Concise Bible Dictionary: G

Table of Contents

1. Gaal
2. Gaash
3. Gaba
4. Gabbai
5. Gabbatha
6. Gabriel
7. Gad
8. Gad, River of
9. Gad, the Prophet
10. Gadara
11. Gadarenes
12. Gaddi
13. Gaddiel
14. Gadi
15. Gadites
16. Gaham
17. Gahar
18. Gaius
19. Galal
20. Galatia
21. Galatians, Epistle to the
22. Galbanum
23. Galeed
24. Galilaeans
25. Galilee
26. Galilee, Sea of
27. Gall
28. Gall of Bitterness
29. Gallery
30. Galley
31. Gallim
32. Gallio
33. Gallows
34. Gamaliel
35. Gammadim
36. Gamul
37. Garden, Gardener
38. Gareb
39. Garlick, Shum
40. Garments
41. Garmite
42. Garner
43. Garrison
44. Gashmu
45. Gatam
46. Gate
47. Gath
48. Gath-hepher
49. Gath-rimmon
50. Gaza
51. Gazathites, Gazites
52. Gazer
53. Gazez
54. Gazites
55. Gazzam
56. Geba
57. Gebal
58. Geber
59. Gebim
60. Gedaliah
61. Gedeon
62. Geder
63. Gederah
64. Gederathite
65. Gederite
66. Gederoth
67. Gederothaim
68. Gedor
69. Gehazi
70. Gehenna
71. Geliloth
72. Gemalli
73. Gemariah
74. Genealogies
75. Genealogy of the Lord Jesus
76. Generation
77. Genesis, Book of
78. Gennesaret, Lake of
79. Gennesaret, Land of
80. Gentiles
81. Gentiles, the Fullness of the
82. Gentiles, the Times of the
83. Genubath
84. Gera
85. Gerah
86. Gerar
87. Gerasenes, Gergesenes
88. Gerizim, Mount
89. Gershom
90. Gershon, Gershonites
91. Gesham
92. Geshem
93. Geshur
94. Geshuri, Geshurites
95. Gether
96. Gethsemane
97. Geuel
98. Gezer, Gezrites
99. Ghost
100. Giah
101. Giant
102. Giants, Valley of
103. Gibbar
104. Gibbethon
105. Gibea
106. Gibeah
107. Gibeath
108. Gibeathite
109. Gibeon
110. Gibeonites
111. Giblites
112. Giddalti
113. Giddel
114. Gideon
115. Gideoni
116. Gidom
117. Gier Eagle (Racham, rachamah)
118. Gifts
119. Gifts in the Church
120. Gihon
121. Gilalai
122. Gilboa
123. Gilead
124. Gilead
125. Gilead, Mount
126. Gileadites
127. Gilgal
128. Giloh
129. Gilonite
130. Gimzo
131. Gin
132. Ginath
133. Ginnetho, Ginnethon
134. Girdle
135. Girgasites, Girgashites
136. Gispa
137. Gittah-hepher
138. Gittaim
139. Gittites
140. Gittith
141. Gizonite
142. Glad Tidings
143. Glass, Looking Glass
144. Gleaning
145. Glede (Raah)
146. Glory
147. Gnat
148. Gnosticism
149. Goad
150. Goat
151. Goat, Scape
152. Goath (Go'ath)
153. Gob
154. Goblet
155. God
156. God Forbid
157. God Speed
158. Godhead
159. Godliness
160. Gods, Goddess
161. Gog
162. Gog and Magog
163. Golan
164. Gold
165. Golden Candlestick
166. Golden City
167. Golgotha
168. Goliath
169. Gomer
170. Gomorrah, Gomorrha
171. Goodman
172. Gopher Wood
173. Goshen
174. Gospel, the (εύαγγέλιον)
175. Gospels, The
176. Gourd (Qiquyon)
177. Gourd, Wild (Paqquoth)
178. Governor
179. Governor of the Feast
180. Gozan
181. Grace (Chen, χάρις)
182. Graff, To
183. Grapes
184. Grass
185. Grasshopper
186. Grate
187. Grave
188. Grave, To
189. Graven Image
190. Greaves
191. Grecia, Greece
192. Grecians
193. Greek (έλλην)
194. Greek Language
195. Greyhound
196. Grisled
197. Grove
198. Guard
199. Gudgodah
200. Guest-Chamber
201. Guni
202. Gunites
203. Gur
204. Gur-baal
205. Gutter


Son of Ebed: he led the Shechemites against Abimelech (Judg. 9:26-41).


A hill in the district of mount Ephraim, on the side of which Joshua was buried (Josh. 24:30; Judg. 2:9). Hiddai, or Hurai, was of or from “the brooks [valleys, margin] of Gaash” (2 Sam. 23:30; 1 Chron. 11:32).




Benjamite who returned from exile (Neh. 11:8).


The Aramaic name of the place of judgment in Jerusalem, where the Lord was condemned. The meaning of Gabbatha is “elevated place” and its Greek name was λιθόστρωτος, “the pavement.” It was doubtless a raised platform, with a tesselated pavement, which the Romans so often made. It would thus answer both descriptions (John 19:13).


The angel who was sent to Daniel to explain the vision he had seen of the ram and the he-goat, and to reveal to him the prophecy of the Seventy Weeks. Daniel calls him “the man Gabriel,” and one that had “the appearance of a man” (Dan. 8:15; Dan. 9:21). He was also sent to Mary the mother of Jesus, and to Zacharias the father of John the Baptist, to foretell the birth of their sons. To Zacharias he said, “I am Gabriel that stand in the presence of God” (Luke 1:19,26).


The seventh son of Jacob, and the first of Zilpah, Leah’s maid. Very little is recorded of Gad, except that he had seven sons (Gen. 30:11; Gen. 46:16; 1 Chron. 5:11). Jacob in blessing his sons said of Gad, “A troop shall overcome him but he shall overcome at the last” (Gen. 49:19). Moses said, “Blessed be he that enlargeth Gad: he dwelleth as a lion, and teareth the arm with [or rather, “even”] the crown of the head. And he provided the first part for himself, because there, in a portion of the lawgiver, was he seated; and he came with the heads of the people, he executed the justice of the Lord, and his judgments with Israel” (Deut. 33:20-21). On leaving Egypt the number of those able to bear arms was 45,650, but on the crossing of the Jordan their number was about five thousand less.
Being on the east of Jordan, this tribe, with Reuben and Manasseh, would necessarily have to bear the shock of the enemies that attacked Israel on the east (1 Chron. 5:18-22). They were a warlike tribe, suitable for such an exposed position. Of those who joined David it is said they were “men of might, and men of war fit for the battle, that could handle shield and buckler, whose faces were like the faces of lions, and were as swift as the roes upon the mountains” (1 Chron. 12:8-15). Jephthah and Barzillai were of this tribe.
Gad possessed a large district from a little above the north corner of the Dead Sea to near the south corner of the Sea of Galilee, then a very fertile plain suitable for their flocks and herds, including the highlands of Gilead (see map under TWELVE TRIBES). The tribes on the east of the Jordan were the first carried away by the king of Assyria, about B.C. 740; and the Ammonites took possession of the territory of Gad (1 Chron. 5:25-26; Jer. 49:1). Twelve thousand of this tribe will in a future day be sealed for blessing (Rev. 7:5). Their allotment will be in the extreme south in the restoration of Israel (Ezek. 48:27).

Gad, River of

This occurs only in 2 Samuel 24:5, “valley of Gad” in the margin. Identified with Wady Mojib, the same as the ARNON that runs into the Dead Sea about midway north and south.

Gad, the Prophet

He was with David when he fled from Saul, and gave him counsel (1 Sam. 22:5). Whether he continued with David during his rejection is not recorded. He was with him at the close of his reign, and to him was given the painful duty of announcing God’s judgments upon David for numbering the people. He is called David’s “seer,” which would seem to imply that he had been with him all along (2 Sam. 24:11-19; 1 Chron. 21:9-19; 2 Chron. 29:25). The acts of David were written in “THE BOOK OF GAD the seer,” of which there is no further record, and which has not been handed down (1 Chron. 29:29).


The capital of the Roman province of Peraea. It is referred to in the Gospels as in “the country of the Gadarenes.” It has been identified with the ruins at Umm Keis, 32° 40' N, 35° 40' E, that is S. E. of the Sea of Galilee, but the town is too far from the sea to have been the scene of the miracle; besides which there is a deep ravine between the ruins of the town and the sea. There are many large tombs in the district, in which some of the rude inhabitants still take up their abode, as the demoniac had done (Mark 5:1-3). See GADARENES.


These are also called GERGESENES and GERASENES in the different Greek MSS. As the Sea of Galilee had various names, so had the inhabitants according as they were associated with different districts in the vicinity. The Gadarenes abode on the east of the Sea of Galilee, where the Lord cured the two demoniacs, though Mark and Luke mention but one. One of them said his name was Legion. The demons obtained permission to go into a herd of swine, which, being possessed, rushed down into the water and were drowned. Travelers have found a place in the locality which has a steep decline into the sea and which exactly answers to the details of the gospel narrative (Matt. 8:28-34; Mark 5:1-20; Luke 8:26-39).


Son of Susi, and one of the twelve spies (Num. 13:11).


Son of Sodi, and one of the twelve spies (Num. 13:10).


Father of Menahem who killed Shallum, and reigned as king of Israel (2 Kings 15:14, 17).


Members of the tribe of Gad (Deut. 3:12; Josh. 22:1).


Son of Nahor by Reumah (Gen. 22:24).


Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile (Ezra 2:47; Neh. 7:49).


1. Christian of Macedonia, and companion of Paul. He with Aristarchus was seized and carried into the theater during the uproar at Ephesus (Acts 19:29).
2. Convert of Derbe in Lycaonia, and companion of Paul (Acts 20:4).
3. Christian at Corinth whom Paul baptized and who was his “host” and of the whole church (Rom. 16:23; 1 Cor. 1:14).
4. Convert of John, whose walk in the truth and in love was commended by the apostle, and to whom he addressed his third Epistle (3 John 1:1).


1. Levite who dwelt at Jerusalem (1 Chron. 9:15).
2. Levite, son of Jeduthun (1 Chron. 9:16).
3. Levite, son of another Jeduthun (Neh. 11:17).


A large district in the center of Asia Minor, having Bithynia on its north, Pontus on its east, Lycaonia and Cappadocia on its south, and Phrygia on its west. The inhabitants, being emigrants from Gaul, were called the Galli or Gauls of the East. They settled themselves in Asia Minor, and being restless and warlike they became a scourge to their neighbors. When restrained, they hired themselves out as mercenary soldiers. They were brought under the power of Rome, and eventually Galatia became a Roman province.
Paul traveled through Galatia twice and churches (in the plural) were formed there. To these his Epistle was addressed (Gal. 1:2). It is not known at what towns these churches were gathered. Though the inhabitants were principally Gentiles, we learn from 1 Peter 1:1 that there were Jews there also (Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23; 1 Cor. 16:1; 2 Tim. 4:10). The inhabitants were addressed as GALATIANS (Gal. 3:1).

Galatians, Epistle to the

The date when this Epistle was written has been disputed more than that of any of the others, some placing it early, and others later. The events seem best to agree thus: on Paul’s second missionary journey he went throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia (Acts 16:6). We learn from Galatians 4:13-15 that he had preached the gospel to them, and that they had received him as an angel and would have plucked out their eyes for him. This visit would have been about A.D. 51. Then about A.D. 54 Paul again visited them; all we read as to this journey is that he went over all the country of Galatia, strengthening, or confirming, all the disciples (Acts 18:23). They may, alas, have as readily received the Judaizing teachers, and when this came to the ears of Paul, he wrote this Epistle to them. He grieved that they were so soon diverted to another gospel which was not another. In 1 Corinthians 16:1 we read that Paul had instructed the churches in Galatia as to the collection for the poor. This was written to Corinth about A.D. 55. The collection is not mentioned in his Epistle to the Galatians, and as far as we know he did not visit them again. This has caused some to suppose that Paul wrote the Epistle to them after his first visit; and that he gave them the directions as to the collection on his second visit; but they may have been given by another letter or by a private messenger.
Galatians 1. After a brief opening, in which the intent of the Lord’s giving Himself for our sins is set forth, namely, to deliver us from this present age according to the will of God, the apostle proceeds directly to the point and marvels at the rapid departure of the Galatian converts from the gospel. In the strongest terms he denounces the efforts made to pervert them from the grace of Christ to other ground. Paul would have them know that his apostleship was not by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father; that the gospel he preached was by the revelation of Jesus Christ. The Jews’ religion, by which they were so attracted, had led him to be a bitter persecutor, but it had pleased God to reveal His Son in him that he might preach Him among the Gentiles. His commission and authority had come direct from on high, and had no connection with Jerusalem as a source. The saints in Judaea did but glorify God in him.
Galatians 2. Fourteen years after [his conversion] he went up to Jerusalem and communicated to those there the gospel he preached to the Gentiles. He utterly refused to submit to pressure from Judaizing brethren in the case of the Gentile convert Titus, and in result received the full fellowship of the three pillars—James, Cephas, and John—in regard to his ministry among the heathen. Subsequently, at Antioch, Paul had actually withstood Peter to the face as to the truth of the gospel, which Peter was fatally compromising from fear of the Jews. Peter’s conduct was wholly inconsistent. Peter and Paul had themselves left the law for justification, to find it alone on the principle of faith in Christ. Had Christ become the minister of sin in their doing this? If not, in going back to the law they built anew what they had destroyed, and were confessedly transgressors; for if right in leaving it for Christ, they were wrong in returning to it. For Paul, however, it was true that through law he had died to law, in order to live to God. With Christ he was crucified (was judicially dead); yet he lived, but no longer himself, for Christ lived in him, and his life as still in this world was by faith—the faith of the Son of God, a living object whose love filled his soul. Christ had died in vain if righteousness came by the law.
Galatians 3. The Galatians were as though bewitched. Had they received the Spirit on the principle of law or of faith? To this there could be but one answer. Having begun in the Spirit, were they now to be made perfect by the flesh? Faith was the principle on which Abraham, the head of promise and blessing, was reckoned righteous, and on which the Gentiles would, with believing Abraham, receive blessing, according to God’s promise to him. Those under law were under the curse; and on that ground none could be justified. Christ had borne the curse that Abraham’s blessing might come on the Gentiles in Christ Jesus, and that through faith they might receive the promise of the Spirit. The law, given four hundred and thirty years after the promise, could not set the latter aside, which was made not only to Abraham, but to his Seed, even to Christ. The law came in by the way till the Seed should come: it proved transgressions; it had been useful as a guard: it had been for those under it a tutor up to Christ. Now faith had come, such were no longer under a tutor; the Gentile believers were now God’s sons by faith in Christ Jesus. In Christ distinctions between Jew and Gentile disappeared: all were one, and the Gentile believers being of Christ were Abraham’s seed and heirs according to promise.
Galatians 4. Though heirs, the Jews were, under law, in the condition of children under age, held in bondage under the elements of the world, with which indeed the law had to do. But now God had sent forth His Son, to redeem those under law, that believers might receive sonship. He had sent the Spirit of His Son into their hearts, giving the cry of relationship, “Abba, Father.” They were therefore no longer bondmen, but sons; and if sons, then heirs through God. Were the Gentile believers (formerly in heathen darkness, but now knowing God) going to turn back to the principles of law, which the apostle does not hesitate to call weak and beggarly elements? They observed days, and months, and times, and years, as though Christianity were a system for man in the flesh. But he reminds them of their former affection for him, and how they had received him as an angel of God. Was he now their enemy because he told them the truth? These Judaizing teachers had sown this discord in order that they might supplant the apostle in their affections. Spiritually he again travailed in birth with them till Christ should be formed in them. He knew not what to make of them. Let those who wanted to be under law listen to it. He then submits to them the allegory of Sarah and Hagar, in which the principles of law and faith in God’s promise are seen in conflict. The promise is secured in Isaac, that is, in Christ. Believers, as Isaac was, are children of promise, they are not children of the maidservant but of the free woman.
Galatians 5. He exhorts the Galatians to stand fast in the liberty wherewith Christ made free. If circumcised they were debtors to do the whole law, and were deprived of all profit from the Christ. They had in such case fallen from grace. Christians awaited the hope of righteousness, by the Spirit, on the principle of faith. For those in Christ faith wrought through love. The Galatians had run well, but who had now hindered them? The guilt of this mischief should be borne by the troubler, whoever he was. The scandal of the cross was done away if circumcision was preached, for it was rehabilitating the flesh. But love was the fulfillment of the law. The flesh and Spirit were in fact utterly opposed, but if led by the Spirit they were not under law. The works of the flesh are set forth in contrast to the fruit of the Spirit. Those that were of Christ had crucified the flesh with its lusts, the Spirit being the only power for christian walk.
Galatians 6. Some closing exhortations follow. The spiritual were to restore those taken in a fault, remembering what they were in themselves. They were to care for one another—to think nothing of themselves—to care for those who ministered to them in the word. He warns them of the consequences of sowing to the flesh, but in sowing to the Spirit they should reap eternal life. Let them do good then to all, but especially to the household of faith. He tells them he had written this letter with his own hand as evidence of his deep concern as to them. He once again refers to the mischief-makers in scathing terms. But the cross of the Lord Jesus Christ was his only boast, through whom the world was crucified unto him, and he to it. In Christ Jesus nothing availed but a new creation; and upon those who walked according to this rule peace and mercy are invoked. This Epistle, in which the grief of the apostle is mingled with indignation, is concluded by an affecting allusion to the sufferings he had endured in the maintenance of the truth which they were so lightly turning from: he bore in his body the marks of the Lord Jesus. There are none of the customary salutations.
The epistle is an example of the energy and rapidity of the apostle’s style, and of the spiritual power of his argument. We see him deeply moved by the baneful influence of the Judaisers in Galatia and at their success. Alas! it is what has extended everywhere throughout Christendom.


An ingredient in the compound that was burnt in the tabernacle as sweet incense (Ex. 30:34). It is not known from what plant or tree it was obtained. The galbanum of commerce is a resinous gum of a disagreeable odor.


The name given by Jacob to the heap of stones raised to witness the covenant made between him and Laban. It signifies, as in the margin, “heap of witness” (Gen. 31:47-48).


The inhabitants of Galilee (Mark 14:70; John 4:45; Acts 2:7; etc).


This was a much smaller district in the Old Testament than in the New Testament, although its area is not very defined. It seems formerly to have included a portion of Naphtali, and perhaps a portion of Asher. “Kedesh in Galilee,” one of the cities of refuge, was in Naphtali (Josh. 20:7; Josh. 21:32; 1 Chron. 6:76). Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in Galilee. These are not named, but they would naturally be near to Tyre. When Hiram went to view them he called them the “land of Cabul,” as if he included them all under the one name of “Cabul,” worthless. Now there was and is a village of this name on the frontier of Asher, which would seem to indicate that Asher was in the district of Galilee (1 Kings 9:11-13). About B.C. 740 Tiglath-pileser carried away captive all the inhabitants of Naphtali, &c. (2 Kings 15:29). This was doubtless followed by the district being inhabited by foreigners, who, when the captivity of Israel was completed, would be able to spread themselves southward. Hence the term “Galilee of the Gentiles” or nations, which does not occur until Isaiah 9:1: the prophecy is quoted in Matthew 4:15.
In New Testament times Galilee had become a much larger district, including the portions of Asher, Naphtali, Zebulon, and Issachar. It had over 200 towns and villages, and about three million inhabitants in Josephus’ time. It was bounded on the south by Samaria, and embraced the whole of the north part of Palestine. It included the towns of Nain, Nazareth, Cana, Tiberias, Magdala, Dalmanutha, Bethsaida, Chorazin, and Capernaum.
It is probable that the Galilaeans had a different manner of pronunciation, or the language spoken in Galilee was not so refined as that spoken at Jerusalem, which led to Peter being detected by his speech (Matt. 26:69, 73; Mark 14:70). But the voice of the same Peter, under the power of God, was mighty on the day of Pentecost, though the hearers said “are not all these which speak Galilaeans?” (Acts 2:7). They were surprised to hear such men speak in foreign tongues, the more so because no prophet was ever looked for from thence, nor any good thing from Nazareth (John 1:46; John 7:52). Still in that despised district the Lord spent His youth: thus early was He as One separated from the course of the nation of Israel, a Nazarene; and the principal part of His ministry was among the poor of the flock in that locality; fulfilling thus the will of God and the prophetic word, on which God had caused His people to hope.

Galilee, Sea of

This was situate about the center of the district of Galilee on the east. The Jordan enters it on the north, and leaves it on the south. Its waters are about 682 feet below the level of the Mediterranean, and its depth about 156 feet. Its length is about thirteen miles, and its widest part about seven miles. On the east of it was the country of the Gergesenes and the Gadarenes. Chorazin was on its north; Capernaum on its N.W.; then, coming southward, was Bethsaida of Galilee, with the plain of Gennesaret (or Chinnereth) near; then Magdala, Dalmanutha and Tiberias on the west. These places being near accounts for the sea being called the LAKE OF GENNESARET and the SEA OF TIBERIAS and of CHINNERETH.
The Lord crossed the sea several times, and taught from a ship near the shore, and once He walked upon its waters. Storms often arise suddenly, as did the one when the Lord was asleep on a pillow (Mark 4:37-41; Luke 8:22-25). Doubtless in those days the sea presented a busy scene with its many boats and fishermen; but now the towns are in desolation or have disappeared altogether. For a long time a boat was never afloat on its waters, but may now occasionally be seen, and many efforts are being made to bring about a resuscitation; but all effectual restoration must wait God’s appointed time for real blessing to be vouchsafed to Israel and their land; it is still “the land of promise.” The modern name of the Sea is Bahr Tubariya.


1. merorah, the gall or bile of animals. It is symbolical of “bitterness:” “he poureth out my gall upon the ground” (Job 16:13). It is also used for the “poison” of asps (Job 20:14,25).
2. rosh, χολή, some exceedingly bitter or poisonous plant not definitely identified. This word is used as symbolical of “bitterness.” To turn to idolatry was like “a root that beareth gall and wormwood” (Deut. 29:18). God’s judgments were given them as water of gall to drink (Jer. 8:14; Jer. 9:15; Jer. 23:15; compare Deut. 32:32; Lam. 3:5,19; Amos 6:12). Gall, mixed with the sour wine or vinegar drunk by the Roman soldiers, was given to those about to be crucified, for the purpose, as is now supposed, of making them the less sensitive to the torture. It was offered to the Lord, but refused (Psa. 69:21; Matt. 27:34). In Mark 15:23 myrrh is read instead of gall; the meaning would be the same.

Gall of Bitterness



1. attiq. The signification of this word is not now definitely known: some suppose it to signify a colonnade (Ezek. 41:15-16; Ezek. 42:3, 5).
2. rahat, “to be collected or drawn together.” It is translated “gutters” in Genesis 30:38,41, and “troughs” in Exodus 2:16, in which water was collected for the cattle. Song of Solomon 7:5 is better translated “The king is held by the tresses” of the “hair” mentioned in the line before.




Apparently a city of Benjamin, associated with Laish, Aiath, Migron, also in Benjamin (1 Sam. 25:44; Isa. 10:30).


Roman proconsul of the province of Achaia, before whom Paul was accused; but who drove the Jews away, saying he would be no judge of words, and names, and of their law. Sosthenes was beaten before the judgment seat, but Gallio cared for none of these things (Acts 18:12,14,17). History states that Gallio was the brother of the philosopher Seneca, who speaks favorably of him. He was involved in the ruin of Seneca under Nero, and though he at first escaped, he afterward perished.


The word is ets, frequently translated “tree” and “wood,” and gives no idea of the form of the gallows. It was some frame-work made or erected on which Mordecai was to have been hanged. Haman no doubt intended by the great height of the gallows (about 23 yards) that the hanging of his victim should have been well seen in the city. It was seen from the palace, and, under the providence of God, he was himself hanged thereon (Esther 5-9).


1. Son of Pedahzur and prince of the tribe of Manasseh (Num. 1:10; Num. 2:20; Num. 7:54,59; Num. 10:23).
2. Renowned doctor of the law, and member of the Sanhedrin, under whom Paul was educated. He gave the wise advice in the council that if the work of the apostles was of God it was useless to resist it; and if not, it would come to naught of itself. The Jews say he died a Pharisee, but ecclesiastical tradition records that he became a Christian (Acts 5:34; Acts 22:3).


A Hebrew word, the definite meaning of which is not known. By the connection (“the Gammadims were in thy towers”) it appears to refer to the “guards,” as translated in the LXX (Ezek. 27:11). The margin of the RV has “valorous men.”


Head of the twenty-second course of priests (1 Chron. 24:17).

Garden, Gardener

In the East the gardens were portions of ground under culture, and often enclosed by walls, in which fruit and herbs were grown. Water was always necessary: in the garden of Eden there was a river by which it was watered; and hence a fruitful place was described as well watered, “as the garden of the Lord” (Gen. 13:10). It is also used figuratively of great blessing: when Israel is restored, “their soul shall be as a watered garden” (Jer. 31:12); whereas under God’s judgments they were like a garden that had no water (Isa. 1:30).
The garden was also looked upon as a place of delights, and is often used figuratively in this sense (Song of Sol. 4:12-16; Song of Sol. 5:1; Song of Sol. 6:2,11; Song of Sol. 8:13). Gardens were also secluded places of secret sin (Isa. 65:3; Isa. 66:17).
The two most noted gardens in scripture were the gardens of EDEN and of GETHSEMANE. Once only we read of a GARDENER (John 20:15), though, since the curse upon the ground, there must always have been some who labored in gardens (compare Gen. 3:19; Song of Sol. 1:6); and in Eden, before the curse, Adam was placed in the garden “to dress it and to keep it” (Gen. 2:15).


1. An Ithrite, one of David’s mighty men (2 Sam. 23:38; 1 Chron. 11:40).
2. A hill near Jerusalem (Jer. 31:39).

Garlick, Shum

The well-known vegetable much esteemed as a condiment in the East. The garlic of Egypt is the Allium sativum of the botanists, but there are different species in Palestine, where it is cultivated and prized. The Israelites longed for it when in the wilderness (Num. 11:5).


Several words are used both in the Old Testament and in the New Testament for raiment, clothing, or apparel, without defining what particular garments are alluded to; and when a single garment is intended it is variously translated in the AV. In the East few garments were needed, and they were probably much the same as those worn there at present by the natives.
1. The inner garment is the kethoneth, a long tunic worn by men and women. It was made of wool, cotton, or linen. This was the garment God made of skins for Adam and Eve, and what Jacob made of many colors for Joseph (Gen. 3:21; Gen. 37:3,23-33). It formed part of the priest’s dress. At times another is worn over it. The bride said she had put off her “coat” for the night, which was probably the outer one, though the Hebrew word is the same (Song of Sol. 5:3). The kethoneth answers to the χιτών of the New Testament, mostly translated “coat.” The disciples were not to take two when the Lord sent them out (Matt. 10:10). It was this garment of the Lord’s that was woven in one piece (John 19:23); and the word is used of the coats made by Dorcas (Acts 9:39).
2. The other principal garment was the simlah, a cloak, or wide outer mantle, worn by men and women, and in which they wrapped themselves at night. This might be of any texture according to the season, and according to the station in life of the wearer. The peasants often wear such, called an “abba” of camels’ or goats’ hair. This garment if taken in pledge had to be returned in the evening, for without it “wherein shall he sleep?” (Ex. 22:26-27; compare Deut. 24:13). The simlah is the garment that was rent in grief (Gen. 37:34; Gen. 44:13; Josh. 7:6). This corresponds to the ἱμάτιον in the New Testament. It is translated “cloak” (Matt. 5:40; Luke 6:29); and it is the robe of purple with which the soldiers mocked the Lord (John 19:2,5). It is the “garment” the edge of which the woman touched (Matt. 14:36); and the “garments” of which the scribes and Pharisees enlarged the borders (Matt. 23:5). It is otherwise used for “garments” in general, as in Matthew 27:35 and John 19:23-24; and is often translated “raiment” and “clothes.”
3. Another prominent article of apparel and one often richly ornamented was the GIRDLE. These three, with sandals, and a handkerchief or other covering for the head, constituted the usual dress in the East.
Besides the above we read of “changeable suits of apparel” for women (Isa. 3:22).
4. Also, the MANTLE, or ROBE, meil, described as “a large tunic, worn over the common one, but without sleeves.” It was worn by priests (Ex. 28:31; 1 Sam. 28:14; Ezra 9:3, 5): by kings and princes (1 Sam. 18:4; 1 Sam. 24:4, 11): by men of rank (Job 1:20; Job 2:12): and by women (2 Sam. 13:18).
5. The WIMPLE or VEIL, a wide upper garment or shawl, which covered the head and part of the body. Ruth was able to carry in such a veil six measures of barley (Ruth 3:15; Isa. 3:22). There are four other Hebrew words translated “veils.”
6. The STOMACHER, apparently a wide ornamented girdle. The word occurs only in Isaiah 3:24.


Designation of Keilah son of Naham (1 Chron. 4:19).


Same as “granary,” a storehouse for threshed grain and for the fruits of the earth. It is mentioned in the New Testament as a receptacle for wheat (Psa. 144:13; Joel 1:17; Matt. 3:12; Luke 3:17).


A place strengthened temporarily for war, or permanently for the protection of the country. The same name is applied to the soldiers who guarded such places (1 Sam. 13:3-4,23; 1 Sam. 14:1-15; 1 Chron. 11:16; 1 Chron. 18:13; 2 Chron. 17:2; 2 Cor. 11:32).




Son of Eliphaz, and duke of Edom (Gen. 36:11,16; 1 Chron. 1:36).


Beside the ordinary use of gates for the protection of a city, “in the gate” was the place where many important things were transacted. When Boaz wanted the question settled respecting Ruth and the inheritance, he went up to the gate: the subject was debated with a nearer relative, then concluded, and witnessed by the elders (Ruth 4:1-12; compare Josh. 20:4; 1 Sam. 4:18; 2 Sam. 15:2; Acts 14:13). To “sit in the gate” was a place of honor; “they that sit in the gate speak against me” (Psa. 69:12). It should have been the place of true judgment and justice, but was not always so (Isa. 29:21; Amos 5:10,12; Zech. 8:16). It was, at least at times, the king’s chief place of audience (2 Sam. 19:8; 1 Kings 22:10; Job 29:7; Lam. 5:14). From this it would be a symbol of power: thus the gates of hell shall not prevail against the church which Christ builds (Matt. 16:18).
The gates of cities were of wood cased with iron to strengthen them and prevent them being burnt with fire (Judg. 9:52). The prison at Jerusalem had an outer gate of iron, the only iron one we read of (Acts 12:10).
Doubtless the gates of Solomon’s temple were adorned to agree with the rest of the work. In the New Testament we read of THE BEAUTIFUL GATE of the temple (Acts 3:10); and Josephus relates that Herod made an outer gate of Corinthian brass, costing more than those adorned with gold and silver. The gates of the New Jerusalem are described as pearls: “every several gate was of one pearl” (Rev. 21:12-25): the entrances must be in keeping with the rest of the city. The pearls represent the glories of Christ as seen in the church (compare Matt. 13:46).
The gate is used symbolically as the entrance both to life and to destruction: the former is narrow and the way straitened, and alas, there are but few that find it; whereas for the latter the gate is wide and the way is broad, and many there are that enter through it (Matt. 7:13-14).


One of the five royal cities of the Philistines, and to which Goliath belonged. It is not mentioned as having been given to any of the tribes. It was to this city that the ark was carried when taken in war (1 Sam. 5:8). To Achish king of Gath David resorted when his faith failed him as to God’s protection (1 Sam. 27:2-4; compare 1 Sam. 21:10,12). Afterward when he was king and in power he took Gath and her towns out of the hand of the Philistines. Uzziah also fought against the place and broke down its walls (1 Chron. 18:1; 2 Chron. 26:6. After Micah 1:10 we hear no more of Gath among the cities of the Philistines (compare Zeph. 2:4; Zech. 9:5-6). It may have been ruined. Its site is identified with Tell es Safi, 31° 43' N, 34° 51' E, where there are extensive ruins and cisterns hewn out of the rock. It commanded the entrance to the valley of Elah.


Town in the border of Zebulun (2 Kings 14:25): named also GITTAH-HEPHER in Joshua 19:13. Identified by some with el Meshhed, 32° 44' N, 35° 19' E.


1. Levitical city in the southern territory of Dan (Josh. 19:45; Josh. 21:24).
2. Levitical city in Manasseh, west of the Jordan (Josh. 21:25). In 1 Chronicles 6:69 there is also a Gath-rimmon given to the Levites, situated in the tribe of Ephraim; but this does not agree with Joshua, and by comparing the two lists, this appears to be the same as No. 1. in Dan. Then in 1 Chronicles 6:70 is the name of BILEAM, and this is supposed to be the same place as Gath-rimmon in Joshua 21:25.


1. One of the five royal cities of the Philistines. We read of it as early as Genesis 10:19 as a border of the Canaanites. The Anakim dwelt there, but Judah was able to take Gaza and the coasts thereof (Josh. 11:22; Judg. 1:18). In the time of Samson, however, the Philistines were in possession, and he was made a prisoner there (Judg. 16:21). It was held afterward by Solomon, 1 Kings 4:24 (where it is called AZZAH, as it is also in Deut. 2:23 and Jer. 25:20); but had to be taken again by Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:8). It was afterward smitten by Pharaoh (Jer. 47:1,5). Having been a stronghold of the Philistines, woes were pronounced against it by the prophets (Amos 1:6-7; Zeph. 2:4; Zech. 9:5).
Gaza was the S.W. frontier town of Palestine, and did a large trade with the caravans to and from Egypt. It was taken by Cambyses, the Ptolemies, and by Alexander the Great, and was held in the twelfth century by the Knights Templars. It now forms the capital of the Turkish province. It is still a large though straggling town without walls, about two miles from the sea, though in some of the ancient documents it is called a maritime city. It is now called Ghuzzeh or Gaza, 31° 30' N, 34° 28' E. Acts 8:26 signifies that the way from Jerusalem to Gaza was desert. This is supposed to refer to the road through Hebron, for after leaving that city it is comparatively desert.
2. City of Ephraim (1 Chron. 7:28); but here many MSS read Ayyah.

Gazathites, Gazites

Inhabitants of Gaza (Josh. 13:3; Judg. 16:2).




1. Son of Caleb by Ephah (1 Chron. 2:46).
2. Son of Haran and grandson of Caleb (1 Chron. 2:46).




Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile (Ezra 2:48; Neh. 7:51).


Levitical city in Benjamin (Josh. 21:17; 2 Sam. 5:25; 2 Kings 23:8; 1 Chron. 6:60; 1 Chron. 8:6; Neh. 11:31; Neh. 12:29; Isa. 10:29; Zech. 14:10). Apparently while Saul was king the Philistines had a garrison there, which Jonathan smote (1 Sam. 13:3). The city was built or rebuilt long afterward by Asa (1 Kings 15:22; 2 Chron. 16:6). It is called GABA (Josh. 18:24; Ezra 2:26; Neh. 7:30); and GIBEAH (1 Sam. 13:2-16; 1 Sam. 14:2-16). In 2 Samuel 5:25 Geba should probably be read Gibeon (compare 1 Chron. 14:16). Identified with Jeba, 31° 52' N, 35° 15' E.


1. Maritime city of Phoenicia. Identified with Jebeil, the ancient Byblus, near the mouth of the river Adonis, 34° 8' N. Its inhabitants are called GIBLITES in Joshua 13:5. Some were workers in stone and assisted in the work of the temple (1 Kings 5:18, margin). Others were caulkers (Ezek. 27:9). In this last passage the LXX reads “Biblians,” and the Vulgate “Giblians.”
2. Apparently part of the mountainous range of Edom (Psa. 83:7). But some believe that this passage also refers to. No. 1.


1. Father of one of Solomon’s commissariat officers in Ramoth-gilead (1 Kings 4:13).
2. Son of Uri, another like officer in Gilead (1 Kings 4:19). At the end of this verse the AV reads “He was the only officer which was in the land.” This does not seem to agree with 1 Kings 4:13-14, for those mentioned therein were also on the east of the Jordan. The Hebrew word for “officer” in 1 Kings 4:19, though a kindred word, is not the same as in 1 Kings 4:7, 27, and may be translated “superintendent.”


Apparently a city of Benjamin, near to Jerusalem (Isa. 10:31). Not identified.


1. Son of Ahikam: he was made governor over those left in the land, with a Chaldean guard, by Nebuchadnezzar. He was joined by Jeremiah, and apparently ruled well; but he was treacherously murdered by Ishmael of Judah, who, according to Josephus (Ant. 10. 9, 3), was a member of the royal family. Gedaliah was duly warned, but had too good an opinion of the man (2 Kings 25:22-25; Jer. 39:14; Jer. 40:5 -16; Jer. 41:1-18; Jer. 43:6).
2. Levite, son of Jeduthun (1 Chron. 25:3, 9).
3. Priest who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:18).
4. Grandfather of Zephaniah the prophet (Zeph. 1:1).
5. Son of Pashur and one of the princes who caused Jeremiah to be cast into a dungeon (Jer. 38:1).


Hebrews 11:32: same as GIDEON.


City in the south of Palestine, the king of which was slain by Joshua (Josh. 12:13).


City in the lowlands of Judah (Josh. 15:36). Identified with ruins at Jedireh, 31° 50' N, 34° 57' E.


Inhabitant of Gederah (1 Chron. 12:4). 1 Chronicles 12:2 speaks of Josabad as a Benjamite, so that this Gederah is judged to be identified with Jedireh in Benjamin, 31° 51' N, 35° 11' E.


Inhabitant of Geder, or Gederah (1 Chron. 27:28).


City in the lowlands of Judah (Josh. 15:41; 2 Chron. 28:18). Identified by some with Katrah, 31° 50' N, 34° 46' E.


City in the lowlands of Judah (Josh. 15:36).


1. City in the highlands of Judah (Josh. 15:58). Identified with ruins at Jedur, 31° 38' N, 35° 5' E.
2. Native place of Jehoram, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 12:7).
3. Valley in the south of Judah, where the tribe of Simeon found rich pasture (1 Chron. 4:39).
4. Son of Jehiel, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:31; 1 Chron. 9:37).
5. Son of Penuel, a descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 4:4).
6. Son of Jered, a descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 4:18).


Servant to the prophet Elisha. He had seen Elisha’s miracles, even to the raising of the dead, and yet was tempted to deceive him and fraudulently gain a present from Naaman. He was in consequence smitten with leprosy. In after years he was entertaining the king of Israel with the great works of the prophet, when the Shunammite whose son Elisha had raised to life came to petition the king for her land, and she confirmed the servant’s narration (2 Kings 4:12-36; 2 Kings 5:20-27; 2 Kings 8:4-5). Gehazi is a remarkable instance of how slow man is to realize the goodness and power of God, though plainly manifested before his eyes, until judgment falls upon him.




A place on the border line between Benjamin and Judah (Josh. 18:17). In Joshua 15:7 the same is apparently called GILGAL.


Father of Ammiel one of the twelve spies (Num. 13:12),


1. Son of Shaphan, and father of Michaiah. He was present at the reading of Jeremiah’s prophecy, and begged the king not to burn the roll (Jer. 36:10-12,25).
2. Son of Hilkiah; he was sent by Zedekiah to Babylon with a letter from Jeremiah unto the captives taken by Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 29:3).


These were the records of generations: “the genealogy of their generations” was reckoned (1 Chron. 5:7; 1 Chron. 7:9). Though “generations” are given from the beginning, we do not read of “genealogies” until Israel was in the land. It was important then that the genealogies should be preserved, because it was a part of the law that the children of Israel should enjoy every man the inheritance of his fathers. The inheritance must not remove from tribe to tribe (Num. 36:8-9). As the priesthood was restricted to the sons of Aaron, it was essential that they should preserve their genealogy. On the return from the exile some were unable to show their descent from Aaron, and they were put out of the priesthood (Ezra 2:62).
A knowledge of the priestly genealogies extended to the New Testament. Zacharias was of the “course of Abia,” and Elizabeth was “of the daughters of Aaron.” So also of the tribes and families generally. At the census Joseph and Mary went to Bethlehem, for they were of the lineage of David; Anna was of the tribe of Asher, and Paul of the tribe of Benjamin.
The prophecies, which reveal that in the seed of Abraham should all the nations of the earth be blessed, and that the Messiah was to be of the royal line of David, made it needful that the genealogies of both these lines should be preserved, as we find them given in the New Testament. In the future possession of the land there will be the twelve tribes, and some of each of the twelve will be sealed for blessing (Ezek. 48; Rev. 7:3-8). God, who is guarding them for future events, can also preserve their genealogies.
It is probable that in 1 Timothy 1:4 and Titus 3:9 reference is not made to Jewish genealogies, which could not be called “endless,” nor were they fabulous; but that reference is made to the eons of the Gnostics which reach back to eternity, three of which were represented to be Christ, the Holy Spirit, and Jesus. Tertullian quoted the above passage in Timothy when confuting the Gnostics.

Genealogy of the Lord Jesus

This is given in Matthew 1 and Luke 3. According to the distinctive character of Matthew in which Christ is emphatically the Messiah and Son of David, the genealogy commences with Abraham; whereas in Luke, in which Christ is displayed as the Son of Man, the list is traced up to “Adam who was the son of God.” Both lists are the same from Abraham to David; then they differ until they reach Salathiel and Zorobabel, which names are in both lists; and then they again differ. The list in Luke is much fuller, having from David to Joseph forty-one names, where Matthew has only twenty-six. Names are omitted from Matthew, and this enables the whole to be brought into the three divisions of “fourteen generations.” Ozias is placed as the son of Joram, but on consulting 1 Chronicles 3:11-12 (where for Ozias is read Azariah, as also in 2 Kings 14:21), it will be seen that three kings are omitted, Ahaziah, Joash, and Amaziah. Such omissions are found in the genealogies in the Old Testament In 2 Chronicles 22:9 Ahaziah is called the son of Jehoshaphat; whereas he was his grandson; and by comparing the generations in 1 Chronicles 6:3-15 with Ezra 7:1-5 seven names will be found to be omitted in the latter.
It will be noted that in Matthew the word “begat” is used, whereas in Luke it is more indefinite. Jesus was “supposed” or “accounted” to be the son of Joseph, and “Joseph was of Heli” without the word “begat.” Again, it should be noted that by a Jewish law if a man died childless, his brother was to raise up seed to the deceased by his widow, so that a son born thus might be called the legal son of the deceased, whereas he would be the actual or lineal son of his father, the brother of the deceased. The list in Matthew is clearly the royal line; between David and Salathiel twelve kings are given, all of whom are omitted from Luke. Being the royal line it must also be the legal line.
There is more difficulty as to the genealogy in Luke: is it the lineal line of Joseph or Mary? Women are never quoted as forming a line of succession, yet Christ is spoken of as the “seed” of the woman (Gen. 3:15); “come of woman” (Gal. 4:4); “the seed of Abraham” (Heb. 2:16); “the seed of David according to flesh” (Rom. 1:3; 2 Tim. 2:8); “the offspring of David” (Rev. 22:16). And as the Lord was not really the son of Joseph, these scriptures can only be fulfilled through His mother, who must have been a lineal descendant of David and Abraham. It is better therefore to consider that Luke gives the lineal descent of the Lord through Mary. In accordance with the above it will be seen that Matthew in speaking of the birth of the Lord frequently mentions Joseph, seldom Mary; whereas Luke frequently mentions Mary, but seldom Joseph.


This is used in various senses in scripture.
1. As from a father to his son, or from a king to his successor, γενεά, as in the three series of “fourteen generations” in Matthew 1:17, though the same term is applied where names have been omitted. See GENEALOGY OF THE LORD JESUS.
2. In a much wider sense, as when the Lord said of the unbelieving Jews, “This generation shall not pass away till all these things be fulfilled” (Matt. 24:34; Luke 21:32; compare Deut. 32:5,20). The unbelieving Jews still exist and will until the events take place.
3. As offspring, γέννημα, where there was a moral likeness, as “generation of vipers” (Matt. 3:7).
4. As class, family, etc., γένος. Ye are “a chosen generation” (1 Pet. 2:9).
5. As signifying perpetuity; God’s dominion is “from generation to generation” (Dan. 4:3,34).

Genesis, Book of

The title of this book in the Hebrew is Bereshith, from the first word “In the beginning.” Our title comes from the LXX, and signifies “the source or fount”—that is, of the present system of the heavens and earth as they now exist. Genesis contains all the great principles of God’s relationship with man, even to the bruising of Satan’s head, and in type the union of Christ and the church by a woman being “builded” out of a rib of Adam, and brought to the man. The creation is the first thing recorded; both the original creating out of nothing, and the ordering of the earth for man. See CREATION. Man in the image of God is created last, and all is declared to be “very good.” See ADAM.
A vast amount of learned labor has been lost in trying to account for the name of “God” in Genesis 1, and “Jehovah God” in Genesis 2, often ending with the conclusion that Moses must have had two or more earlier accounts of the creation before him—one called the Elohistic (which used the name of God) and the other the Jehovistic (which had Jehovah God), and that he copied first a piece of the one, and then a piece of the other. Surely this is a very unworthy conclusion to arrive at respecting the work of God by Moses! In Genesis 1 it is God as Creator; but in Genesis 2 He is in relationship with man, and this calls forth the name of Jehovah (as Jehovah was the name by which He was afterward especially known to Israel. See Exodus 6:2-3.) The theory of Moses having copied from various documents, is carried all through the Pentateuch, and with many it has issued in the very sad result of undermining the inspiration of scripture, and attributing to the Lord, when He speaks of Moses having written the law, the use of the common tradition though it was not true!
Sin soon came in, and man, after hiding himself from God, was under sentence of death, and was driven out of Eden lest he should eat of the tree of life and live forever in his sin. Then the way of approach for a sinner to God is revealed in Abel’s sacrifice, and the blindness and hardness caused by sin in that of Cain. Though sin and death reigned, God had His witnesses in Enoch and Noah: the former yields a type of the rapture of the heavenly saints, and the latter of the deliverance of the earthly saints through judgment. God made a covenant with Noah in the new earth. In Babel began the spirit of independence of God. Language was confounded and the people were scattered. In Nimrod commenced conquest and royal power still in independence of God. See ABEL, CAIN, ENOCH, NOAH.
A new dealing of God commences in the call of Abraham to leave his country and his kindred. Promise was introduced in him both as to his natural seed in Israel, and blessing to all nations through his seed, Christ. He is separated to God by circumcision. In Abraham and Lot we have types of the heavenly man having power over the world, and the earthly-minded one mixing with the world. Melchisedec is introduced as the type of the priesthood of Christ in the millennium as the “blessing” priest and king.
Respecting Isaac and Ishmael, the bondwoman and her son, type of the flesh under law, must be cast out, that Isaac the son of promise may inherit all (compare Gal. 4:22-31). But the son of promise must be offered up, and be received back as from the dead, then the covenant was established figuratively in resurrection. Isaac must not go to Mesopotamia, the country from whence the heirs of promise had been called out, therefore Abraham sent his steward to obtain a wife for his son—as the Holy Spirit is here now, gathering a bride for Christ. From Isaac spring Jacob and Esau: Jacob obtains his two wives Rachel and Leah, and with them and their maids he begets the heads of the twelve tribes, who are to possess the land as promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. After exercises with God, Jacob is called Israel.
In Joseph a new branch of the history commences: he is hated by his brethren and is sold to the Gentiles, but becomes their savior—an evident type of Christ in His sufferings and His glory. Joseph takes a Gentile wife in his rejection, as Christ takes a bride outside of Israel. Jacob blesses his twelve sons, dies, and is buried in Canaan; and Joseph, before he died, being sure that God would visit them and bring them out of the land, bade them carry up his bones from Egypt. See ABRAHAM, ISAAC, JACOB, JOSEPH.

Gennesaret, Lake of


Gennesaret, Land of

This is a plain bordering the lake of the same name on the N.W. It is about a mile and a quarter wide and three miles long, reaching nearly to Tell Hum. It has some springs, besides three streams that cross it, and being thus well watered, is a place of great fertility. Josephus gives a glowing description of it (Wars 3. 10, 8). Being close to Capernaum it was doubtless often traversed by the Lord, and was where many of His miracles were wrought (Matt. 14:34; Mark 6:53). The district is now called el Ghuweir.


A name commonly used in scripture to denote any and every nation except Israel. At times, when Israel as a people is referred to, the same words are used for them. Thus
1. goi, ἔθνος, is translated “nation,” and refers to the Jewish nation (Deut. 26:5; Luke 7:5; John 11:48). In the plural the same words refer to the nations generally in distinction from Israel, and are translated “nations,” “Gentiles,” and “heathen” (Deut. 18:9; Deut. 32:43; Isa. 60:3; Isa. 62:2; Joel 2:19; Acts 11:1,18; Acts 13:19; Acts 28:28; etc).
2.Έλλην (in plural) is translated “Gentiles” (John 7:35; Rom. 2:9-10; Rom. 3:9; 1 Cor. 10:32; 1 Cor. 12:13), in contrast to the Jews; but would be better translated “Greeks,” as it is in most places.
God had raised a wall between the Jews and the Gentiles, which in Christ’s death was broken down for believers, “to make in himself of twain one new man” (Eph. 2:14). “There is neither Jew nor Greek.... for ye are all one in Christ Jesus” (Gal. 3:28). This does not touch unbelieving Jews and Gentiles, who are kept separate in God’s present and future dealings.

Gentiles, the Fullness of the

This is spoken of in connection with the olive-tree as God’s tree of promise and privilege on the earth. Israel was that tree (Jer.h 11:16); but because of unbelief some (perhaps the most) of the branches were broken off, and some Gentiles were, contrary to nature, grafted into the good olive-tree. But if these Gentiles do not continue in the goodness of God, they also will be broken off, the fullness of the Gentiles will have come in, and Israel will be reinstated (Rom. 11:15-25). It therefore follows that as the admission of the Gentiles to privilege is linked with the failure of Israel, so the taking up of the Jews again for blessing is linked with the apostasy of the Gentiles. A solemn fact for Christendom!

Gentiles, the Times of the

God had taken up the Jews and made a nation of them. He declared, “Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation” (Gen. 18:18). “You only have I known of all the families of the earth.” They were to be a witness for God on the earth, and it is added, “therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities” (Amos 3:2). After long patience of God with Israel the house of David was set aside and carried into captivity, the power of government for God was transferred to the Gentile, and the times of the Gentiles commenced in the person of Nebuchadnezzar. To him it was said, “Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory.” The beasts of the field and the fowls of heaven were also given into his hand (Dan. 2:37-38). God held him responsible; and because he dishonored God, and took the glory of the kingdom to himself, he was punished. Three other empires succeeded that of Babylon, and the times of the Gentiles still continue, under various phases of government. They will run on until God in His own time restores supremacy in the earth to His ancient people. “Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled” (Luke 21:24).


Son of Hadad an Edomite by an Egyptian princess, sister of Tahpenes the queen (1 Kings 11:19-20.


A descendant of Benjamin (Gen. 46:21; Judg. 3:15; 2 Sam. 16:5; 2 Sam. 19:16,18; 1 Kings 2:8; 1 Chron. 8:3,5,7). It is not clear whether all the passages refer to the same person.




Ancient city on the south of Gaza in the possession of the Philistines. It was visited, by both Abraham and Isaac (Gen. 10:19; Gen. 20:1-2; Gen. 26:1-26; 2 Chron. 14:13-14). Identified with ruins at Umm Jerrar, 31° 25' N, 34° 26' E.

Gerasenes, Gergesenes


Gerizim, Mount

The mountain in Samaria on which the blessings on Israel were pronounced, in contrast to the curses given on mount Ebal (Deut. 11:29; Deut. 27:12; Josh. 8:33; Judg. 9:7). History records that after the rebuilding of the temple in the time of Ezra a Samaritan temple was built on this mountain, where they had priests and sacrifices, which was the cause of great animosity between the Jews and the Samaritans. Though this temple was destroyed by Hyrcanus, the Samaritans clung to the mountain as the right place of worship, as the woman of Samaria said to the Lord (John 4:20). The Samaritans still eat the Passover lamb on the mountain. A church was also built there; but now there are only ruins. The mount is called Jebel et Tor, 32° 12' N, 35° 16' E. Its highest point is 2,849 feet above the sea. See map of Samaria.


1. Eldest son of Moses and Zipporah, born in Midian (Ex. 2:22; Ex. 18:3; Judg. 18:30 (see MANASSEH) 1 Chron. 23:15-16; 1 Chron. 26:24).
2. Eldest son of Levi (1 Chron. 6:16-71; 1 Chron. 15:7); but elsewhere named GERSHON.
3. A descendant of Phinehas who returned from exile (Ezra 8:2).

Gershon, Gershonites

Eldest son of Levi, born before the children of Israel entered Egypt, and his descendants (Gen. 46:11; 1 Chron. 6:1; 1 Chron. 23:6). At the numbering of the Israelites in the wilderness there were 7,500 Gershonites as a branch of the Levites. Their charge was the frame-work of the tabernacle and the tent, with the hangings and curtains. For the transport of these they had two wagons and four oxen (Num. 3:17-25; Num. 4:22-38; Num. 7:7). They had thirteen of the Levitical cities (Josh. 21:6, 27-33). In the kingdom, under Asaph and his sons, they “prophesied according to the order of the king.” Others had charge of the “treasures of the house of God, and were over the treasures of the holy things,” and of the precious stones (1 Chron. 23:6-7; 1 Chron. 25:2; 1 Chron. 26:20-22; 1 Chron. 29:8). See GERSHOM, No. 2.


Son of Jandai, of the family of Caleb (1 Chron. 2:47).


An Arabian, who with Sanballat and Tobiah sought to hinder the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Neh. 2:19; Neh. 6:1-2). Called also GASHMU in ver. 6.


A principality on the north-east of Bashan (2 Sam. 3:3; 2 Sam. 13:37-38; 2 Sam. 14:23; 2 Sam. 15:8; 1 Chron. 2:23; 1 Chron. 3:2). David married the daughter of the king of Geshur, and she was the mother of Absalom.

Geshuri, Geshurites

1. Inhabitants of Geshur (Deut. 3:14; Josh. 12:5; Josh. 13:11,13).
2. A tribe in the southern desert (Josh. 13:2; 1 Sam. 27:8).


Son of Aram the son of Shem (Gen. 10:23; 1 Chron. 1:17).


Name of the garden on some part of mount Olivet to which the Lord often resorted with His disciples. It was here He spent a part of the night after the last Passover, and where He was in intense agony in prospect of drinking the cup of wrath due to sin. How significant is the name, which signifies “wine-press”! Angels came and ministered to Him. Here also He was betrayed by Judas with a kiss, and arrested (Matt. 26:36; Mark 14:32; Luke 22:39; John 18:1-2). A spot, now walled round and preserved as a European flower garden, on the N.W. of the slope of Olivet, is the traditional site of Gethsemane. It is nearly opposite the St. Stephen’s gate. There are in it some venerable olive trees; but as Titus, at the destruction of Jerusalem, cut down all the trees near the city, these must be of more recent growth, and there is no certainty as to the site. A more retired spot would seem more fitting.


Son of Machi: he was one who searched the land (Num. 13:15).

Gezer, Gezrites

Ancient Canaanite city and its inhabitants. It was taken by Joshua, and allotted to Ephraim, and afterward to the Kohathites (1 Chron. 6:67; 1 Chron. 7:28); but the ancient inhabitants held possession. It was taken and burnt by Pharaoh as a Canaanitish city, and the site given to his daughter whom Solomon had married. Solomon rebuilt the city (Josh. 10:33; Josh. 12:12; Josh. 16:3,10; Josh. 21:21; Judg. 1:29; 1 Sam. 27:8; 1 Kings 9:15-17). It is called GAZER (2 Sam. 5:25; 1 Chron. 14:16). Compare 1 Chronicles 20:4 with 2 Samuel 21:18-19, GAZER in the former passage refers to GOB in the latter. Gezer is identified with ruins at Tell Jezar, 31° 52' N, 34° 55' E.


1. nephesh, “animal life, soul” (Job 11:20; Jer. 15:9).
2. πνεῦμα, “spirit” (Matt. 27:50; John 19:30). The word “ghost” is used in the AV only in reference to the Holy Spirit (see HOLY GHOST), and to death, by the “ghost” being given up, or the spirit or life being breathed out.
3. gava, “to expire, die” (Gen. 25:8,17; Gen. 35:29; Gen. 49:33; Job 3:11; Job 10:18; Job 13:19; Job 14:10; Lam. 1:19).
4. ἑκπνέω, “to breathe out, expire” (Mark 15:37,39; Luke 23:46).
5. ἑκψύψω, “to breathe out, expire” (Acts 5:5,10; Acts 12:23).


Place mentioned only in describing the position of the hill Ammah (2 Sam. 2:24).


1. gibbor, “mighty, strong,” as the word is often elsewhere translated (Job 16:14).
2. rapha, “a fearful one.” In the plural and with the article it is treated as a proper name, the REPHAIM, or sons of Raphah, a race of giants who lived beyond the Jordan, from whom Og the giant king of Bashan descended. The sons of Raphah were afterward found among the Philistines. At times the term Rephaim applies to any people in Canaan who were of great stature (Deut. 2:11,20; Deut. 3:11,13; Josh. 12:4; Josh. 13:12; Josh. 15:8; Josh. 17:15; Josh. 18:16; 1 Chron. 20:4,6,8). The word Rephaim is untranslated in Genesis 14:5 and Genesis 15:20.
3. raphah, same as rapha (2 Sam. 21:16-22).
4. nephilim. The signification of this word is uncertain: some trace it to a root “to fall,” but then it is not clear whether it signifies “fallen ones,” or “those who fall upon.” They were men of great stature, which made the Israelites consider themselves as grasshoppers in comparison. They are not said (as has been supposed) to be the offspring of the sons of God and the daughters of men: those born of them are described as “mighty men (gibborim) which were of old, men of renown.” The nephilim are merely said to be “in the earth in those days,” and they were also seen by the spies about a thousand years afterward: this is all that is revealed respecting them. The various ancient versions confirm the translation of “giants” (Gen. 6:4; Num. 13:33).

Giants, Valley of



Ancestor of some who returned from exile (Ezra 2:20).


City of Dan, allotted to the Kohathites, but which was afterward held by the Philistines. It was besieged by Nadab and by Omri, kings of Israel (Josh. 19:44; Josh. 21:23; 1 Kings 15:27; 1 Kings 16:15). Identified with Ifibabih, 31° 59' N, 35° E.


Son of (or, a town founded by) Sheva (1 Chron. 2:49).


1. City in the highlands of Judah (Josh. 15:57). Identified with Jeba, 31° 41' N, 35° 4' E.
2. Place where Abinadab dwelt, in whose house the ark of God remained until fetched by David (2 Sam. 6:3-4): the name is translated “the hill” in 1 Samuel 7:1.
3. City of Benjamin, the native place of Saul (Judg. 19:12-16; Judg. 20:4-43; 1 Sam. 10:26; 1 Sam. 14:2, 5; 1 Sam. 22:6; 1 Sam. 23:19; 1 Sam. 26:1; 2 Sam. 23:29; 1 Chron. 11:31; 2 Chron. 13:2; Hos. 5:8; Hos. 9:9; Hos. 10:9). The same city is called “GIBEAH OF BENJAMIN” (1 Sam. 13:2,15-16; 1 Sam. 14:16); and “GIBEAH OF SAUL” (1 Sam. 11:4; 1 Sam. 15:34; 2 Sam. 21:6; Isa. 10:29); though in some places the district around the city may be included. Not identified. In 1 Samuel 13:16 and 1 Samuel 14:5 the Hebrew is GEBA, not GIBEAH (compare 1 Sam. 13:3).
4. GIBEAH IN THE FIELD. Some place to which a division of the highway from No. 3 led (Judg. 20:31). Not identified.
5. GIBEAH OF PHINEHAS, as Joshua 24:33 may be translated, “a hill [that pertained to] Phinehas.” Identified by some with Awertah, 32° 10' N, 35° 17' E.


Another form of GIBEAH (Josh. 18:28). Identified by some with Jebia, 31° 51' N, 35° 6' E. Others judge it to be the same as Gibeah No. 3.


Designation of Shemaah (1 Chron. 12:3).


The leading city of the four which beguiled Joshua into making a league with them, on the plea of their being far distant (Josh. 9:3-17). When the Amorites attacked Gibeon, because they had made peace with Israel, Joshua hastened to their deliverance, and to lengthen the daylight he said, “Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon” (Josh. 10:1-41). The city was afterward given to Benjamin and made a Levitical city (Josh. 18:25; Josh. 21:17). In the days of Solomon, before the temple was built, the tabernacle was pitched at Gibeon, and thither Solomon went and offered a thousand sacrifices, and there God appeared to him in a dream, and gave him the desire of his heart—wisdom and understanding (1 Kings 3:4-5; 1 Chron. 16:39; 1 Chron. 21:29; 2 Chron. 1:3,13). It was near “the great stone” in Gibeon that Joab treacherously slew Amasa; and in retribution it was to the same city he fled to lay hold on the horns of the altar for protection, but where he was put to death (2 Sam. 20:8-10; 1 Kings 2:29-34). Identified with el Jib, 31° 51' N, 35° 11' E, a village of scattered houses on a hill. On one side of the hill is a copious spring, and lower down the remains of a large reservoir, which is thought to be the “pool” of Gibeon and its “great waters” (2 Sam. 2:13; Jer. 41:12,16). In 1 Chronicles 16 we read that David smote the Philistines “from Gibeon even to Gazer”; but in the parallel passage in 2 Samuel 5:25 it says, David smote them “from Geba” to Gazer. Keil and others think Gibeon is the place intended.


The people of Gibeon and perhaps of the three confederate cities—Chephirah, Beeroth, and Kirjath-jearim (Josh. 9:17). They were Hivites, and “mighty” men. Having deceived Joshua into making a treaty with them, they were made hewers of wood and drawers of water for the house of God (Josh. 9:23). Saul, upon an occasion not recorded, had slain some of the Gibeonites, and it apparently had been passed over and forgotten; but God could not allow the oath of His people to be violated; He therefore brought a famine on the land. On David inquiring of the Lord, it was revealed that the famine was because of the slaying of the Gibeonites. They were appealed to, and reparation offered them. They claimed that as it was Saul who had sought to destroy them from remaining in any of the coasts of Israel, seven of his descendants should be given to them. These they hanged in the hill before the Lord, and God was entreated for the land (2 Sam. 21:1-14). In this passage the Gibeonites are called “Amorites,” a common designation of the Canaanites, which does not clash with their being called Hivites in Joshua 9:7. Ismaiah, one of David’s thirty mighty men, was a Gibeonite (1 Chron. 12:4). Some of them returned from exile and helped to build the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:7; Neh. 7:25).




Son of Heman a Kohathite: appointed to the service of song (1 Chron. 25:4, 29).


1. Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile (Ezra 2:47; Neh. 7:49).
2. One of Solomon’s servants, whose descendants returned from exile (Ezra 2:56; Neh. 7:58).


Son of Joash, of the tribe of Manasseh, one of the judges of Israel. An angel of the Lord appeared to him while he was threshing wheat to hide it from the Midianites, and said, “The Lord is with thee, thou mighty man of valor.” Thus addressed, the true though weak faith that was in Gideon was manifested, and he said to the Lord, “If the Lord be with us, why is all this befallen us? And where be all His miracles which our fathers told us of?” Jehovah added, “Go in this thy might, and thou shalt save Israel from the hand of the Midianites: have not I sent thee?” Gideon pleaded that his family was poor, and that he was the least in his father’s house. He was further encouraged. The first thing he was bid to do was to throw down the altar of Baal, and erect an altar to Jehovah, and offer an offering thereon. Gideon obeyed, but he did it by night, for he feared to do it by day. The men of the city desired his death, but his father protected him, saying, Let Baal plead for himself, and symbolically named Gideon JERUBBAAL, “Let Baal plead.” In 2 Samuel 11:21 it is JERUBBESHETH, “Let the shameful thing plead,” meaning the same, without mentioning the name of Baal (compare Jer. 11:13; Hos. 9:10).
Obedience led to strength: the Spirit of the Lord came upon him, and he blew a trumpet, and sent messengers to the tribes of Manasseh, Asher, Zebulun, and Naphtali. But his small though true faith wanted a sign from God that He would save Israel by him God graciously responded by the moisture and then by the dryness of the fleece of wool. God declared that Gideon’s followers were too many: they would take the glory to themselves, and say, “mine own hand hath saved me.” So he bade all that were fearful and afraid to return, and more than two-thirds went back, leaving but 10,000: proving that the mass of the people were unfit to fight the battles of the Lord. Still the people were too many, and they are tested at the water: those that fell on their knees to drink were sent away, and only three hundred men remained, those who had lapped a little water from the hand, as satisfied with a hasty refreshment.
God then told Gideon to go down to the host, for He had delivered it into his hand; but if he was afraid, he could first go with his servant and hear what the enemy said. He was still faint-hearted and therefore went to listen, and there he heard himself compared to “a cake of barley bread,” but that God would deliver Midian into his hand. Gideon at once arranged his men into three companies, each man having a trumpet, and a lamp inside a pitcher. When they reached the camp, the trumpets were blown, and the pitchers broken. The Midianites were dismayed and some of them in the confusion and terror killed one another, and the others fled, pursued by the tribes before named, and by Ephraim. Ephraim proudly found fault with Gideon for not calling them to the battle at first; but a modest answer appeased their wrath. The conquest was complete, and the men of Succoth and Penuel were punished for not aiding Gideon with bread when he was faint.
Israel desired Gideon to rule over them, but he refused, saying, “The Lord shall rule over you.” He requested of the army the golden earrings taken from the enemy. With these he made an ephod, and placed it in his city, and all Israel went in idolatry after it, and it became a snare to Gideon and his house. Alas, the man of faith, who had thrown down the altar of Baal, was now led astray with a golden ephod! A memorial of God’s intervention is not present faith in the God who has intervened. The time of victory is a time of peculiar danger, when many being off their guard have fallen. During the life-time of Gideon Israel dwelt in peace during forty years, but at his decease the people turned to idols and were ungrateful to the house of Gideon (Judg. 6:11—Judg. 8:35). He is called GEDEON in Hebrews 11:32, where his faith is spoken of.


Father of Abidan, one of the chiefs of Benjamin (Num. 1:11; Num. 2:22; Num. 7:60,65; Num. 10:24).


Place to which the Benjamites were pursued after the battle of Gibeah (Judg. 20:45).

Gier Eagle (Racham, rachamah)

The name occurs only in the list of birds not to be eaten. Being classed with the swan and the pelican, it has been thought to be some water-fowl; but it is more generally considered to be the Egyptian Vulture. It visits Palestine only in the summer. It eats any carrion, and is highly respected in the East (Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:17).


These have a large place in the Old Testament history, and several different words are used which are often translated PRESENTS. There were
1. Gifts from a superior to an inferior in good will and kindness and as rewards (Esther 2:18; Dan. 2:6, 48.
2. From an inferior to a superior (2 Chron. 9:24; 2 Chron. 17:5,11). This also took the form of tribute, an acknowledgment of submission (1 Sam. 10:27; 1 Kings 4:21). When Solomon reigned supreme, “all the earth” sought to Solomon to hear his wisdom, and brought presents, as did the queen of Sheba (1 Kings 10:2,24-25). This is a type of Christ’s kingdom as established on earth, when presents, as willing tribute, will be sent from all nations to the Lord Jesus (Psa. 45:12; 72:10,15; Isa. 60:9).
3. Gifts to judges: these were very apt to become bribes, and were strictly prohibited (Ex. 23:8; Deut. 16:19; 2 Chron. 19:7). It was usual also to take presents to prophets (1 Sam. 9:7); and as the prophets were sometimes judges, the gifts were liable to become bribes, as they did with the sons of Samuel, though Samuel himself could challenge the people, and they admitted the fact, that he had never taken a bribe to blind his eyes therewith (1 Sam. 8:3; 1 Sam. 12:3).

Gifts in the Church

The Lord Jesus, having led captivity captive, ascended up on high and thence gave gifts unto men (Psa. 68:18). These were apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teachers, for the perfecting of the saints, for the edifying of the body of Christ. Here persons are the gifts, δόμα (Eph. 4:8,11-12). (See under each of the names.) Another list is given in 1 Corinthians 12, where the word is χάρισμα, “grace, favor.” They are endowments of the one Spirit given to various persons, such as wisdom, knowledge, faith, healing, working of miracles, prophecy, discerning of spirits, kinds of tongues, interpreting of tongues: “all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will.” Later in the same chapter these persons are seen to be members of Christ’s body, and as such set in the church—apostles, prophets, teachers. Other gifts are added: miracles, gifts of healing, helps, governments, diversities of tongues.
Those mentioned in Ephesians 4:11 (except apostles and prophets in the full sense) are gifts for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for edifying the body of Christ, “till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ.” This perfecting of the saints and building up the body of Christ is being accomplished in the present time. The Spirit of God abides, acting in the various members of the body of Christ: hence gifts abide also, though some have necessarily ceased. The gifts are bestowed direct from the risen Lord, and are entirely independent of all choice or professed authority from man, and are for the help of the church universally.


1. One of the rivers in the garden of Eden, now quite unknown (Gen. 2:13).
2. Place near Jerusalem where Solomon was anointed and proclaimed king. Hezekiah stopped the upper water-courses of Gihon and brought the water down to the west side of the city of David. Manasseh also built a wall “on the west side of Gihon, in the valley even to the entering in at the fish-gate” (1 Kings 1:33,38,45; 2 Chron. 32:30; 2 Chron. 33:14). Some locate Gihon at the Pool of Siloam, others at the Fountain of the Virgin; and some associate the “lower pool of Gihon” with the Birket es Sultan at the S.W. of the city.


Musician at the consecration of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:36).


Mountain range where Saul and Jonathan were slain (1 Sam. 28:4; 1 Sam. 31:1,8; 2 Sam. 1:6,21; 2 Sam. 21:12; 1 Chron. 10:1,8). When the tidings reached David he exclaimed, “Ye mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew, neither let there be rain upon you, nor fields of offerings.” It is judged to be on the S.W. of the valley of Jezreel.


The district on the east of the Jordan, extending from the river Yarmouk, a little south of the Sea of Galilee, to the north corner of the Dead Sea. It fell to the lot of Gad, except its northern part, which, where it joined Bashan, was possessed by Manasseh. It is a mountainous district, which accounts for some part of it being called “the mount of Gilead” in Genesis 31:21-25. Some of the mountains are 2,000 to 3,500 feet high, but from the west they look much higher because of the depression of the Jordan valley. Pasturage abounds in Gilead, and accounts for Gad and the others choosing it for their cattle. The district is divided into north and south by the river Jabbok (Zerka). The northern part is cultivated and has numerous villages; but the southern is mostly held by nomadic tribes, with but little cultivation, and having but one inhabited town now, called es Salt, 32° 2' N, 35° 42' E.
In the days of Ahab Ramoth-gilead was in possession of the Syrians, which was followed by all Gilead and Moab falling into their hands (1 Kings 22:3; 2 Kings 10:32-33). This was followed by Tiglath-pileser conquering the region, and carrying the Israelites into captivity (2 Kings 15:29; 1 Chron. 5:26). In the restoration of Israel their border eastward will extend to Damascus and Gilead (Ezek. 47:18). This ancient possession will thus be brought into blessing. The Ishmaelites who bought Joseph were traveling with balm and myrrh from Gilead (Gen. 37:25). The balm of Gilead was proverbial for its healing virtues (Jer. 8:22; Jer. 46:11).


1. Son of Machir and grandson of Manasseh (Num. 26:29-30; Num. 27:1; Num. 36:1; Josh. 17:1,3; 1 Chron. 2:21,23; 1 Chron. 7:14,17).
2. Father of Jephthah (Judg. 11:1-2).
3. Son of Michael of the family of Gad (1 Chron. 5:14).

Gilead, Mount

A mount occupied by Gideon before he attacked the Midianites and Amalekites (Judg. 7:3). Some suppose that “Gilboa” should be read, but there is no MSS authority for the change. It may be that the tribe of Manasseh on the west had named one of their mountains “Gilead,” which is not mentioned elsewhere.


Not used strictly for the descendants of one man. Numbers 26:29 refers to the descendants of Manasseh (No. 1, in the article on Gilead) and Judges 11:1,40 and Judges 12:7 to No. 2. We also read of Jair a Gileadite (Judg. 10:3); and Barzillai (2 Sam. 17:27; 2 Sam. 19:31; 1 Kings 2:7; Ezra 2:61; Neh. 7:63). The Ephraimites accused the Gileadites and Jephthah with being fugitives from them, but they were severely punished for their arrogance (Judg. 12:4-6). Pekah when he revolted against Pekahiah slew fifty men of the Gileadites (2 Kings 15:25).


1. Place west of the Jordan, “in the east border of Jericho,” where the Israelites encamped after passing the river. Here the twelve memorial stones were placed that were taken out of Jordan. Here the Israelites were circumcised: type of the putting off the body of the flesh; that is, of separation from the system in which man in the flesh lives (compare Col. 3:3-5). Here the reproach of Egypt was “rolled away” (from which the name of the place was called “Gilgal”), and they had communion figuratively with the death of Christ in the Passover. On the next day they ate of the old corn of the promised land: type of Christ being the center of heavenly things on which the Christian feeds (Josh. 4:19-20; Josh. 5:2-11). Gilgal was not only the starting point in taking possession of the land, but the place to which Joshua returned again and again: it was the place of strength (Josh. 9:6; Josh. 10:6-15; Josh. 14:6). It was here that Saul was made king, 1 Samuel 11:14-15; and here he offered sacrifices, and Samuel hewed Agag in pieces (1 Sam. 13:4-15; 1 Sam. 15:12,21,33).
When David returned after the overthrow and death of Absalom, Judah gathered at Gilgal to meet the king and conduct him over Jordan (2 Sam. 19:15). In the days of Jeroboam Gilgal was defiled with idolatry (Hos. 4:15; Hos. 9:15; Amos 4:4). Gilgal which signifies “rolled away” should be itself “rolled away” (Amos 5:5). In Joshua 15:7 the border of Judah’s portion “looked toward” Gilgal, which well agrees with its being near Jericho. But in Joshua 18:17 the same place is called GELILOTH, which cannot be traced. Gilgal is identified with Jiljulieh, 31° 51' N, 35° 29' E. In Nehemiah 12:29 occurs “the house of Gilgal,” or “Beth-gilgal,” which may refer to the same place, or may be one of the villages built “round about” Jerusalem.
2. A place connected with the closing scene of Elijah’s life and where Elisha wrought one of his miracles (2 Kings 2:1; 2 Kings 4:38). The two prophets went “down” from Gilgal to Bethel, whereas when No. 1 is referred to it is always “going up” to the neighborhood of Bethel, which seems to indicate that different places are alluded to. It has been identified with Jiljilia, 32° 2' N, 35° 13' E. (It should however be added that if the identification of Nos. 1 and 2, and that of Bethel is correct, No. 2 is not actually higher than Bethel, though being on a high hill it appears to be so, and a valley has to be crossed to reach it. The altitude of No. 2 is 2,441 feet, and that of Bethel 2,890 feet. No. 1 is below the sea level, which makes the “going up” from thence to Bethel very apparent.)
3. A place whose king is called “the king of the nations of Gilgal,” or, as in the RV, “the king of Goiim in Gilgal.” He was slain under Joshua. Being mentioned between Dor and Tirzah it is apparently a third Gilgal (Josh. 12:23). It has been identified with Jiljulieh, 32° 10' N, 34° 57' E.
4. In Deuteronomy 11:30 Moses, speaking of the mounts of Gerizim and Ebal, asks “Are they not.... in the land of the Canaanites, which dwell in the champaign over against Gilgal, beside the plains of Moreh?” This does not at all agree with any of the above, but has not been identified with any place in the neighborhood of the two mountains.


Town in the highlands of Judah, the native place of Ahithophel (Josh. 15:51; 2 Sam. 15:12). Identified with ruins at Jala, 31° 37' N, 35° 4' E.


Designation of Ahithophel as a native of Giloh (2 Sam. 15:12; 2 Sam. 23:34).


City captured by the Philistines in the time of Ahaz (2 Chron. 28:18). Identified with Jimzu, 31° 56' N, 34° 56' E.




Father of Tibni who disputed the throne of Israel with Omri (1 Kings 16:21-22).

Ginnetho, Ginnethon

Priest who sealed the covenant: he was ancestor of Meshullam (Neh. 10:6; Neh. 12:4, 16).


An article of dress always worn in the East, both by the rich and the poor, and needed there because of their flowing robes. For the poor they were of the plainest material, but for the rich they were more or less costly, and were highly ornamented. They were thus suitable articles for presents (1 Sam. 18:4; 2 Sam. 18:11). John the Baptist wore a leathern girdle, or one of skin (Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6; compare 2 Kings 1:8). In the Revelation the Lord has on a golden girdle, and the seven angels who come out of the temple have the same (Rev. 1:13; Rev. 15:6). The priests wore girdles, and one for Aaron was a “linen” girdle (Lev. 16:4), and with the breastplate was the CURIOUS (that is, embroidered) GIRDLE of the ephod, made of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine-twined linen (Ex. 28:8).
The girdle is typical of strength, and “girding up the loins” denotes active service. When the Gentiles are gathered by God to discipline Israel, the girdle of their loins shall not be loosed (Isa. 5:27). Of the Lord when He comes to reign it is said, “Righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins” (Isa. 11:5). In the present warfare the Christian is exhorted to have his loins “girt about” with truth (Eph. 6:14)—the “truth” being the very thing that Satan will most oppose, and about which the mass are liable to be indifferent.
Girdles were also used for purses (Matt. 10:9; Mark 6:8), where the word signifies a “belt.”

Girgasites, Girgashites

A people established early in Canaan, the origin of whom is not known, except that they were descended from Canaan (Gen. 10:16; Gen. 15:21; Deut. 7:1; Josh. 3:10; Josh. 24:11; 1 Chron. 1:14; Neh. 9:8).


An overseer of the Nethinim in Ophel after the exile (Neh. 11:21).




Place to which the Beerothites fled on the death of Abner. It was inhabited on the return from exile (2 Sam. 4:3; Neh. 11:33).


Designation of the six hundred men as inhabitants of Gath, and of their leader Ittai, who followed David at Absalom’s revolt (2 Sam. 15:18-22; 2 Sam. 18:2). Goliath also was a Gittite (2 Sam. 21:19; 1 Chron. 20:5). Obed-edom, though a Levite, was also called a Gittite, probably because of residing at Gath or Gath-rimmon (2 Sam. 6:10-11; 1 Chron. 13:13).


Apparently a musical instrument, the nature of which is unknown. From its name it has been supposed to have formerly been used at Gath. Others connect it with Obed-edom the Gittite. It occurs only in the headings of Psalm 8, Psalm 81 and Psalm 84.


Designation of Hashem, whose sons were among David’s guard: the origin of the name is not known (1 Chron. 11:34).

Glad Tidings


Glass, Looking Glass

Though glass was known to the Egyptians (the monuments showing their mode of glass blowing), it does not appear to be mentioned in the Old Testament. In Isaiah 3:23 the word “glasses” (gillayon) may signify small tablets of metal to serve as mirrors, such as the women used. The LXX translates it their “transparent garments.” In Ecclesiastes 38:8 it distinctly says that the laver was made of brass out of the women’s looking glasses, showing that brazen mirrors were then used. The root of the Hebrew word marah is raah, to see. In Job 37:18 it is from the same root, where the sky is compared to a molten mirror.
The MIRROR is referred to by the word ἔσοπτρον, translated “glass” (James 1:23), but the same word is applied to “glass” or a dim window through, δία, which we see obscurely, as a semi-transparent substance (1 Cor. 13:12). In the Revelation the word is ὔαός, and is called “clear,” “transparent,” and “like crystal,” which evidently refers to glass (Rev. 4:6; Rev. 15:2; Rev. 21:18,21). The sea of glass signifies fixed purity. Many specimens of glass have been discovered in the explorations at Jerusalem.


At the harvest and the vintage gleaning was strictly forbidden to be carried out by the owners: the residue must always be left for the poor (Lev. 19:9-10; Lev. 23:22; Ruth 2:2-23, etc). Gideon appeased the wrath of Ephraim by saying “Is not the gleaning of the grapes of Ephraim better than the vintage of Abi-ezer?” Gideon’s family name (Judg. 8:2).

Glede (Raah)

One of the unclean birds (Deut. 14:13). In the parallel passage in Leviticus 11:14 the word is omitted, as it is by the LXX, the Samaritan, and four Hebrew MSS. What bird is referred to is unknown.


There are eight different words in the Hebrew translated “glory,” but some occur only once. The principal of them are
1. hod, “renown, glory,” anything for which a being is admired. It is applied to God (Psa. 148:13; and to the horse (Job 39:20).
2. tipharah, tiphereth, “splendor, beauty, glory.” It is applied to God (Isa. 60:19); to Israel (Isa. 46:13); the crown that wisdom gives (Prov. 4:9); the hoary head (Prov. 16:31, etc).
3. kabod, “weight, honor, glory” (the word commonly used). It is frequently applied to God, as in “the God of glory” (Psa. 29:3); to Jehovah as “the King of glory” (Psa. 24:7-9); “the glory of Jehovah” that appeared on Mount Sinai, and that filled the tabernacle (Ex. 24:16-17; Ex. 40:34-35), and will fill the future temple (Ezek. 43:2-5); also the glory pertaining to Israel, and to the Gentiles in the past and the future (1 Sam. 4:21-22; Isa. 66:12).
In the New Testament the word is δόξα, “esteem, honor, excellency of mind, body.” It is applied to created things, as the sun, moon, and stars (1 Cor. 15:41); also to man as “the glory of God” (1 Cor. 11:7). The moral glory of the Lord Jesus Christ shone out in all His pathway on earth (John 1:14; John 11:40). He speaks of the glory He had from eternity with the Father, and His acquired glory which He will graciously share with His joint heirs (John 17:5,22,24). Every tongue shall confess His lordship to the glory of God the Father (Phil. 2:11). His glory will be revealed on earth, and He will be hailed “King of kings and Lord of lords” (Matt. 25:31; 1 Pet. 4:13; Rev. 17:14; Rev. 19:16). He is “the Lord of glory” (1 Cor. 2:8).
Glory belongs to God: He is the God of glory (Acts 7:2; 2 Cor. 4:6,15). In Him all the divine attributes shine in infinite perfection. Christians in acknowledging this, and owning that from Him come all their blessings, joyfully ascribe unto Him “Praise and honor, glory and power, forever and ever” (Rom. 11:36; Gal. 1:5; 1 Tim. 1:17; 2 Tim. 4:18). The same is ascribed to the Lord Jesus by the saints, and will be by every creature (Rev. 5).
Glory is often used as expressive of the proper distinction of a person, or of a company: as the glory of the Father (Rom. 6:4); of the Word (John 1:14); of the children of God (Rom. 8:21); and even of inanimate bodies heavenly and earthly (1 Cor. 15:40-41). Each has its own glory, and such glory is evidently not transferable; for if it could be transferred or communicated, it would lose its specially distinctive force. But glory may be in the nature of distinction conferred, as upon a creature by a superior, and even upon the Lord Himself, viewed as in the place of Man; as on the mount of transfiguration, and at the right hand of God (2 Pet. 1:17; 1 Pet. 1:21). And this is distinction in which others may in measure be permitted to share (John 17:22).
Glory may properly attach to a person even under an exterior by which it is not expressed. This was evidently the case with Christ when on earth: the flesh which He assumed in becoming Man served to veil His glory. In the same way the glory of the children of God is not yet manifest, and until it is manifest the glory is the exultation of the heart. This idea is not unfrequently found in the Psalms.
And further, this thought of glory hidden brings us to the glory of God, which, in its full expression, is the effulgence or display of Himself in the accomplishment of His counsels, in hope of which Christians rejoice. These counsels hid in God constitute, as one may say, His glory; and in their result they fully display His wisdom, love, and power. Meanwhile they have come to light through Christ being at the right hand of God, and the Holy Ghost given. We have now the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.
The visible manifestation of glory seems connected with light: it was so on the mount of transfiguration (Matt. 17:2). God dwells in “light which no man can approach unto” (1 Tim. 6:16). In the new Jerusalem the glory of God lightens it, “and the Lamb is the light thereof” (Rev. 21:23). When the Lord Jesus was revealed to Saul at his conversion, he was blinded by “the glory of that light” (Acts 22:11), but only that divine light might shine into his soul.


The word κώνωψ, is supposed to refer to any species of gnat or mosquito. Matthew 23:24 should read “strain out” in contrast to “swallowing.”


An early system of philosophy professedly Christian. One of their theories was that the Lord was an Æon and not really a man. Apparently to refute this, the apostle insists on Christ having come “in flesh” (1 John 4:2-3; 2 John 1:7). The same may be alluded to in Colossians 2:9, “in him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily,” in opposition to their mysticism. See GENEALOGIES.


A long slender pole with a sharp point at one end, used for guiding and urging the oxen in plowing. It can also be used as a formidable weapon. Shamgar slew six hundred men with an ox goad (Judg. 3:31; 1 Sam. 13:21). It is applied metaphorically to the energy imparted by the words of the wise (Eccl. 12:11). The goad is alluded to in Acts 9:5; Acts 26:14, translated “pricks:” if the ox kicked against the goad, he only hurt himself the more: as do all those who oppose God.


The well-known animal, regarded as clean under the Levitical economy, and having a large place in the sacrifices. Goats formed an important item in the property of the patriarchs. In Daniel’s prophecy of the kingdoms, that of Greece was compared to a “rough he goat,” but with a notable horn between his eyes (Dan. 8:5, 8, 21). The goats, in the sessional judgment of the living nations, represent the lost, in contrast to the saved, who are compared to sheep (Matt. 25:32-33). THE WILD GOATS were larger animals and lived on the mountains (1 Sam. 24:2; Job 39:1; Psa. 104:18).

Goat, Scape


Goath (Go'ath)

Place mentioned as one of the boundaries to which the city of Jerusalem will extend when it is rebuilt “to the Lord” (Jer. 31:39). Not identified.


Place where David had two encounters with the Philistines (2 Sam. 21:18-19). By comparing this passage with 1 Chronicles 20:4 it appears that the same place is there called GEZER.


Basin, bowl: used metaphorically in Song of Solomon 7:2.


The names by which God makes Himself known are various.
1. El, “the strong or mighty one.” It is often used of God, especially in Job and the Psalms (Job 5:8; Psa. 22:1, etc.); and of the Lord Jesus in Isaiah 9:6. It is also used for the false gods (Psa. 81:9; Dan. 11:36); and is translated “mighty” (Psa. 29:1; Psa. 82:1).
2. Eloah (Elah Chaldee), Elohim. The names most commonly used for God the Creator, the One with whom man has to do, the supreme Deity (Gen. 1:1-31). (Running all through the Old Testament to Malachi 3:18.) These words are also applied to God’s representatives, such as angels and judges (Ex. 22:28; Psa. 82:6); and also to false gods (Lev. 19:4). Elohim (which is plural, called the plural of majesty or excellency) is the word of most frequent occurrence. When it is distinctly used for the one true God the article is often added.
3. Jehovah. This is a name of relationship with men, especially with Israel, taken by God in time. It is derived from havah, “to exist,” and may be expanded into “who is, who was, and is to come.” God thus reveals Himself in time as the ever-existing One: that is, in Himself eternally, He is always the same (compare Heb. 1:12). The above “relationship” may be seen in the change from Elohim, the Creator, in Genesis 1, to Jehovah Elohim in Genesis 2, when man was brought into relationship with God. Again in Genesis 7:16 Elohim ordered Noah to make the ark but Jehovah shut him in. Unfortunately the name Jehovah is seldom employed in the AV. It is generally represented by LORD (sometimes GOD) printed in small capitals. In four places the AV has preserved the name Jehovah, namely, Ex. 6:3; Psa. 83:18; Isa. 12:2; Isa. 26:4.
There is a contraction of Jehovah into Jah, also translated in the AV by LORD, except in Psalm 68:4, where Israel is exhorted to sing unto God, and “extol Him by His name JAH.” Jah signifies the absolute supremacy of the self-existing One; whereas Jehovah was the name made known to Israel, and on which they could count. “God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM” (Ex. 3:14), where the word is Ehyeh, which is from the same root as Jehovah, the Eternal existing One; He that was, and is, and the coming One.
4. Shaddai, “the Almighty,” is another name of God, and is often so translated, especially in Job, without any other name attached (Job 6:4, 14; Psa. 68:14, etc). At times it is associated with one of the above words, and was the name by which He was especially known to the Patriarchs, as El Shaddai, God Almighty (Ex. 6:3): which passage does not mean that the Patriarchs had not heard of the name of Jehovah, but that it was not the especial name for them.
5. Elyon, “the Most High,” is another name of God, which stands alone, as in Deuteronomy 32:8 and 2 Samuel 24:14; and in Daniel 4:17-34 (from a kindred word); or it has one of the above words added and is then “the most high God” (Gen. 14:20); or “the LORD most high” (Psa. 7:17). It is not confined to Israel, for He is “the Most High over all the earth” (Psa. 83:18).
6-7. Adon and Adonai, and the plural Adonim, are all translated “Lord”; they occur frequently, and are found in some of the following compounds:
Adon Jehovah (Ex. 23:17), the Lord God.
Adon Jehovah Elohim (Isa. 51:22), thy Lord, the LORD, and thy God.
Adon Jehovah Sabaoth (Isa. 19:4), the Lord, the LORD of hosts.
Adonai Elohim (Psa. 86:12), O Lord my God (compare Dan. 9:3,9,15).
Adona Jehovah (Deut. 9:26), O Lord GOD (occurs frequently).
Adonai Jehovah Sabaoth (Jer. 2:19), the Lord GOD of hosts.
El Elohim (Gen. 33:20), El-elohe (Israel); (Gen. 46:3), God, the God (of thy father).
El Elohim Jehovah (Josh. 22:22), the LORD God of gods.
El Shaddai (Gen. 28:3, etc.), God Almighty.
Jah Jehovah (Isa. 26:4), the LORD JEHOVAH.
Jehovah Adon (Neh. 10:29), the LORD our Lord.
Jehovah Adonai (Psa. 68:20), GOD the Lord.
Jehovah El (Psa. 31:5), O LORD God.
Jehovah Elohim (Gen. 9:26, etc.), the LORD God.
Jehovah Elohim Sabaoth Adonai (Amos 5:16), the LORD, the God of hosts, the Lord.
Jehovah Jehovah El (Ex. 34:6), the LORD, the LORD God.
Jehovah Sabaoth (Jer. 46:18), the LORD of hosts.
Jehovah Sabaoth Elohim (Jer. 27:4, etc.), the LORD of hosts, the God (of Israel).
For titles in combination with Jehovah, see JEHOVAH.
The true pronunciation of Jehovah is declared to be lost: the Jews when reading the Old Testament never utter it (from a constrained interpretation of Leviticus 24:16), but say, “the name,” “the great and terrible name,” and the like.
In the New Testament the word Θεός is constantly translated God; and Κύριος is the word commonly rendered Lord. In the Old Testament the latter is used by the LXX as the translation of Jehovah, so in the New Testament it often represents Jehovah, and is then mostly, if not always, without the article, as in Matthew 1:20,22,24. The Lord is also called “the Almighty” (Rev. 1:8, etc.); and there are a few compound names as in the Old Testament:
God Almighty (Rev. 16:14; Rev. 19:15).
Lord Almighty (2 Cor. 6:18).
Lord God Almighty (Rev. 4:8; Rev. 11:17; Rev. 15:3; Rev. 16:7; Rev. 21:22).
Lord of Sabaoth (Rom. 9:29; James 5:4).
The characteristic name of God in the New Testament in relationship with His saints is that of FATHER: it was used anticipatively in the Lord’s intercourse with His disciples, but made a reality after His resurrection, when He sent the message: “I ascend unto My Father and your Father, and to My God and your God” (John 20:17).
THE TRINITY. In reference to this term the Father is God (Phil. 2:11; 1 Thess. 1:1, etc.). The Lord Jesus is God (Isa. 9:6; Matt. 1:23; John 1:1; Rom. 9:5; Phil. 2:6; Col. 2:9; 1 Tim. 3:16; Heb. 1:8). The Holy Spirit is God: “the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters” (Gen. 1:2). Ananias lied to “the Holy Ghost,” “unto God”; and Sapphira unto the “Spirit of the Lord” (Acts 5:3-4, 9); “Spirit of God” (1 Cor. 2:11; 1 Cor. 3:16, etc). That there are three divine Persons (if we may so express it) is plain from scripture. The Father sent the Son, and He came to earth. The Father sent the Holy Spirit, and the Lord Jesus sent the Holy Spirit, and He came from heaven. He is a divine Person, of which there are many proofs (see HOLY SPIRIT). There is but one God.
Scripture reveals what God is in Himself, “God is love” used absolutely (1 John 4:8); and “God is light” used relatively, in opposition to darkness (1 John 1:5); and Christ is the expression of both in a Man. The principal of God’s attributes and characteristics as revealed in scripture are—
1. His Eternity (Hab. 1:12; Rom. 1:20).
2. Invisibility (Col. 1:15).
3. Immortality (Psa. 90:2; 1 Tim. 1:17).
4. Omnipotence (Job 24:1; Matt. 19:26; only Potentate. 1 Tim. 6:15).
5. Omnipresence (Psa. 139:7-10; Jer. 23:23-24).
6. Omniscience (1 Chron. 28:9; Isa. 42:8-9; Rom. 8:29-30; Heb. 4:13).
7. Incorruptibility (Rom. 1:23; James 1:13).
8. Immutability (Mal. 3:6; James 1:17).
9. Wisdom (Psa. 104:24; Rom. 11:33-36).
10. Holiness (Psa. 47:8; Psa. 99:3, 5; Rev. 4:8).
11. Justice (Psa. 89:14; 2 Tim. 4:8).
12. Grace and mercy (Psa. 136; 2 Cor. 1:3; Eph. 2:4).
13. Longsuffering (Ex. 34:6; Rom. 9:22).
14. Faithfulness (Psa. 36:5; Heb. 10:23).
God’s eternal power and divinity may be known in creation (Rom. 1:20); but He has revealed Himself in the person of Christ, the Son, the eternal Word. God has been pleased also to reveal Himself in His written word. His purposes, His ways, and what He has done for sinful man, all demand universal reverence, adoration, and worship.

God Forbid

This is an unhappy expression, bringing in the name of God where it does not occur. In the Old Testament it is chalilah, “far be it” (Gen. 44:7, 17, etc). In the New Testament μὴ γένοιτο, “let it not be” (Rom. 3:4,6,31, etc).

God Speed

The word is χαίρω, “to rejoice, to be glad:” hence do not “greet” one who brings not true doctrine; say not to him “Hail,” as in Luke 1:28 and John 1:10-11.


1. θεῖος, that which is “divine:” it is not like gold, silver, or stone (Acts 17:29). The word is translated “divine” in 2 Pet. 1:3,4.
2. θειότης, that which is characteristic of God, namely, “divinity” (Rom. 1:20).
3. θεότης, Deity or Godhead; in Christ “dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily” (Col. 2:9).


1. θεοσέβεια, “worship or reverence of God,” “reverential fear of God” (1 Tim. 2:10). The same word is used in the LXX for “the fear of God” in Genesis 20:11, and for “the fear of the Lord” in Job 28:28.
2. εὐσέβεια, from “to worship well,” hence piety towards God. The word “piety” seems to suit all the passages where the Greek word occurs (Acts 3:12; 1 Tim. 2:2; 1 Tim. 3:16; 1 Tim. 4:7-8; 1 Tim. 6:3,5-6,11; 2 Tim. 3:5; Titus 1:1; 2 Pet. 1:3,6-7; 2 Pet. 3:11).

Gods, Goddess



Son of Shemaiah, a Reubenite (1 Chron. 5:4).

Gog and Magog

GOG is a symbolical name for the powerful and proud chief of the vast hordes of Scythia and Tartary. MAGOG, the son of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), whose descendants spread over the vast steppes in the north, after whom the land is here called. Ezekiel 38:2 should read “Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal.” Gog is the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal answering to Russia, Moscow or Muscovy, and Tobolsk: all now in the Russian empire. These, “coming out of the north,” “as a cloud to cover the land,” will attack Israel in the land of Palestine, but will be smitten by God (Ezek. 38:2, 18; Ezek. 39:1,6,11). The valley where they will be buried will be called Hamon-Gog, the “multitude of Gog” (Ezek. 39:11,15). The destruction of these hordes will cause the heathen to know the Lord, that is, the nations extern to the Antichristian Empire of the West.
In Revelation 20:8 we also read of Gog and Magog attacking “the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city,” Jerusalem; but this must not be confounded with the prophecy in Ezekiel, for here they come out of “the four corners of the earth”; and the battles do not coincide as to time. In Ezekiel the attack is before Israel is finally settled in the land, as may be seen by the context; whereas in the Revelation it is after the thousand years of the millennium, and is followed by the final overthrow of God’s enemies who are led on by Satan. There is doubtless an allusion to, the names in Ezekiel; “Gog and Magog,” being symbolical names, are employed to describe all the proud and powerful hordes of post-millennium times, whose number is “as the sand of the sea,” and whom Satan will collect together from all quarters to attack the kingdom of the Lord Jesus as established on earth, only to be devoured by fire from heaven: for Satan, when loosed, will not be able to raise up an empire against the Lord.


Levitical city of Manasseh in Bashan, and a city of refuge (Deut. 4:43; Josh. 20:8; Josh. 21:27; 1 Chron. 6:71). Identified by some with Sahem el,Jaulan, 32° 48' N, 35° 56' E.


The well-known precious metal. It was discovered very early (Gen. 2:11-12). It was purified by fire (Prov. 17:3; Zech. 13:9): and we read of “choice gold,” “fine gold,” “pure gold.” Precious things are compared with gold to show their value (Psa. 119:72,127). It was extensively used in the tabernacle and in the temple; some things being made of gold, and others being overlaid with it. For fabrics the gold was beaten into thin plates and cut into wires to be woven with the blue, the purple, and the fine twined linen. The heavenly Jerusalem is also described as of “pure gold” (Rev. 21:18,21). Being the most costly metal it is regarded as symbolical of what pertains to God, and as signifying divine righteousness. The Lord Jesus counseled the poor Laodiceans to buy of Him “gold tried in the fire,” that they might be rich (Rev. 3:18).

Golden Candlestick


Golden City

“The golden city ceased,” Isaiah 14:4 is better translated, as in the margin, “the exactress of gold ceased!” Babylon, which had heaped up gold by its conquests, was overcome.




The giant of Gath, who for forty days defied the armies of Israel. He was slain by David with a sling and a stone in the name of Jehovah. David cut off his head and carried it to Jerusalem. Goliath’s sword was preserved and eventually restored to David. His height was six cubits and a span, about 8' 4" by the shortest cubit. He was a type of Satan, too strong for any to conquer except the one in the power of Jehovah, David being a type of the Lord Jesus (1 Sam. 17:4-23; 1 Sam. 21:9). Goliath’s brother, named Lahmi, also a giant, is evidently the one spoken of in 2 Samuel 21:19 (compare 1 Chron. 20:5).


1. Eldest son of Japheth, and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. Gomer is supposed to be the progenitor of the early Cimmerians who occupied the Tauric Chersonese, of which the name of the Crimea is a relic. In the 7th century they devastated the western part of Asia Minor (Gen. 10:2-3; 1 Chron. 1:5-6; Eze. 38:6).
2. Daughter of Diblaim, and “wife” of Hosea (Hos. 1:3).

Gomorrah, Gomorrha

One of the five cities of the plain, or Vale of Siddim, that revolted against Chedorlaomer, who attacked and carried away the people and the spoil. They were rescued by Abraham because Lot was among the captives. The wickedness of the cities being exceedingly great, they were, with the exception of the small city of Zoar, destroyed by fire and brimstone from heaven. SODOM is constantly associated with Gomorrah in the accounts of this destruction, and they are held up both in the Old Testament and in the New Testament as a signal instance of God’s direct action in judgment (Gen. 14; Gen. 18:19; 2 Pet. 2:6; Jude 7). Yet, solemn and complete as was their destruction, the Lord said it would be more tolerable in the day of judgment for these cities than for those where His mighty works had been done, and which had rejected Him (Matt. 10:15).
It is not known where these cities were situated, except that they were near to the Dead Sea: at its north end is now considered to be most probable.
In Isaiah 1:10 Israel had fallen so low that the prophet addresses them as “ye rulers of Sodom,” “ye people of Gomorrah,” and Jerusalem is “spiritually called Sodom and Egypt” in Revelation 11:8.


“Master of the house” (Prov. 7:19; Matt. 20:11; Matt. 24:43; Mark 14:14; Luke 12:39; Luke 22:11).

Gopher Wood

The wood with which Noah built the Ark. For so large a vessel it must have been a strong wood, but “gopher” is the Hebrew word and it is not known to what it refers (Gen. 6:14).


1. The part of Egypt in which the Israelites were located. It is often called “the land of Goshen,” and is also termed “the land of Rameses.” Pharaoh bade Joseph place his father and his brethren in the best of the land. It is generally supposed that Goshen was situated on the east of the ancient Delta of the Nile (Gen. 45:10; Gen. 46:28-29, 31; Gen. 47:1,4,6,11,27; Gen. 50:8; Ex. 8:22; Ex. 9:26).
2. Land or district in the southern part of Palestine (Josh. 10:41; Josh. 11:16). Not identified.
3. Town in the highlands of Judah (Josh. 15:51). Not identified.

Gospel, the (εύαγγέλιον)

“Good news” or “glad tidings.” Everything worthy of this title must come from God. It has not always had the same character. It was good news to Adam and Eve that the Seed of the woman should bruise the head of the serpent. Doubtless they believed it, for Eve said, when Cain was born, “I have gotten a man from the Lord” (Gen. 3:15; Gen. 4:1). It was good news to Noah (when God made known that He was going to destroy all flesh) that he and his family should be saved in an ark, and that God would establish His covenant with him. Noah believed God, and was preserved (Heb. 11:7). It was good news to Abraham, when called out by God to be blessed by Him, to be told that he should have a son in his old age; that his seed should possess the land, and that in his Seed should all the nations of the earth be blessed (Gal. 3:8). Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness (Gen. 15:6; Rom. 4:3). It was good news to the Israelites, when slaves to Pharaoh, that God had come down to deliver them by the hand of Moses. They believed the good news, “they bowed their heads and worshipped” (Ex. 4:31). But this was only a part of the good news to Israel; they were not only to be brought out of Egypt; but to be brought into a “good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey.” Here alas, many of them failed; though this “gospel,” as it is called in the Epistle to the Hebrews, was preached to them, it did not profit them, because it was not mixed with faith in them: they “entered not in because of unbelief” (Heb. 4:2-6).
The “glad tidings of the kingdom” was prophesied of in the Old Testament and was preached by the Lord Jesus when on earth (Matt. 4:23; Luke 4:43; etc.); and will be preached in the future (Matt. 24:14). Though this gospel was rejected by Israel at large, the Lord gathered around Him a little flock, who formed the nucleus of the church at Pentecost. Then Jesus Christ was preached and the forgiveness of sins through His death, “the gospel of the grace of God,” and this was towards all mankind (Acts 20:24).
To Paul was revealed “THE GOSPEL OF THE GLORY,” that God has glorified Christ, and that His glory shines in the face of Him who put away the sins of believers (2 Cor. 4:4; 1 Tim. 1:11). So peculiarly was this committed to Paul that he called it “my gospel” (2 Tim. 2:8). It embraced more than salvation, great as that is, for he was desirous of making known “the mystery of the gospel,” which separates believers from the first man of the earth, and associates them with Christ glorified in heaven.
In the future there will be glad tidings for Israel when God’s time is come to bless them. The messengers will publish peace and salvation, and say to Zion, “Thy God reigneth” (Isa. 52:7). There will also be proclaimed THE EVERLASTING GOSPEL to the Gentiles, that which has been from the beginning, that the Seed of the woman should bruise the serpent’s head. The testimony rendered by means of angelic power is, “Fear God, and give glory to Him, for the hour of His judgment is come,” with the injunction to worship the Creator (Rev. 14:6-7).

Gospels, The

God having been pleased to give in His word four Gospels, it is manifest that He had a design and purpose in doing so, which it is well to endeavor to discover. If it is accepted that God is really the author of them all, it at once sweeps away all questions of anterior documents, from which one evangelist selected certain events, and another chose events somewhat different; and also the unworthy hypothesis that after the first, each writer had before him the gospel or gospels that had been previously written, and then sought to supply their deficiencies. Surely in all such thoughts God is forgotten.
It is surprising that the mass of modern commentators do not see any design in the differences in the gospels, and that each gospel has its own peculiar characteristics. As early as Irenaeus (A.D. 120-200) this was seen: he compared them with the four cherubim in the Revelation; and in several of the old books a man is portrayed with Matthew; a lion with Mark; an ox with Luke; and an eagle with John. Why they were put in this order is not easy to see, for in the Revelation the lion is mentioned first, and the calf second; though the above is the order of the faces in Ezekiel. The distinctions may be seen in many instances.
MATTHEW. The gospel opens with “The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the Son of David, the son of Abraham.” And the genealogy goes no further than Abraham, whereas in Luke it ascends to Adam, agreeing with the scope of that gospel. In Matthew there are many more quotations from the Old Testament than in either of the others. All proving that this gospel was a testimony to Jesus as the true Messiah for Israel. Here the Magi come and inquire for “the king of the Jews.” On His entry into Jerusalem He was hailed with “Hosanna to the son of David,” which is not found in the other gospels: with many other designed differences. The ascension is not recorded: the record ends with the Lord in resurrection power on the earth, agreeing with the fact that the kingdom for Israel will be established on earth in the power of Him who is risen. In pointing out the characteristic features of this gospel, which represents Christ as the Messiah and Son of David, it is not meant that other characters of the Lord are not there in a subordinate degree. Indeed in this gospel the Person of the Lord is very prominent, for every promise depends on the truth and glory of His Person.
MARK. The opening words show that it is the Gospel rather than the history of Jesus Christ, Son of God, which gives character to this gospel. It opens with a short preface to prepare the way for the introduction of the gospel of the kingdom of God, quoting part of Malachi 3:1 and Isaiah 40:3. Various details show that Christ is the faithful servant of this gospel: for instance, the word εὐθέως, translated immediately, “straightway,” “forthwith,” etc., occurs forty-two times; immediately one thing had been accomplished something else was to be done; and in Mark alone we read that they had no leisure to eat! The principles of the kingdom are not given here, nor the woes denounced, as in Matthew. In the passage “Of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father:” the words “neither the Son” occur in this gospel only, agreeing with the passage that “the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth.” As Son of God of course He knew all things. In Mark the Lord does not address God as His Father except in the agony in the garden, when His path of service was ended; nor do His disciples ever address him as “Lord.” Surely all these things, and other differences that could be named, show the character of the gospel to be the Lord Jesus as the divine Servant.
LUKE. In this gospel Jesus is presented as Son of Man: as observed above, His genealogy is traced to Adam. The early incidents of His life are here stated, being subject to His parents, etc. In the quotation from Isaiah 40:3-5, Matthew stops at the words “make His paths straight”; but Luke continues the quotation to “all flesh shall see the salvation of God.” So also when the Lord sends out His apostles to preach, in Matthew He charges them, “Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not”; but in Luke these words are omitted. The Lord is here the Son of Man for man. In this gospel only we have the parable of the good Samaritan, teaching that grace does not ask the question, “who is my neighbor?” for all men are neighbors; and here only we get the parable of the lost sheep, the lost piece of money, and the prodigal son: it is God seeking the lost. All this agrees with Christ being the Son of Man, seeking the blessing of man (compare Luke 2:14).
JOHN. The remarkable opening of this gospel gives its character. “The Word was with God, and the Word was God”; and near its close the object of its being written is stated to be that men might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God. There is no genealogy in John: in the beginning He was with God, and the world was made by Him. In this gospel the raising of Lazarus is recorded, and the Lord declares Himself to be “the resurrection and the life.” Here alone is omitted the agony in the garden; and when they came to arrest Him, they all went backward and fell to the ground. In these and many other passages in this gospel we see the characteristic presentation of Jesus as the Son of God; though from the fifth chapter onwards, His perfect dependence upon the Father is fully presented.
Thus in the four gospels we have, as it were, four divine portraits of the Lord Jesus in the characters above named. It spoils their divine perfection if it is attempted to make them into one, often called a “harmony.” Let them stand in their integrity as drawn by the finger of God; admire their differences, and the Lord revealed therein will be the better learned. Each of the gospels is further considered under its respective name.
The distinctive features of the gospels may be further studied by observing the frequency of certain Greek words in each.
Believe, to πιστεύω 11 15 9 100
End of the world (age) 5 -
Father, The πατήρ 44 5 17 122
Glory, glorify δόξα, δοξάζω 12 4 22 42
Immediately εὐθέωζ, εὐθύς 18 42 8 7
Kingdom of God 5 15 33 2
Kingdom of the Heavens 32 — -
Know, to γιτώσκω 20 13 28 54
Life ζωή 7 4 6 36
Light φῶζ 7 1 6 23
Love ἀγαπάω, ἀγάπη 9 5 14 44
Love φιλέω 4 1 13
Parable παραωολή 17 13 18 -
People λαός 15 3 36 3
Power δύναμις 13 10 15 -
Preach, to κηρύσσω 9 14 9
Preach (the gospel), to εὐαφφελίζω 1 10 -
Scribe γραμματεύς 24 22 15 1
True ἀληθής 1 1 12
True ἀληθινός 1 8
Truly ἀληθῶς 3 2 3 10
Truth ἀλήθεια 1 3 3 25
Witness μαρτυρές, μαρτυρία 1 3 3 47
Woe οὐαί 13 2 14
Works ἔργον 5 2 2 27
World κόσμος 9 3 3 79
For the Chronology of the Gospel History see NEW TESTAMENT.

Gourd (Qiquyon)

This was some gourd of rapid growth that afforded Jonah needed shelter (Jonah 4:6-10). The margin of the RV calls it the Palma Christi. Others identify it with the Lagenaria vulgaris, which is often seen in Palestine as affording shelter. It grows rapidly, but rapidly withers, as by the gnawing of its bark by a snail. Its fruit, emptied of seeds, is used for bottles.

Gourd, Wild (Paqquoth)

In a time of dearth a lap-full of gourds from a wild vine was gathered to provide a meal for Elisha and the sons of the prophets (2 Kings 4:39). Some suppose this to have been the wild cucumber, the leaves of which resemble those of the vine, but have a bitter poisonous taste. Others think the poisonous Colocynth, the Colocynthis agri, to be referred to. The ancient versions support this. A kindred word is translated “knops” in 1 Kings 6:18 (“gourds,” margin), as ornaments in the temple, for which the fruit of the Colocynth would be a graceful model.


There are ten Hebrew words thus translated, signifying any ruler, captain, viceroy, etc., that was set over the people. The term is also so used in the New Testament except the following:
1. ἐθνάρχης, “governor of a nation,” an ethnarch, as the ruler of Damascus was called (2 Cor. 11:32).
2. ἐύθύνων, “one who directs, guides,” used of the “steersman of a ship” (James 3:4).
3. ἡγεμών, the procurator of Judaea (Matt. 27:2; Luke 20:20, &c).
4. οἱκονόμος, “manager of a house, steward” (Gal. 4:2).

Governor of the Feast

The word is ἀρχιτρίκλινος, literally “head of three couches.” Three couches were set round the dining table, leaving the fourth side for the access of the servants; hence the president or ruler of a feast (John 2:8-9).


Region in Mesopotamia, to which some of the Israelites were carried captive. The “river Gozan” may signify the river at Gozan, and this is identified by most with the river Habor, now Khabour. A district about 37° N, 41° E. (2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 18:11; 2 Kings 19:12; 1 Chron. 5:26; Isa. 37:12).

Grace (Chen, χάρις)

The favor and graciousness shown by God to guilty man. It stands in contrast to law (John 1:17; Gal. 5:4); also to works and to desert or reward (Rom. 4:4; Rom. 11:6): “by grace ye are saved” (Eph. 2:5,8). The grace of God is vouchsafed to the saints all along the way: we find nearly all the Epistles commence and end with the invocation of grace on the churches: whereas when individuals are addressed MERCY is added (1 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 1:2; Titus 1:4; 2 John 1:3). The different aspects of grace and mercy have been thus set forth: “Grace refers more to the source and character of the sentiment; mercy to the state of the person who is its object. Grace may give me glory; mercy contemplates some need in me. Mercy is great in the greatness of the need; grace in the thought of the person exercising it.”

Graff, To

The reference to the grafting of trees in Romans 11 shows that the system was then practiced. It speaks of Gentiles, the wild olive branches, being grafted into the good olive tree; and this is said to be “contrary to nature.” Gentiles have now been grafted into the tree of witness on earth, and of promise; but by-and-by the natural branches, Israel, will again be grafted into “their own olive tree.” It does not refer to individual salvation (Rom. 11:17-24).




This word is often used in scripture for any kind of small herb or fodder. It is frequently referred to metaphorically to represent human frailty. “Surely the people is grass: the grass withereth, the flower fadeth” (Isa. 40:7-8). It is growing one day, and the next it is cast into the oven as fuel (Matt. 6:30).


This insect cannot be distinguished from the locust. See LOCUST.


Anything twisted or woven. It refers to the “grating” made of brass that formed part of the brazen altar (Ex. 27:4; Ex. 35:16; Ex. 38:4-5,30; Ex. 39:39).


The principal words are
1. qeber, qeburah, τἀφος, from “to bury,” and hence any description of burying place (Gen. 35:20; Gen. 50:5; Matt. 23:29). They are often translated Sepulcher (Gen. 23:6; Deut. 34:6; Matt. 23:27).
2. sheol, ἄδης, the place of departed spirits (Gen. 37:35; Psa. 6:5; Hos. 13:14; 1 Cor. 15:55). See HELL.
3. μνῆμα, μνημεῖον, from “to remember,” hence a memorial tomb or monument (Matt. 27:52-53, etc). It is often translated Sepulcher, as in John 20:1-11; and TOMB, as in Matthew 8:28.
The graves were of various descriptions: some were simply holes dug in the ground and at times covered over with one or more large stones, over which men might walk unawares (Luke 11:44). Some were hewn in the rock, and a single stone placed or rolled against the mouth; the tomb of Lazarus and that of Joseph “in which the body of Jesus was laid” being of this description. Other sepulchers or tombs were said to be built; an ornamental structure being erected over the place where the body was laid, similar to those found in nearly all modern cemeteries (Matt. 23:29).
In places, and especially near Jerusalem, there are long passages, with holes cut in the sides in which the bodies were placed; and by continuing these passages such tombs could be enlarged to any extent. We read in the Old Testament of the TOMBS OF THE KINGS. Those now bearing this name may be seen marked on maps to the north of Jerusalem; and others called the TOMBS OF THE PROPHETS are placed on the mount of Olives. These of course may not be those referred to in scripture.
Natural caves were also used as graves, as the cave of Machpelah (Gen. 23:3-20). In Luke 8:27 we read of a demoniac who lived in the “tombs”; these were doubtless natural caves.
The Lord compared the hypocritical scribes and Pharisees to whited sepulchers, the outward beauty of which stood in strong contrast to the dead men’s bones and uncleanness within. There is a tradition that the sepulchers were white-washed once every year, that they might be readily seen and avoided. The hour comes when all that are in the graves shall hear His voice and come forth, some to the resurrection of life, and others to the resurrection of judgment (John 5:28-29).

Grave, To


Graven Image

Images were of two descriptions: they were cut or hewn out of a block of stone, and fashioned into some likeness. Dagon, the god of the Philistines, had face, head, and hands, being, as is supposed, half fish and half man (1 Sam. 5:3-4). The gods made of a tree were also doubtless wrought, at least rudely, in the form of some living or imaginary creature. But there were also MOLTEN IMAGES, as the golden calf, which was first cast and then shaped more exactly with the graving tool (Ex. 32:4; compare Acts 17:29). Yet Israel had been expressly forbidden to make “any graven image” to bow down to or to worship (Ex. 20:4-5). The Gentile also, led on by Satan, made his own god, and worshipped it, turning his eyes away from God’s “eternal power and divinity” which are manifest in His works (Rom. 1:20-23).



Grecia, Greece

The Hebrew of Greece is Yavan, which naturally associates it with Javan the son of Japheth (Gen. 10:2,4; 1 Chron. 1:5, 7). In Isaiah 66:19 the country inhabited by his descendants is also called Javan, which is mentioned as a place whose merchants traded with Tyre (Ezek. 27:13,19). See JAVAN. The same word is translated “Grecia” in Daniel and “Greece” in Zechariah. It is the well-known country bearing that name in the S.E. corner of Europe, but the name did not always apply to the same extent of territory. It did not anciently include Macedonia, nor does the modern kingdom. Greece is referred to in Daniel as the seat of the third great Gentile empire, of which Alexander the Great was the head, though he was a Macedonian; but he conquered. Greece, and the empire he established bears that name (Dan. 8:21; Dan. 10:20; Dan. 11:2).
THE GRECIAN EMPIRE is called “a kingdom of brass,” as inferior to the Babylonian and the Persian (Dan. 2:39). It was not inferior as to its extent. Of it was said, “it shall bear rule over all the earth”; but as an empire it was not consolidated, and scarcely had any capital. An army had to be left in Greece under Antipater to preserve peace. On the death of Alexander the empire was not conquered by others, but fell to pieces of itself.
The empire is further compared to a leopard, with four wings, marking its rapid conquests. It had four heads, answering to its being divided into four kingdoms, before Rome became supreme (Dan. 7:6). Again it is compared to a he-goat that touched not the ground, also marking the speed of its progress. It was very great, and when very strong its great horn was broken. “The rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king” (Dan. 8:6,8,21). See ALEXANDER THE GREAT. In Zechariah 9:13 Greece is mentioned as one of the nations to be subdued by Israel when Jehovah again fights for them. It was visited by Paul under the names of Macedonia, Achaia and Greece (Acts 16:9-12: Acts 18:12; Acts 19:21; Acts 20:2).


1. Sons of Javanim, Greeks. The children of Israel had been sold to them by Tyre and Sidon (Joel 3:6).
2. Ἑλληνιστής, Hellenists. Greek-speaking Jews, not to be confounded with Gentile Greeks. They stand in contrast to the Hebrews in Acts 6:1. Paul disputed with them at Jerusalem (Acts 9:29). The gospel was preached to them at Antioch (Acts 11:20); but in this last passage many MSS read “Greeks.”

Greek (έλλην)

A native of Greece. For their origin, and reference to them in the Old Testament, see GRECIA and GRECIANS. In the New Testament we read that some came to Jerusalem to worship and desired to see Jesus; but He was then just about to be offered up (John 12:20-24). The Greeks were an intellectual people and naturally sought after wisdom; and Christ crucified was unto them foolishness. How could they naturally think of having faith in a man crucified with malefactors? But to the called ones Christ became the power and wisdom of God (1 Cor. 1:22-24). In Paul’s evangelizing among them “great multitudes” believed, and lost their proud nationality in Christ (Acts 14:1; Acts 17:4; Gal. 3:28; Col. 3:11).

Greek Language

God so ordained it that by the rise of the Greek empire this language was spread over Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and countries adjacent, and it is a language still understood by the learned of all nations. It is acknowledged to be a remarkably flexible language, capable of forming new theological terms with delicate shades of meaning, and of expressing ideas with precision. It was therefore, on all accounts, the most suitable language in which to make known the gospel of God, and the truths needed for the building up of the saints. Not only was the New Testament written in Greek, but the Old Testament was also translated into the same language, and that version was quoted by both the Lord and His apostles. The chief captain at Jerusalem, though a Roman, asked Paul if he could speak Greek, supposing him to be an Egyptian (Acts 21:37). The inscription placed over the Lord at His crucifixion was written in Greek as well as in Hebrew and Latin: all the world must be informed who it was that hung upon that cross (Luke 23:38; John 19:20). The name and character of the angel of the bottomless pit was also proclaimed in Hebrew and Greek (Rev. 9:11).


This is literally “girt in the loins,” and reads in the margin “horse” (Prov. 30:31). It probably refers to a girded warhorse as something that “goes well,” and is comely or stately in its going.


Grey color, or mixed with grey. Gen. 31:10; Zech. 6:3, 6.


1. eshel, a tamarisk, or perhaps any large tree. Abraham planted a memorial tree in Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of Jehovah (Gen. 21:33). The same word is translated “tree” in the AV in 1 Samuel 22:6 (“grove” in margin) and 1 Samuel 31:13.
2. asherah, asherath. The word “grove” naturally suggests a row of trees, but that this cannot be the meaning is evident from groves being set up “under every green tree” (1 Kings 14:23; 2 Kings 17:10). Manasseh set a graven image of the grove that he had made in the temple, which Josiah removed, burnt, and ground to powder (2 Kings 21:7; 2 Kings 23:6). This was doubtless made of metal, but the groves were of wood, as we learn from their being cut down, and burnt (Judg. 6:25-26; 2 Kings 23:14-15). One passage speaks of groves being planted (Deut. 16:21); another, of their being made, and another, of their being built (1 Kings 14:15, 23). They are constantly associated with idols and images, and Judges 3:7 speaks of their being served along with Baalim.
On the whole it seems most probable that they were wooden symbols of a goddess, in the form of images or pillars, or mere stems of trees inserted in the earth. In 2 Kings 23:7 we read that women wove “hangings” for the groves, but these were literally “houses” or “tents,” which implies that they enclosed the groves, probably for impure purposes, for immorality was almost constantly associated with idolatry. Kalisch and others suppose that the name Asherah has reference to the Syrian goddess Astarte, and it is so translated by the LXX in 2 Chronicles 15:16. Fürst refers it to the Phoenician nature-god. The many references to the idols, images, and groves show how far Israel had departed from the living God and fallen into idolatry.


1. mishmaath, from “obedience,” a body-guard (2 Sam. 23:23; 1 Chron. 11:25).
2. mishmar, a place where watch was kept (Neh. 4:22-23; Ezek. 38:7).
3. ruts, “to run,” runners, state couriers, who published edicts in the provinces, some of which would always be with the king (1 Kings 14:27-28; 2 Kings 10:25; 2 Kings 11:4-19; 2 Chron. 12:10-11).
4. tabbach, slaughterer, executioner, attached to the body-guard of the king (Gen. 37:36; Dan. 2:14). This Hebrew word occurs in every other passage where the word “guard” occurs.


One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Deut. 10:7). Probably the same as HOR-HAGIDGAD in Numbers 33:32-33.


It is recorded that in Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when so many persons came from distant places, those living in the city who were able, gave up a room for the use of any that came to worship, hence the term “guest-chamber.” The disciples found such a room ready furnished and prepared, where the Lord kept the last Passover with His disciples (Mark 14:14; Luke 22:11).


1. Son of Naphtali, whose descendants were called GUNITES (Gen. 46:24; Num. 26:48; 1 Chron. 7:13).
2. Father of Abdiel, a chief man of Gad (1 Chron. 5:15).


Descendants of Guni No. 1. (Num. 26:48).


At the ascent or “going up to Gur” Ahaziah was slain in his chariot (2 Kings 9:27). Not identified.


Place in which, at the time of Uzziah, Arabians dwelt, against whom God helped him (2 Chron. 26:7).


1. tsinnor, “waterspout or watercourse,” spoken of by David in reference to the attack upon the stronghold of the Jebusites in Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5:8).
2. rahat, water-trough for cattle (Gen. 30:38, 41).
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