Revised Version of the New Testament: Matthew

Table of Contents

1. The Revised Version of the New Testament: Mark 1-3:5
2. The Revised Version of the New Testament: Matthew 22:8-24:33
3. The Revised Version of the New Testament: Mark 3:14-5:30
4. The Revised Version of the New Testament: Matthew 25:6-28:19
5. The Revised Version of the New Testament. Matthew 8:28-10:3
6. The Revised Version of the New Testament. Matthew 3:4-5:22
7. The Revised Version of the New Testament: Matt. 10:4-13:52
8. The Revised Version of the New Testament: Matthew 1-2:23
9. The Revised Version of the New Testament. Matthew 5:29-8:12

The Revised Version of the New Testament: Mark 1-3:5

Mark 1-3:5.
1:2.-"Even as it is written in Isaiah the prophet." The reading of the Authorized Version "in the prophets" is that of one important manuscript. The words " in Isaiah the prophet" no doubt present a difficulty, as the remainder of the verse is quoted not from Isaiah, but from Mal. 3. But there are several difficulties of this kind connected with quotations from the Old Testament.
1:14.-" Preaching the gospel of God." One manuscript has " the gospel of the kingdom of God." " The gospel of God," and " the gospel of the kingdom" are common phrases in the New Testament; but we do not think that the expression " the gospel of the kingdom of God" occurs anywhere, except in this passage.
1:24.-In this verse the clause, " Let us alone" is omitted by the Revisers, in accordance with some of the oldest manuscript.
2:14. " The place of toll" is possibly preferable to " the receipt of custom," as being more intelligible to modern readers. In Greek this idea is expressed in a single word, derived from the noun translated "custom" (both in the Authorized and Revised Versions) in Rom. 13:7.
2:18.-" John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting" this is the literal and evident meaning of the passage. The rendering of the Authorized Version, "used to fast," is far less appropriate.
3:5.-" His hand was restored." The words " whole as the other" have here been omitted.
(To- be continued)

The Revised Version of the New Testament: Matthew 22:8-24:33

22:8.-In this verse the word "Christ" is omitted by the Revisers.
23:24-" Which strain out the gnat." There can be no doubt whatever that this is the true meaning of the text. The rendering "which strain at a gnat" conveys a wholly different idea, of which there is no trace in the original.
24:12.-" The love of the many." The insertion of the definite article is here of great importance. " The love of many" is a phrase which conveys no definite idea, but " the many" is an expression very common in the prophetical writings, as referring to the great mass of the Jewish nation. Thus, for example, we find in Dan. 9:27, that a covenant is to be confirmed with " the many" (the article is present in the Hebrew), that is to say, with the majority of the Jews. In the latter days the Jewish nation will be divided into two parts, " the many," who receive the Antichrist as their Messiah, and the remnant, also called " they that understand among the people " (Dan. 11:33). In this verse in Matthew the defection of the many is foretold.
24:33.-" Know ye that he is nigh." This may also be rendered, as the margin adds, " that it is nigh;" but the former is probably the right interpretation, as the question asked by the disciples at the beginning of the Chapter was, " What shall be the sign of thy coming (or presence)?" The answer is given in the 33rd verse.
(To be continued.)

The Revised Version of the New Testament: Mark 3:14-5:30

3:14.-" And he appointed twelve." The word rendered " appointed " means literally " made." The Authorized Version has "ordained."
3:15.-" And to have authority to cast out devils." Some manuscripts here add the clause "to heal sicknesses," which reading has been adopted in the Authorized Version.
4:11-" Unto you is given the mystery of the kingdom of God." In the Authorized Version we read, " Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God." It is needless to point out the difference between being given" the mystery," and being given "to know the mystery."
4:12.-" Lest haply they should turn again, and it should be forgiven them." The rendering "turn again" is much more correct than that of the Authorized Version " be converted." In Isa. 6 so the Authorized Version strangely translates "convert," but here again the meaning of the original is simply " turn."
4:22.-" Neither was anything made secret, but that it should come to light." The expression " come to light" is preferable to " come abroad," not only as being a more exact translation, but also as referring to the metaphor of the " lamp" employed in the preceding verse.
5:24.-The words " unto you that hear" are here omitted by the Revisers.
5:30.-" Perceiving in himself that the power proceeding from him had gone forth." This is merely a new rendering of the Greek text, and involves no change of reading. It is both clearer and more literal than the rendering of the Authorized Version.
(To be continued.)

The Revised Version of the New Testament: Matthew 25:6-28:19

25:6.-" Behold, the bridegroom! Come ye forth to meet him." The Authorized Version has, " Behold the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him." The word "cometh" is omitted in some of the best manuscripts. The rendering, "come ye forth to meet him," shows that the "cry" is made by those who accompany the bridegroom, not by those who see him approaching.
25:8.-" Our lamps are going out" is unquestionably more correct than " our lamps are gone out."
25:14.-The expression " the kingdom of heaven " is not to be found in the original, as the italics of the Authorized Version spew us. " A far country " has been changed by the Revisers into " another country," which is no doubt an improvement.
25:21.-" I will set thee over many things " is more literal translation than " I will make thee ruler over many things," as the word used in the original does not necessarily imply the idea of ruling.
25:27.-The words " bankers " and interest " may perhaps appear to some persons too modern, but they are certainly more correct than " exchangers " and " usury." " Usury " always conveys the idea of unjust gain, whereas the Greek word means originally " produce " and has no evil signification.
25:32.-" All the nations " is somewhat preferable to " all nations," which latter expression seems to include the whole of mankind, whereas we know from many passages in Scripture, that "the nations" here mentioned are merely the nations living on the earth at the time of the Lord's coming. In this verse we have a strange example of the way in which the Authorized Version creates distinctions, where there are none in the original. The word for " separate" is the same as that for " divide." The Revisers have very properly translated " separate" in both cases. A still more striking instance of the same thing occurs in the 46th verse of this Chapter. The Greek word translated " everlasting " is precisely the same as that translated " eternal." The use of two distinct English words greatly mars the sense of the passage. Here again the Revisers have made a similar correction.
26:3.-" The court of the high priest" is more literal than " the palace of the high priest." In the 69th verse of this Chapter we read, in the Revised Version, " Peter was sitting without in the court." Here the same Greek word is used, and it is evident that the rendering "court" is in this case more appropriate.
26:15.-There can be little doubt that the rendering "they weighed unto him," is more correct than "they covenanted with him." This alteration makes the parallel between this passage and Zech. 11:12 still more striking.
26:50.-" Do that for which thou art come," Whether this translation is better than " Wherefore art thou come?" is not quite certain, as the Greek text may bear either interpretation.
26:53.-" He shall even now send me." The Authorized Version has, "He shall presently give me," using "presently," in its older sense of "at present."
26:58.-" The officers." The word here used is quite different from that rendered "servant" in ver. 51. The Authorized Version has "servant" in both cases.
26:5.-"The sanctuary." The Authorized Version renders this word "temple," thus robbing the passage of its force, for the word here employed refers to the holy place, into which none but the priests might enter. The "temple" includes the courts round the building.
27:9.-" They took the thirty pieces of silver." The margin here adds, " Or I took." The original may have either meaning; but in the passage from which the sentence is quoted (Zech. 11:13) there can be no doubt that "I took" is correct.
27:34." -They gave him wine to drink." The Authorized Version translates " They gave him vinegar to drink," but the Greek word certainly means "wine," and is quite distinct from that employed in ver. 48.
27:35. In this verse the words, " That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet They parted my garment among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots," are omitted by the Revisers. In John 19:24 the quotation is retained.
27:44.-"Cast upon him the same reproach." This rendering is both clearer and more literal than "cast the same in his teeth," the latter expression being almost obsolete, and no doubt unintelligible to many readers.
28:2.-" An angel of the Lord." As the article is absent in the original, this translation is preferable to " the angel of the Lord."
28:9.-The words, "As they went to tell his disciples," are here omitted.
28:14.-"Rid you of care" is more definite than "secure you," which would refer rather to escape from punishment than to escape from anxiety.
28:16.-"The mountain where Jesus had appointed them." The Authorized Version has "a mountain," but the presence of the article in the original is not accidental. What particular mountain is here referred to, we of course cannot tell; those in whose time the Gospel was written, must have known.
28:19.-" Make disciples of all the nations." This means more than " teaching." The Revisers have substituted " into the name " for " in the name," as being a more correct translation. This agrees with what is said of baptism in Rom. 6:3.
(To be continued)

The Revised Version of the New Testament. Matthew 8:28-10:3

8:28.-We here find the word "Gadarenes" instead of "Gergesenes." In Mark 5 T, where the same events are related, we read "Gadarenes," in the Authorized, and "Gerasenes" in the Revised Version. Gadara was the chief town of Perica. Gerasa was at some distance from Gadara, between Petraea and Arabia. Gergesa, according to Origen, was situated on the sea of Galilee, but no other writer mentions the existence of the place. Some have explained the difficulty by supposing that " Gadara" was a name applying not only to the town itself, but to the surrounding district, and that Gerasa or Gergesa was the particular locality in which the events here recorded took place.
9:2.-" Thy sins are forgiven." This is undoubtedly the meaning of the passage. The rendering of the Authorized Version, " thy sins be forgiven thee," sounds like the expression of a wish, and not like a positive statement.
9:13.-" I came not to call the righteous, but sinners." The words " to repentance," which are added in the Authorized Version, have been omitted by the Revisers.
9:17.-" Old wine-skins." The ancients, as is well known, kept wine either in large jars or in the skins of animals. The latter custom seems to have been universal in Palestine.
10:3.-" Thaddaeus." Other authorities have "Lebbaeus" only, and some "Lebbaeus whose surname was Thaddaeus," which is the reading of the Authorized Version. The names Thaddaeus and Lebbaeus signify "my breast," and "my heart," respectively; it is therefore easy to understand how both names could belong to the same person.
( To be continued.)

The Revised Version of the New Testament. Matthew 3:4-5:22

3:4.-" John himself;" this is undoubtedly a more correct translation than "the same John." The word which the Revisers render "food," in this verse, signifies literally "nourishment," " as meat " does in old English. In modern English the meaning of the word "meat" is narrower, and this is no doubt the reason which has led the Revisers to prefer the expression "food."
3:10.—"And even now."-This is more graphic than " now also." The latter seems to intimate that the ax had been laid at the root of the trees on some past occasion.
3:14. "But John would have hindered him." In the translation of 1611 we read, "But John forbad him." This latter rendering misses the force of the Greek Imperfect. But "would have hindered him" goes somewhat beyond the original expression. "Was forbidden" is most literal.
4:6.-"Lest haply thou dash thy foot." "Lest at any time" is a rather more literal translation of the Greek word. "Lest haply" has, however, the advantage of resembling the passage in the Psalm more closely. We there find merely, "Lest thou dash thy foot against a stone." (Psa. 91:12.)
4:12.-" That John was delivered up." The word translated "delivered up" is the same that is used in speaking of the betrayal of Christ. The words, "was cast into prison" go far beyond the meaning of the Greek.
4:21.-"In the boat." The Authorized Version has "ship." In modern English we should scarcely say "ship," in speaking of a vessel used merely for fishing. The Greek word is of the most general import, and is the same as that employed in James 3:4.
4:24.-"Epileptic" is here substituted for "lunatic." The original word distinctly means "moon-struck."
5:10.-"They that have been persecuted." This is more exact than "they which are persecuted," and is also more intelligible. The beatitudes, or blessings at the beginning of this chapter, refer primarily to the Jewish remnant. Hence "they that have been persecuted" are the remnant at the close of the persecutions. (See for example Isa. 66:5).
5:15.-The expressions "lamp" and "stand" are preferable to "candle-stick." Candles and candle-sticks do not appear to have been commonly in use among the ancients. The word translated "candle" in Job 18:6 and similar passages, means simply "light," and the "candle-stick" in the Tabernacle (Ex. 25:31) was really a lamp-stand, and not a candle-stick at all in the modern sense of the word.
5:16.-"Even so let your light shine before men." This rendering connects verse 16 with what precedes. In the Authorized Version, verse 16 appears to be independent, as if it were said, "Let your light shine before men, so that they may see," &c.
5:21.-" Ye have heard that it was said to them of old time:" The translation "by them," besides being less literal makes the passage somewhat mysterious. The various precepts quoted in this chapter (verses 21, 27, 31, 33, 38,) were of course spoken by God to Israel.
5:22.-" Every one who is angry with his brother." The words "without cause" are omitted in the Vatican manuscript, though given, as the margin here tells us, by many ancient authorities. "The hell of fire " is substituted for " hell fire." The margin says "the Gehenna of fire." "Gehenna" is a corruption of the Hebrew "Gey'-hinnem," or the valley of Hinnom, called also (Jer. 7:32) "the valley of the son of Hinnom." This valley was on the southern side of Jerusalem, and is first mentioned in Josh. 15:8. The origin of its name is not known. We next hear of this place in 2 Chron. 28:3, where we are told that king Ahaz used it for the performance of idolatrous rites. It was here especially that children were "caused to pass through the fire" in honor of Molech, an idol of the Ammorites. (1 Kings 11:7; 2 Kings 23 to.) This custom seems to have existed in Palestine from the earliest times (Deut. 12:31). Owing to these human sacrifices the name of Topheth (or abomination) was given to the valley of the son of Hinnom, and the word " Gehenna" is therefore used in the New Testament in order to convey the idea of a place of horrible sufferings. Such is the place reserved for the wicked. It is worth while to mention that the Greek word "Hades" is also translated "hell" in the Authorized Version, (Acts 2:27, 31, and elsewhere). Hades, however, means merely the place of departed spirits. We therefore find that the Revisers have very properly retained the Greek word wherever it occurs, in order to distinguish Hades from "Gehenna" or "hell."

The Revised Version of the New Testament: Matt. 10:4-13:52

10:4.-" Simon the Cananean," that is, as the margin adds, the Zealot. The Zealots were a religious sect existing amongst the Jews of that time. The word Cananean means "zealous," and has nothing whatever to do with " Canaanite."
10:18.-" For a testimony to them," that is, in order to bear witness before them. Precisely the same expression occurs in Luke 5:14, where the Authorized Version has "for a testimony unto them."
11:11.-" He that is but little in the kingdom of heaven." The comparison is instituted, not between John the Baptist and any other individual, but between John and a class of people who are described as being " but little (or lesser, margin) in the kingdom of heaven.
12:5.-The word translated "blameless" in the Authorized Version is the same as that used in the seventh verse of this chapter, where it is rendered by "guiltless." The Revisers very properly translate " guiltless " in both cases, thus showing the connection between the two verses.
12:21.-" In His name shall the Gentiles hope." "Hope" is here more correct than "trust." In Isa. 42:4, from which this passage is quoted, we read, " the isles shall wait for his law." The isles, or rather "coast-lands," stand here for the Gentiles; especially those to the west of Palestine.
12:40.-" As Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale," (margin, sea-monster.) In the book of Jonah we read merely of a " great fish," and the Greek word employed in the New Testament is equally comprehensive.
12:43.-The unclean spirit, when he is gone out of the man...." The man here spoken of represents the Jews (see v. 45) who had abandoned the practice of idolatry, (called here the unclean spirit) but who, as we know from Scripture, will fall back into that sin in a far more horrible manner, until God "causes the spirit of uncleanness to pass out of the land." (Zech. 13:2.) In this verse the Authorized Version has "a man" instead of " the man," which makes the whole passage appear like a general principle, whereas it is merely a parable, referring to a particular case.
13:2. -" Straightway he stumbleth." The expression " he is offended" is ambiguous, and is no doubt understood by most readers in a wrong sense on account of the particular meaning which offend has in modern English.
13:39.-" The harvest is the end of the world," (margin, "or the consummation of the age.") We cannot help regretting that the marginal reading was not adopted in the text. The event described in this verse is not " the end of the world," but the end of the "times of the Gentiles," that is to say, it is the time of the establishment of the kingdom of Christ upon the earth. This is the explanation of the question addressed to the Lord by the disciples in Matt. 24:3, where the same expression occurs. The end or consummation of the age meant, in the mouth of the Jew of that time, the overthrow of the Gentile supremacy, and the final redemption of Israel.
13:52.-" Every scribe who bath been made a disciple to the kingdom of heaven." The Authorized Version has "instructed into the kingdom of heaven," which translation falls short of the force of the original. To become a disciple to the kingdom is to have one's whole moral being associated with it.
(To be continued.)

The Revised Version of the New Testament: Matthew 1-2:23

As the Revisers of the New Testament have lately given to the world the result of their labors, we think that it may be profitable, and, it is to be hoped, not altogether uninteresting, to pass rapidly in review the principal changes which have been introduced into the text of our English New Testament. In doing so we shall necessarily be as brief as possible, and in general confine our remarks to those alterations which have more or less influence on the substantial sense of each passage. We must first observe that the alterations made are of two kinds, namely, various renderings into English of the Greek Text, and various readings in the Greek Text itself. The latter are, of course, more important than the former, as we all know that the Greek Text alone is inspired by God, and that the best translation must of necessity bear the traces of human weakness.

The Revised Version of the New Testament. Matthew 5:29-8:12

5:29—Causeth thee to stumble." The Greek verb thus translated is derived from the substantive rendered "stumbling-block," in 1 Cor. 1:23. The word "offend," which we find in the Authorized Version, is too vague to be easily understood.
5:37.-"Whatsoever is more than these is of the evil one." It is impossible to say with certainty whether the word translated "evil" is here to be understood in a masculine or neuter sense. The margin therefore says, " Or, evil." In the 39th verse the same difficulty occurs, and again in the 13th verse of the following Chapter. In each verse the Revisers have preferred to take the word in a masculine sense, and have therefore been accused o: making, without sufficient ground, changes that involve a question of doctrine. But the personality of the "evil one" is so clearly taught in Scripture, that the meaning of these particular passages scarcely affects the question at all.
5:44.-" Love your enemies, and pray for them that persecute you." The additional clauses, which we find in the Authorized Version are here omitted.
5:47—The Gentiles" is here substituted for "the publicans." The former reading is supported by important manuscripts.
5:48—Ye therefore shall be perfect." There can be no doubt that this rendering is more correct than that of the Authorized Version, "Be ye therefore perfect."
6:1.-" Take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men." The Authorized Version has " alms." We may remark that the expression, " righteousness " harmonizes much better than " alms " with the context. The first verse of this Chapter is a general principle, and this principle is then applied to various particular cases, namely, (v. 2), to doing alms, (v. 5), to praying, (v. 16), to fasting.
" With your Father," is without doubt more correct than " of your Father." The reward therefore is limited to the future state.
6:4.-In this verse the word " openly" is omitted. This accords with the judgment of the best authorities.
6:16.-" That they may be seen of men to fast." This is preferable to the rendering of the Authorized Version, " that they may appear unto men to fast," as the latter seems to suggest that the persons in question wished to make it appear that that they were fasting, when they were not doing so. This meaning the original will not bear.
6:22.-" Lamp " is here substituted for "light," possibly in order to show that the word is not the same as that translated " light " in the following verse.
6:25.-" Be not anxious for your life." The expression "Take no thought " is too strong. The Revisers have made the same alteration in Chapter 10:19.
7:13.-" The narrow gate " is perhaps preferable to " the strait gate," as "strait" is apt to be confounded with "straight."
7:22.-" Did we not prophesy by thy name?" That is, using the name of Christ as a kind of formula. See, for an example of this, Acts 19:13. To do a thing in the name of the Lord (Col. 3:17) is something quite different, and we accordingly find that, in the original, a different expression is used.
The word translated "devils " in this verse is quite distinct from the word "devil" in Chapter 4:1. The latter word means " false accuser," and is always applied to Satan himself, never being used in the plural, except in speaking of human beings (as in Titus 2:3). In this verse " devils " are properly " demons," as the margin tells us. The term " demon" had originally no evil signification. The expression was borrowed from the Greeks, who imagined that between the gods and men there existed an intermediate order of beings, to which they gave the name of " demons."
7:28.-" Teaching" is substituted in this verse for "doctrine." Besides having the advantage of being a Saxon word, " teaching" is also more suitable in this passage, for "doctrine" refers merely to the things taught, whereas it is evident from what follows, that the people were astonished, not only at the ideas uttered by the Lord, but also at the whole style and manner of His teaching.
8:6.-The word rendered " servant " in this verse, may also, as the margin adds, be rendered "boy." The same word occurs in Acts 4:27, and is there translated " child" in the Authorized Version; the Revised Version has " servant."
8:12.-"The outer darkness-the weeping and gnashing of teeth;" in these expressions the presence of the definite article adds greatly to their force. Why it is omitted in the Authorized Version, we cannot say.
Note.-We are much obliged to G. M. for pointing out an inaccuracy in the Note on p. 23. The object of the Note however, was only just to give a slight description of the Manuscripts referred to in the paper, and not to enter into detail on the subjects, which would indeed be quite beyond the scope of the Magazine.-Ed.
( To be continued.)