acts 8:3939And when they were come up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught away Philip, that the eunuch saw him no more: and he went on his way rejoicing. (Acts 8:39); compare Acts 5.9), where the. Spirit is personally presented. So-
2: 25. We have the principle of what characterizes, in power, the man; whereas, in verse 26, it is a revealing person: So in 27, ἐν πνεύματι would have merely been his state when he came in: ἐν τῶ πνεύματι, he came, led by the Spirit there, as I judge. So in 4:2.
11:13 is the already noticed case of characterizing the gift. So John 1:3333And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. (John 1:33), the baptism. So Acts 11:1616Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how that he said, John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost. (Acts 11:16). So John 3:55Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. (John 3:5), the birth: 4:24, the character of the worship; but that was by the Holy Ghost: in 7:39, it depends evidently on οὔπω ῆν, on principles already stated as to a negative. There was no Holy Ghost yet; not therefore an object, its presence being denied. 11:33; 13:21; 19:30, have been already noticed-His Spirit as a living man.
We have, then, an important passage in John 20.22. Here it was not the Holy Ghost, come down as a distinct person, as on the day of Pentecost, or in 1 Cor. 12, distributing to every man severally as He will; but the communication of living power, in connection with Jesus, which would act in them (in manner) as it acted in Him. It is not that it was any other than by the Holy Spirit; but as God breathed into Adam's nostrils the πνεῦμα ζωῆς, and he became a living soul, so the second Adam, who is the Lord from heaven, and a quickening Spirit, breathes into them, so that there should be communion of life, and they have life and spiritual energy through Him. Τὸ ἄγιον πνεῦμα would have been, if we may so speak, the whole Holy Ghost in person; but then He would have been in such sort communicated and received. Sent He was afterward, and come He did; but then it was personally acting, and willing.
5: 9. Here the Holy Ghost is presented as a person to whom the lie was really addressed, and who was tempted (i.e., wickedly put to the test), as if he could be deceived. For what was Peter? The Lord, or one Spirit of the Lord, was there. Πνεῦμα Κυρίου is taken as one title, Κυρίου being really the name of Jehovah. It was not man's spirit they had essayed to deceive, but Jehovah, the Lord's. This often gives an adjectival force to the words GOD, LORD, etc., seeing they give the whole bearing to the nature of the thing they are thus affixed to, in a way which nothing else could.
1 Cor. 2:44And my speech and my preaching was not with enticing words of man's wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power: (1 Corinthians 2:4). The whole passage is evidently characteristic of the preaching, and therefore no article is in it; and yet it is evidently the Spirit of God which is in question, in contrast with man.
10, 11, 12 present a collection of cases, which, as very simple on the principles presented, require no remark, though confirmatory of them. We may notice τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου as presenting the case of the genitive following, as usually presenting a precise object, and showing that TD does not involve a person, but the way in which the word is used.
13. Here we have again most clearly the Holy Ghost in person, and yet there is no article, because the whole phrase is merely characteristic of these speaking.
5: 3. Τῶ σώματι, τῶ πνεύματι, objectively presented as in contrast, but not going beyond himself, as is confirmed by the next verse. So vii. 34, where it has not the article, because it only characterizes the extent of the holiness.
7: 40 is a remarkable case, but instructive. The apostle did not mean to say that he possessed the Holy Ghost objectively spoken of. So Acts 19:22He said unto them, Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? And they said unto him, We have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost. (Acts 19:2). We have seen always that such an accusative characterizes the possession, or receiving. There more especially, as in this case, this possession of the Holy Ghost was characteristic of the judgment he had given. I notice
12:3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, only to remark the former as manner; the latter as evidently the Spirit as a person objectively, the force being otherwise the same. Compare also verse 11, where the personality of the Blessed Spirit is so plainly and peculiarly stated, with verse 13, where the same spirit is, without controversy, meant, but there is no article as being characteristic of the baptism.'
Another remarkable case is found 14:14, 16, if we receive the reading of many ancient manuscripts. The first is already noticed; he is speaking of his spirit under the power of the Holy Ghost, in contrast with his mind; but this contrast existing no longer, he uses ἐν πνεύματι, as characteristic of the blessing spoken of. This reading, however, is not adopted by Griesbach nor Scholz.
6. The character of the ministry; and τὸ πνεῦμα is not the Holy Ghost as a person, but the πνεῦμα he is speaking of, as an objective abstraction contrasted with γράμμα.
17. The same; but in the close of the verse he changes to the power which gives it that character.
6: 6. Rightly, I judge, translated "by the Holy Ghost." It has no article, as being the manner of approving himself as a minister of God.
2 Cor. 7:11Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God. (2 Corinthians 7:1). is evidently the manner of defilement,-not contrast as objects, but two ways of doing it. Μολυσμοῦ is distributive, "every defilement," and so cannot have the article.
Gal. 3:22This only would I learn of you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith? (Galatians 3:2). demands notice, because after ἐλάβετε it has τὸ, which we have seen often wanting; but here it is not merely the characteristic of the gift, and a possession marking their state. It became important to mark out a well-known and all-distinctive object which was then amongst them, and therefore τὸ πνεῦμα alone could be properly used. Verse 3 we have πνεύματι, characteristic of the manner of their beginning. Verse 5 is governed by the evident reason already given. Verse 14, it is a given promise of this Spirit,-not receive " a promise," but " the promise" already made. So Eph. 1:1313In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise, (Ephesians 1:13).
4:29. follows the common rule. Chapter 5:17,18, afford illustrations which confirm the proofs already given. Verse 25, "in the Spirit," hardly renders it.
2:22. ἐν πνεύματι, the manner of God's dwelling there; but it is the Holy Ghost himself; as iii. 5.
4:3. Rightly, "the unity of the Spirit," not "of Spirit." Verse 4 is really an impersonal use of the verb substantive.
Phil. 2:11If there be therefore any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any bowels and mercies, (Philippians 2:1). Rightly, I believe, "of the Spirit." Εῖ τις necessarily precludes the article pointing to an object.
Gospel's presence. So verse 6, of the joy.
4:8. Here πνεῦμα ἄγιον has the article, however connected with δόντα, both as linked with αὑτοῦ, and as necessarily presented in the argument as an object as personally there, showing the gravity of the fault referred to.
1 Tim. 3:1616And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory. (1 Timothy 3:16). "In the Spirit" is difficult to understand: ἐν πνεύματι, the manner or character of the justification. ἐν has constantly the force of the virtue, efficacy, power of; and ἐν πνεύματι would be the power of the Holy Ghost.
Heb. 1:77And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire. (Hebrews 1:7). The, translation is clearly right: τοὺς ἀγγέλους is in sense equivalent to a subject; and " being made spirits" is affirmed about them.
2:4. Is a clear case of the manner of witness.
6:4. Μετόχους πνεύματος ἁγίου. Here, too, I judge it characterizes their condition, like the cases of " filled with the Spirit;" not the directing the mind to the person of the Holy Ghost as a complete object. In passing, we may note here another noticeable case in this verse, γευσαμένους with the genitive has the article τῆς. The heavenly gift being to be tasted of, is necessarily presented as a definite object in itself; and this was the object of the apostle, contrasting the heavenly gift with what the Jews had had as such. It is not merely of such a thing, but of this as contrasted with the earthly. Whereas, when in the subsequent words, they are nouns, qualifying with the verb their actual condition, they have it not, as γευσαμένους καλὸν θεοῦ ῥῆμα.
1 Peter 3:44But let it be the hidden man of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price. (1 Peter 3:4). We have two adjectives with an article, as forming on character of spirit. The τοῦ is at any rate necessary from the ὄ ἀστιν which follows.
18. I doubt not the reading which omits τῶ; is the right. Σαρκ and πνεύματι are not two distinct parts of one being, contrasted, as σῶμα and πνεῦμα, but the manner respectively of putting to death and being quickened, that in respect of, or as to, which it so took place. Were the τῶ πνεύματι to be read, it would then speak of the person of the Holy Ghost, as the one by whom the resurrection took place. It is, at any rate, the Holy Ghost; but without the article it is the manner of the quickening, and does not draw attention to the personal power. Were it τῆ σαρκὶ, τῶ πνεῦματι, I should look at it as the Spirit of Christ as a man which was quickened, which is quite foreign to the testimony of God: σαρκὶ, τῶ πνευματι would have looked at the Holy Ghost as an extrinsic agent; σαρκὶ, πνεύματι are flesh and spirit, as we have said, as the character of the two acts; although the divine character of the latter is undoubted in its power. Compare 4:6.
1 John 4:66We are of God: he that knoweth God heareth us; he that is not of God heareth not us. Hereby know we the spirit of truth, and the spirit of error. (1 John 4:6). I notice merely, as giving an example of the transition (from undoubted example of the Holy Ghost and evil spirits personally) to the general idea of its effect or power in operation. Yet we have τὸ πνεῦμα induced by the definiteness afforded by the genitives added, forming definite distinctive contrast.
And yet when the Spirit is spoken of by itself, then the article points out the Holy Ghost, because it is to the mind the well-known" object, whose presence in power distinguished the saints. So v. 6, where I apprehend the try is added to Own and dawn, not as reference to these words previously used without it as the manner of the coming, but in an abstract sense, as definitely presenting the thing in its nature to the mind. This 6th verse also shows how completely the Spirit so spoken of—if a multitude of other passages had not shown it to us -is in the mind of the church, then -the Spirit known, dwelling and acting among them down on earth. Thus, it can be said, the Spirit is truth. No flesh, or fleshly communication, or wisdom, ever was such,-only what the Spirit said or did. Truth and It were absolutely coincident terms. So John 7, " The Holy Spirit was not yet (given), because that Jesus was not yet glorified." And Acts 19, "We have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost, or whether the Holy Spirit is."
I have now noticed every case, having only not cited those evidently based on the principles explained and confirmed by other examples. I felt it worth while, on a point so important, and where the article so eminently affects the interpretation, to go through all the cases in the New Testament. The Revelations afford us no case which presents a difficulty, unless 11:11, where it is not τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς ζωῆς, as if it was some particular or well-known thing, but merely that which was such had this character in its work in them (not exactly a spirit of life, which would imply there were several, nor the, though that is better), "from God" giving it in English a general character: a certain power so to be characterized, acting in them from God. I return to examine the cases occurring in the Epistle to the Romans.
OM 8Rom. 8:2323And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body. (Romans 8:23). υίοθεσίαν characterizes their expectation; ἀπολύτρωσιν the definite object fulfilled then; ἡμῶν makes this even necessary.
24. ἐλπὶς βλεπομένη is the kind of hope, or characterizes such a hope as is no hope. It is one of many kinds, and thus characterizes the abstract idea. This is often the effect of an adjective or participle.
33. Against such as are this-ἐκλεκτῶν.
35. θλίψις, etc., any of this kind of things, such things as these; ὡς, as in 36, makes this use constantly very plain.
OM 99:4. All these are well-known particular things, presented as objects.
5. I do not doubt θεὸς applies to Christ.
8. ταῦτα τέκνα. τέκνα is a regular predicate; τοῦ θεοῦ is a personal Being, and an object contrasted with σαρκός.
I have already remarked that this should be, "for this word is of promise."
24. "Not only of Jews" (such kind of persons); so, " of Gentiles."
30. "Gentiles," not "the Gentiles."
31. "A law of righteousness;" such a thing; not "the." So they did not attain to any.
32. "The stumbling-stone," not " that."
OM 1010:4. All this is descriptive of Christ; Χριστὸς all through is an historical name.
19. κλάδοι, "branches," not οἱ, which would have been all or some mentioned before; κατὰ φύσιν, itself characteristic, marks these particular ones out, as objects, with τῶν (verse 21),
22. χρηστότητα καὶ ἀποτομίαν, not abstractedly these qualities, but cases of it; divine goodness and severity; τῆ χηστότητι, the goodness spoken of.
24. τῆς κατὰ φύσιν...ἀγριελαίου; here again κατὰ φύσιν leads to the pointing out that olive tree, which, according to nature, was graffed into καλλιέλαιον, a good olive; παρὰ φύσιν being here connected with ἐνεκεντρἰσθης.
33. Ὠ βἀθος I judge to be spoken of this example not abstractedly, though the Ὠ may affect it. Τὰ κρίματα...αἱ ὁδοὶ "all his judgments and ways."
OM 1212:8. If τῆ παρακλήσει, that spoken of in παρακαλῶν, ἐν ἁπλότητι the manner of giving. Verse 7 explains this clearly in δ. and δ δ.
17. κακόν, any evil act, such a thing.
21. ὑπὸ τοῦ κακοῦ, the abstract thing; evil as contrasted with τῶ ἀγαθπω.
OM 1313:1 ἐξουσίαις, things of this character, higher powers, not the higher.
3. οἱ ἄρχοντες, these rulers, whose existence he now supposes, so that he can point them out, or all rulers.
4. εἰς ὀργὴν, "for wrath;" this character of dealing; but δία τὴν ὀργὴν, just spoken of (verse 5).
5. διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν, an express object here, because in contrast with τὴν ὀργὴν.
8. νόμον πεπλήρωκε, " has accomplished law", i.e. whatever law can demand.
10. πλὴρωμα νόμου is a regular predicate; τὸ πλήρωμα would have made it reciprocal.
12. τὰ /ργα τοῦ σκότους, all the works which belong to the darkness which the night implies. Rather it is abstract, as opposed to φωτὸς here, and not to be taken alone.
OM 1414:9. "Both of dead and living;" these two kinds of persons. I note in passing, that I little doubt 16:25, 26, 27, come in at the end of this chapter.
OM 1515:2. Εἰς τὸ ἀγαθὸν, is emphatic as contrasted with mere self-pleasing, and specially set before the mind as an object; for good, ἀγαθὸν, being abstract, οἰκοδοωὴν, merely characterizes the conduct by the actual thing sought: that which was good was in his mind; he should act for edification. Compare Eph. 4:1212For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: (Ephesians 4:12).
7. εἰς δόξαν θεοῦ, the manner of reception.
Rom. 15:8. Περιτομῆς, not of the Jewish people as a body, but on this principle.
12. ἐθνῶν, ἐθνῆ, are remarkable; but it is over this class of
persons, not Jews. It is a quotation from the LXX.
18. Gives a notable example of anarthrous words, describing the manner of Paul's work.
16:1. Τὴν ἀδελφὴν ἡμῶν, points out the person, and is objective. They would not know which Phoebe else; in every analogous case, it points her out as contrasted with other Phoebes: the οῦσαν itself gives a mere quality to διάκονον, but τὴν διάκονον, if indeed admissible, or τὸν διάκονον, would distinguish her by this quality from others at Cenchrea, and make her the only διάκονον there; οῦσαν διάκονον is
.a quality and character she had (there might be others), and hence has no article. So verse 3, τοὺς συνεργούς μου.
7. We have τοὺς συγγενεῖς μου καὶ συναιχμαλώτους μου, two common qualifications of these persons which marked them out. Hence the first has the article, as in every other case, the second not, according to the rule amply discussed, as making up with the other the complete amount.
17. τὰς διχοστασίας καὶ τὰ σκάνδαλα, all the divisions and offenses that might be. The article gives completeness and extent to the idea. Without the article, it would have merely characterized. The men cause divisions; any, be they what they may.
26. διά τε γραφῶν προφητικῶν, "by prophetic writings." That character of writings was the means of making it known, not "the Scriptures of the prophets."
Here I close. Enough has now been given to show the use and application, which is in itself perfectly simple. To my mind it is fully confirmed and proved. I trust it may be the means of throwing light upon, and giving the full force and character to many passages of the blessed word. The subject of the Spirit, and specialty of that case, will render the full examination of every instance, I hope, useful.
Proverbial Expressions.
There is a class of expressions to which it may be well to allude-short, pithy, or proverbial sayings, which, in many languages, make exception to ordinary grammar, and only claim a metaphysical explanation. It would be said. in French, "Chat echaude craint leau froide;" " force lui fut;" in German, Unvieffenheit und Unichuldigfeit find Shwefiern. It is not merely, I judge, the rapidity of expression which gives occasion to it, or not always, but a peculiar state of mind which takes up the thought characteristically, and neither abstractedly nor objectively and it becomes, though an appellative noun, a kind o proper name. It is a stronger way of putting it than a mere descriptive statement. The object is so present to the mind that it does not require an article of any kind. Hence in prophetic oracles we have it φωνὴ βοῶντος. As in English, if the Queen were coming, the cry would be, " Queen! Queen!" it characterizes what produces the impression, gives a reason for the effect produced or intended to be produced; so 1 Thess. 2:55For neither at any time used we flattering words, as ye know, nor a cloke of covetousness; God is witness: (1 Thessalonians 2:5), Θεὸς μάρτυς, which stated historically, Phil. 1:88For God is my record, how greatly I long after you all in the bowels of Jesus Christ. (Philippians 1:8), is μάρτυς γάρ μου ἐστὶν ὁ Θεὸς. This is not perceived so much in English. All abstract nouns are without the article in whatever way they are used, and names never have it. The definite article is always allusive or distinctive.