Concise Bible Dictionary: S

Table of Contents

1. Sabachthani
2. Sabaoth
3. Sabbath
4. Sabbath-Day's Journey
5. Sabbatical Year
6. Sabeans
7. Sabta, Sabtah
8. Sabtecha, Sabtechah
9. Sacar
10. Sackbut
11. Sackcloth
12. Sacrifice
13. Sadducees
14. Sadoc
15. Saffron
16. Saint
17. Sala, Salah
18. Salamis
19. Salathiel, Shealtiel
20. Salcah, Salchah
21. Salem
22. Salim
23. Sallai
24. Sallu
25. Salma
26. Salma, Salmon
27. Salmon
28. Salmone
29. Salome
30. Salt
31. Salt, City of
32. Salt Sea
33. Salt, Valley of
34. Salu
35. Salutation
36. Salvation
37. Samaria
38. Samaritan Pentateuch
39. Samaritan, the Good
40. Samaritans
41. Samgar-nebo
42. Samlah
43. Samos
44. Samothracia
45. Samson
46. Samuel
47. Samuel, First Book of
48. Samuel, Second Book of
49. Sanballat
50. Sanctification
51. Sanctuary
52. Sandals
53. Sanhedrin or Sanhedrim
54. Sansannah
55. Saph
56. Saphir
57. Sapphira
58. Sapphire (Sappir, σάπφειρος)
59. Sarah
60. Sarah, Sarai, Sara
61. Saraph
62. Sardine, Sardius (Odem, σάρδιος)
63. Sardis
64. Sardites
65. Sardonyx
66. Sarepta
67. Sargon
68. Sarid
69. Saron
70. Sarsechim
71. Saruch
72. Satan
73. Satyr
74. Saul
75. Saul
76. Saul of Tarsus
77. Saviour
78. Saws
79. Scape-goat; Scapegoat
80. Scarlet
81. Scepter
82. Sceva
83. Schism (σχίσμα)
84. Schoolmaster (παιδαγωγός)
85. Science
86. Scorpion (Aqrab, σκορπίος)
87. Scourging
88. Scrabble
89. Screech Owl
90. Scribes
91. Scrip
92. Scripture
93. Scythian
94. Sea
95. Sea Monster
96. Sea of Glass
97. Sea, The
98. Sea, the Molten
99. Seal, Signet
100. Sealing
101. Seasons
102. Seba
103. Sebat
104. Secacah
105. Sechu
106. Sect
107. Secundus
108. Seer
109. Seethe
110. Segub
111. Seir
112. Seir, Mount
113. Seirath
114. Sela-hammahlekoth
115. Sela, Selah
116. Selah
117. Seled
118. Seleucia
119. Sem
120. Semachiah
121. Semei
122. Senaah
123. Senate, Senators
124. Seneh
125. Senir
126. Sennacherib
127. Sensual
128. Senuah
129. Seorim
130. Sephar
131. Sepharad
132. Sepharvaim
133. Sepharvites
134. Septuagint, The
135. Sepulcher
136. Serah
137. Seraiah
138. Seraphim
139. Sered
140. Sergius Paulus
141. Serjeant (ραβδοῦχος)
142. Serpent
143. Serpent of Brass
144. Serug
145. Servant
146. Seth
147. Sethur
148. Settles
149. Seven
150. Seven Churches
151. Seven Stars
152. Seventy Weeks of Daniel
153. Shaalabbin, Shaalbim
154. Shaalbonite
155. Shaaph
156. Shaaraim
157. Shaashgaz
158. Shabbethai
159. Shachia
160. Shaddai
161. Shadrach
162. Shage
163. Shaharaim
164. Shahazimah
165. Shalem
166. Shalim and Shalisha
167. Shallecheth
168. Shallum
169. Shallun
170. Shalmai
171. Shalman
172. Shalmaneser
173. Shama
174. Shamariah
175. Shambles
176. Shamed
177. Shamer
178. Shamgar
179. Shamhuth
180. Shamir
181. Shamma
182. Shammah
183. Shammai
184. Shammoth
185. Shammua, Shammuah
186. Shamsherai
187. Shapham
188. Shaphan
189. Shaphat
190. Shapher, Mount
191. Sharai
192. Sharaim
193. Sharar
194. Sharezer
195. Sharon
196. Sharonite
197. Sharuhen
198. Shashai
199. Shashak
200. Shaul
201. Shaulites
202. Shaveh
203. Shaveh Kiriathaim
204. Shavsha
205. Sheal
206. Shealtiel
207. Shear-jashub
208. Sheariah
209. Shearing-House
210. Sheba
211. Sheba
212. Shebah
213. Shebam
214. Shebaniah
215. Shebarim
216. Sheber
217. Shebna
218. Shebuel
219. Shecaniah
220. Shechaniah
221. Shechem
222. Shechemites
223. Shechinah, Shekinah
224. Shedeur
225. Sheep
226. Sheep-Cote
227. Sheep Market
228. Shehariah
229. Shekel
230. Shelah
231. Shelanites
232. Shelemiah
233. Sheleph
234. Shelesh
235. Shelomi
236. Shelomith
237. Shelomoth
238. Shelumiel
239. Shem
240. Shema
241. Shemaah
242. Shemaiah
243. Shemariah
244. Shemeber
245. Shemer
246. Shemida, Shemidah, Shemidaites
247. Sheminith
248. Shemiramoth
249. Shemuel
250. Shen
251. Shenazar
252. Shenir
253. Sheol
254. Shepham
255. Shephathiah
256. Shephatiah
257. Shepherd
258. Shephi, Shepho
259. Shephuphan
260. Sherah
261. Sherd
262. Sherebiah
263. Sheresh
264. Sherezer
265. Sheriffs
266. Sheshach
267. Sheshai
268. Sheshan
269. Sheshbazzar
270. Sheth
271. Shethar
272. Shethar-boznai
273. Sheva
274. Shewbread
275. Shibboleth
276. Shibmah
277. Shicron
278. Shield
279. Shield of Faith
280. Shiggaion, Shigionoth
281. Shihon
282. Shihor-libnath
283. Shihor of Egypt
284. Shilhi
285. Shilhim
286. Shillem, Shillemites
287. Shiloah, Waters of
288. Shiloh
289. Shiloh
290. Shiloni
291. Shilonite
292. Shilonites
293. Shilshah
294. Shimea
295. Shimea, Shimeah
296. Shimeah, Shimeam
297. Shimeath
298. Shimeathites
299. Shimei
300. Shimeon
301. Shimhi
302. Shimi
303. Shimites
304. Shimma
305. Shimon
306. Shimrath
307. Shimri
308. Shimrith
309. Shimrom, Shimron, Shimronites
310. Shimron
311. Shimron-meron
312. Shimshai
313. Shinab
314. Shinar
315. Ship
316. Shiphi
317. Shiphmite
318. Shiphrah
319. Shiphtan
320. Shipmen
321. Shisha
322. Shishak
323. Shitrai
324. Shittah Tree
325. Shittim
326. Shittim Wood, Shittah Tree
327. Shiza
328. Shoa
329. Shobab
330. Shobach
331. Shobai
332. Shobal
333. Shobek
334. Shobi
335. Shocho, Shochoh, Shoco
336. Shoelatchet
337. Shoes
338. Shoham
339. Shomer
340. Shophach
341. Shophan
342. Shoshannim
343. Shoulder
344. Shrine
345. Shroud
346. Shua
347. Shua, Shuah
348. Shuah
349. Shual
350. Shubael
351. Shuham, Shuhamites
352. Shuhite
353. Shulamite
354. Shumathites
355. Shunammite
356. Shunem
357. Shuni, Shunites
358. Shupham, Shuphamites
359. Shuppim
360. Shur
361. Shushan
362. Shushan-eduth
363. Shuthalhites
364. Shuthelah
365. Shuttle
366. Sia, Siaha
367. Sibbecai, Sibbechai
368. Sibboleth
369. Sibmah
370. Sibraim
371. Sichem
372. Siddim, Vale of
373. Sidon, Sidonians
374. Signet
375. Signs
376. Sihon
377. Sihor
378. Silas
379. Silk
380. Silla
381. Siloah, Siloam
382. Siloam, Tower in
383. Silvanus
384. Silver
385. Silverlings
386. Silversmith
387. Simeon
388. Simeonites
389. Similitude
390. Simon
391. Simri
392. Sin
393. Sin
394. Sin Offering
395. Sin, Original
396. Sin, Wilderness of
397. Sina, Sinai
398. Singing
399. Sinim
400. Sinites
401. Sion
402. Siphmoth
403. Sippai
404. Sir
405. Sirah
406. Sirion
407. Sisamai
408. Sisera
409. Sith
410. Sitnah
411. Sivan
412. Six
413. Slaves
414. Slime
415. Sling
416. Smith
417. Smyrna
418. Snail
419. Snare
420. Snow
421. So
422. Soap, Sope
423. Socho
424. Sochoh, Socoh, Shocho, Shochoh, Shoco
425. Socoh
426. Sod
427. Sodering
428. Sodi
429. Sodom, Sodoma
430. Sodomites
431. Soldier
432. Solomon
433. Solomon's Porch
434. Sometime, Sometimes
435. Son
436. Son of Man, The
437. Son, The; Son of God
438. Song of Solomon
439. Songs
440. Songs of Degrees
441. Sons of God
442. Soothsayer
443. Sop
444. Sopater
445. Sope
446. Sophereth
447. Sorcerer
448. Sorek
449. Sosipater
450. Sosthenes
451. Sotai
452. Sottish
453. Soul, Spirit
454. South
455. South Ramoth
456. South-West
457. Sower, Sowing
458. Spain
459. Span
460. Sparrow (Tsippor, στρουθίον)
461. Spearmen
462. Spears
463. Sped
464. Spices
465. Spider
466. Spies
467. Spikenard (Nerd, νάρδος)
468. Spirit
469. Spirit, the Holy
470. Spiritual
471. Spoil
472. Spoil, To
473. Spring
474. Sprinkling
475. Stachys
476. Stacte
477. Standard
478. Star-Gazers
479. Star in the East
480. Star, the Morning
481. Stars, Seven
482. Stater
483. Steel
484. Stephanas
485. Stephen
486. Stocks
487. Stoics
488. Stomacher
489. Stone, Corner
490. Stones
491. Stoning
492. Stork (Chasidah)
493. Stranger
494. Straw
495. Stumbling Block (Mikshol, πρόσκομμα)
496. Suah
497. Suborn, To
498. Succoth
499. Suchathites
500. Suecoth-benoth
501. Sukkiims
502. Summer
503. Sun
504. Sun-Dial
505. Sun of Righteousness
506. Supper
507. Sur
508. Suretiship
509. Surname
510. Susa
511. Susanchites
512. Susanna
513. Susi
514. Swallow
515. Swan
516. Swearing
517. Swine
518. Sword
519. Sycamine (συκάμινος)
520. Sycamore (Shiqmah, συκομωραία)
521. Sychar
522. Sychem
523. Syene
524. Symbols
525. Synagogue
526. Syntyche
527. Syracuse
528. Syria-maachah
529. Syria, Syrian
530. Syriac, Syrian Tongue
531. Syrophenician


An Aramaic word, signifying “hast thou forsaken me?” uttered by the Lord when on the cross as the sin-bearer (Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34).




The first time the Sabbath is specifically mentioned in scripture is in Exodus 16:23, after the manna had been given from heaven; but the Sabbath clearly had its origin in the sanctification and blessing of the seventh day after the six days of creative work. And a hebdomadal division of days apparently existed up to the flood, since it is very distinctly mentioned in connection with Noah. We are also told in Mark 2:27 that the Sabbath was made for man. It was an institution which expressed God’s merciful consideration for man.
The words “rest” and “sabbath” in the passage in Exodus have no article, so that the sentence may be translated “Tomorrow is [a] rest, [a] holy Sabbath unto the Lord.” So in Exodus 16:25-26 there is no article: there is in Exodus 16:29. The Sabbath was soon after definitely enacted in the ten commandments (Ex. 20:8-11), and reference is there made to God having rested on the seventh day after the work of creation as the basis of the institution.
The Sabbath had a peculiar place in relation to Israel: thus in Leviticus 23, in the feasts of Jehovah, in the holy convocations, the Sabbath of Jehovah is first mentioned as showing the great intention of God. God had delivered Israel out of the slavery of Egypt, therefore God commanded them to keep the Sabbath (Deut. 5:15). The Sabbath was the sign of God’s covenant with them, and it may be that the Lord in repeatedly offending the Jews by (in their view) breaking the Sabbath by acts of mercy foreshadowed the approaching dissolution of the legal covenant (Ex. 31:13, 17; Ezek. 20:12,20). The Sabbath foreshadowed their being brought into the rest of God; but, because of the sin of those who started to go thither (who despised the promised land), God sware in His wrath that they should not enter into His rest (Psa. 95:11). God has purposed to bring His people into His rest, for whom there remains therefore the keeping of a Sabbath (Heb. 4:9).
The Sabbath was never given to the nations in the same way as to Israel, and amid all the sins enumerated against the Gentiles, we do not find Sabbath-breaking ever mentioned. Nevertheless, it appears to be a principle of God’s government of the earth that man and beast should have one day in seven as a respite from labor, all needing it physically.
The Christian’s Sabbath is designated the LORD’S DAY—and is as distinct in principle from the Jewish legal Sabbath as the opening, or first day of a new week is from the close of a past one. The Lord lay in death on the Jewish Sabbath: the Christian keeps the first day of the week, the resurrection day. See LORD’S DAY.

Sabbath-Day's Journey

This is mentioned as the greatest distance a Jew was allowed to travel on the Sabbath. There is no injunction as to this in the law, but when some of the people went out to gather manna on the Sabbath, Moses enjoined, “Abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day” (Ex. 16:29). In New Testament times it was understood that a person might travel two thousand cubits (about five furlongs); this extent had been fixed on because when the Israelites were marching they were commanded to keep the above named distance from the ark, and it was concluded that when they were encamped, there was the same distance between the tabernacle and the tents, and that this space was constantly traveled for worship. When they were in the land the distance was reckoned from the gate of the city from which the traveler started (Acts 1:12). The Lord perhaps referred to this custom when He bade the disciples pray that, in the judgment of Jerusalem, their flight should not be “on the Sabbath-day” (Matt. 24:20).

Sabbatical Year

The Sabbath being the sign of God’s covenant with Israel (see SABBATH), and that He purposed that they should enjoy His rest, even the land must keep its Sabbath every seventh year. God promised that the produce of the sixth year should be enough for three years, so that the land resting a full year should cause no scarcity (Ex. 23:10-11; Lev. 25:2-7). Apparently the Sabbatical years were not observed (Lev. 26:33-35). See JUBILEE.


There are four persons who have been regarded as progenitors of the Sabeans.
1. Seba, son of Cush (Gen. 10:7).
2. Sheba, grandson of Cush (Gen. 10:7).
3. Sheba, descendant of Joktan (Gen. 10:28).
4. Sheba, son of Jokshan (Gen. 25:3).
The first two are descendants of Ham, and the last two descendants of Shem. For their localities see SEBA and SHEBA. Some were marauders who swept away the oxen and asses of Job (Job 1:15). In Isaiah 45:14 they were traveling merchants. In Joel 3:8 they are represented as a people “far off,” to whom Judah will sell their enemies. These passages may not all refer to the same people. In Ezekiel 23:42 the chethib reads “drunkards,” as in the margin of the AV and the text of the RV.

Sabta, Sabtah

Third son of Cush (Gen. 10:7; 1 Chron. 1:9). Where he was located is not known.

Sabtecha, Sabtechah

Fifth son of Cush (Gen. 10:7; 1 Chron. 1:9). It is not known where he was located.


1. A Hararite, father of Ahiam, one of David’s mighty men (1 Chron. 11:35). Called SHAHAR in 2 Samuel 23:33.
2. Fourth son of Obededom (1 Chron. 26:4).


The Hebrew word sabka is judged to refer to a stringed musical instrument—not a wind instrument, as the name sackbut implies (Dan. 3:5-15). It was probably the same as the sambuca of the Greeks and Romans. This was a triangular harp.


A rough cloth made of hair, of which sacks and coarse clothing was made. When put on as a symbol of sorrow or repentance it was worn next the skin, and not taken off at night: it was often associated with ashes (1 Kings 21:27; 2 Kings 6:30; Job 16:15; Joel 1:13; Rev. 6:12).


As a technical religious term “sacrifice” designates anything which, having been devoted to a holy purpose, cannot be called back. In the generality of sacrifices offered to God under the law the consciousness is supposed in the offerer that death, as God’s judgment, was on him; hence the sacrifice had to be killed that it might be accepted of God at his hand. In fact the word sacrifice often refers to the act of killing.
The first sacrifice we read of was that offered by Abel, though there is an indication of the death of victims in the fact that Adam and Eve were clothed by God with coats of skins. Doubtless in some way God had instructed man that, the penalty of the fall and of his own sin being that his life was forfeited, he could only appropriately approach God by the death of a substitute not chargeable with his offense; for it was by faith that Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain (Heb. 11:4). God afterward instructed Cain that if he did not well, sin, or a sin offering, lay at the door.
The subject was more fully explained under the law: “The life of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul” (Lev. 17:11). Not that the blood of bulls and of goats had any inherent efficacy to take away sins; but it was typical of the blood of Christ which is the witness that they have been taken away for the believer by Christ’s sacrifice.
Christ appeared once in the end of the world “to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself;” and He having once died, there remains no more sacrifice for sins (Eph. 5:2; Heb. 9:26; Heb. 10:4,12,26). Without faith in the sacrificial death of Christ there is no salvation, as is taught in Romans 3:25; Romans 4:24-25 and 1 Corinthians 15:1-4.
The Christian is exhorted to present his body a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is his intelligent service (Rom. 12:1; compare 2 Cor. 8:5; Phil. 4:18). He offers by Christ the sacrifice of praise to God, and even to do good and to communicate are sacrifices well pleasing to God (Heb. 13:15-16; compare 1 Pet. 2:5). For the sacrifices under the law see OFFERINGS.


Next to the Pharisees, the Sadducees were the most prominent sect of the Jews. The Pharisees made proselytes, but the Sadducees were much more exclusive, and therefore remained fewer in number. They did not believe in the resurrection, nor in angels, nor in spirits: they held that the soul perished with the body (Matt. 22:23; Acts 4:1-2; Acts 23:8). Though strict in regard to the written law of Moses, they repudiated the traditions of the elders, or what is called the oral law. They believed that God punished a man’s sins during his life, and that man’s will was free, and he had power to restrain his passions. In consequence of this they were severe judges. The Lord Jesus warned His disciples against their doctrines, and denounced them as the “offspring of vipers.” The tenets of the modern rationalists have much in common with the Sadducees.


Son of Azor, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus (Matt. 1:14).


A common odoriferous plant. The Hebrew karkom agrees with the Arabic karkum and points to the Crocus sativus, or saffron crocus (Song of Sol. 14). In the East it is pressed into small cakes and sold in the bazaars.


Two words are employed in the Hebrew.
1. chasid, “pious toward God,” also translated “holy” and “godly.” The word occurs frequently in the Psalms, where God speaks of His saints (Psa. 31:23; Psa. 50:5; Psa. 116:15; Psa. 149:1,5,9; etc.).
2. qadosh, “consecrated, set apart, holy” (Deut. 33:3; Job 15:15; Psa. 16:3; Psa. 34:9; Psa. 89:5,7; Dan. 7:18-27; Dan. 8:13; Hos. 11:12; Zech. 14:5). Aaron is called “the saint of Jehovah” (Psa. 106:16).
In the New Testament the word used is ἅγιος, which means “holy one.” A saint is one set apart for God; he is such by calling—not “called to be a saint” (Rom. 1:7; 1 Cor. 1:2; compare Heb. 3:1). Saints are thus a distinct, recognized class of persons belonging to God—His saints (Acts 9:13; Col. 1:26; 1 Thess. 3:13; Jude 1:14). All Christians are embraced in this class, so that the apostle could speak of “all saints” (Eph. 1:15; Eph. 3:18; Col. 1:4; Philem. 1:5). Christians therefore need not shrink from acknowledging the designation by which God has been pleased to distinguish them, and should ever remember that there is a line of conduct that “becometh saints” (Rom. 16:2; Eph. 5:3). The word ἅγιος corresponds with the Hebrew qadosh. The word chasid corresponds more with ὅσιος, translated “holy” (1 Tim. 2:8; Titus 1:8; Heb. 7:26; Rev. 15:4); and “Holy One” (Acts 2:27; Acts 13:35).
As there were many saints on the earth in Old Testament times, so we read in the Revelation that there will be saints on the earth after the church has been taken to heaven. Ignorance of this has often led to a mistaken application of the prophecies to the church (Rev. 13:10; Rev. 14:12; Rev. 18:24; Rev. 20:9).

Sala, Salah

Son of Arphaxad and father of Eber (Gen. 10:24; Gen. 11:12-15; Luke 3:35). Called SHELAH in 1 Chronicles 1:18, 24, which agrees with the Hebrew in Genesis.


City in the east of Cyprus, visited by Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13:5). Its ruins are a little south of Hagios Sergis.

Salathiel, Shealtiel

Son or grandson of Jehoiachin or Jeconiah, king of Judah (1 Chron. 3:17; Ezra 3:2, 8; Ezra 5:2; Neh. 12:1; Hag. 1:1,12,14; Hag. 2:2,23; Matt. 1:12).
In Luke 3:27, Salathiel is called the son of Neri, and this is supposed to be the true descent, and that Salathiel was the heir of Jehoiachin. The royal line would thus revert from the descendants of Solomon (Jer. 22:30), to those of David through Nathan.

Salcah, Salchah

City and district on the border of Bashan allotted to Gad (Deut. 3:10; Josh. 12:5; Josh. 13:11; 1 Chron. 5:11). The city is identified with Salkhad, 32° 32' N, 36° 40' E.


1. Symbolical name given to Jerusalem (Psa. 76:2).
2. Probably the title of Melchisedec as king of peace (Gen. 14:18; Heb. 7:1- 2). Various cities, however, have been suggested. Some consider that Jerusalem is alluded to; Jerome was convinced that a town near Scythopolis, named Salem, was the true place; but others judge it to be a title.


Place near to Ænon where John was baptizing (John 3:23). Supposed to be a village east of Shechem, still called Salim, 32° 12' N, 35° 19' E.


1. Benjamite who returned from exile (Neh. 11:8).
2. Priest who returned from exile (Neh. 12:20). Apparently called SALLU in Nehemiah 12:7.


1. Priest who returned from exile (Neh. 12:7). See SALLAT.
2. Son of Meshullam: he returned from exile (1 Chron. 9:7; Neh. 11:7).


Son of Caleb, and father or founder of Bethlehem (1 Chron. 2:51,54).

Salma, Salmon

Son of Nahshon and father of Boaz, the husband of Ruth (Ruth 4:20-21; 1 Chron. 2:11; Matt. 1:4-5; Luke 3:32).


When the Almighty scattered kings in some place (probably Palestine) it is compared to “snow in Salmon” (Psa. 68:14—an obscure passage). It is perhaps the same as Mount ZALMON in Judges 9:48, the Hebrew being the same, a wooded mountain near Shechem.


The most eastern point of Crete (Acts 27:7). It still bears the same name.


1. One of the women who witnessed the crucifixion of the Lord, and brought spices to anoint His body (Mark 15:40; Mark 16:1). By comparing Matthew 27:56 with Mark 15:40, it appears that Salome was the wife of Zebedee; and if so, she came with her two sons, James and John, when they asked that they might sit on the right hand and on the left of the Lord in His kingdom (Matt. 20:20; Mark 10:35).
2. Though not mentioned by name in scripture, this Salome is therein spoken of as the daughter of Herodias (by her first husband, Herod Philip). She danced before Herod Antipas, and, by the request of her guilty mother, asked the head of John the Baptist. She became wife of her uncle Philip, tetrarch of Trachonitis, and afterward of Aristobulus the king of Chalcis (Mark 6:22-28, etc.).


This well known and valuable condiment is found in abundance near the Dead Sea. In scripture salt is used as symbolical of moral savor and thus of a preservative. Every oblation of the meat offering was to be seasoned with salt (Lev. 2:13). The heave offerings given to the priest are called “a covenant of salt” (Num. 18:19).
Christians are the salt of the earth, but if the salt have lost its savor, it is of no use whatever (Matt. 5:13; Mark 9:50; Luke 14:34-35). It is typical of freshness and savor in a Christian, his heart being maintained in the sense of grace, the loss of which nothing else can supply.
The Christian’s speech should be with grace, seasoned with salt (Col. 4:6), not characterized by asperity, nor lacking unction, and yet morally wholesome in its character. “Everyone shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt” (Mark 9:49). God puts all to the proof, but with the saint it is the dross that is consumed. Every sacrifice being salted with salt refers to the preservation of that which is set apart for God from corruption and impurity.
To “eat the salt” of their masters, is used by the Persians and Hindoos to imply that they are fed by their employers. This idea is found in Ezra 4:14, where the opposers of the Jews say, “We eat the salt of the palace,” as the passage is more literally translated: see margin. With reference to an infant being “salted” (Ezek. 16:4), Galen records that this was done to render the skin tighter and firmer.

Salt, City of

One of the six cities in the wilderness that fell to the lot of Judah (Josh. 15:62). Identified by some with Tell el Milh, “salt hill,” 31° 13' N, 35° 1' E.

Salt Sea

The lake on the south of Palestine, now commonly called the Dead Sea, because it was for long judged that nothing having life could exist in it; but some inferior organisms (as the polygaster) have been found in it at its northern end. It is called “the Salt Sea” (Num. 34:3, 12; Deut. 3:17; Josh. 3:16): “the Sea of the plain” or “Sea of the Arabah,” RV (Deut. 4:49; 2 Kings 14:25); “the East Sea” (Ezek. 47:18; Joel 2:20); and simply “the Sea” in Ezekiel 47:8. The term “Salt Sea” is very appropriate; for it contains much more salt than is found in ordinary sea water, which makes it extremely nauseous. It is also very heavy, so that a person cannot sink in it; and after bathing it leaves a crust of salt on the flesh.
The river Jordan and some streams run into the Salt Sea, but there is no outlet. The rocks that surround it make the heat there very great, and evaporation must be rapid. Its size is about 48 miles long, and 10 miles across at its widest part. Its surface is at times (for it varies according to the rain) about 1,292 feet below the level of the sea, making it, as far as is known, the lowest lake in existence. Its deepest part is about 1,300 feet below the surface. Altogether it is like no other known lake, and is characteristic of death and dreary desolation.
On the restoration of Israel in a future day a river will issue out of the house, the future temple, which river will go down into the desert and run into this sea, and the waters will be healed. En-gedi (Ain Jidy, about half way along the coast of the Dead Sea, on the west) will be one of the stations of the fishermen (Ezek. 47:1-10). A beautiful figure of God’s future bringing to life the dead and dry bones of Israel and Judah, and making them the means of life to others.
What connection there is, if any, between the present state of the Salt Sea and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, is not known. In Genesis 14 the battle of the four kings against the five was in “the vale of Siddim, which is the Salt Sea” (Gen. 14:3). The four kings had come from a distance, but the five kings, of whom the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah were two, were near home; farther than this the connection cannot be traced. This sea is now called Bahr Lut, the “Sea of Lot.”

Salt, Valley of

Place where battles were fought by David and Amaziah against their enemies (2 Sam. 8:13; 2 Kings 14:7; 2 Chron. 18:12; 2 Chron. 25:11; Psalm 60 title). It is supposed to be in the northern part of the Arabah valley, south of the Dead Sea.


Father of Zimri and a prince of Simeon (Num. 25:14).


The brotherly greetings expressed at the close of nearly all the epistles. They were sent from the saints located where the epistles were written to the saints addressed, together with, at times, the injunction to greet one another with “a holy kiss,” that being the ordinary form of salutation in the East among the men as well as among the women (Rom. 16:5-23; 1 Thess. 5:26; Titus 3:15).
When evil doctrine had spread in the professing church, the question of salutation became serious. The “lady” to whom the apostle John wrote was strictly enjoined not to receive into her house anyone who brought not good doctrine, nor was she even to salute such a one; for to do so, would be to become morally a partaker of his evil deeds (2 John 1:10-11; compare Rom. 16:17).
Salutations in the East being often very lengthy and of mere ceremony, may well account for those sent in haste being told to salute no one by the way (2 Kings 4:29; Luke 10:4).


This may be seen in various connections in scripture.
1. It has reference primarily to the judgment of God to which man is obnoxious by reason of sin. This is illustrated by the destruction of the firstborn (the strength) of Egypt when the destroying angel passed through the land. The Israelites were saved only through being sheltered by the blood of the Passover lamb. Salvation is based on God’s righteousness having been maintained and declared in the death of Christ, and hence is for the believer in Christ (Luke 1:77).
2. Intimately connected with the above is the question of salvation from enemies carnal or spiritual. With Israel it was the former, as the Egyptians and the Canaanites. With Christians it is the latter, as sin, death, the world and the power of Satan. Salvation in this sense is by the power of God (Luke 1:71).
3. It has reference further to the actual physical condition of Christians which is met by the redemption of the body. In this sense salvation is hoped for. During the interval the Christian has to work out into result his own salvation—it was in the case of the Philippians their “own salvation” in contrast to the care exercised over them by Paul when present with them (Phil. 2:12-13; compare Heb. 7:25).


This city was built by Omri, king of Israel, and came into prominence by becoming the capital of the kingdom of the ten tribes. It was situated on the side of a hill, and was adorned and fortified by the kings of Israel. Ben-hadad, king of Syria, besieged Samaria in the reign of Ahab, but by the intervention of God it was not taken (1 Kings 20:1-34). In the days of Jehoram it was again besieged by Ben-hadad, and the famine became so great that they were on the point of capitulating when some lepers brought word that the enemy had fled, and abundance of provision was to be found in the camp (2 Kings 6:24-33; 2 Kings 7:1-20).
It was besieged again by Shalmaneser, about B.C. 723, but held out for three years, being eventually taken by Sargon. The people were now carried into captivity (2 Kings 18:9-12). Among the Assyrian inscriptions there is one in which Sargon says, “The city of Samaria I besieged, I captured; 27,280 of its inhabitants I carried away.” It was partly repeopled by the colonists imported by Esar-haddon. Samaria was again taken by John Hyrcanus, who did his best to destroy it.
The city was rebuilt by Herod the Great, and named Sebaste (the Greek form of Augusta) in honor of his patron the emperor Augustus; but on the death of Herod it gradually declined. It is now only a miserable village, called Sebustieh, 32° 17' N, 35° 12' E, but with some grand columns standing and relics of its former greatness lying about.
THE DISTRICT OF SAMARIA is often alluded to in the New Testament. It occupied about the same territory as that of Ephraim and Manasseh’s portion in the west. It had the district of Galilee on the north, and Judaea on the south (Luke 17:11; John 4:4; Acts 1:8; Acts 8:1-14; Acts 9:31; Acts 15:3).

Samaritan Pentateuch

An ancient recension of the five books of Moses. Though it had been mentioned by some of the early fathers, it was not till about A.D. 1616 that a MS copy of it was discovered. At first it was considered by some as far superior to the Hebrew Pentateuch, but when other copies came to light (there are now about twenty) and they were examined more carefully, the thought of its superiority was not maintained; it is now regarded only as a copy of the Hebrew, though it agrees with the LXX in many places where that differs from the present Hebrew text. The Pentateuch which the Samaritans called “The Law” is all they have of the Old Testament. The characters in which it is written, by being compared with ancient coins, etc., are judged to be more ancient than the square Hebrew letters now in common use. The origin of it may have been a copy of the Pentateuch secured by the Israelites on the division of the kingdom. The Paris and the London Polyglots give the text in full.

Samaritan, the Good



The only place in the Old Testament where these are mentioned gives their origin, and the mixed character of their worship. The king of Assyria had peopled the cities by colonists from the East, they were then in Jehovah’s land, but they did not fear Him, therefore He sent lions among them. On the king of Assyria being informed of this, a priest who had been carried away from Samaria was sent thither, to teach them how they should fear the God of that land. The result was that they feared Jehovah, and served their own gods! (2 Kings 17:24-41).
When Ezra returned from exile to build the temple, some of these people came and said, “Let us build with you: for we seek your God as ye do; and we do sacrifice unto him, since the days of Esar-haddon king of Assur, which brought us up hither.” Ezra refused to let them have anything to do with building the temple, and this aroused their hatred and opposition (Ezra 4:1-4). We further read that Nehemiah ejected one of the priests who had defiled the priesthood by marrying the daughter of Sanballat the Horonite (Neh. 13:28). Josephus speaks of him as Manasseh, and relates that Sanballat built a temple for him at Gerizim, which became a refuge for apostate Jews. This naturally increased the hatred between the Jews and the Samaritans.
This temple was destroyed by John Hyrcanus, son of Simon Maccabaeus, about B.C. 109. The animosity, however, was not removed. The woman of Samaria in John 4 alluded to the differences between Jews and Samaritans, and in Luke 9:52-53 it is said of a village of the Samaritans that the inhabitants would not receive the Lord because His face was turned towards Jerusalem. A Jew regarded it as the extreme of opprobrium to be called a Samaritan, and those of Judaea added this to the other insults they heaped on the blessed Lord (John 8:48).
The Samaritans claimed to be true Israelites. The woman of Samaria said to the Lord, “Art thou greater than our father Jacob, who gave us the well?” As to their religion, she spoke of “this mountain” as the proper place to worship; but the Lord said, “Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews.” The hour had however arrived when they that worship God must worship Him in Spirit and in truth. Many of the Samaritans believed and received the Holy Spirit (John 4:9-42; Acts 8:5-17).
It is remarkable that while the Jews have lost all means of keeping their feasts at Jerusalem, a few, still calling themselves Samaritans, at Nablus, in a humble synagogue at the foot of the mountain, continue their worship, and annually ascend the mountain and keep the feast of the Passover with a roasted lamb: a marked instance of imitation, now so common in Christendom. They have an ancient MS called the SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH, for which they claim great antiquity.


One of the princes of Babylon present at the taking of Jerusalem, unless, as some suppose, the words are really the title of Nergal-sharezer (Jer. 39:3).


One of the ancient kings of Edom (Gen. 36:36-37; 1 Chron. 1:47-48).


An island in the Ægean Sea, a few miles south-west of Ephesus, only incidently mentioned in the return of Paul’s third missionary journey (Acts 20:15). It is still called Samos.


A small island in the north-east of the AEgean Sea, off which Paul’s ship anchored for a night on his first visit to Europe (Acts 16:11). It is now called Samothraki.


Son of Manoah, of the tribe of Dan. His birth had been pre-announced by an angel to his mother, who had long been childless. The angel told his parents that he was to be a Nazarite (that is, a separated one) from his birth. When Israel was in bondage to the Philistines, the internal enemies of God’s people, a Nazarite had to be raised up by God to work out their deliverance. The statement that “he judged Israel twenty years,” doubtless signifies the south-west parts of the land near the country of the Philistines. It was said of Samson before his birth: “He shall begin to deliver Israel out of the hand of the Philistines.”
His marriage with a woman of Timnath was so far “of the Lord” that it became in the ways of God an occasion against the Philistines to whom he had allied himself. His going down to her was the occasion of his killing a lion; this led to Samson’s riddle, and the riddle to his slaying thirty of the Philistines. Then, his wife being given to another man, Samson burned up their corn, their vineyards, and their olives, and smote the Philistines with “a great slaughter.”
When the Philistines gathered themselves together to arrest Samson, the men of Judah would not defend him, but, owning their bondage, said, “Knowest thou not that the Philistines are rulers over us?” and three thousand of Judah bound Samson and delivered him to the Philistines. Thus Samson, through God’s inscrutable ways, was separated from his own people: they delivered him up, as afterward the people of Judah delivered up the Lord Jesus, the true Nazarite, who came to save them.
When in the hands of his enemies, he was mightily moved by the Spirit, and with the jaw-bone of an ass slew a thousand of the Philistines. After this great victory he fainted for water, and cried unto the Lord, who clave a hollow place in the rock [also called lehi, “a jaw-bone”] and gave him drink.
His humiliating end was brought about through his lust after strange women. It was extreme folly to make known the secret of his strength to Delilah when he knew she would betray him. It is a striking instance of the foolish things a Nazarite (and all Christians are morally Nazarites) may do if he gets out of communion with the Lord. The strong man was blinded and made to grind in a dungeon for his enemies.
But God had not forsaken him, and his hair began to grow again. The Philistines offered a great sacrifice to their god Dagon, and they praised their god, and said it was he that had delivered Samson into their hands. Then they sent for him to make sport before them; but he cried unto the Lord, and asked Him to strengthen him this once, that he might be avenged on the Philistines for the loss of his two eyes. God strengthened him, and he pulled down the house, on the roof of which there were about three thousand souls, and thus he slew at his death more than he had slain in his life.
Notwithstanding the failures of Samson, God accomplished the purpose for which He had raised him up in subduing the Philistines; but it was only accomplished in his own death. Among the cloud of witnesses who “obtained a good report through faith,” Samson is named, but his acts are not there recorded (Heb. 11:32). His history is given in Judges 13-16.


A prophet, a Nazarite from his birth, raised up by God to be His servant because Israel had failed in its priests, and every man was doing that which was right in his own eyes. He was one whom God answered when he called upon Him (Psa. 99:6), and is classed with Moses as intercessor with God (Jer. 15:1). Samuel was also a faithful judge in Israel, and acted as priest when Eli and his sons were dead. His history is given in the books that bear his name. He is called SHEMUEL in 1 Chronicles 6:33.

Samuel, First Book of

The personal history of Samuel is contained in this book: it opens with his birth. He was the son of Hannah and Elkanah, a descendant of Korah, of Ranathaim-zophim, of mount Ephraim. He was given by God in answer to the prayer of his mother, and was consecrated by her as a Nazarite from his birth, and “lent to the Lord” as long as he lived.
1 Samuel 2. The beautiful prayer, or song, of Hannah recognizes the sovereign grace of God that brings down pride, and exalts the poor and weak. Israel had been brought low in the time of the Judges, and needed to learn that all strength and exaltation must come from God. This prophetic song looks forward to the time when God shall judge the ends of the earth by His King and His Anointed (1 Sam. 2:10). The wickedness of the sons of Eli is then brought out, and Eli is solemnly warned by “a man of God.” Samuel had been growing and was in favor both with Jehovah and with men.
1 Samuel 3. The word of Jehovah was precious: there was no open vision: the priest had failed. God called Samuel, but he supposed it was Eli. On this being repeated three times, Eli instructed him, if he was called again, to say, “Speak, Lord, for thy servant heareth.” He was called again, and said, “Speak; for thy servant heareth” (omitting as yet the word “Lord”). God now began to make revelations to Samuel. Because Eli did not restrain his sons, judgment should fall upon his house. When told of this, Eli answered, “It is the Lord: let Him do what seemeth Him good.” Samuel became God’s servant for the crisis: the Lord was with him, and none of his words fell to the ground. From Dan to Beersheba Samuel was recognized as the prophet of Jehovah.
1 Samuel 4. Israel was smitten before the Philistines; but instead of turning to the Lord and confessing their sins, they sent for the ark of the covenant, saying that it should save them, and made a great shout; but God was not in this act, the Israelites were smitten, including the two sons of Eli, and the ark was captured by the Philistines. When Eli heard the sad news he fell back and died. The wife of Phinehas also, in giving birth to a son, called his name Ichabod, “no glory,” and died.
1 Samuel 5-6 rehearse the judgments of God on the Philistines while the ark was in their possession, and the fall of their god Dagon. Also the return of the ark, and God’s judgment on the men of Beth-shemesh for looking into it.
1 Samuel 7. The ark was taken to Kirjath-jearim. After twenty years the people lamented after the Lord, and Samuel said they must put away their strange gods, and prepare their hearts to the Lord and serve Him only, and He would save them. They gathered at Mizpeh, poured out water before the Lord as a token of repentance (compare 2 Sam. 14:14), and confessed their sins. On the Philistines coming to attack them they begged Samuel to cry unto the Lord for them. He offered a sucking lamb as a burnt offering, thus recognizing the ground of the relationship between the people and God. The Philistines were subdued: God thundered upon them. They came no more to attack Israel, and the cities they had taken were restored. Samuel raised up a stone and called it EBEN-EZER, that is, “the stone of help.” Samuel went on circuit and judged all Israel. He resided at Ramah, and erected an altar there. The days of Samuel were exceptional: he was not a priest, but he offered sacrifices, and had this altar without either the tabernacle or the ark. He was the man of faith in those days, being owned of God as the upholder of His people.
1 Samuel 8. There is a change here. Samuel was growing old, and had appointed his two sons to be judges; but they took bribes and perverted judgment. The people, making this the excuse, begged Samuel to appoint them a king, that he might be their judge “like all the nations.” God had separated them from all the nations, and He bade Samuel tell them that in asking a king they were rejecting, not Samuel merely, but Himself; yet He told Samuel to listen to their request.
1 Samuel 9-10. God caused Saul the son of Kish providentially to go where Samuel was, and then pointed him out as the one to be anointed as king, that he might save Israel out of the hand of the Philistines. On Samuel presenting him to them—a man taller than the rest of the people, and consequently approved according to man’s natural judgment—they shouted “God save the king.”
1 Samuel 11-12. On Nahash the Ammonite declaring that he would make a covenant with the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead only on the condition of thrusting out all their right eyes, to “lay it for a reproach upon all Israel,” Saul was stirred to action by the Spirit of God, and the Ammonites were slain. Samuel called the people to Gilgal (the place where the flesh had been judged), and Saul was made king before the Lord, and peace offerings were offered. Samuel solemnly appealed to the people, first as to his own integrity, and then as to God’s faithfulness, and to their own waywardness. A sign was given them; they were not to fear, but be faithful, and mercy would be the result.
1 Samuel 13. Saul is left without Samuel and is put to the test. He had been told that he was to go to Gilgal and wait there seven days for Samuel, for Samuel was the link between Saul and the Lord (1 Sam. 10:8). Saul tarried the seven days, and then, because the people were leaving him, he “forced himself,” as he says, and offered a burnt offering. Samuel came as soon as he had finished, and rebuked him for not keeping the commandment of the Lord, and announced that his kingdom should not continue. Samuel left him, and Philistine “spoilers” spread themselves in the land. The Israelites were in weakness, they had even to resort to the Philistines to sharpen their weapons.
1 Samuel 14. The Israelites were hiding themselves in caves. Jonathan, Saul’s son, was a man of faith: he had previously attacked the Philistines, and now, with his armor-bearer only, began again to smite them. God sent a great earthquake, and the Philistines smote one another. The Israelites also attacked them, and there would have been a greater victory had not Saul, in fleshly zeal, put all under a curse who should eat before the evening. Jonathan, who had not heard of this, tasted a little honey. When evening arrived the people hasted to kill and eat, and would have eaten with the blood had not Saul restrained them. He raised an altar unto God, and then inquired of God, and would have put Jonathan to death for eating the honey had not the people prevented it. Saul had all the outward forms of reverence for God, but he was not a man of faith; he called the Israelites Hebrews, missing the point of their relationship with God. Still God used him to subdue some of the enemies of Israel.
1 Samuel 15. Saul is now put to a final test. A message is sent him from God to go and utterly destroy Amalek. Saul however saved the best of the sheep and oxen under the plea of these being for sacrifice. Agag was also brought away alive. Yet Saul said he had obeyed the word of the Lord. Samuel uttered that important principle, “To obey is better than sacrifice,” telling Saul that God had rent the kingdom from him. Samuel hewed Agag in pieces before the Lord: he then finally left Saul.
1 Samuel 16 commences a new section in the book. Samuel was told by the Lord not to mourn for Saul: He had rejected him. Samuel was then sent to Bethlehem to anoint David. The Spirit of Jehovah came upon David from that day, but He departed from Saul, and an evil spirit troubled him. David, as a skilful player on the harp, was sent for by the king. Saul, a figure of the first man, having been tested and found wanting, the beloved one (David) is brought forward: he is announced as a type of Christ (compare Matt. 3).
1 Samuel 17-19. David must have left Saul, and we know not exactly what interval elapsed before David slew Goliath. His victory over the giant is a striking type of Christ’s victory over the power of Satan in the cross (Heb. 2). In returning triumphant, David is a type of the risen Christ; he must have the first place, even as Christ of the seed of David according to the flesh is declared Son of God with power by resurrection from the dead (Rom. 1:2-4).
Saul set David over the men of war, but the praises of the women, “Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands,” raised his envy, and he eyed him from that day and attempted to kill him. Having failed in this he sought to ensnare him by demanding, as a dowry for his daughter, a hundred foreskins of the Philistines. But the Lord prospered David everywhere and Michal became his wife.
Jonathan’s heart was knit to David, and he endeavored to divert his father from his murderous intentions. Michal also protected him and saved his life. David fled to Samuel, and on Saul sending messengers to take him, the Spirit of God was on the messengers and they prophesied. When this had taken place three times, Saul went himself, but the Spirit of God came upon him also, and he prophesied: David was saved.
1 Samuel 20-31. Nothing could teach Saul wisdom—to let God’s anointed one alone: it is thus that man cannot bear to be superseded by Christ. Then began the flight of David from the wrath of Saul, and Saul’s pursuit of him; the grace of David in twice saving the life of Saul when he had him in his power; the wickedness of Saul in slaying the priestly house of Ahimelech; the mistake of David in joining himself to the Philistines, from which the Lord delivered him; and his discipline in the destruction of Ziklag, and the carrying away of his two wives with the inhabitants, but in mercy all were recovered.
In the meantime Samuel had passed away, with the simple notice that he died, and all the Israelites gathered together and lamented him, and buried him in his house at Ramah (1 Sam. 25:1). He was a faithful prophet of God (compare Jer. 15:1), though, alas! his house failed in his sons as judges.
When Saul approached his end, and could get no answer from God, he resorted to the witch at Endor: just as man, who has rejected Christ these 1,800 years, will at the close of this age, in the apostasy of Christendom, give himself up to Satan (Rev. 13). Samuel was raised, who foretold the speedy death of Saul and of his sons: see DIVINATION. A battle with the Philistines was fought on the next day, three of Saul’s sons were slain, and Saul, being sore wounded, fell on his sword, and was put to death by an Amalekite. The bodies of Saul and of his sons were hanged up on the wall of Beth-shan, but were rescued during the night by men of Jabesh-gilead, burnt, and the bones buried under a tree.
The First Book of Samuel shows a solemn change in the manifest relationship of Israel with God. Not only had the priest failed in the house of Eli, but the ark of the covenant, the symbol of Israel’s relationship with God, was in the hands of their enemies, this being permitted by God to bring things to an issue. He raised up a faithful prophet in Samuel, who also in a measure acted as priest, thus providing in grace a means of communication with his unfaithful people. Their demanding a king was virtually refusing God as their sovereign, though we know that according to the purpose of God there was to be a king as type of the Lord Jesus, King of Israel. The history of their first king shows that royalty, as everything else committed to man, was quickly followed by failure.

Samuel, Second Book of

This gives the definite establishment of David in the kingdom, with the history of the kingdom and his own personal history to near the close of his life. See DAVID.
2 Samuel 1-4. David lamented over the death of Saul, and did not seek to grasp the kingdom immediately. He committed his way unto the Lord, asked to which of the cities he should go, and was content to reign in Hebron seven years and six months, until God’s time was come for him to reign over the whole of the tribes.
Abner, Saul’s captain, made Ish-bosheth, Saul’s son, king at Mahanaim; but he was not, as Saul had been, God’s anointed. There were wars between the two houses, but David does not appear in them; they were conducted by Joab and Abner. The house of David waxed stronger and stronger. Abner, taking affront at the rebuke of Ish-bosheth concerning Rizpah, Saul’s concubine, revolted to David; but as he had previously killed Asahel, Joab’s brother, in one of the wars, Joab treacherously slew him, doubtless as much out of jealousy as to avenge the death of his brother. Two of Saul’s captains then killed Ish-bosheth, and brought his head to David, but David only condemned them to lose their own lives for their wickedness. This was followed by the whole of the tribes anointing David as their king.
2 Samuel 5. David, now king of all Israel, went to reside at Jerusalem, where he took more wives and concubines, and children were born to him. Twice he signally defeated the Philistines.
2 Samuel 6-7 gives the bringing up of the ark of God to Jerusalem. Then David thought to have built a house for God; but this was not God’s will: God would build him a house, and his son should build a house for God. David prays and gives thanks.
2 Samuel 8-10. David subdued all the enemies of Israel, and executed judgment and justice unto all the people. He then graciously showed kindness to the house of Saul in the person of Mephibosheth, son of Jonathan: though lame on both his feet, he sat continually at the king’s table. Hanun, king of the Ammonites, by insulting the ambassadors sent to him in kindness by David, drew upon the Ammonites sore punishment, and upon the Syrians who went to their aid: a vivid illustration of the solemn fact that those who refuse grace will be dealt with in judgment.
2 Samuel 11-12 records the sad story of David’s sin respecting Bathsheba, and the way he brought about the death of her husband. He was rebuked by Nathan: he confessed his sin, and it was put away; but he had to bear the needed discipline.
2 Samuel 13-20. Disorders in David’s house are related: his son Amnon is killed. Absalom is obliged to go into exile, but returns unrepentant; his revolt follows, and David seeks safety in flight. The punishment foretold by Nathan had come to pass, but God had mercy on His anointed; the counsels of Ahithophel are turned to foolishness, and Absalom meets the end he deserved. David returns to Jerusalem. A smaller revolt by Sheba is crushed by his death. David is again established on the throne, and his officers in the kingdom are duly recorded: (See 2 Sam. 8:16,18).
2 Samuel 21-22. For three years God sent a famine, for He had a controversy with Saul’s house because Saul had slain the Gibeonites, to whom Israel had sworn protection. David sought to make reparation, and the Gibeonites asked that seven of the descendants of Saul should be given them, and they would hang them up before the Lord. Rizpah, the mother of some of them, defended the bodies day and night, until David buried them with the remains of Saul and his sons. And God was entreated for the land.
The Philistines again war with Israel, and now the descendants of the giants are slain by David’s valiant men. This is followed by a psalm of thanksgiving by David in which he celebrates what God had been for him in his necessities and dangers. Some of the expressions, as in many of the Psalms, will only be fully accomplished in the person of Christ Himself.
2 Samuel 23 gives “the last words of David,” wherein he exults in the infallibility of God’s covenant, notwithstanding the failure in his house. Then follows a list of David’s worthies, with their deeds of valor and devotedness. God also will have His valiant men; He will count them when He writeth up the people (Psa. 87:6).
2 Samuel 24. It is sad that the last public act of David should be one of sin, but it must be observed that the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Israel, and God punished their rebellion by allowing Satan to act upon the pride of David’s heart to number Israel (compare 1 Chron. 21:1). Even Joab could see that it was an error, and sought to divert the king from his purpose; but Satan succeeded, and the people were numbered. David then saw that he had sinned greatly, and confessed it to God, and asked Him to take away his iniquity. Three punishments were offered to David by the mouth of the prophet, and he chose to fall “into the hand of the Lord, for His mercies are great.” A pestilence swept off 70,000 men, but when the destroying angel came to Jerusalem his hand was stayed. David bought the threshing floor of Araunah and his oxen, erected an altar, and offered up burnt offerings and peace offerings, and the plague was stayed.
The Second Book of Samuel gives the reign of David. In his rejection and in his subduing all his enemies he is a manifest type of Christ. David’s sins are not hidden, but his heart always turned to God, and his faith was answered by grace and restoration, though for his good the governmental chastisement was not withheld.


A Horonite, who seemed to act as a governor under the Persian king when Nehemiah returned from exile to rebuild Jerusalem. He was an enemy of the Jews, and by plots and guile hindered the work as far as he could. A descendant of the priests had become his son-in-law, whom Nehemiah rejected. His case is an illustration of the way in which, whenever God has work in progress, Satan finds an agent to oppose it (Neh. 2:10,19; Neh. 4:1,7; Neh. 6:1-14; Neh. 13:28). See SAMARIA.


This term is from qadesh, ἁγιάζω “to set apart to sacred purposes, consecrate.” It has various applications in the Old Testament as to days: God sanctified the seventh day on which He rested; it was afterward to be kept holy by the Israelites (Gen. 2:3; Ex. 20:8). As to persons, the whole of the Israelites were sanctified to God (Ex. 19:10,14). The firstborn were further sanctified to God, to be redeemed by the Levites (Ex. 13:2). The priests and Levites were sanctified to the service of God. As to the place and vessels of divine service, the tabernacle and temple, and all the vessels used therein, were devoted to sacred use in the worship of God (Ex. 30:29). We have thus what was suitable in view of God: there was also what was obligatory on the part of those that approached.
The priests, Levites, and people were often called upon to sanctify themselves, to be ceremonially fit to approach God and His sanctuary (Lev. 20:7; Num. 11:18; etc). God declared, “I will be sanctified in them that come nigh Me” (Lev. 10:3): God must be approached with reverence and in separation from what is unsuited to Him.
In the New Testament sanctification has many applications.
1. The thought is twice expressed by the Lord Jesus as to Himself. He spoke of Himself as one “whom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into the world” (John 10:36). He was set apart by the Father for the accomplishment of the purposes of His will. In His prayer for His disciples in John 17 the Lord also says, “For their sakes I sanctify myself.” He set Himself apart in heaven from rights that belonged to Him as man, that His own might be sanctified by the truth. He was sanctified on earth for the Father, He has sanctified Himself in heaven for the saints.
2. Believers are said to be “sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all” (Rom. 15:16; 1 Cor. 1:2; Heb. 10:10). They are thus saints, “sanctified ones” before God, apart from the life of flesh, a class of persons set apart to God for priestly service (Acts 20:32; Acts 26:18; Rom. 1:7; etc.). In this there is no progress; in effect it implies the most intimate identification with Christ. Such are His brethren. “He that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one” (Heb. 2:11): the sanctified are “perfected forever” by one offering (Heb. 10:14).
3. But believers are viewed also on the side of obligation and are exhorted to yield their members “servants to righteousness unto holiness” (ἁγιασμός). (Rom. 6:19). God chastens them that they may be partakers of His holiness (Heb. 12:10). Without sanctification no one will see the Lord. In this there is progress; a growing up into Christ in all things (Eph. 4:15). The apostle Paul prayed that the God of peace would sanctify the Thessalonians wholly (1 Thess. 5:23).
4. Sanctification appears to refer to change of association, for the possibility is contemplated of some who had been sanctified treading under foot the Son of God, and treating the blood of the covenant as an unholy or common thing, thus becoming apostates from Christ, and departing from the association in which they had been sanctified (Heb. 10:29).
5. In the existing mixed and corrupt state of Christendom (viewed as a great house, in which are vessels, some to honor and some to dishonor), the obligation to sanctification from evil within the sphere of profession has become obligatory in order that a man may be “a vessel unto honor, sanctified, and meet for the master’s use, and prepared unto every good work” (2 Tim. 2:21).
6. An unbelieving husband or wife is said to be sanctified in the believing partner, and their children are holy (ἅγιος). They can thus dwell together in peace, instead of having to separate from an unbelieving partner, as in Old Testament times (1 Cor. 7:14; compare Ezra 9-10).
7. Food is “sanctified by the word of God and prayer.” Hence “every creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused, if it be received with thanksgiving” (1 Tim. 4:4-5). This is altogether opposed to restrictions prescribed by the law, or which man may impose on the use of what God in His goodness has created for man’s use.


This is “holy [place],” and is applied in the Old Testament both to the tabernacle and to the temple as a whole, and to the “holy [place]” and “most holy” in distinction from the other parts: “Thy way, O God, is in the sanctuary” (Psa. 77:13). The sanctuary was where, in retirement from man and the world, God’s glory was seen, and His mind apprehended; it was where the sacrifices were offered, and God was worshipped.
In the New Testament also the word sanctuary is applied to the holy and most holy parts of the tabernacle (Heb. 9:1-8; Heb. 10:19; Heb. 13:11). Here it is called “worldly,” (κοσμκός) in reference possibly to its order, and its contrast to the true tabernacle which the Lord pitched, and not man. The word “sanctuary” in Hebrews 8:2 is literally holy (places or things); of these Christ is minister. The sanctuary for the Christian consists in the light of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ. God is revealed without a veil.


Soles worn under the feet; and tied by strings or thongs to keep them in their place (Mark 6:9; Acts 12:8). See SHOES.

Sanhedrin or Sanhedrim

The Greek word is συνέδριον “a sitting together”: it is always translated “council” in the AV. There appears to be no Hebrew equivalent to the name. The Jews trace its origin to the seventy elders chosen to assist Moses (Num. 11:16-17); but nothing is said of such a council in the time of the kingdom; and it is probable that it was instituted in the time of the Maccabees. The early writers do not say how it was composed; from the New Testament we find it consisted of the chief priests, or heads of the twenty-four courses, the elders, lawyers, and the scribes. It was the highest court of the Jews, acting “in all causes, and over all persons, ecclesiastical and civil.” Its decisions were binding on Jews everywhere. Its powers were curtailed by Herod and afterward by the Romans, who prevented the Jews from putting any one to death legally (John 18:31). The Lord (Luke 22:66); Peter and John (Acts 4:1-23; 5:17-41); Stephen, Acts (6:12-15); and Paul (Acts 22:30; Acts 18:1-10); were arraigned before the Sanhedrin.


Town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:31). Not identified.


One described as “of the sons of the giant” (or Rapha), slain by Sibbechai (2 Sam. 21:18). He is called SIPPAI in 1 Chronicles 20:4.


City mentioned in Micah 1:11, the inhabitants of which are thus addressed, “Pass ye away....having thy shame naked,” when judgments are being proclaimed against Judah and Israel. The name signifies “fair, beautiful;” it should be changed into “shame.” Probably one of the three villages named es Suafir near 31° 42' N, 34° 42' E.



Sapphire (Sappir, σάπφειρος)

When Moses, and the elders, went up into the mount to God “there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone” (Ex. 24:10). In Ezekiel’s vision, above the firmament, was seen the “likeness of a throne as the appearance of a sapphire stone” (Ezek. 1:26). It was one of the stones in the breastplate, and one that garnished the foundation of the holy Jerusalem. It is symbolical of heavenly glory (Ex. 28:18; Rev. 21:19). The word occurs in Job 28:6,16; Song of Solomon 5:14; Isaiah 54:11; Lamentations 4:7; Ezekiel 10:1 and Ezekiel 28:13. Probably an azure or sky-blue stone. Some suppose it was the Lapis-lazuli, others identify it with the modern sapphire.


Daughter of Asher (Num. 26:46). Called SERAH (Gen. 46:17; 1 Chron. 7:30).

Sarah, Sarai, Sara

Wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac. Abraham said she was the daughter of his father but not of his mother, therefore he called her “sister;” but God preserved her in His mercy to Abraham, who had, through fear, denied his true relationship to her in the land of Egypt and before Abimelech. Sarah, being barren, gave to Abraham her Egyptian handmaid Hagar, who, when she had conceived, despised her mistress. Sarah then dealt harshly with her and she ran away; but the angel of the Lord sent her back, and Ishmael was born.
When God promised Abraham that a son should be born to him of Sarah, He altered her name from Sarai to Sarah, which signifies “princess.” The meaning of Sarai is uncertain. Jerome gave “my princess;” others “princely;” others “contentious;” Fürst says, “Jah is ruler.” (See NAMES.) When Sarah heard that she was to have a son, she laughed within herself, for she was old, but it was known by the Lord, and then, being afraid, she denied that she had laughed.
In fulfillment of God’s promise, Isaac was at length born. When he was weaned, Ishmael was seen mocking, which roused Sarah to demand the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael. Though it was grievous to Abraham, God bade him do what Sarah desired. This is taken up in Galatians 4 as a figure of Christians being children of the free woman, that is, of Jerusalem which is above, which, says the apostle, is our mother. Ishmael represents the man born after the flesh, who persecutes him born after the Spirit.
Sarah lived to the age of 127, and died in Kirjath-arba, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah, which was purchased as a burying place. Her history is given in Genesis 11-23. Sarah is held up in the New Testament as an example of faith (Heb. 11:11); and also as a wife who was in subjection to her husband (1 Pet. 3:6).


Descendant of Shelah, of the tribe of Judah (1 Chron. 4:22).

Sardine, Sardius (Odem, σάρδιος)

One of the precious stones in the breastplate (Ex. 28:17; Ex. 39:10). It also embellished one of the foundations of the holy Jerusalem (Rev. 21:20). It was one of the stones that covered the king of Tyrus—doubtless portraying Satan before his fall (Ezek. 28:13). In heaven One who sat upon the throne was “to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone” (Rev. 4:3). It is supposed to be the sard, a superior variety of agate, of various colors, some blood-red, and others of a golden hue.


The capital of ancient Lydia in Asia Minor. The church that was gathered there is known only by being selected as one of the seven typical churches to which addresses were sent by the apostle John (Rev. 1:11; Rev. 3:1,4); See REVELATION. In the time of Croesus, its last king, Sardis was a rich and splendid city. It was taken by Cyrus. Now there is nothing but ruins. Its modern name is Sart, 38° 28' N, 28° 4' E.


Descendants of Sered, son of Zebulun (Num. 26:26).


A precious stone associated with one of the foundations of the holy Jerusalem (Rev. 21:20). The word does not occur in the AV of the Old Testament. Aquila, in his Greek version, uses it for the onyx in Genesis 2:12. It is judged to be a variety of chalcedony, or of agate, of various colors, with stripes of a different shade.


The village to which Elias was sent to succor a poor widow (Luke 4:26). Called ZAREPHATH in 1 Kings 17:9. Identified with Sarafend, 33° 27' N, 35° 18' E: it is near the sea, about midway between Tyre and Sidon.


King of Assyria, successor of Shalmaneser IV., but called a usurper. His general, the Tartan, captured Ashdod (Isa. 20:1). He reigned B.C. 722-705. Though his name appears in Scripture only in the above passage, it is believed that he accomplished the taking of Samaria which was begun by Shalmaneser. See SAMARIA. He made various conquests and strengthened the kingdom of Assyria, and built some of the palaces.


Boundary city of Zebulun (Josh. 19:10,12). Identified with Tell Shadud, 32° 40' N, 35° 14' E.




Name of the “Rab-saris,” or chief of the eunuchs, who was with Nebuchadnezzar’s army at the capture of Jerusalem (Jer. 39:3).




A name by which THE DEVIL, the great enemy of God and man, is designated. The name may be said to be the same in Hebrew, Greek, and English, and signifies “adversary,” as the word is rendered in several places where other adversaries are alluded to (compare Num. 22:22; 1 Kings 11:14,23,25). It was Satan who at the outset deceived Eve, for it is clear that the dragon, the old serpent, the devil, and Satan all represent the same evil spirit (Rev. 20:2). Satan was the great adversary of God’s people in Old Testament times (1 Chron. 21:1); the tempter of the Lord Jesus, who treated him as Satan; and is the tempter and adversary of the saints and of all mankind now. He endeavors to neutralize the effect of the gospel; catches away the good seed sown in the heart (Matt. 13), and blinds the minds of the unbelieving lest the light of the gospel of Christ’s glory should shine to them. His efforts are frustrated by God or none would be saved.
Further, to counteract God’s work, Satan has raised up heretics to mingle with the saints and to corrupt them by evil doctrine, as taught in the metaphor of the tares sown among the wheat. He goes about as a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour, but saints are told to resist him, and he will flee from them. The power of death, which Satan had, has been annulled by Christ in His death. Saints are warned against his devices, for he is transformed into an angel of light, a teacher of morality. God has provided complete armor for His saints in order that they may withstand him and all his wiles, and has given them the sword of the Spirit—the word of God, as a weapon of attack (Eph. 6:11-18).
The origin of Satan is not definitely stated, but if Ezekiel 28:12-19 refers to him, under the appellation of the king of Tyre (as was very early believed in the church, and may be correct), he is described as the anointed cherub that “covereth;” all the precious stones and gold were also his covering, resplendent by reflected light; he had a place in Eden, the garden of God, and was upon the holy mountain of God. He was perfect in his ways from the day he was created, until iniquity was found in him. Tyre, in its worldly wisdom and beauty, is looked at morally as the creation of the prince and god of this world. He will eventually be cast out as profane and find his portion in the lake of fire.
In the Epistle of Jude, the act of Michael the archangel in reference to Satan is given as an example of restraint in speaking of dignities: he dared not bring a railing accusation against the devil, but said, “The Lord rebuke thee.” This implies that Satan had been set in dignity, which, though he had fallen, was still to be respected—as Saul’s life was sacred in David’s eyes because he was the anointed of God, though he had then fallen. That Satan had been set in dignity is confirmed by the fact of Christ having on the cross spoiled “principalities and authorities”(ἐξονσιά), not simply “powers” (Col. 2:15).
The expressions “the prince of this world,” “the god of this world,” and “the prince of the power of the air,” all presumably refer to Satan. When the Lord was tempted in the wilderness, Satan, after showing Him “all the kingdoms of the world,” proposed to give to Him all the power and glory of them, if He would worship him, adding “for that is delivered unto me: and to whomsoever I will I give it” (Luke 4:5-6).
From the Book of Job we learn that Satan has access to God in the heavens; the Christian wrestles with the spiritual powers of wickedness in the heavenlies; and a day is coming when Michael and his angels will fight against Satan and his angels, and the latter will be cast out of heaven. This seems to indicate that Satan has a place in heaven originally given to him by God. During the millennium he will be shut up in the abyss, then loosed for a little season, and finally be cast into the lake of fire, a place prepared for him and his angels.
When Jesus was born, Satan attempted to destroy Him (Matt. 2:16; Rev. 12:1-5). At the close of the Lord’s course Satan was the great mover in His being put to death. To accomplish this Satan entered into Judas the traitor, whereas, as far as is revealed, in other cases, possession was by a demon, and not by Satan himself. When the Lord was arrested He said to the Jews, “This is your hour and the power of darkness.” But Christ was morally the victor: in His death He annulled him that had the power of death, that is, the devil: He led captivity captive. Still Satan works, and will, when cast down to earth, be the spirit of a trinity of evil. He gives his throne and authority to the beast, that is, to the resuscitated Roman Empire, whose power is wielded by the Antichrist (Rev. 13). He will also be the leader of the nations in the last battle against the camp of the saints (Rev. 20:7-9).
It is remarkable that, notwithstanding the malignity of Satan, God uses him in the discipline of His saints, as in the case of Job, but allows the evil one to go only as far as He pleases. Paul used his apostolic power to commit some to Satan for the destruction of the flesh (1 Cor. 5:5; 1 Tim. 1:20). The thorn in the flesh which Paul himself had was a messenger of Satan to buffet him, lest he should be puffed up because of the marvelous revelations made to him in the third heaven. It is well to remember that Satan is morally a vanquished foe, for he is exposed; and that no Christian can be touched by him except as permitted and controlled by his God and Father in discipline for his good.
The epithet “Devil” is from “to strike through,” and hence figuratively to stab with accusation: so Satan is called “the accuser of the brethren” (Rev. 12:10; compare Zech. 3:1-2). Satan and the devil being identical, there is but one devil. In the AV of the New Testament, where “devils” are spoken of, the word in the original is always “demons.”


The word is sair, which signifies “hairy one,” and hence a “he goat.” It is translated “goat” and “kid” many times. In Leviticus 17:7 and 2 Chronicles 11:15 it is translated “devils,” but would have been better “demons,” referring to the gods which the heathen unconsciously worshipped (compare 1 Cor. 10:20). The word is translated “satyr” in Isaiah 13:21 and Isaiah 34:14, both passages referring to places brought to utter desolation, so that they are inhabited by wild beasts, owls, and perhaps “wild goats” are intended; or that the desolation would be such that men would shun them as if haunted by unearthly beings. Such a dread is often expressed by dwellers in the East.


Son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin, and the first king of Israel. He was anointed by Samuel by God’s direction when the Israelites demanded a king. As the king whom they had chosen and desired, “a new heart” was given him, and he had a fair start in his reign; but he signally failed in obedience to God, by the word of Samuel. He was rejected, and David was anointed, whom for years he malignantly persecuted. Being forsaken of God, without faith or conscience he resorted to one with a familiar spirit, and there heard his doom. (See DIVINATION.) He was conquered by the Philistines, the very people he was to have overcome. Thus royalty, as everything else committed to man by God, at once failed. For details of Saul’s life see SAMUEL, FIRST BOOK OF.


One of the ancient kings of Edom (Gen. 36:37-38). Called SHAUL in 1 Chronicles 1:48-49.

Saul of Tarsus



This title is in the Old Testament applied to Jehovah. The term in itself implies that some oppression exists or some danger impends from which salvation is needed. God says, “All flesh shall know that I Jehovah am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob” (Isa. 49:26; Isa. 60:16). In the New Testament man is plainly declared to be lost, and the title “Saviour” is applied both to God and to Christ. “The Father sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world” (1 John 4:14); and the very name of Jesus conveys the thought of a Saviour. His becoming this involved His meeting vicariously the question of sin and sins, which He did on the cross. The expression occurs in Paul’s later epistles of “God our Saviour,” or “our Saviour-God,” indicating the attitude which God occupies towards all men. How gladly all His saints say, “To the only wise God our Saviour be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen.” God is also declared to be “the Savior of all men” in a providential sense, and men probably little know how much they are indebted to His preserving care (1 Tim. 4:10). See SALVATION.


Ancient Egyptian saws have been discovered, and a double handed one was found at Nimrood. They are such as would be used for wood, but there must have been other kinds, for 1 Kings 7:9 speaks of stones that were “sawed with saws.” The inhabitants of Rabbah, when conquered by David, were “cut with saws and harrows of iron and axes” (1 Chron. 20:3). They had perhaps thus treated the captives they had taken, and this was God’s judgment upon them (compare Heb. 11:37).

Scape-goat; Scapegoat



The word most frequently translated “scarlet” is shani, and this is often accompanied by the word tolaath, “worm or grub,” apparently intimating that the color was obtained from some insect, as it is now from the cochineal. Scarlet was much used in the needlework and hangings of the tabernacle, in conjunction with blue and purple; but there it apparently refers to some fabric of the color of scarlet. If the purple be taken as symbolical of royalty and universal dominion, the scarlet may signify earthly grandeur and Israelitish royalty (Ex. 39:1-29; Josh. 2:18,21; 2 Sam. 1:24; Prov. 31:21; Song of Sol. 4:3; Isa. 1:18). In the New Testament they clothed the Lord in a scarlet robe, κὀκκινος (Matt. 27:28) it is “purple” in Mark and John: it may have been an old faded robe that could be called either. Scarlet is also employed with purple to point out the earthly grandeur of Papal Rome (Rev. 17:3-4; Rev. 18:12,16).


One of the distinguishing insignia of royalty: a rod or staff of dignity. It was held out by the king to Esther (Esther 4:11). The prophecy that “the scepter shall not depart from Judah.... until SHILOH come,” refers to Christ as “the Prince of Peace” (Gen. 49:10). The scepter is not now wielded by Judah while the people are Lo-ammi, but their supremacy will be renewed when the purpose of God is fulfilled. Many passages speak of Christ sitting upon the throne of David, and reigning till His enemies are cast beneath His feet. A scepter of righteousness will be the scepter of His kingdom (Num. 24:17; Psa. 45:6; Isa. 14:5; Ezek. 19:11,14; Amos 1:5,8; Zech. 10:11; Heb. 1:8).


A Jew at Ephesus, a chief of the priests, whose seven sons sought by the name of Jesus to cast out a demon. The demon acknowledged that he knew Jesus and Paul, but demanded “Who are ye?” and then by means of the possessed man attacked them, so that they fled away naked and wounded (Acts 19:14-16). Here Satan showed his power as the “strong man.” The One stronger than he would not let His power be used by these men.

Schism (σχίσμα)

The word is rendered “divisions” in 1 Corinthians 1:10, etc., and refers to divisions caused by parties in the church. In view of the unity of the Spirit, schism cannot be regarded in any other light than as sin. The unity contemplated in the church was not merely that of being gathered together in assembly. The Corinthians were exhorted: “That ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions [schisms] among you; but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment” (1 Cor. 1:10; 1 Cor. 11:18; 1 Cor. 12:25). The modern ideas of agreeing “to differ,” or of “unity only in essentials,” are not found in scripture, but the contrary. At Philippi the saints were exhorted to walk by the same rule, to mind the same thing; and then is added “If in anything ye be otherwise minded, God shall reveal even this unto you” (Phil. 3:15). The “unity of the Spirit” cannot be lightly disregarded. Christians are exhorted to use diligence to keep it in the uniting bond of peace (Eph. 4:3). There are different lines of ministry, as is manifest in the apostles Paul and John, but all true ministry tends to one end—Christ; and hence such differences in no way clash with the unity of the Spirit. See HERESY.

Schoolmaster (παιδαγωγός)

This is literally “child conductor,” pedagogue: originally a slave who took his master’s children to school. The law was a schoolmaster to the Jews (not to the Gentiles: Paul said we, in contrast to ye in Gal. 3:26) until Christ came; but any led to Christ were no longer under that schoolmaster (Gal. 3:24-25; compare Rom. 6:14).


Both in the Hebrew and in the Greek the words signify “knowledge,” and are generally so translated. They are rendered “science” only in Daniel 1:4, where “knowledge” and “wisdom” are also mentioned; and in 1 Timothy 6:20, where it is science, or knowledge, “falsely so called,” doubtless alluding in Daniel to the speculations of the Magi, and in the Epistle to Timothy to the philosophers or Gnostic heretics, whose “knowledge” had no real foundation.

Scorpion (Aqrab, σκορπίος)

These words refer to the well-known animal armed with claws like a lobster, and having its sting in its tail. In the East it inhabits desolate places, hides under stones or logs of wood, and comes out at night. It is carnivorous. Various species are known, they belong to the class arachnida, which includes the spider (Deut. 8:15; Luke 10:19; Luke 11:12). In Ezekiel 2:6 the children of Israel are compared to scorpions, among whom Ezekiel had to labor.
In Revelation 9 we read of locusts with stings in their tails, and which torment men as do the scorpions: they are employed as symbols of some form of cruel and pitiless agents. In 1 Kings 12:11,14 and 2 Chronicles 10:11,14, a scourge with hard knots or metal points is supposed to be alluded to.


This was a punishment inflicted by the Romans. The culprit was stripped and stretched by cords or thongs on a frame, and beaten with a whip or a rod. From about B.C. 300 Roman citizens were exempt from scourging. Paul availed himself of this privilege when he was about to be “examined” under this punishment (Acts 22:24-29). But he was thrice beaten with rods (2 Cor. 11:25). The Lord was subject to the pain and indignity of scourging (John 19:1).


“To make marks;” it is what David did on the door when he feigned madness (1 Sam. 21:13).

Screech Owl

See OWL.


In the Old Testament this word is applied to the officer who carried on the correspondence for a king, the army, and so forth, what is now generally understood by secretary (2 Sam. 8:17; 2 Chron. 24:11; Esther 3:12; Isa. 36:3). It is also applied to those who wrote and explained the scriptures: thus Ezra was “a ready scribe in the law,” even “a scribe of the words of the commandments of the Lord,” though he was also a priest (Ezra 7:6, 11; Neh. 8:1-13).
In the New Testament the word is used in the sense in which it is applied to Ezra, and scribes are classed with the chief priests and the elders. They are described as sitting in Moses’ seat, and what they taught was to be observed; but, alas, their works were not to be followed (Matt. 7:29; Matt. 23:2,13-33). Many woes are proclaimed against them, and they are addressed, “Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers! how can ye escape the damnation of hell?” Thus these men, who ought to have been examples to others, were publicly denounced because their practice denied what they taught. They did not form a separate sect in New Testament times, a person might be both scribe and Pharisee or Sadducee (compare Acts 23:9).


A bag, or satchel, often made of the skin of a kid, stripped off whole, and tanned by a simple process. They were slung over the shoulder (1 Sam. 17:40; Luke 22:35-36).


This word occurs but once in the Old Testament, where an angel speaks of “the scripture of truth” (Dan. 10:21). In the New Testament the various parts of the Old Testament are referred to as “the scriptures;” they are the “holy scriptures” (2 Tim. 3:15): they must needs be fulfilled; they cannot be broken (John 10:35; Acts 17:2, 11). Some erred because they did not know the scriptures (Matt. 22:29). And “all scripture” is God-inspired, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness; that the man of God may be perfect, or complete, fully fitted to every good work (2 Tim. 3:16-17). It is in short a God-inspired and infallible revelation to man, and especially to those who are by grace in relationship with Him. As in a nation “the records” are referred to as authority, so in the church, it is “the scriptures” that bind the conscience, and should be an end of all controversy. To understand them the teaching of the Holy Spirit is needed, for “the letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth life.”


This word, being associated with the term “barbarian,” signifies a most uncultivated person (Col. 3:11). Happily such a one has the same reception as the most cultivated; such is the grace of God. “In Christ Jesus” all distinctions are lost. As a race, the Scythians were located north of the Caspian and Black Seas. They were esteemed by the ancients as very low in intelligence and culture.


The seas referred to in scripture are:
1. THE MEDITERRANEAN, under the names of “the great sea” (Num. 34:6-7; Ezek. 48:28); “the uttermost sea,” or “the hinder sea” (Deut. 11:24; Zech. 14:8); “the sea of Joppa” (Ezra 3:7); “sea of the Philistines” (Ex. 23:31).
The “SEA OF CILICIA AND PAMPHYLIA” (Acts 27:5), is the N. E. corner of the Mediterranean Sea.
2. THE SALT SEA (Num. 34:3, 12); also called “the east sea” (Ezek. 47:18; Joel 2:20); “the former sea” (Zech. 14:8); “the sea of the plain” (Deut. 3:17; Josh. 3:16; Josh. 12:3; 2 Kings 14:25). See SALT SEA.
3. THE RED SEA (Ex. 10:19; Psa. 106:7, 9, 22; Heb. 11:29); also called “the Egyptian sea” (Isa. 11:15). See RED SEA.
4. THE SEA OF GALILEE (Mark 1:16); also called the “Sea of Tiberias” (John 21:1); the “Sea of Chinnereth” (Num. 34:11; Josh. 12:3; Josh. 13:27); the “Lake of Gennesaret” (Luke 5:1). See GALILEE, SEA OF.
5. SEA OF JAZER, a small lake in Gilead, now represented by some ponds, near where Jazer stood (Jer. 48:32).

Sea Monster


Sea of Glass

Symbolical laver seen in heaven, signifying fixed, accomplished holiness, with no need of the hands or feet being washed (Rev. 4:6). In Revelation 15:2 the saints are seen standing upon “a sea of glass mingled with fire;” they had come out of the tribulation.

Sea, The

This is used as a symbol of the mass of the people unorganized (Rev. 13:1). In Revelation 13:11 a beast arises out of the earth, pointing to organization.

Sea, the Molten

The name given to the “laver” made by Solomon when he built the temple. It was five cubits high, ten in diameter from brim to brim and thirty in circumference. It stood upon twelve oxen, three facing each way (1 Kings 7:23-26; 2 Chron. 4:2-5). See LAVER.

Seal, Signet

Stones on which words, letters, or symbols are engraved. Anciently these were pierced, and by a cord or chain were hung from the arm or the neck, or they were set in rings and worn on the finger. The design was impressed on pieces of clay which were attached to official documents, which in the East are not considered authentic without being sealed (Ex. 28:11; Esther 8:8,10; Job 38:14; Dan. 6:17). The seal was also used to ensure security, or to preserve the sanctity of things not to be revealed (Isa. 29:11; Dan. 12:4,9; Matt. 27:66; Rev. 20:3; Rev. 22:10).
A covenant was sealed by Nehemiah and those with him (Neh. 10:1). The believer, in crediting what God says of man, and of God’s salvation, virtually attaches his seal (vouches for the fact) that God is true (John 3:33). “The foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are His [God’s side]; and, Let everyone that nameth the name of the Lord depart from iniquity [man’s side]” (2 Tim. 2:19). This is an illustration of a double-seal turning on a pivot, of which either side could be used.
The roll in Revelation 5 had seven seals, so arranged that by breaking one seal a certain portion could be unrolled; and each seal was broken in succession until the whole was revealed.


A legal process by which the validity of a deed of conveyance is confirmed (see Jer. 32:7-11). A seal is often employed as a witness and proof of genuineness. This may help us to understand the force of the term as applied to Christ and to Christians.
1. The Lord Jesus spoke of Himself as sealed by God the Father (John 6:27), doubtless referring to the Holy Ghost having come upon Him at His baptism. He was thus witnessed of as the Son of God.
2. Believers are sealed by the Spirit for the day of redemption, and the Spirit is also the earnest of their inheritance (2 Cor. 1:22; Eph. 4:30). The gift of the Spirit is the seal. This could not be until redemption had been wrought and righteousness secured thus for man. But the seal is now the distinctive mark of those who are of God. The idea of sealing is distinct from that of being born of the Spirit, as well as from that of being led of the Spirit after He has been received. Believers only are sealed, in virtue of their faith in a Savior who died for them and rose again. The sealing, based on forgiveness of sins, gives the consciousness of the benefit gained by faith.
Various incidents in the Acts of the Apostles throw light upon this. On the day of Pentecost, after Peter had proclaimed the death, resurrection, and exaltation of Christ, the hearers being “pricked in their heart,” said, “What shall we do?” Peter replied, “Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost” (Acts 2:38). So also when Peter preached to Cornelius and those gathered with him, while he was saying “Whosoever believeth in Him shall receive remission of sins....the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the word” (Acts 10:43-44). In Ephesians 1:13, it is said of the Gentiles that having believed the gospel of their salvation they were sealed. See HOLY SPIRIT.
3. The hundred and forty-four thousand of the twelve tribes of Israel referred to in Revelation 7:3-8 will be sealed in their foreheads. The number typifies the completeness of the remnant which is preserved through the great tribulation for blessing, and they are conspicuous as bearing the witness and mark of the living God.


When God created the lights in the firmament He said, “Let them be for signs and for seasons,” and it is well known that the different seasons on the earth are in great measure caused by the days being longer or shorter, and thus having more or less of the heat of the sun. After the flood, God declared that while the earth remained the seasons should continue (Gen. 8:22); these fall approximately thus:
1. Seedtime
Falling in October to March
2. Harvest
Falling in April to September.
These seasons must overlap each other in Palestine, and are somewhat different in the hill country from what they are in the plains and valleys. Seed-time follows what was called “the early rain,” in October and November, and continues till January. Harvest commences in sheltered places as early as the beginning of April: in the hill country it is a month later; and in the north it extends to the end of July. The rains of November clothe the fields with grass. In January oranges, citrons, and lemons are ripening. In February and March, apple, pear, plum, and apricot trees are in blossom. During May, in some places, apricots and melons are ripe. In June, figs, cherries, and plums begin to ripen, but August is the chief month for fruit. The vintage extends through September. In August the great heat begins to dry up the vegetation, and it gradually changes the whole scene into what appears to be a dry and barren land; but the early rains soon show that it is only the surface that is parched.
In places there are masses of choice wild flowers, and where the land is well cultivated, it is now, as formerly, very productive. “Twenty thousand measures of wheat” year by year were sent to Hiram in exchange for timber (1 Kings 5:11). Wheat, honey, oil and balm were sent to Tyre as merchandise (Ezek. 27:17). Barley also is produced plentifully.
The Jewish Calendar here given follows the order usually found in books of reference, but the climate and seasons have somewhat altered. Some of the names of the months apparently point to the time of the year in which they fell. Thus Abib signifies “budding” or “ear of corn;” Zif, “blossom;” and Bul, “rain.” See MONTHS and RAIN.
Sacred Months Civil Months English Months. Jewish Months. Seasons. Feasts. Antitypes.
10 4 December January Tebeth. 29 days Midwinter
11 5 January February Sebat. 30 days Winter
12 6 February March Adar. 29 days Cold, Latter rain, Spring 14-15 Purim or Lots Esther 3:7; Esther 9:16.
1 7 March April Abib or Nisan. 30 days Barley Harvest begins 14. Passover. 16. First-fruits of Barley. 15-21. Unleavened Bread. Christ our Passover. The Resurrection.
2 8 April May Zif or Iyar. 29 days Summer
3 9 May June Sivan. 30 days Wheat Harvest 6. Feast of Weeks Pentecost Firstfruits of Wheat. Descent of the Holy Spirit Acts 2
4 10 June July Tammuz. 29 days Hot Season
5 11 July August Ab. 30 days Principal month for fruit
6 12 August September Elul. 29 days Vintage general
7 1 September October Ethanim or Tisri. 31 days Early rain 1. Feast of Trumpets 10. Day of Atonement. 15-21. Tabernacles. Israel awakened; afflict their souls; receive their Messiah. The Millennium.
8 2 October November Bul or Marchesvan. 29 days Seed time
9 3 November December Chisleu. 30 days Winter begins 25. Feast of Dedication.
Tammuz and Ab are not mentioned in scripture. The names in italic are used by Josephus and others.


Son of Cush, a son of Ham, and the territory where his descendants were located (Gen. 10:7; 1 Chron. 1:9; Psa. 72:10; Isa. 43:3). The descendants have been traced to Meroe, on the west of Abyssinia, and Josephus says that Meroe was at one time called Saba, or Seba. Its ruins lie between lat. 16° and 17° N. It is, however, believed by some that this tribe first settled near the Persian Gulf (probably along with the descendants of SHEBA, another descendant of Ham), and afterward migrated into Africa. See SABEANS.




City “in the wilderness” of Judah (Josh. 15:61). Identified by some with ruins at es Sikkeh, 31° 46' N, 35° 17' E.


A place apparently lying between Gibeah and Ramah (1 Sam. 19:22). Identified with Suweikeh, 31° 53' N, 35° 12' E.




A believer of Thessalonica, and for a time a companion of Paul (Acts 20:4).


In the days of Samuel it is said “a prophet was beforetime called a seer” (1 Sam. 9:9). They were so-called apparently because they were given of God to fore-see events or to see visions. This is confirmed by Isaiah 30:10, where rebellious Israel, in effect, said to the seers, “See not.” They did not want to hear what God had to say to them. Ezekiel also says, “Woe unto the foolish prophets, that follow their own spirit and have seen nothing!” (1 Sam. 13:3).


“To boil,” from the Anglo-Saxon seothan (Ex. 16:23; etc.).


1. The youngest son of Hiel who rebuilt Jericho (1 Kings 16:34).
2. Son of Hezron and father of Jair (1 Chron. 2:21-22).


Ancestor of the Horites who dwelt in Mount Seir and “the land of Seir” (Gen. 36:20-21; 1 Chron. 1:38).

Seir, Mount

1. The early name of the long range of mountains, extending from about eight miles, south of the Salt Sea, to near the Gulf of Akaba. It is also called “the land of Seir.” It was occupied at first by the Horites, and afterward by the descendants of Esau, and acquired the name of EDOM. The Israelites had to compass the whole of this mountainous range to reach their entrance to the promised land (Gen. 14:6; Gen. 36:8-9, 30; Deut. 2:1-12). The word of Jehovah announced to the prophet the perpetual desolation of Mount Seir (Ezek. 35:2-15).
2. A northern boundary of Judah (Josh. 15:10). Probably the ridge north of Kirjath-jearim, about 31° 47' N.


City in Ephraim (Judg. 3:26). Not identified.


This probably signifies “rock of escapes,” or “rock of divisions,” as in the margin. It is a rock in the wilderness of Maori, where David escaped from Saul (1 Sam. 23:28). Identified with Wady Malaki, 31° 27' N, 35° 14' E.

Sela, Selah

The rock city of Edom (2 Kings 14:7; Isa. 16:1). The same Hebrew word is that usually translated “rock.” The place was taken by Amaziah, who called it JOKTHEEL. It is judged to be the same as PETRA (which occurs in the margin of Isaiah 16:1). Petra is a remarkable place. Though about two thousand feet above the sea, it is shut in by mountain-cliffs, and is entered by a narrow ravine, through which also the river winds. The tombs cut in the rocks are large, especially one called el Khuzneh, which has three rows of columns. The tiers of a theater remain, a triumphal arch, and ruined bridges. There is a sort of awe-inspiring grandeur in the place. The Bedouins are very troublesome, and jealous of visitors entering, supposing they come to search for treasure. Some have with difficulty escaped with their lives after being well fleeced. Petra lies 30° 22' N, 35° 43' E.


A term occurring in Habakkuk 3:3, 9, 13, and many times in the Psalms. There have been various suggestions as to its meaning, but its signification is not really known. The Targum mostly renders the word “forever.” The LXX has διάψαλμα, denoting, as some think, “a pause, a break or rest.” “Pause, consider,” is perhaps its signification.


Son of Nadab, a descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 2:30).


A seaport some sixteen miles from Antioch in Syria, from whence Paul and Barnabas embarked on their first missionary journey; doubtless they landed there on their return (Acts 13:4; Acts 14:26). It was founded by Seleucus Nicator, the successor in Syria to Alexander the Great. There are two piers in the old harbor still called Paul and Barnabas. The modern village is called es Suweidiyeh, 36° 15' N, 35° 50' E.




Son of Shemaiah, a son of Obed-edom (1 Chron. 26:7).


Son of Joseph, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus (Luke 3:26).



Senate, Senators

The “assembly of the elders, priests,” and others. (Psa. 105:22; Acts 5:21). See SANHEDRIN.


Rock in the “passage of Michmash” where the Philistines had a garrison in the days of Saul (1 Sam. 14:4).




Son and successor of Sargon, king of Assyria. He invaded Syria and Palestine in the fourteenth year of Hezekiah’s reign. Hezekiah owned that he had offended, and paid to him a tribute of three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold. Sennacherib has left an account of this on a clay tablet. He says he captured forty-six fenced cities, and the fortresses and villages round about them belonging to Hezekiah the Jew, and carried away 200,150 souls, and horses, mules, asses, camels, oxen, and sheep without number. He shut up Hezekiah in his house at Jerusalem like a bird in a cage (compare 2 Kings 18:13-16; 2 Chron. 32:1-8).
On Sennacherib’s second invasion, he sent insulting and impious messages to Hezekiah, who apparently was again trusting in Egypt. But an angel of God destroyed the Assyrian army. Of course the monuments say nothing of this. The king returned to Assyria, and did not venture to invade Palestine again. He was eventually murdered by two of his sons, and Esar-haddon, another son, succeeded him (2 Kings 18:17-37; 2 Kings 19:1-37; 2 Chron. 32:9-22; Isa. 36-37). Apparently Sennacherib was co-regent with Sargon in B.C. 714 when he invaded Judaea the first time; he reigned alone from B.C. 705 to 681.


The word is ψνχικός, “animal, sensuous,” in opposition to what is “spiritual.” It is translated “natural” (1 Cor. 2:14; 1 Cor. 15:44,46). To be sensual is to be led by the passions of man’s flesh: it is placed with “earthly” and “devilish” in James 3:15; and is contrasted with having the Holy Spirit in Jude 1:19.


Father of Judah who returned from exile (Neh. 11:9).


Head of the fourth course of the priests (1 Chron. 24:8).


A mountainous district, the boundary of the descendants of Joktan (Gen. 10:30). Probably Dhafar (pronounced Zafar) or Dhafari (pronounced Zafari) in Hadramaut, part of Southern Arabia.


Place where the Jews were in captivity, but from whence they would be brought to possess “the cities of the south” (Obad. 1:20). The LXX has “as far as Ephratha;” and the Vulgate “in Bosphoro.” Jerome considered the word signified “boundary,” and referred to the dispersion of the Jews in any region.


Place conquered by Assyria, and from whence people were sent to colonize Samaria (2 Kings 17:24,31; 2 Kings 18:34; 2 Kings 19:13; Isa. 36:19; Isa. 37:13). Identified with Sippara, on the Euphrates, 33° 5' N, 44° 15' E.


The inhabitants of Sepharvaim: they burnt their children in the fire to their gods (2 Kings 17:31).

Septuagint, The

As this version of the Old Testament is constantly referred to in biblical works, a short account of it is appended. Its name has arisen from the tradition that the translation was made by seventy Jews (or seventy-two, six out of each of the twelve tribes); but this is considered improbable. It is however often referred to simply by the numeral LXX.
It is believed to have been made at Alexandria, and to have been begun about B.C. 280. The translation was by Alexandrian Jews, and by different persons. Some parts are found to be a better translation than others, the Pentateuch being considered the best, and the historical parts better than the poetical, except the Psalms and the Proverbs. It has been judged that the Hebrew MSS used in the translation had not the vowel points found in modern Hebrew Bibles, nor any divisions between the words. This may account for some of the differences between the Hebrew and the Greek, but there are variations, the origin of which cannot now be ascertained. The many quotations from the LXX adopted by the Lord Jesus and by the writers of the New Testament, make it evident that it was then in common use, and its language in a great measure influenced that employed in the New Testament The principal uncial manuscripts are the Codices Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, Sinaiticus, and Ephraemi; with a number of cursive copies. The Vaticanus is the MS usually printed, with more or less of the various readings. (This has been translated into English by Sir Charles Brenton, and published by Messrs. Bagster, who also publish a Handy Concordance of the Septuagint. The Oxford Press has a full Concordance, including the Apocrypha.)
The Hebrew Old Testament was also anciently translated into Greek by Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, but of these only fragments remain in Origen’s Hexapla, except Theodotion’s Daniel, which is usually preferred to the translation of that prophet by the LXX.
The Septuagint can never take the place of the Hebrew Scriptures; but it is often useful to show how the Jews at that early period, who understood both Hebrew and Greek, translated many of the words or sentences; as well as to see how far the Lord and His apostles quoted that version verbatim, or how their citations differed from it. See QUOTATIONS.




See SARAH, daughter of Asher.


1. David’s scribe or secretary (2 Sam. 8:17). See SHAVSHA.
2. Son of Azariah, and high priest in the reign of Zedekiah. When Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar he was carried to Riblah, and there put to death (2 Kings 25:18; 1 Chron. 6:14; Jer. 52:24).
3. Son of Tanhumeth: a captain in the time of Gedaliah (2 Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8).
4. Son of Kenaz and brother of Othniel (1 Chron. 4:13-14).
5. Son of Asiel, of the tribe of Simeon (1 Chron. 4:35).
6. A chief man who returned from exile (Ezra 2:2). Supposed, as in the margin, to be called AZARIAH in Nehemiah 7:7.
7. Father of Ezra the scribe (Ezra 7:1).
8. Priest who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:2).
9. Son of Hilkiah “ruler of the house of God” (Neh. 11:11).
10. Priest who returned from exile (Neh. 12:1,12).
11. Son of Azriel: he was ordered by Jehoiakim to seize Baruch and Jeremiah (Jer. 36:26).
12. Son of Neriah: to him was committed by Jeremiah a roll “written against Babylon,” to be read at Babylon, and then with a stone tied to it, he was to cast it into the Euphrates; and to declare, “Thus shall Babylon sink” (Jer. 51:59-64). In Jeremiah 51:59, instead of “a quiet prince,” it is better translated “chief chamberlain,” as in the margin.


Symbolical celestial beings seen by Isaiah standing above the Lord on His throne (Adonai, but many MSS read Jehovah). Each had three sets of wings: with one pair he covered his face, in token of reverence; with another he covered his feet, in token of humility; and with the third he flew to accomplish his mission.
Gesenius and Fürst give to the word saraph the meanings “to burn,” and “to be exalted.” They trace the seraphim to the latter signification, as “exalted ones.” The word occurs only in Numbers 21:6; Deuteronomy 8:15, translated “fiery;” and in Numbers 21:8; Isaiah 14:29 and Isaiah 30:6, translated “fiery serpent.” In Isaiah 6:2-7 (the plural) the seraphim are exalted beings, but the only actions recorded there are that one brought a live coal from off the altar and laid it upon the prophet’s mouth, and said, “Thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin purged.” They cried to one another, “Holy, holy, holy is Jehovah of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory.”
The distinction between seraphim and cherubim may be that, while the former bear witness to God’s holiness (that is, to His nature), in the latter are exhibited the principles of His righteous government on the earth. The “living creatures” of Revelation 4 combine the characteristics of both cherubim and seraphim.


Firstborn of Zebulun, and ancestor of the SARDITES (Gen. 46:14; Num. 26:26).

Sergius Paulus

Roman proconsul of Cyprus when Paul and Barnabas visited that island. Having heard the word, and seen Elymas struck with blindness, he believed, being astonished at the doctrine of the Lord (Acts 13:7-12).

Serjeant (ραβδοῦχος)

This was literally “one who carried a rod:” an inferior Roman officer who attended the magistrates to execute their orders, otherwise called a LICTOR (Acts 16:35,38). They carried a bundle of rods, in the center of which was an ax.


The Hebrew word most commonly translated serpent is nachash, agreeing with ὅφις in the New Testament, so called because of its “hissing.” These words are used for the serpent that beguiled Eve (Gen. 3:1-14; 2 Cor. 11:3), and in other passages where Satan is alluded to (Isa. 27:1; Rev. 12:9-15; Rev. 20:2). SERPENT (COBRA).
Satan has succeeded in causing the serpent to be worshipped all over the world. Nachash is also the word for the serpents that bit the Israelites in Numbers 21:6-9. In Numbers 21:8, for the serpent that Moses was told to make, the word is saraph, “FIERY SERPENT,” signifying that the poison burnt like fire, as we say “a burning pain,” though the serpents may also have been of a red color. From the bite of these serpents much people died.
The serpents mentioned in Isaiah 14:29 and Isaiah 30:6, are described as “FIERY FLYING SERPENTS.” There is no known species of serpent that fly: the allusion may be to those which dart short distances from tree to tree; but in both the passages the language is figurative.
Three other words are translated “serpent:” zachal (Deut. 32:24); tannin (Ex. 7:9-12)—to what particular species these refer is not known; and ἑρπετόν (James. 3:7), this word refers to any creeping thing or reptile.
The taming and charming of serpents is alluded to, which shows that it was an ancient practice (Psa. 58:4-5; Eccl. 10:11; Jer. 8:17).
The Lord bade His disciples be as wise as serpents, probably an allusion to Genesis 3:1. The word “subtle” there is translated by the same word in the LXX as used in this passage. It is “prudence.”

Serpent of Brass

The serpent of brass that Moses made and raised on a pole when the Israelites were bitten of serpents (Num. 21:9) may, in the light of John 3:14, be regarded as symbolic of God’s way out of death into life, as well as of the condemnation of sin in the death of Christ (compare Rom. 8:3). As the bite of the serpents typified the venom of sin, and was incurable by natural means, so in the death of the Lord Jesus we see not only the ground of forgiveness of sins, but the condemnation of the state, with which sin was connected: then they who looked lived. In the history of Israel the brazen serpent came near the end of their wanderings, when their perverseness was fully manifest. In Christianity what is typified is the condemnation of sin in the flesh, as the ground of the communication of the Spirit as living water to the believer.
When the brazen serpent had become an object of worship, Hezekiah broke it in pieces, and called it Nehushtan, “a piece of brass” (2 Kings 18:4).


Son of Reu, a son of Peleg (Gen. 11:20-23; 1 Chron. 1:26). He is called SARUCH, son of Ragau, in Luke 3:35.


1. The words ebed and δοῦλος (those most commonly used for “servant”) convey the idea of bondmen or slaves. Some were bought with money and some were taken in war (compare Ex. 22:3). Such a servant, if circumcised, might among the Israelites eat of the Passover—as bought he belonged to the family; but a hired servant might not (Ex. 12:44-45; compare Lev. 22:11). (So Gentiles, though aliens, bought with the blood of Christ, have all the privilege of grace.) Children born of these would also be the property of the master (Ex. 21:4). This form of servitude, though a result of sin, was recognized by the Mosaic law, and rules were given respecting it, and for the protection of the slaves.
In the New Testament Paul sent back Onesimus, a runaway slave, to his master, who was a Christian, and did not demand his liberation; but he beautifully puts before Philemon that he should possess Onesimus no longer as a slave, but as a brother beloved. The effects of sin were in the world, and God did not introduce Christianity in order to set the world right; but, while shedding light upon everything, and proclaiming grace to all, God’s purpose was “to take out of the nations a people for His name.” Christianity inculcated equal treatment of slaves, as we see in several of the epistles in which masters are addressed: men-stealers are condemned (1 Tim. 1:10).
Christian bondservants are declared to be the Lord’s “freemen” (1 Cor. 7:22), and words of encouragement are addressed to them.
Paul, James, Peter, and Jude all call themselves “bondmen of the Lord,” and Christians generally are thus designated. The Lord Himself said, “I am among you as he that serveth” (Luke 22:27); and now in heaven He serves His own as Intercessor and Advocate. He speaks also of a future day when He will gird Himself, make His servants sit down, and will come forth and serve them, thus being a minister to servants! (Luke 12:37).
2. παῖς, “a child,” irrespective of age, and hence used for servant (Matt. 8:6,8,13; Matt. 14:2; Luke 7:7; Luke 12:45; Luke 15:26; Acts 4:25). The word is applied to Christ (Matt. 12:18; Acts 3:13, 26—translated “Son;” Acts 4:27, 30—translated “child;” and to Israel and to David in Luke 1:54,69.
3. οἰκέτης “household servant” (Luke 16:13; Acts 10:7; Rom. 14:4; 1 Pet. 2:18).
4. ὑπηάτης, “one under authority,” an official servant (Matt. 26:58; Mark 14:54,65; John 18:36). Also translated “minister” and “officer.”
5. θεράπων, “retainer, servant” (Heb. 3:5).
6. μισθωτός, μίσθιος, “hired servant” (Mark 1:20; Luke 15:17,19; compare Matt. 20). The word is translated “hireling” in John 10:12-13. See DEACON, and SLAVE.


Son of Adam and Eve, born after the death of Abel, and father of Enos. His name signifies “appointed”; God thus continued the line of Abel, whom Cain slew, through the appointment of Seth. Hence, in Genesis 4:25-26 it is said in connection with Seth, “Then began men to call upon the name of the Lord.” This is immediately followed by “This is the book of the generations of Adam,” giving the lineage through Seth and his descendants, and making no mention of Cain and his descendants. From Seth the genealogy is traced to Noah, and the flood swept away all else (Gen. 5:3-8; Luke 3:38). He is called SHETH in 1 Chronicles 1:1.


Son of Michael, of the tribe of Asher (Num. 13:13).


Apparently ledges or borders round the future altar of burnt offering, as described by Ezekiel in Ezekiel 43:14,17,20; Ezekiel 45:19.



Seven Churches

There were seven assemblies in Asia, to which the vision of the Son of Man, inspecting the candlesticks, was to be communicated, and to each of which a separate address was given. These addresses dealt with the state those churches were in at that time. A perfect number was chosen out of the many assemblies then existing, showing that they were symbolical of the church generally, and prophetical of the history of the church to the end. The assemblies were at Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia and Laodicea, places comparatively near together in the west of Asia Minor.

Seven Stars


Seventy Weeks of Daniel

This period is taken from an important prophecy in Daniel 9:25-27. The seventy weeks are divided into three parts, namely, seven, sixty-two, and one. We shall see in the sequel that “weeks of years” are evidently intended. The first period of seven weeks refers to the building of the street and the wall, or moat, in troublous times, of which times an account is found in the book of Nehemiah. The second period of sixty-two weeks extends to the times of Messiah the Prince, after which He should be cut off and have nothing (margin)—nothing of His Messianic glory. To reconcile with this the dates of history, it must be noticed that these weeks do not date from the commandment to build the temple (which was in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, Ezra 1:1), but from the commandment to restore and build the city of Jerusalem, which was given in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes (Neh. 2:1).
The date commonly given for this is B.C. 445; but Usher gave 455, and Hengstenberg and others contend that this is the true date. Hengstenberg shows in his Christiology how the mistake arose. Vitringa rectified the date, and Kruger, by an independent inquiry, also proved that the old date was wrong. Some hieroglyphic inscriptions in Egypt have shown that Artaxerxes was associated with his father in the twelfth year of the reign of Xerxes, and this information confirms the date given by Usher and others.
We start then from B.C. 455
7 weeks are 49 years
62 weeks are 434 years
Deduct 455 B.C.
28 A.D.
Add 1 year to adjust the eras B.C. and A.D. 1 A.D.
29 A.D.
The year A.D. 29 is the date now commonly given for the crucifixion. It is generally agreed that the Lord lived on the earth thirty-three and a half years, but if He was born B.C. 4, and was crucified A.D. 33 (as given in the AV), He must have lived here 37 or 38 years; hence there must be a discrepancy somewhere. Early Christian writers appealed confidently to a document called “The Acts of Pilate,” which, though now considered spurious as far as Pilate is concerned, must have been an early writing, and this points to the date A.D. 29 for the crucifixion. Clement and Origen place the destruction of Jerusalem as forty-two years after the crucifixion. The destruction was in A.D. 70, which confirms the date of the latter as not later than 29. The definite time may be Christ’s triumphant entry into Jerusalem, about a week before the last passover, agreeing with “Thy King cometh unto thee” in Zechariah 9:9.
It is judged however by some that the sixty-nine weeks reach only up to Messiah the Prince as entering on His ministry; after which (indefinitely) He was cut off: and therefore the sixty-nine weeks should end at least three years earlier. This is probably the true view, though it may be impossible now to precisely adjust dates.
This leaves the last week of the seventy. The rest of the prophecy in Daniel 9:26 agrees with the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, and foretells a determined period of desolation till war against it will end. Then verse 27 takes up the outward circumstances of the last week, which is future, though probably one half of it has been, for faith, fulfilled in the ministry of Christ. The prophecy is concerning Israel; the present period (during which the church is being formed) comes in parenthetically, and occupies no part of the seventy weeks. The last week, in agreement with the above, will occupy a period of seven years.
Daniel 9:26-27 speak of “the prince that shall come,” who shall confirm a covenant with the many for one week. He will no doubt be the head of the resuscitated Roman Empire: this is confirmed by Revelation 17:9-12, in speaking of a kingdom that “was, and is not,” and shall come. This head makes a covenant with Israel for seven years, but breaks it in the middle of the week; causes the sacrifice and the oblation to cease; and dire desolation by the Assyrian closes the scene. See ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION. The most momentous events will take place during the latter half of the week, as detailed in the Revelation. This will be a period of three and a half years, and if this interpretation is correct, we might expect to find such a period definitely mentioned. And so it is: the period of three and a half years is pointed out no fewer than seven times, as follows:
Dan. 7:25: “time, times, and dividing of times “ (that the word “times” refers to “years”; compare Dan. 11:13 margin).
Dan. 12:7; Rev. 12:14: “time, times, and half a time.”
Rev. 11:2; Rev. 13:5: “42 months.”
Rev. 11:3; Rev. 12:6: “1,260 days.”
Thus the half week is given in years, 3½; in months, 42; and in days, 1,260.
As already stated, the church does not appear in the above: it has nothing to do with times and seasons—they belong to Israel and to the earth. The church is heavenly, and its hope is the coming of the Lord according to His promise to present it to Himself, and this He may do at any moment. He said, “Surely I come quickly:” to which the response of the church is, “Even so, come, Lord Jesus.”
Seeing however that the Lord Jesus is referred to in the Seventy Weeks, not only in His being “cut off,” but also in His coming again to subdue His enemies, to bless His ancient people Israel, and to establish His kingdom on earth, it becomes His saints to study such a prophecy as this, and to be assured that nothing can happen to hinder or set aside the purposes of God: all is being ordered, and is hastening on to the time when the Lord Jesus will be acknowledged on earth as King of kings and Lord of lords.

Shaalabbin, Shaalbim

City in Dan (Josh. 19:42; Judg. 1:35; 1 Kings 4:9). Identified with Selbit, 31° 52' N, 34° 59' E.


Designation of Eliahba as belonging to the city of Shaalbim (2 Sam. 23:32; 1 Chron. 11:33).


1. Son of Jandai (1 Chron. 2:47).
2. Son of Caleb and father or founder of Madmannah (1 Chron. 2:49).


1. City in the lowlands of Judah (1 Sam. 17:52). Called SHARAIM in Joshua 15:36. Identified by some with es Saireh, 31° 44' N, 35° 1' E.
2. City in Simeon (1 Chron. 4:31). Not identified.


Chamberlain or eunuch of Ahasuerus, king of Persia (Esther 2:14).


One or more Levites who returned from exile and assisted Ezra (Ezra 10:15; Neh. 8:7; Neh. 11:16).


Son of Shaharaim, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:10). In the pointed Hebrew the name is “Shabiah,” but several Hebrew MSS have CH instead of B.


See GOD.


Name given to HANANIAH in Babylon, one of the three faithful ones who refused to worship the golden image of Nebuchadnezzar, and were cast into the fiery furnace, and there miraculously preserved (Dan. 1:7; Dan. 2:49; Dan. 3:12-30).


A Hararite, father of Jonathan (1 Chron. 11:34).


A Benjamite who begat children in the land of Moab (1 Chron. 8:8).


City of Issachar (Josh. 19:22). Not identified.


This is judged to be not a proper name, but that the passage should read, Jacob came “safely” to the city of Shechem (Gen. 33:18). The RV has “came in peace.”

Shalim and Shalisha

Two unknown districts through which Saul passed in quest of his father’s asses (1 Sam. 9:4).


A gate “by the causeway of the going up” (1 Chron. 26:16). The “going up” doubtless alluded to a pathway that ascended from the lower part of the city to some entrance of the temple (compare 1 Kings 10:5). Such a causeway can still be traced, but it is hidden, under the houses built in the valley.


1. Son of Jabesh: he slew Zachariah king of Israel, and reigned in his stead; but after one month he was killed by Menahem, who succeeded him on the throne (2 Kings 15:10-15).
2. Husband of Huldah the prophetess (2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chron. 34:22).
3. Son of Sisamai, a descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 2:40-41).
4. Son of Josiah king of Judah: he succeeded his father, but after a reign of three months he was deposed by Pharaoh-necho, and taken to Egypt, where he died (1 Chron. 3:15; Jer. 22:11-12). He is called JEHOAHAZ in 2 Kings 23:30-34 and 2 Chronicles 36:1-4. The margin of 1 Chronicles 3:15 identifies Johanan with Jehoahaz, but Jeremiah 22:11-12 shows it was Shallum who reigned under the name of Jehoahaz. He was evidently not the youngest son, though last on the list.
5. Son of Shaul, a son of Simeon (1 Chron. 4:25).
6. Son of Zadok the priest (1 Chron. 6:12-13; Ezra 7:2). Probably the same as MESHULLAM in Nehemiah 11:11.
7. Son of Naphtali (1 Chron. 7:13). Called SHILLEM (Gen. 46:24; Num. 26:49).
8. A Levite gate-keeper of the tabernacle whose descendants returned from exile (1 Chron. 9:17; Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45).
9. Son of Kore: a keeper of the gates of the tabernacle (1 Chron. 9:19, 31).
10. Father of Jehizkiah, one of the “heads” of Ephraim (2 Chron. 28:12).
11-12. Two who had married strange wives (Ezra 10:24, 42).
13. Son of Halohesh: he repaired the wall of Jerusalem, apparently assisted by his daughters (Neh. 3:12).
14. Father of Hanameel and uncle of Jeremiah (Jer. 32:7).
15. Father of Maaseiah (Jer. 35:4).


Son of Col-hozeh: he helped to build the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:15).


Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile (Ezra 2:46; Neh. 7:48).


One who laid waste Beth-arbel (Hos. 10:14). Probably the same person as SHALMANESER.


King of Assyria, successor to Tiglath-pileser (B.C. 727). He is sometimes called Shalmaneser III, and sometimes IV. He made Hoshea, king of Israel, tributary; but Hoshea revolted, relying on So, king of Egypt. In the ninth year of Hoshea’s reign (B.C. 722), Samaria was taken and the inhabitants were carried away captive (2 Kings 17:3; 2 Kings 18:9). It may be noticed that Shalmaneser’s name is mentioned only in these two passages, afterward the term “the king of Assyria” is employed; and in 2 Kings 18:10 it is said, “at the end of three years they took it.” This leaves room for SARGON, the next king of Assyria, to have finished the siege, and to have carried away the captives. He succeeded to the Assyrian throne in the year B.C. 722, and on his monuments he claims to have taken Samaria in his first year.


Son of Hothan and one of David’s mighty men (1 Chron. 11:44).


Son of Rehoboam king of Judah (2 Chron. 11:19).


Literally “stalls on which meat was exposed for sale” (1 Cor. 10:25).


Son of Elpaal, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:12).


1. Son of Mahli the grandson of Merari (1 Chron. 6:46).
2. Son of Heber of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:34). Called SHOMER in 1 Chronicles 7:32.


Son of Anath and a judge in Israel: he slew six hundred men with an ox-goad, and delivered Israel out of the hands of the Philistines (Judg. 3:31; Judg. 5:6).


An Izrahite, one of David’s captains (1 Chron. 27:8).


1. Son of Michah, a Levite (1 Chron. 24:24).
2. City in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:48). Identified by some with ruins at Somerah, 31° 25' N, 34° 56' E.
3. City in Mount Ephraim, the residence of Tola, one of the judges (Judg. 10:1-2). Not identified.


Son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:37).


1. Son of Reuel, a son of Esau (Gen. 36:13,17; 1 Chron. 1:37).
2. Son of Jesse and brother of David (1 Sam. 16:9; 1 Sam. 17:13). Called SHIMEAH in 2 Samuel 13:3; and SHIMMA in 1 Chronicles 2:13.
3. Son of Agee a Hararite and one of David’s mighty men (2 Sam. 23:11).
4-5. Two of David’s mighty men, one a Harodite and the other a Hararite (2 Sam. 23:25, 33).


1. Son of Onam, a descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 2:28, 32).
2. Son of Rekem, and father or founder of Maon (1 Chron. 2:44-45).
3. Brother of Miriam, in an obscure genealogy of Judah (1 Chron. 4:17).


A Harorite, one of David’s mighty men (1 Chron. 11:27). Perhaps the same as SHAMMAH the Harodite in 2 Samuel 23:25.

Shammua, Shammuah

1. Son of Zaccur, a Reubenite (Num. 13:4).
2. Son of David (2 Sam. 5:14; 1 Chron. 14:4). Called SHIMEA in 1 Chronicles 3:5.
3. Son of Galal, a Levite (Neh. 11:17). Called SHEMAIAH in 1 Chronicles 9:16.
4. Priest, “of Bilgah,” who returned from exile (Neh. 12:18).


Son of Jeroham, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:26).


A chief of the tribe of Gad (1 Chron. 5:12).


Son of Azaliah and perhaps father of Ahikam, Gemariah, Elasah, and Jaazaniah: he was scribe or secretary to king Josiah. He presented to the king the book of the law that had been found in the temple (2 Kings 22:3-14; 2 Kings 25:22; 2 Chron. 34:8-20; Jer. 26:24; Jer. 29:3; Jer. 36:10-12; Jer. 39:14; Jer. 40:5-11; Jer. 41:2; Jer. 43:6; Ezek. 8:11).


1. Son of Hori, a Simeonite (Num. 13:5).
2. Father of Elisha the prophet (1 Kings 19:16,19; 2 Kings 3:11; 2 Kings 6:31).
3. Son of Shemaiah, a descendant of David (1 Chron. 3:22).
4. A chief of the tribe of Gad (1 Chron. 5:12).
5. Son of Adlai and one of David’s chief herdsmen (1 Chron. 27:29).

Shapher, Mount

An encampment of the Israelites (Num. 33:23-24).


One who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:40).






Son of Sennacherib and one of his murderers (2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38).


1. A very fertile plain, near the Mediterranean, extending from near Joppa northward to Mount Carmel. Its excellency is spoken of, and the bride in Song of Solomon 2:1 calls herself a “rose of Sharon.” It formed part of the lots of Ephraim and of Manasseh (1 Chron. 27:29; Isa. 33:9; Isa. 35:2; Isa. 65:10). It is called SARON in Acts 9:35.
2. Plain or city on the east of the Jordan (1 Chron. 5:16). Not identified.


Designation of Shitrai, David’s chief herdsman in Sharon (1 Chron. 27:29).


City of Simeon (Josh. 19:6). Identified by some with Tell esh Sheriah, 31° 24' N, 34° 42' E.


One who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:40).


Son of Beriah, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:14, 25).


1. Son of Simeon by a Canaanitish woman (Gen. 46:10; Ex. 6:15; Num. 26:13; 1 Chron. 4:24).
2. An ancient king of Edom (1 Chron. 1:48-49). Called SAUL in Genesis 36:37-38.
3. Son of Uzziah, a Kohathite (1 Chron. 6:24).


Descendants of Shaul, son of Simeon (Num. 26:13).


A valley “which is the king’s dale” (Gen. 14:17). Supposed to be somewhere near Jerusalem.

Shaveh Kiriathaim

A place where the Emims dwelt who were smitten by Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:5). Perhaps a plain in connection with Kiriathaim, as in the margin.


David’s scribe or secretary (1 Chron. 18:16). Apparently called SERAIAH in 2 Samuel 8:17; SHISHA in 1 Kings 4:3: and SHEVA in 2 Samuel 20:25.


One who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:29).




Symbolical name given to the elder son of the prophet Isaiah, signifying “a remnant shall return” (Isa. 7:3).


Son of Azel, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:38; 1 Chron. 9:44).


Place where Jehu slew forty-two of the royal family of Judah (2 Kings 10:12, 14). Some translate “shepherds’ meeting-place.”


1. Son of Raamah, a son of Cush (Gen. 10:7; 1 Chron. 1:9). His descendants are generally held to have settled on the shores of the Persian Gulf.
2. Son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem (Gen. 10:28; 1 Chron. 1:22). His descendants have been traced to Southern Arabia, or Arabia Felix. The metropolis of the district was at or near the modern Mareb, about 15° 45' N, 45° 35' E.
3. Son of Jokshan, a son of Abraham and Keturah (Gen. 25:3; 1 Chron. 1:32). Some judge his descendants to have settled “far north;” others place them “somewhere in Arabia.” (The name “Sheba” occurs also in Job 6:19; Psalm 72:10, 15; Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20; Ezekiel 27:22-23 and Ezekiel 38:13; but it is uncertain to which of the above three races each passage refers.)
4. The country from whence the queen came who visited Solomon. She brought gold, precious stones, and a great store of spices. The Lord spoke of her as “the queen of the south” (1 Kings 10:1-13; 2 Chron. 9:1,3,9,12; Matt. 12:42; Luke 11:31). The “south” well agrees with the locality of the descendants of Sheba, the son of Joktan.


1. Son of Bichri, a Benjamite: he revolted against David after Absalom. David said, “Sheba, the son of Bichri, shall do us more harm than did Absalom,” but he was pursued by Joab, and was beheaded at Abel (2 Sam. 20:1-22).
2. A chief of the Gadites (1 Chron. 5:13).
3. City in Simeon (Josh. 19:2). Identified with Tell es Seba, 31° 15' N, 34°' 50' E.


A well, dug by the servants of Isaac, and named Shebah, signifying “an oath” (Gen. 26:33). See BEER-SHEBA.




1. Priest who aided in bringing up the ark to Jerusalem (1 Chron. 15:24).
2. Levite who assisted Ezra and sealed the covenant (Neh. 9:4-5; Neh. 10:10).
3. Priest who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:4; Neh. 12:14).
4. Levite who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:12).


Place to which the men of Ai chased the Israelites (Josh. 7:5).


Son of Caleb and Maachah (1 Chron. 2:48).


Treasurer to Hezekiah. He was denounced by God through the prophet Isaiah; apparently he afterward became scribe or secretary (2 Kings 18:18,26,37; 2 Kings 19:2; Isa. 22:15; Isa. 36:3,11,22; Isa. 37:2).


1. Son of Gershom and “ruler of the treasures” of the house of God (1 Chron. 23:16; 1 Chron. 26:24).
2. Son of Heman: appointed to the service of song (1 Chron. 25:4). Called SHUBAEL in 1 Chronicles 25:20.


1. Head of the tenth priestly course (1 Chron. 24:11).
2. Priest in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chron. 31:15).


1. Descendant of David through Jeconiah (1 Chron. 3:21-22).
2-3. Two ancestors of some who returned from exile (Ezra 8:3, 5).
4. Son of Jehiel: he confessed that the people had taken strange wives (Ezra 10:2).
5. Father of Shemaiah, who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:29).
6. Son of Arah and father-in-law to Tobiah (Neh. 6:18).
7. Priest who returned from exile (Neh. 12:3).


1. The first city of Canaan visited by Abram (Gen. 12:6), where it is called SICHEM. When Jacob returned to Palestine, Hamor the Hivite was its king. It was attacked and plundered by Simeon and Levi. The bones of Joseph were buried there. At the distribution of the land it fell to the lot of Ephraim, and became a Levitical city and a city of refuge. It was there that Joshua delivered his last address to the people. Under the Judges the city was taken by Abimelech, when about a thousand men and women took refuge in the tower, which was destroyed by fire. The tribes assembled there to crown Rehoboam, and, on the division of the kingdom, it became the headquarters of Jeroboam (Gen. 33:18; Gen. 37:12-14; Josh. 20:7; Josh. 21:21; Josh. 24:1,25,32; Judg. 9:1-57; 1 Kings 12:1,25; 2 Chron. 10:1; Psa. 60:6; Psa. 108:7; Jer. 41:5).
Shechem was called Neapolis by the Romans, of which its present name, Nablus, is supposed to be a corruption. It lies 32° 13’ N, 35° 16’ E. Its vicinity is luxurious in fruit and flowers. It is still partially inhabited by Samaritans, who have a synagogue there, and yearly keep the Passover.
It is called SYCHEM in Acts 7:16, where it says that Abraham bought a sepulcher there. This is thought to clash with Genesis 33:19, which speaks of Jacob buying it. But nothing is said in the latter passage about a sepulcher: Jacob bought a piece of ground to spread his tent in. Bengel says of this alleged discrepancy in Stephen’s address, that “the brevity which was best suited to the ardor of the Spirit gave Stephen just occasion, in the case of a fact so well known, to compress these details in the way he has done.” (For further details concerning Stephen’s address see Bible Handbook, New Testament, pages 144-6.)
2. Son of Hamor the chief of the city of Shechem—from whom the city appears to have derived its name—killed with his father and household by Simeon and Levi because he had dishonored their sister Dinah (Gen. 33:19; Gen. 34:2-26; Josh. 24:32; Judges 9:28).
3. Descendant of Gilead, a grandson of Manasseh (Num. 26:31; Josh. 17:2).
4. Son of Shemidah, a descendant of Manasseh (1 Chron. 7:19; compare Josh. 17:2).


Descendants of Shechem, a descendant of Gilead (Num. 26:31).

Shechinah, Shekinah

A name not found in scripture, but used by the Rabbis and others for the visible symbol of the presence of God, as was seen at the dedication of the temple built by Solomon, and at the Transfiguration. See CLOUD.


Father of Elizur, a chief of the Reubenites (Num. 1:5; Num. 2:10; Num. 7:30, 35; Num. 10:18).


Sheep were bred in great numbers in Palestine, and formed a large part of the property of the Israelites. The species common there was the broad tailed sheep with horns (Ovis laticaudatus and Ovis aries). In Palestine they follow the shepherd and know his voice, and will not follow a stranger. Sheep and lambs were constantly offered in sacrifice. The morning and evening lamb and the passover lambs were all types of the sacred One who was called “the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world.”
Symbolically sheep are figurative of mankind, as being prone to wander: “All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way” (Isa. 53:6; Luke 15:4-7). The Lord said, “My sheep shall never perish.” The Good Shepherd calls His own sheep by name, and when brought into His own company they have perfect security, liberty, and sustenance (John 10:9). The Lord led His sheep out of the Jewish fold: these were united with His “other sheep” (Gentile believers), that they all should become “one flock” with one Shepherd (John 10:3, 16). In the future judgment of the nations, those saved are called “sheep,” in distinction from the lost, who are called “goats” (Matt. 25:31-46).


The same as “sheepfold,” in which the sheep were sheltered at night (1 Sam. 24:3; 2 Sam. 7:8; 1 Chron. 17:7).

Sheep Market

This occurs only in John 5:2, and the word market has been added. It was probably at the sheep gate (as in the margin) mentioned in the Old Testament, but which cannot now be identified.


Son of Jeroham, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:26).




1. Youngest son of Judah by the daughter of Shuah, a Canaanite (Gen. 38:5-26; Gen. 46:12; Num. 26:20; 1 Chron. 2:3; 1 Chron. 4:21).
2. Son of Arphaxad (1 Chron. 1:18, 24). See SALA.


Descendants of Shelah, son of Judah (Num. 26:20). Apparently called Shilonites in 1 Chronicles 9:5.


1. Levite gatekeeper in the time of David (1 Chron. 26:14). Called MESHELEMIAH in 1 Chronicles 26:1, and perhaps SHALLUM in 1 Chronicles 9:17.
2-3. Two who had married strange wives (Ezra 10:39, 41).
4. Father of Hananiah who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:30).
5. Priest who was made a treasurer on the return from exile (Neh. 13:13).
6. Son of Cushi (Jer. 36:14).
7. Son of Abdeel: he was ordered by Jehoiakim to arrest Baruch and Jeremiah (Jer. 36:26).
8. Father of Jehucal, or Jucal (Jer. 37:3; Jer. 38:1).
9. Son of Hananiah (Jer. 37:13).


Son of Joktan, of the family of Shem (Gen. 10:26; 1 Chron. 1:20). His descendants have been traced to Southern Arabia, where the tribe of Shelif or Shulaf has been found.


Son of Helem, a descendant of Asher (1 Chron. 7:35).


Father of Ahihud, a prince of Asher (Num. 34:27).


1. Daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan (Lev. 24:11). Her son blasphemed the name of Jehovah and was stoned to death.
2. Daughter of Zerubbabel (1 Chron. 3:19).
3. Son of Shimei, a Gershonite (1 Chron. 23:9).
4. Son of Izhar, a Kohathite (1 Chron. 23:18). Called SHELOMOTH an Izharite in 1 Chronicles 24:22.
5. Son of Zichri, a Levite: he had the care of the treasures and dedicated things in the time of David (1 Chron. 26:25-26, 28).
6. Son or daughter of Rehoboam (2 Chron. 11:20).
7. Ancestor of some who returned from exile (Ezra 8:10).




Son of Zurishaddai and a prince of the Simeonites (Num. 1:6; Num. 2:12; Num. 7:36, 41; Num. 10:19).


Eldest son of Noah and one of the three heads of mankind after the flood. Shem is specially blessed: “Blessed be Jehovah, the God of Shem, and Canaan shall be his servant. God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem” (Gen. 9:26-27). This was verified by Jehovah being the God of the descendants of Shem through Abraham; the sons of Japheth (Gentiles) came into the tents for blessing.
The portions of the earth occupied by the descendants of Shem intersect as it were the portions of Ham and Japheth, and stretch from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean. Shem had five sons:
ELAM—originally settled in the province of Persia, of which Susa was the capital.
ASSHUR—strictly Assyria, but in an extended sense may have included Babylonia and the land of the Chaldees.
ARPHAXAD—recognized by Josephus and others as the father of the Chaldees. The name is supposed to have been preserved in the province Arrapachitis in northern Assyria.
LUD—said by Josephus to have been the father of the Lydians of Asia Minor (these are distinct from the Lud and Ludim in Africa).
ARAM—the name of Syria, but more especially referring to the high land of Lebanon (Gen. 5:32; Gen. 9:18-27; Gen. 10:21-31; Gen. 11:10-11; 1 Chron. 17:24). In Luke 3:36 the same name is called SEM.


1. City in Judah (Josh. 15:26). Not identified.
2. Son of Hebron, a descendant of Caleb (1 Chron. 2:43-44).
3. Son of Joel, a Reubenite (1 Chron. 5:8). Apparently the same as SHEMAIAH in 1 Chronicles 5:4.
4. Son of Elpaal and one of the “heads” of the Benjamites (1 Chron. 8:13). Perhaps the same as SHIMHI in 1 Chronicles 8:21.
5. One who stood by Ezra when the law was read (Neh. 8:4).


A Benjamite, father of Ahiezer and Joash who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:3).


1. Prophet who stayed Rehoboam from warring against Israel. He was also sent by God to tell Rehoboam and the princes of Judah that because of their sins God had left them in the hands of Shishak, king of Egypt, who had come to attack them; but on their repentance they were told he should not destroy them. Shishak seized their treasures, and they became tributary to Egypt. Shemaiah wrote a “book” concerning genealogies (1 Kings 12:22-24; 2 Chron. 11:2-4; 2 Chron. 12:5-15).
2. Son of Shechaniah, a descendant of David (1 Chron. 3:22; Neh. 3:29).
3. A Simeonite, father of Shimri (1 Chron. 4:37).
4. Son of Joel, a Reubenite (1 Chron. 5:4).
5. Son of Hasshub, a Levite (1 Chron. 9:14; Neh. 11:15).
6. Son of Galal, a Levite (1 Chron. 9:16). Called SHAMMUA in Nehemiah 6:17.
7. Son of Elizaphan, a Levite (1 Chron. 15:8, 11).
8. Son of Nethaneel, a Levite (1 Chron. 24:6).
9. Son of Obed-edom, a Korhite (1 Chron. 26:4-7).
10. Levite whom Jehoshaphat sent to teach the people (2 Chron. 17:8).
11. Descendant of Jeduthun, a Levite (2 Chron. 29:14).
12. Levite set over the freewill offerings of God (2 Chron. 31:15).
13. Levite in the days of Josiah (2 Chron. 35:9).
14. Son of Adonikam (Ezra 8:13).
15. One whom Ezra sent for Levites (Ezra 8:16).
16. Priest who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:21).
17. One who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:31).
18. Son of Delaiah: he sought to entrap Nehemiah (Neh. 6:10).
19. Priest who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:8); his family went up with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:6,18).
20. One with Ezra at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:34).
21. Son of Mattaniah, a priest (Neh. 12:35).
22. Apparently a Levite who took part in the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:36).
23. Priest who assisted on the same occasion (Neh. 12:42).
24. Father of Urijah, a prophet (Jer. 26:20).
25. The Nehelamite, a false prophet, condemned by Jehovah through Jeremiah (Jer. 29:24-32).
26. Father of Delaiah (Jer. 36:12).


1. A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:5).
2-3. Two who had married strange wives (Ezra 10:32,41).


King of Zeboiim and an ally of the king of Sodom (Gen. 14:2).


Owner of the hill bought by Omri, on which he built Samaria (1 Kings 16:24).

Shemida, Shemidah, Shemidaites

Son of Gilead, and his descendants (Num. 26:32; Josh. 17:2; 1 Chron. 7:19).


A Hebrew word in the headings of Psalm 6 and Psalm 12, and in 1 Chronicles 15:21. It will be seen that in the margin these passages read “on the eighth,” with which the LXX agrees. It was probably an instrument of eight strings (from shemoneh, “eight”). Gesenius says it means “octave;” hence the lowest notes of the scale, and sung by men.


1. Levite appointed as musician and doorkeeper when David brought up the ark (1 Chron. 15:18,20; 1 Chron. 16:5).
2. Levite, sent by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people (2 Chron. 17:8).


1. Son of Ammihud, a Simeonite (Num. 34:20).
2. The name of SAMUEL the prophet as given in 1 Chronicles 6:33.
3. Son of Tola and a chief of Issachar (1 Chron. 7:2).


Place near to which Samuel erected a stone and called it EBENEZER (1 Sam. 7:12).


Descendant of Jeconiah (1 Chron. 3:18).






Eastern boundary of Palestine (Num. 34:10-11). Not identified.


Son of Reuel, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 9:8). The Hebrew is Shephatiah.


1. Fifth son of David by Abital (2 Sam. 3:4; 1 Chron. 3:3).
2. The Haruphite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Chron. 12:5).
3. Son of Maachah and a chief of the Simeonites (1 Chron. 27:16).
4. Son of King Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 21:2).
5. Ancestor of some who returned from exile (Ezra 2:4; Ezra 8:8; Neh. 7:9).
6. Another ancestor of some who returned from exile (Ezra 2:57; Neh. 7:59).
7. Son of Mahalaleel (Neh. 11:4).
8. Son of Mattan: one of the princes who urged the king to put Jeremiah to death (Jer. 38:1).


A person’s wealth in the East frequently consisted of flocks, the shepherd therefore held an important and honorable position. David was a keeper of sheep. Joseph instructed his brethren to tell Pharaoh that they were shepherds, and they asked permission to dwell in Goshen, for every shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians. This is supposed to have been caused by some “shepherd-kings” having usurped authority over Egypt. The difficulties and hardships of a shepherd’s life in the East may be gathered from what Jacob passed through during the time he was with Laban (Gen. 31:39-40). And to this day in many places the shepherd has to be well armed against wild beasts and lurking thieves.
The sheep following the shepherd is a sight often witnessed in the East, and that each sheep has a name and knows the shepherd’s voice, has been tested and proved again and again. All this is beautifully typical of the relation of Jehovah to Israel and of Christ to the church. The sheep of Christ know the good Shepherd’s voice, and find salvation, liberty, and pasture in following the One who leads. The good Shepherd gives them eternal life, having given His life for the sheep. Christ is called the great Shepherd, for the work which He accomplished could have been done only by One who was Himself God, though become man to work out redemption.
In the church there are those who by reason of gift are called pastors, to feed and shepherd the sheep; but Christ is the chief Shepherd, who is over all, whose own the sheep are, and who has given His word that they shall never perish (Psa. 23; Zech. 13:7; John 10:2-16; Heb. 13:20; 1 Pet. 5:4; and so forth).

Shephi, Shepho

Son of Shobal, a son of Seir (Gen. 36:23; 1 Chron. 1:40).


Son or descendant of Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:5). Supposed to be the same as SHUPHAM in Numbers 26:39 and MUPPIM in Genesis 46:21.


Apparently the daughter of Ephraim: she built Beth-horon the nether and the upper, and Uzzen-sherah (1 Chron. 7:24).


A fragment of earthenware, the same as “potsherd” (Isa. 30:14; Ezek. 23:34).


A Levite who with his sons and brethren returned from exile: he assisted Ezra, sealed the covenant, and was a chief of the choir (Ezra 8:18; Neh. 8:7; Neh. 9:4-5; Neh. 10:12; Neh. 12:8,24). In Ezra 8:24 apparently the same is called a priest.


Son of Machir, a son of Manasseh (1 Chron. 7:16).


One of the messengers sent to the house of God in the fourth year of king Darius, to pray and to inquire concerning the continuation of fasting in the fifth month (probably in commemoration of the destruction of the temple etc., (2 Kings 25:8-10). God’s answer was that they had not fasted to Him (Zech. 7:2-5). The name is really Persian and is identical with that of Sharezer, son of Sennacherib in 2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38).


The word is tiphtaye. Fürst translates it “judges,” and Gesenius “those learned in the law”; the word occurs only in Daniel 3:2-3.


Mystical name applied to Babylon (Jer. 25:26; Jer. 51:41; compare Jer. 51:1). The meaning of the word is not known. According to Jerome the name Babylon, from Babel, was made up of the letters B B L (the 2nd and the 12th letters of the Hebrew alphabet) these were changed into SH SH CH (the 2nd and the 12th letters reckoning from the end of the same alphabet), a mode well known to later Jews. It has been supposed that the Jews made this alteration in the name in order that they might speak of the judgments coming upon Babylon without giving offense to those who had carried them away captive.


One of the Anakim chiefs driven from Hebron by Caleb and slain by the Israelites (Num. 13:22; Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).


A chief of Judah, whose family was sustained in the tribe by his daughter’s marriage to his Egyptian servant (1 Chron. 2:31,34-35).


Apparently the Chaldean or Persian name given to ZERUBBABEL (Ezra 1:8,11; Ezra 5:14,16).


Son of Adam (1 Chron. 1:1). See SETH. The word occurs also in Numbers 24:17, where, instead of “children of Sheth,” it is better to read “sons of tumult;” that is, “tumultuous war will be destroyed” (compare Jer. 48:45).


One of the seven princes of Persia and Media (Esther 1:14).


An official of the king of Persia who, instead of hindering the Jews, was ordered by Darius to help them in the building of the temple (Ezra 5:3,6; Ezra 6:6,13).


1. Scribe or secretary to David (2 Sam. 20:25); compare SHAVSHA.
2. Son of Caleb the son of Hezron, and father or founder of Machbenah and Gibea (1 Chron. 2:49).




A word chosen by the Gileadites—apparently without any reference to its signification, which some take to be “an ear of corn,” and others “a stream”—by which to ascertain those that were Ephraimites, who pronounced the SH as S, making the word SIBBOLETH. As the men fled from the victorious Jephthah and approached the ford of the river, they were thus tested, and the Ephraimites, who had brought the conflict on themselves, were slain (Judg. 12:6). From this has originated the calling any watchword of a party, or indeed any particular view of truth or doctrine held by a section of the church, a mere “shibboleth.”




Boundary in the north-west of Judah (Josh. 15:11). Not identified.


As a protection for the body, see ARMOUR.

Shield of Faith

That confidence in God and in His word that nullifies all the attacks of the wicked one (Eph. 6:16).

Shiggaion, Shigionoth

A word in the heading of Psalm 7, and (in the plural “upon Shigionoth”) in the prayer of Habakkuk (Hab. 3:1): its meaning is not known.


City in Issachar (Josh. 19:19). Identified by some with Ayun esh Shain, 32° 43' N, 35° 20' E.


Landmark at the boundary of Asher (Josh. 19:26). Identified by some with the stream Nahr Namein, 32° 54' N, 35° 5' E.

Shihor of Egypt



Father of Azubah the mother of Jehoshaphat (1 Kings 22:42; 2 Chron. 20:31).


City in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:32).

Shillem, Shillemites

One of the sons of Naphtali and his descendants (Gen. 46:24; Num. 26:49): he is called SHALLUM in 1 Chronicles 7:13.

Shiloah, Waters of



Title of the Messiah as “Prince of Peace” (Gen. 49:10; compare Isa. 9:6). See Scepter.


A place within the territory of Ephraim (which tribe had the first-born’s place), and where the tabernacle was located at the close of the life of Joshua (who was also of the tribe of Ephraim); Eli was priest there, and there Samuel began his ministry. The ark had been removed from Gilgal and remained at Shiloh until it was carried into the camp and captured by the Philistines. God had put His name there, but because of the wickedness of the Israelites He forsook the tabernacle at Shiloh, and the place was afterward held up as a sign of desolation. The break-down of the flesh, represented by Ephraim the firstborn, in the day of battle, made way for the election of God, who chose the tribe of Judah and Mount Zion (Psa. 78:9, 60-68; Jer. 7:12,14; Jer. 26:6-9).
When the sin of the tribe of Benjamin led to its being nearly destroyed (Judg. 20), the virgins of Shiloh were allowed to be seized to furnish wives for the survivors (Judg. 21).
On the division of the kingdom the prophet Ahijah was residing there (Josh. 18:1-10; Judg. 18:31; Judg. 21:12-21; 1 Sam. 1:3-24; 1 Sam. 4:3,12; 1 Kings 14:2,4; Jer. 41:5). Identified with the ruins at Seilun, 32° 3' N, 35° 17' E.


Father of Zechariah (Neh. 11:5). But the passage may be read “Zechariah, the son of the Shilonite,” as in the RV.


Designation of Ahijah the prophet, which (compare 1 Kings 14:2,4) points him out as a resident of Shiloh (1 Kings 11:29; 1 Kings 12:15; 1 Kings 15:29; 2 Chron. 9:29; 2 Chron. 10:15).


Designation of Asaiah and his sons, probably as forming a part of the family of SHELAH, son of Judah (1 Chron. 9:5; compare Num. 26:20), where they are called SHELANITES.


Son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:37).


1. Son of David and Bathsheba. See SHAMMUA.
2. A Merarite, father of Haggiah (1 Chron. 6:30).
3. A Gershonite, father of Berachiah (1 Chron. 6:39).

Shimea, Shimeah

Son of Jesse and brother of David (2 Sam. 13:3,32; 2 Sam. 21:21; 1 Chron. 20:7). See SHAMMAH.

Shimeah, Shimeam

Son of Mikloth, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:32; 1 Chron. 9:38).


An Ammonitess, mother of Jozachar, or Zabad (2 Kings 12:21; 2 Chron. 24:26).


Family of scribes at Jabez (1 Chron. 2:55).


1. Son of Gershon, the son of Levi (Num. 3:18; 1 Chron. 6:17; 1 Chron. 23:7, 9-10). Called SHIMI in Exodus 6:17.
2. Son of Gera, a Benjamite, of the house of Saul: he cursed David, calling him “a man of Belial,” and threw stones and dust at him, when he was hastening from Jerusalem at the rebellion of Absalom; but made submission on David’s return, and was not then punished. David at his death reminded Solomon of Shimei’s wickedness, for he had cursed the Lord’s anointed king. Solomon promised Shimei his life on the condition that he did not go out of Jerusalem; but he broke the compact and was put to death (2 Sam. 16:5-13; 2 Sam. 19:18-23; 1 Kings 2:8-46).
3. Officer of David who kept aloof from Adonijah on his usurpation (1 Kings 1:8).
4. Son of Elah and one of Solomon’s commissariat officers (1 Kings 4:18).
5. Son of Pedaiah, a son of Jeconiah (1 Chron. 3:19).
6. Son of Zacchur, of the tribe of Simeon (1 Chron. 4:26-27).
7. Son of Gog, of the tribe of Reuben (1 Chron. 5:4).
8. Son of Libni, a Merarite (1 Chron. 6:29).
9. Son of Jahath, a son of Gershon (1 Chron. 6:42).
10. Chief of the tenth course in the service of song (1 Chron. 25:17).
11. The Ramathite who was over the vineyards of David (1 Chron. 27:27).
12. Son of Heman: he took part in the purification of the temple (2 Chron. 29:14).
13. Levite who had charge of the offerings (2 Chron. 31:12-13).
14. Levite who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:23).
15-16. Two who had married strange wives (Ezra 10:33, 38).
17. Son of Kish, a Benjamite, and grandfather of Mordecai (Esther 2:5).
18. A family who will mourn apart on the repentance of Jerusalem (Zech. 12:13). This is by some associated with No. 1; but SIMEON is read in the margin, and in the LXX, the Arabic and Syriac versions. See under ZECHARIAH (Zech. 12).


One who had married a strange wife (Ezra 10:31).


Head of a family in Benjamin (1 Chron. 8:21). Perhaps the same as SHEMA in 1 Chronicles 8:13.


See SHIMEI No. 1.


Family of Shimei, son of Gershon (Num. 3:21).




Head of a family in Judah (1 Chron. 4:20).


Son of Shimhi, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 8:21).


1. Son of Shemaiah, a Simeonite (1 Chron. 4:37).
2. Father of Jediael, one of David’s mighty men (1 Chron. 11:45).
3. Son of Elizaphan, a Levite (2 Chron. 29:13).


See SHOMER No. 2.

Shimrom, Shimron, Shimronites

Fourth son of Issachar and his descendants (Gen. 46:13; Num. 26:24; 1 Chron. 7:1).


Canaanitish city conquered by Joshua and allotted to Zebulun (Josh. 11:1; Josh. 19:15). Identified with Semunieh, 32° 42' N, 35° 12' E.


City whose king was slain by Joshua (Josh. 12:20). Not identified.


Scribe or secretary to Rehum, who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Ezra 4:8-9,17,23).


King of Admah in the days of Abraham (Gen. 14:2).


Ancient name of the plain lying in the south between the Euphrates and the Tigris. It was where Nimrod established his kingdom, and where the tower of Babel was built. Amraphel, king of Shinar, was one of the four kings who fought against the five kings when Lot was taken prisoner. In later times it was known as Chaldea, or Babylonia (as in the LXX of Isaiah 11:11), and thither some of the captives from Judah were carried (Gen. 10:10; Gen. 11:2; Gen. 14:1,9; Isa. 11:11; Dan. 1:2; Zech. 5:11).


The Israelites were not a maritime people. Solomon had a “navy of ships” at Ezion Geber, the eastern branch of the Red Sea; but Hiram sent his shipmen “that had knowledge of the sea” with the servants of Solomon. Ships of Tharshish are also mentioned both in connection with Solomon and Jehoshaphat (1 Kings 9:26-27; 1 Kings 10:11,22; 1 Kings 22:48-49; 2 Chron. 20:36-37; Psa. 48:7). The ships so often mentioned on the Sea of Galilee in the Gospels were what are now called fishing boats, and were used as such. The ships in which Paul sailed on the Mediterranean were of course larger; those in which he was taken to Rome are well described by Luke in the Acts of the Apostles: the ship wrecked at Malta was evidently an Alexandrian wheat-ship. The nautical terms employed by Luke show that he was well acquainted with maritime subjects (Acts 27). The word for GALLEY in Isaiah 33:21 is the same as that translated “navy” in the Kings.


Son of Allon, a Simeonite (1 Chron. 4:37).


Designation of Zabdi, possibly as a native of Shepham (1 Chron. 27:27).


One of the Hebrew midwives in Egypt (Ex. 1:15).


An Ephraimite, father of Kemuel (Num. 34:24).


Sailors (1 Kings 9:27; Acts 27:27).


Father of Elihoreph and Ahiah, royal scribes under Solomon (1 Kings 4:3). See SHAVSHA.


King of Egypt, to whom Jeroboam fled for protection from Solomon. Shishak afterward invaded Judah during the reign of Rehoboam, “because they had transgressed against the Lord.” He came with an immense army, took fenced cities, and pillaged Jerusalem and the temple. Shishak left an account of this expedition. It gives a long list of places conquered, among which are the names of many Jewish towns, as Taanach, Rehob, Mahanaim, Gibeon, Beth-horon, Kedemoth, Aijalon and Megiddo (1 Kings 11:40; 1 Kings 14:25-26; 2 Chron. 12:2-9). See EGYPT.


The Sharonite who was chief herdsman of David at Sharon (1 Chron. 27:29).

Shittah Tree



Plain on the east of the Jordan, where the Israelites encamped before they crossed the Jordan. The name signifies “acacias” (Num. 25:1; Josh. 2:1; Josh. 3:1; Joel 3:18; Mic. 6:5). In Numbers 33:49 it is called ABEL-SHITTIM.

Shittim Wood, Shittah Tree

This is generally understood to be the Acacia, which is adopted in the RV. There are several varieties which grow in Egypt and Palestine, the Acacia seyal being the most common. They differ from the acacias known in England, which are from North America. The wood was extensively used in building the tabernacle, and the ark, the table of shewbread, and the altars were also made of the same (Ex. 25-38); Deut. 10:3). It is called the SHITTAH TREE (after the Hebrew, which is shittah in the singular) in Isaiah 41:19. The “burning bush” (Hebrews seneh), has been considered to be the wild acacia, A. nilotica. Livingstone judged that for the tabernacle the A. giraffa (Camel-thorn) was used, which he calls an “imperishable” wood.


A Reubenite, father of Adina (1 Chron. 11:42).


People mentioned among Israel’s “lovers,” whom God would bring against them on every side (Ezek. 23:23). Nothing is known of a people or place of this name. Some judge the Hebrew word not to be a proper name, and translate it “prince,” “noble.”


1. Son of David and Bathsheba (2 Sam. 5:14; 1 Chron. 3:5; 1 Chron. 14:4).
2. Son of Caleb, the son of Hezron (1 Chron. 2:18).


Captain of the Syrian hosts of Hadarezer. Killed by David (2 Sam. 10:16,18). Called SHOPHACH in 1 Chronicles 19:16,18.


Ancestor of some of the Levite door-keepers who returned from exile (Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45).


1. Son of Seir, the Horite (Gen. 36:20-29; 1 Chron. 1:38,40).
2. Son of Caleb, the son of Hur (1 Chron. 2:50, 52).
3. Son of Judah and father of Reaiah (1 Chron. 4:1-2).


One who sealed the covenant (Neh. 10:24).


Son of Nahash of Rabbah, of the children of Ammon; he sent succor to David when he fled from Absalom (2 Sam. 17:27).

Shocho, Shochoh, Shoco



Shoe lace or thong (Gen. 14:23; Isa. 5:27; Mark 1:7).


Shoes are mentioned as early as Exodus 3:5, when Moses was told to put off his shoes, for the ground on which he stood was holy, for God was there (Acts 7:33). The same was said to Joshua (Josh. 5:15). It showed that as yet there was no welcome for man into the presence of God. A standing had not yet been made for him, whatever goodness and condescension God might show towards him. Under grace a standing is found, the shoes were put on the prodigal, he was welcome and at home. The priests ministered in the temple with bare feet, means being given to keep the feet clean (compare also John 13:1-17).
In transferring a possession it was customary to deliver a shoe (Ruth 4:7-8). Twice is it said, “Over Edom will I cast out my shoe:” signifying that Edom would be subdued and be taken possession of as a menial (Psa. 60:8; Psa. 108:9). We read that “all they of Edom became David’s servants” (2 Sam. 8:14). For shoes of “iron and brass” (Deut. 33:25), some translate “bolts” instead of “shoes.” But it may be figurative of treading down their enemies, as the Lord is represented having “feet like unto fine brass” (Rev. 1:15).
The shoes of the East were mostly the same as “sandals”—soles fastened to the feet by strings or thongs. John the Baptist declared he was not worthy to unloose the shoes of the Lord (Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16).


Son of Jaaziah, a Merarite (1 Chron. 24:27).


1. Son of Heber, of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:32). Called SHAMER in 1 Chronicles 7:34.
2. The parent of Jehozabad (2 Kings 12:21). Here the name is masculine, but perhaps the same is called SHIMRITH, a Moabitess, in 2 Chronicles 24:26.






A word in the headings of Psalm 45 and Psalm 69, and of Psalm 80 with the word EDUTH, “a testimony,” added. The first Hebrew word signifies “lilies.” Gesenius refers it to the form of the instruments as resembling lilies. Fürst, as the name of one of the musical choirs. The LXX has “for alternate [strains].” In the heading of Psalm 60 is a similar word: SHUSHAN-EDUTH, “the lily of testimony.”


Often alluded to in scripture as the place of strength, on which burdens are borne. The high priest had the names of the twelve tribes on his shoulders, as in a place of safety (Ex. 28:12). Of Christ it is said, when He comes to reign, the “government shall be on his shoulder” (Isa. 9:6); and, as the Good Shepherd, when He finds a lost sheep He places it on His shoulders (Luke 15:5). When God blesses Israel in their land the Gentiles will bring Israel’s dispersed daughters upon their shoulders, that is, will give them substantial aid (Isa. 49:22).


Small representations of heathen temples, as at Ephesus or elsewhere. The word is ναός, often translated “temple” (Acts 19:24).


The “shadowing shroud” signifies the shelter given by the spreading boughs of a great tree: such as the one to which Assyria is compared (Ezek. 31:3).


Daughter of Heber, of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:32).

Shua, Shuah

A Canaanite, whose daughter became the wife of Judah (Gen. 38:2,12; 1 Chron. 2:3).


1. Son of Abraham and Keturah (Gen. 25:2; 1 Chron. 1:32).
2. Descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 4:11).


1. District to which a company of Philistine spoilers turned when they were encamped against Israel (1 Sam. 13:17). Not identified.
2. Son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:36).


1. Son of Amram, a descendant of Levi (1 Chron. 24:20).
2. Son of Heman and a chief in the service of song (1 Chron. 25:20). Called SHEBUEL in 1 Chronicles 25:4.

Shuham, Shuhamites

Son of Dan, and his descendants (Num. 26:42-43). Perhaps the same as HUSHIM in Genesis 46:23.


Designation of Bildad, one of Job’s friends. Probably a descendant of Shuah, son of Abraham (Job 2:11; etc.).


Name introduced in the Song of Solomon. It is a feminine noun traceable, like Solomon, to Shalom, “peace.” It is the virgins who use this term. The union of the bridegroom and bride is such that she can be called by the same name. The “two armies” seen in the Shulamite doubtless refer to the union of Judah and Israel (Song of Sol. 6:13).


One of the families that came from Kirjath-jearim (1 Chron. 2:53). The term may be derived from some unknown place named Shumah.


Designation of an inhabitant of Shunem.
1. Abishag, the “fair damsel” that was chosen to cherish David in his old age (1 Kings 1:3, 15; 1 Kings 2:17-22).
2. The “great woman” who provided Elisha with a lodging. She was rewarded with a son, but he died when a lad. She hastened to the prophet, and her faith was such that she could say, “It is well.” This was answered by her son being raised to life again (2 Kings 4:8-37).


City in Issachar, near to which the Philistines encamped previous to the fight on Gilboa. Also where a Shunammite showed hospitality to Elisha (Josh. 19:18; 1 Sam. 28:4; 2 Kings 4:8). Identified with Solam, 32° 36' N, 35° 20' E.

Shuni, Shunites

Son of Gad, and his descendants (Gen. 46:16; Num. 26:15).

Shupham, Shuphamites

Descendant of Benjamin and his posterity (Num. 26:39). See SHEPHUPHAN.


1. Son of Ir, a Benjamite (1 Chron. 7:12,15). Identified with SHUPHAM in 1 Chronicles 7:12 margin.
2. A Levite and one of the gatekeepers (1 Chron. 26:16).


Wilderness towards the north east of Egypt; its situation is clearly shown in the various passages (Gen. 16:7; Gen. 20:1; Gen. 25:18; Ex. 15:22; 1 Sam. 15:7; 1 Sam. 27:8). See map under WANDERINGS OF THE ISRAELITES.


Ancient city in the East, the capital of Elam, and which afterward became the metropolis of Persia. Its first mention chronologically is in Daniel 8:2. Objections have been raised as to Daniel being at Shushan in the reign of Belshazzar; but the prophecy does not say definitely that he was there. It reads, “I saw in a vision; and it came to pass when I saw, that I was at Shushan.” He may have been there in a vision, or he may have gone there on the business of the king.
Esther was queen of Ahasuerus (Xerxes), king of Persia, and resided at Shushan, and the various descriptions given in the book of Esther show that it was a place of wealth and luxury, and was of large extent. At a later date Nehemiah was cupbearer to the king at Shushan (Neh. 1:1).
Daniel speaks of the palace or fortress as being in the province of Elam, and he was by the river of Ulai. This agrees with the modern Susa, on the river Shapur, in Persia, where there are extensive ruins, embracing those of a magnificent palace, about 32° 10' N, 48° 26' E. Alexander the Great conquered the Persians, after which Shushan declined. The place is frequently mentioned in the Book of Esther, and is once called SUSA (this being the Greek form of the name) in Esther 11:3 of its apocryphal additions.
The ruins extend to a circumference of about seven miles. An inscription states that the palace there was founded by Darius and completed by Artaxerxes. It may have been the one occupied in the days of Esther.
The great feast that was held by Ahasuerus with his nobles and princes for seven days was not apparently held in any of the halls inside the palace, but in the open air, “in the court of the garden of the king’s palace,” surrounded by “white, green and blue hangings, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble.”




Descendants of Shuthelah, son of Ephraim (Num. 26:35).


1. Son of Ephraim (Num. 26:35-36; 1 Chron. 7:20).
2. Son of Zabad, a descendant of Ephraim (1 Chron. 7:21).


The well-known weaver’s implement which carries a thread, mentioned as early as Job 7:6: it is referred to as an emblem of swiftness.

Sia, Siaha

Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile (Ezra 2:44; Neh. 7:47).

Sibbecai, Sibbechai

The Hushathite who slew Saph, or Sippai, a Philistine giant (2 Sam. 21:18; 1 Chron. 11:29; 1 Chron. 20:4; 1 Chron. 27:11).




City of Reuben on the east of the Jordan, famous for its vines (Josh. 13:19; Isa. 16:8-9; Jer. 48:32). It is called SHEBAM in Numbers 32:3, and SHIBMAH in Numbers 32:38. Identified by some with Sumia, 31° 49' N, 35° 46' E, where there are ancient rock-cut wine presses.


A northern landmark of Palestine, lying between Damascus and Hamath (Ezek. 47:16). Not identified.



Siddim, Vale of

One passage reads “the vale of Siddim, which is the salt sea;” and another the vale was “full of slime-pits,” that is, bitumen springs (Gen. 14:3,8,10). It was doubtless near the Salt Sea, but is not identified.

Sidon, Sidonians





1. The lights in the firmament of the heaven are said to be for “signs” as well as for “seasons” (Gen. 1:14). A false application has been made of this passage in using the varied positions of the sun, moon, and planets as a means to foretell events. Of what then are they signs? it may be asked. This is perhaps answered in Psalm 19:1-6. The stupendous distance and marvelous regularity in the movements of the heavenly bodies are a sign of the glory of the One that created them, as is stated of God in Romans 1:20: “The invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead,” or divinity.
2. Signs were wrought by Moses, first to convince the children of Israel that God had sent him; and then to attest and enforce on the Egyptians God’s demands upon Pharaoh to let the Israelites go that they might serve Him (Psa. 78:43). So in other cases, signs were given to show the finger of God.
3. When Christ was on earth He wrought miracles, wonders, and signs, but the Pharisees and Sadducees demanded of Him “a sign from heaven” (Matt. 16:1), and it is added that they did this “tempting Him.” He was Himself God’s sign, according to Isaiah 7:14, as the manna was the sign of God to Israel in the wilderness. As they had not eyes to see God’s signs, they should have no other sign than that of Jonah (Matt. 12:39-40), that is, of a man who was cast into the overwhelming judgment of God, and found deliverance from Him. Christ’s death and resurrection is God’s way of deliverance. In Matthew 16:4 the Lord does not mention the type being fulfilled in Himself for them, but we have the dreadful words, “He left them and departed”: they were left in the judgment of Jonah. See MIRACLES.


King of the Amorites, who, after his victory over the Moabites, was defeated and slain, with his army, by the Israelites. His territory was on the east of the Jordan, from the Arnon to the Jabbok: it was possessed by the Israelites. The victory is commemorated in two of the Psalms (Num. 21:21-35; Num. 32:33; Deut. 1:4; Deut. 2:24-36; Deut. 3:2-6; Josh. 12:2; Judg. 11:19-22; Psa. 135:11; Psa. 136:19; Jer. 48:45).


This refers to the river Nile. In Joshua 13:3 it is “Sihor which is before Egypt.” In Isaiah 23:3 the produce of the harvest of Egypt was brought to the sea by the river, and from thence was fetched by the Syrian merchants. In Jeremiah 2:18 Israel is warned against seeking the waters of the Nile; that is, trusting in Egypt instead of in God (compare Jer. 2:36). In 1 Chronicles 13:5 it is written SHIHOR, as the south-west boundary of Palestine. Some consider that Joshua 13:3 and 1 Chronicles 13:5 refer to the Wady el Arish, which was also called “the river of Egypt.”


A “chief man” among the brethren and a prophet. He was sent to Antioch, with Paul and Barnabas, after the council of the church at Jerusalem concerning Gentiles keeping the law. He accompanied Paul in his second missionary journey, and was imprisoned with him at Philippi (Acts 15:22-40; Acts 16:19-25,29; Acts 17:4-15; Acts 18:5). The name is an abbreviation of SILVANUS.


In Ezekiel 16:10, 13 the word is meshi, and refers to some very fine substance like hair, fine silk. In Proverbs 31:22 it is shesh, which is fine linen. In Revelation 18:12 it is σηρικόν, silk.


Place alluded to when Joash was murdered. It was apparently somewhere near Jerusalem (2 Kings 12:20).

Siloah, Siloam

A pool on the south of Jerusalem near the west slope of the Kidron valley. It is mentioned in the Old Testament as being “by the king’s garden” when the walls of Jerusalem were being rebuilt by Nehemiah (Neh. 3:15). In Isaiah 8:6, under the name of SHILOAH, it is used symbolically: the people refused its waters that went softly, preferring Syria and the king of Israel: the strong waters of Assyria should sweep them away. In the New Testament the man born blind, after being anointed with clay, was sent to wash at Siloam, which signifies “sent.” Christ being the Sent One, we are figuratively taught that light comes when Christ in humiliation is known as the Sent One of God (John 9:7,11).
The pool still exists under the name of the Birket Silwan. It is supplied with water from a fountain higher up the hill, called the Virgin’s Fountain. Several travelers have passed through the passage that connects the two, in some parts walking erect, and sometimes stooping, sometimes kneeling, and sometimes crawling on all fours. A short inscription was found at the pool, but which merely said that the passage was begun at both ends simultaneously, and met in the middle. The letters are ancient, which has led to the supposition that the passage was made in the days of Hezekiah, who made alterations in the watercourses (2 Chron. 32:3-4). The flow of the water is intermitting, as if regulated by an underground siphon. In the winter the water rises three or four times a day, but in the summer only once in several days. The superfluous water flows in a channel cut in the rock to the gardens below. The pool is about 53 feet long, 18 feet wide, and 19 feet deep.

Siloam, Tower in

Nothing is known of the falling of this tower except what the scripture states in Luke 13:4. The village of Siloam is on the east slope of the Kidron valley, curiously formed as if ancient tombs had been appropriated, so that the houses appear to be clinging to the sides of the hill; it is not, however, known whether the tower was in any way connected with this village.


A Christian who had labored at Corinth, and who was there with Paul when he wrote the two Epistles to the Thessalonians. By comparing the following passages with the account of Paul’s second missionary journey it is evident that the apostle refers by this name to SILAS (2 Cor. 1:19; 1 Thess. 1:1; 2 Thess. 1:1). Whether Peter refers to the same person is not known (1 Pet. 5:12).


This was a source of wealth from early days. Abraham was rich in silver (Gen. 13:2); but with Solomon gold was so plentiful that silver was “nothing accounted of” (1 Kings 10:21). The silver and gold which he had amassed were, alas, afterward carried away to enrich their enemies because of the sins of Israel (2 Chron. 12:9). Silver was also the common specie of commerce, “pieces of silver” being weighed long before money was coined (Gen. 23:16). Silver was used for the sockets, hooks, etc., in the tabernacle, the money paid for the redemption of the Israelites being applied to this purpose (Ex. 30:11-16; Ex. 38:25-28). The house of God is founded on redemption (Ex. 36:24-36; Ex. 38:10-17).
Silver is found in the earth (Job 28:1), and before it can be compared to “the words of the Lord” it must be purified seven times (Psa. 12:6; Prov. 25:4).
THE SILVER CORD in Ecclesiastes 12:6 seems to refer to the thread of life, which is loosed, or removed, when death ensues.


Found only in Isaiah 7:23, and the Hebrew is the same as “silver,” and “pieces of silver,” as money.


Only referred to in scripture as those who formed the silver representations of the temple at Ephesus (Acts 19:24).


1. The second son of Jacob and Leah, and head of the tribe bearing his name. Except the attack that he, with Levi, made on Shechem, and his being kept by Joseph as a hostage, nothing personally is recorded of Simeon. He entered Egypt with Jacob, taking his six sons with him. On leaving Egypt, those numbered of the tribe were 59,300, but on entering the land after the forty years’ wanderings, there were only 22,200.
When Jacob blessed his sons he said, “Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of cruelty are in their habitations.... in their anger they slew a man, and in their self-will they digged down a wall. Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; and their wrath, for it was cruel: I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel” (Gen. 49:5-7). This scattering seems also intimated by the circumstance that when Moses blessed the tribes, Simeon is not mentioned.
The lot of Simeon was in the extreme south, having the Philistines on their west and the desert of Paran on their east. On the division of the kingdom they nominally belonged to the ten tribes, but were completely isolated from the other nine, so that they would have had either to coalesce with the two tribes (and of this we read nothing), or, according to the prophecy of Jacob, be “scattered in Israel.” They were, in a sense, lost in the land. In the future day of which Ezekiel prophesies, when the twelve tribes will be restored and the land be re-divided, the tribe of Simeon has its portion (Ezek. 48:24-35). They are also mentioned in Revelation 7:7, when a remnant of them will be sealed for blessing.
2. A “just and devout” man at Jerusalem, to whom it was revealed that he should not die until he had seen “the Lord’s Christ.” When the “child Jesus” was presented in the temple Simeon took Him up in his arms, blessed God and asked that he might depart in peace, for he had seen God’s salvation (Luke 2:25, 34). He was one of those that looked for redemption in Israel.
3. Son of Juda, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus (Luke 3:30).
4. A disciple and prophet at Antioch, designated NIGER (Acts 13:1).
5. Name by which Simon Peter is called by James in Acts 15:14. In 2 Peter 1:1 also the name is Simeon in the Greek.


Descendants of Simeon, the son of Jacob (Num. 25:14; Num. 26:14; 1 Chron. 27:16).


1. demuth, “likeness, representation” (2 Chron. 4:3; Dan. 10:16; Hos. 12:10).
2. tabnith, “pattern, form, structure” (Psa. 106:20; Psa. 144:12).
3. temunah, “form, appearance,” which may not imply likeness (Num. 12:8; Deut. 4:12,15-16).
4. Three words derived from ὂμοιος, “like, similar” (Rom. 5:14; Heb. 7:15; James 3:9).


1. Simon Peter. See PETER.
2. Simon the Canaanite, or rather Cananite, or Zealot, and therefore called SIMON ZELOTES; one of the twelve apostles, of whom nothing is specially recorded (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13).
3. Simon, one of the brethren of the Lord (Matt. 13:55; Mark 6:3).
4. Simon the Leper, at whose house “a woman” anointed the head of the Lord (Matt. 26:6; Mark 14:3). By comparing these passages with John 12:1-3 it seems evident that Martha and Mary lived in Simon’s house (they were perhaps in some way, related to him), and that Mary was the woman alluded to. There is no authority for associating this anointing of the Lord with that recorded in Luke 7:36-50, described as being by “a sinner.”
5. Simon the Cyrenian, father of Alexander and Rufus: he was made to carry the Lord’s cross (Matt. 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26).
6. Simon the Pharisee, who invited the Lord to his house, where a woman “who was a sinner” anointed the feet of the Lord. The Pharisee judged that the Lord could not be a prophet, or He would have known that the woman was a sinner; but he was rebuked, and the woman was forgiven (Luke 7:36-50). There is no authority for supposing that this woman was Mary Magdalene.
7. Simon, father of Judas Iscariot (John 6:71).
8. Simon the Tanner, at whose house Peter was lodging at Joppa when sent for by Cornelius (Acts 9:43; Acts 10:6,17,32).
9. Simon Magus, so called because he was a magician or sorcerer. He had misled the people at Samaria by his magical arts, but he professed to believe at the preaching of Philip. Subsequently he offered money to the apostles that he might purchase the power of imparting the gift of the Holy Spirit (from which has arisen the word “simony”); but he was denounced by Peter (Acts 8:9-24). Historians relate that he did much mischief among the saints.


Son of Hosah, a Merarite. “Though he was not the firstborn, yet his father made him the chief” (1 Chron. 26:10).


City in Egypt; the LXX has Σάϊς, and the Vulgate (as in the margin), Pelusium. Ezekiel calls it “the strength of Egypt” (Ezek. 30:15-16). It is supposed to be identified with the modern Tineh, where a few ruins are found. It is close to the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, about 31° 4' N, 32° 28' E.


There are many different words both in the Old Testament and New Testament signifying “sin,” “iniquity,” “wickedness,” with various shades of meaning.
1. It is important to notice the scripture definition of sin. It is “lawlessness” (1 John 3:4). Hence the distinction made between “sin” and “transgression,” the latter being the infraction of a known command. From Adam to Moses man “had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression,” yet men had sinned and died (Rom. 5:14). A positive law was given to Adam, which he disobeyed; but from Adam to Moses no definite law was proclaimed, consequently there was no transgression, yet there was sin in the sense of lawlessness, and such sin as called for the deluge. The same distinction is plainly involved in Romans 4:15: “Where no law is, there is no transgression,” yet there may be sin, and it is averred that “as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law” (Rom. 2:12).
The rendering of 1 John 3:4, in the AV, “sin is the transgression of the law,” is a mistranslation. The Greek word is ἁνομία, from , negative, and νόμος, law. This word occurs fourteen times, and in this verse only is it translated in the AV “transgression of the law.” In 2 Corinthians 6:14 it is “unrighteousness,” and in eleven places it is rendered “iniquity,” signifying any wickedness. Further, ἂνομος, from the same root, is translated “without law” in 1 Corinthians 9:21; “unlawful” in 2 Peter 2:8; and “lawless” in 1 Timothy 1:9. These passages clearly indicate that the meaning, of 1 John 3:4 is “Every one that practices sin, practices also lawlessness; and sin is lawlessness,” that is, doing one’s own will, regardless of all restraint of God and man. This applies whether there is a definite law or not, but when there is a definite law sin is also transgression.
The principal words used for “sin” in the New Testament are ἁμαρτία, τημα, τάνω, to deviate from a right course: and for transgression, “transgressor,” παράβασιςβαίνωβαἰνω, to pass by or over a boundary.
2. Sin did not originate in man, but with the devil (1 John 3:8). It came into the world by man, and brought in death as its penalty.
3. An important point is to distinguish between “sin” and “sins,” a distinction which must exist after the first entrance of the principle. The “sins” of a man are what he actually commits, and are the ground of judgment, while also proving the man to be the servant of sin. A Christian is one whose conscience has been perfected forever by the one sacrifice for sins; the Spirit of God has brought him into the value of that one offering, hence his sins, having been borne by Christ on the cross, will never be brought to his charge as guilt upon him by God, but if he sins there is a holy gracious dealing with him on the ground of Christ’s propitiation, so that he is led to confess the sin or sins, and has the joy of forgiveness. “Sin” as to the principle, involving the alienation of all things from God since the fall of man, and especially seen in man’s evil nature, has been judicially removed from before God in the cross of Christ. God has “condemned sin in the flesh” in the sacrifice of Christ (Rom. 8:3), and consequently the Spirit is given to the believer. The Lord Jesus is proclaimed as “the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world” (“not sins,” as it is often quoted). He will purge heaven and earth from sin, and in result there will be new heavens and a new earth, wherein will dwell righteousness. Though Christ tasted death for everyone, or everything, He is not represented as bearing the “sins” of all; His death as regards “sins” being qualified by the words “of many,” “our sins,” and so forth.
4. In the important passage in Romans 5:15-20, the word Offense occurs. The Greek is παράπτωμα, from “to fall off or away.” It is used for Adam’s fall or sin, and God’s free gift is in respect of many sins. “The law entered that the offense might abound,” that is, that the offensiveness or heinousness of sin might be made manifest. The same word is translated “fall, fault, trespass and sin.”

Sin Offering


Sin, Original

This term is often used by theologians, but they are not agreed as to its signification. It is not found in scripture. Man has derived an evil nature from Adam, but his sins are his own. Death passed upon all men because of Adam’s sin, but all have sinned (Rom. 5:12).

Sin, Wilderness of

The district lying between the Red Sea and Sinai, in some part of which the Israelites encamped (Ex. 16:1; Ex. 17:1; Num. 33:11-12). See Map under WANDERINGS OF THE ISRAELITES.

Sina, Sinai

This name is applied to both a mountain and to a wilderness. They lie between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akaba. The mountain is really a range of high hills and is sometimes called HOREB, which may be a more general name for the whole of the range. Mount Sinai is especially connected with the giving of the law. Moses and the elders went up into the mountain, and Moses there received the Ten Commandments written on two stones. The Israelites were located in the wilderness of Sinai, which must have been a large place capable of holding two million people. By comparing Exodus 19:1 with Numbers 10:11, it will be seen that they continued there nearly a year.
The mountains in the locality have been surveyed in modern days, and a plain has been found, about two miles long and half a mile wide, affording ample room for the people to assemble, and where they could hear the thunder, and see the fire and smoke issuing from the mount. The plain is now called er Rahah. Adjoining this is a precipitous granite rock called Jebel Musa (Ras Sufsafeh) which is so formed that the elders who accompanied Moses part of the way up, could remain there while Moses proceeded to the summit, which cannot be seen from the plain (Exod. 19:1-23; Psa. 68:8,17; Neh. 9:13; Acts 7:30, 38).
The term Sinai is frequently employed as representing “the law,” and is used by Paul as a symbol of “bondage,” for law and bondage cannot be separated, and stand in strong contrast to the “liberty” wherewith Christ makes the believer free (Gal. 4:24-25), compare with Galatians 5:1. See map under WANDERINGS OF THE ISRAELITES.


In the Old Testament we find there were courses of singers, and there were some who were “taught to sing praise.” Instruments were also appointed for the singers (1 Kings 10:12). In Habakkuk 3:19, at the end of the prophet’s poetical “prayer,” it says, “To the chief singer on my stringed instruments.” “The singers went before, the players on instruments followed after; among them were the damsels playing with timbrels” (Psa. 68:25).
Such organized choirs have no place in the New Testament They that worship God “must worship Him in spirit and in truth.” This also applies to the singing: “I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also” (1 Cor. 14:15; compare 1 Cor. 14:26). “Be filled with the Spirit, speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody [or chanting] in your heart to the Lord” (Eph. 5:19). “In psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord” (Col. 3:16). There will be singing in heaven (Rev. 5:9). Singing and PRAISE naturally go together. At the institution of the Lord’s supper they “sang a hymn,” margin “psalm,” ὐμνέω (Matt. 26:30). The same word is translated “sang praises” unto God, when Paul and Silas were in prison (Acts 16:25); and the Lord sings praise in the midst of the assembly (Psa. 22:22; Heb. 2:12).


A remote place from which some will be brought when in a future day God is blessing Israel. The LXX has “the land of the Persians.” The land of the Sinæ, who settled in Western China, has been suggested; this would not clash with “north” and “west,” which are also mentioned in the same passage (Isa. 49:12).


A tribe of unknown Canaanites probably in the far north (Gen. 10:17; 1 Chron. 1:15). The Targums give Orthosia, a town on the coast to the north-east of Tripolis.


1. Deuteronomy 4:48; same as HERMON.
2. For a part of Jerusalem, see ZION.


City in the south of Judah, to the elders of which David sent some of the spoil he had taken from the Amalekites (1 Sam. 30:28). Not identified.




In Gen. 43:20 the word is adon, often translated “Lord.” In the Acts (except in Acts 16:30) the word is ἀνήρ, “man,” and is used as a term of respect. In all other places in the New Testament the word is κύριος, commonly translated “Lord”; in these cases the context determines how it should be rendered.


A well near Hebron, from which Abner was recalled by Joab (2 Sam. 3:26). There is a spring and reservoir near the ancient road which Abner would naturally have taken, called Ain Sareh, about a mile from Hebron.




Son of Eleasah, a descendant of Judah (1 Chron. 2:40).


1. Captain of the army of Jabin king of the northern Canaanites. His army was overthrown with great destruction, through God’s intervention, by Deborah and Barak. Sisera, thirsty and weary, sought shelter in the tent of Jael, who killed him with a tent peg driven through his head with a hammer—showing how God can energize a feeble instrument to work out His deliverance. See JAEL (Judg. 4:2-22; Judg. 5:20-31; 1 Sam. 12:9; Psa. 83:9).
2. Ancestor of some Nethinim who returned from exile (Ezra 2:53; Neh. 7:55).


Simply “since” (Ezek. 35:6).


Name given to a well dug by Isaac’s servants because it was seized by the servants of Abimelech (Gen. 26:21). Fürst says it signifies “strife;” Gesenius says “contention,” and in Ezra 4:6, where the same word occurs as a common noun, it is “accusation.”






This word occurs in the AV only in Revelation 18:13, where it should read “bodies,” as in the margin. See SERVANTS.


The word is chemar, and signifies “bitumen.” It is found on the shores of the Salt Sea and elsewhere in SLIME-PITS. When mixed with tar it forms a hard cement impervious to water (Gen. 11:3; Gen. 14:10; Ex. 2:3).


A simple weapon with which stones were thrown. It could easily be formed of a piece of leather with a small hole in the center, and having two strings attached. A stone was placed in the hole in the leather, and swung round forcibly, when, by releasing one of the strings, the stone would fly away. It was used by shepherds to keep off such animals as wolves; David had one with which he smote Goliath. We read of some who were so skilled in its use as to throw a stone to a hair’s breadth. It is mentioned among the weapons of war (Judg. 20:16; 1 Sam. 17:40,50; 2 Kings 3:25; 2 Chron. 26:14). On the Egyptian monuments men are portrayed using the sling.


The well-known worker in metal. When the Philistines were oppressing Israel we read “there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel: for the Philistines said, Lest the Hebrews make them swords or spears.” Thus the people of God were unarmed before their enemies. They had to resort to the Philistines even to sharpen their agricultural tools (1 Sam. 13:19-20). This was different afterward, for when the people were carried into captivity, smiths are named among the captives (2 Kings 24:14, 16).


Ancient city in the west of Asia Minor, about forty miles north of Ephesus. No mention is made of Paul having visited the city; but we know an assembly was gathered there by its being one of the seven churches in Asia, to which addresses were sent through the apostle John. See REVELATION 2. History calls Polycarp the first bishop of Smyrna, and it was there he suffered martyrdom. Christian writers have often pointed out in connection with the allusion to “the synagogue of Satan” in Revelation 2:9, the eagerness with which the Jews sought to aid in the martyrdom of Polycarp.
It was of old an important city, and modern Smyrna is a large town, and many of its inhabitants are professedly Christian (Rev. 1:11; Rev. 2:8). The name means “myrrh.”


In Leviticus 11:30 it is supposed that the word chomet refers to some kind of lizard: the RV has “sand-lizard.” In Psalm 58:8 the word is shablul, of which it says it “melteth.” It was erroneously supposed by the Jews that by the slime which a snail leaves on its trail it gradually wasted away. The passage simply means that when dead the snail seems to melt entirely away: it is used as a symbol of the wicked passing away.


Several words are employed to point out the snares or pits by which animals are caught. They are also used symbolically for the snares men lay for one another, and especially for those that Satan lays to entrap man into his power. Snares to be effectual must be hidden. It is in vain to set a net in the sight of any bird (Prov. 1:17); in like manner the hook in fishing is always concealed. The baits that Satan uses are things that men like, and which may not always be moral evils in themselves, as riches, honor, but which may end in the loss of the soul (1 Tim. 3:7; 1 Tim. 6:9; 2 Tim. 2:26). “The fear of the Lord is a fountain of life, to depart from the snares of death” (Prov. 14:27). Nehemiah, led of God, wisely avoided all the snares that were laid for him by the enemy (Neh. 6). So the Christian, taught of God, and led by the Holy Spirit, will not be ignorant of Satan’s devices, and will not fall thereby.


This is taken in scripture as a symbol of “whiteness.” The sins as scarlet become as white as snow; the raiment of the Lord in the transfiguration was as white as snow (Psa. 51:7; Isa. 1:18; Lam. 4:7; Dan. 7:9; Matt. 28:3; Rev. 1:14).


King of Egypt. See EGYPT.

Soap, Sope

Spoken of as used for cleansing the person, and as employed by the fuller (Jer. 2:22; Mal. 3:2). What its composition was is not now known.


Son of, or city founded by, Heber (1 Chron. 4:18). Perhaps the same as one of the two following.

Sochoh, Socoh, Shocho, Shochoh, Shoco

City in the shephelah, or plain of Judah (Josh. 15:35; 1 Sam. 17:1; 1 Kings 4:10; 2 Chron. 11:7; 2 Chron. 28:18). Identified with ruins at Shuweikeh, 31° 41' N, 34° 58' E.


City in the hill country of Judah (Josh. 15:48). Identified with ruins at Shuweikeh, 31° 25' N, 35° E.


The preterite of seethe, to boil (Gen. 25:29; Ex. 12:9; Num. 6:19).


Same as soldering, joining by a fused metal (Isa. 41:7).


A Zebulonite, father of Gaddiel (Num. 13:10).

Sodom, Sodoma

This city is first mentioned as a boundary of the Canaanites (Gen. 10:19). Lot pitched his tent toward Sodom, but it is recorded that the men of Sodom were exceedingly wicked before the Lord. Afterward he dwelt therein, and was carried away captive when Sodom was taken by the five kings from the East. It is related that about the time when God fulfilled His promise of a son to Abraham, the cry of Sodom and their grievous sin had come up to Him, and He communicated to Abraham His intention to destroy the city; but, on the pleading of Abraham, He said He would not destroy it if there were ten righteous persons found therein; ten, however, were not found. Lot, his wife, and two daughters were rescued by two angels, and God rained down fire and brimstone on the place, and it was utterly destroyed. Though it was doubtless in the vicinity of the Salt Sea, its site cannot be identified (Gen. 14:2-22; Gen. 18:16-32; Gen. 19:1-28).
Sodom is regarded in scripture as a symbol of wickedness. Isaiah calls the heads of Judah the “rulers of Sodom” (Isa. 1:10; compare Ezek. 16:46-56; Rev. 11:8). The Lord, to show the exceeding wickedness of rejecting Him, after hearing His gracious words and seeing His mighty works, declared that it would be more tolerable in a day of judgment for Sodom than for the cities that rejected Him (Luke 10:12). The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrha, both as to its suddenness and completeness, is held up as a warning to sinners of coming judgments (Luke 17:29; Jude 7). In Romans 9:29 it is called SODOMA.


Those guilty of the sin of Sodom. Some were found in Israel (Deut. 23:17; 1 Kings 14:24; 1 Kings 15:12; 1 Kings 22:46; 2 Kings 23:7).


Apart from the common application of this term (for which see ARMY, Armor, &c.) it is used in the New Testament for the service of a Christian. Two things are said of the Christian soldier. He must “endure hardness,” that is, share in the suffering incident to warfare; and he must not entangle “himself with the affairs of this life, that he may please him who hath chosen him to be a soldier”; that is, be quite free to obey his Captain in all things. As explained by the centurion, “I say to this man Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh;” so the Christian servant is under authority, and unhesitating obedience is what should characterize the soldier of Jesus Christ: he must be prepared to endure hardships, and to suffer with his Captain (Matt. 8:9; 2 Tim. 2:3-4).


Son of David and Bath-Sheba. He reigned forty years over the united kingdom from B.C. 1015 to 975. David when near his death appointed Solomon his son, whom God had chosen to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of Jehovah, to be his successor, and he began his reign by executing righteous judgment, as Christ will when He comes to reign, followed by a reign of peace. He put to death Adonijah who had usurped the throne, and Joab who had shed innocent blood; and he cast Abiathar out of the priesthood. His marriage with the daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, is symbolical of Christ having the church (mainly Gentiles) with Him when He comes to reign.
Solomon loved the Lord, and worshipped Him at the altar at Gibeon, and there the Lord appeared to him in a dream, and said, “Ask what I shall give thee.” Solomon asked for an understanding heart to judge the people wisely. The choice pleased God, and He gave him wisdom such as no king before nor since has had, and added to it both riches and honor beyond all others. If he would be obedient God would lengthen his days. His wisdom soon became apparent by his judgment in the case of the two women with the living and dead child. And people came from all the kings of the earth to hear his wisdom. The queen of Sheba came also. This is again symbolical of the reign of Christ during the millennium. It is further exemplified by all dwelling in safety, “every man under his vine and under his fig tree....all the days of Solomon.”
He was occupied for seven years in building the temple, for which David had made preparation. He built also his own house and one for Pharaoh’s daughter. When the temple was dedicated, Solomon sacrificed and prayed to Jehovah. In answer to which Jehovah appeared to him a second time, and said, He had hallowed the house, had put His name there, and His heart should be there perpetually. God would continue to bless him and establish his house in Israel, on the condition that Solomon was obedient, and turned not to other gods.
Everything for a time was ordered wisely. The riches of Solomon increased so much that silver was of little value in his days. He had his navy of ships, which brought him riches, and he increased his chariots and his horsemen, and brought horses out of Egypt—an act that had been forbidden in the law (Deut. 17:16). He tells us that he had tried everything under the sun, but had to declare that all was vanity and vexation of spirit. The Lord declared that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed as a simple lily of the field. His fall, alas, followed, for he loved many strange women, which turned his heart away, and he went after their gods, and built high places for them.
God then stirred up adversaries against Solomon, and by the prophet Ahijah He foretold that Jeroboam would reign over ten of the tribes. He would reserve two to keep in memorial before Him the name of David. Still Solomon did not repent, but sought the life of Jeroboam. God did not prolong Solomon’s days, for he died at about the age of 58.
We read of Solomon that he spake three thousand proverbs, and his songs were a thousand and five. He was the writer of the books of the Proverbs, the Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon His reign is given in 1 Kings 1-12; 2 Chron. 1-9.

Solomon's Porch

Some porch or colonnade attached to the temple built by Herod. The Lord “walked” therein, where there was room for the Jews to gather round Him (John 10:23). When Peter and John had cured the lame man, the people congregated in the same place, and Peter addressed them. It was probably an unfrequented part of the outer temple, for the believers met there in the earliest days of the church (Acts 3:11; Acts 5:12).

Sometime, Sometimes

At one time, once (Eph. 2:13; Eph. 5:8; Col. 1:21; Col. 3:7; Titus 3:3; 1 Pet. 3:20).


Besides the application of this term to natural generation, it is used metaphorically in scripture. The appellation “son” implies “likeness.” The term is employed thus to mark moral likeness, as of a son to a father, so “a son of Belial” (1 Sam. 25:17); “thou son (υἱός) of the devil” (Acts 13:10); “sons of disobedience” (Eph. 5:6; Col. 3:6): also “sons of light” and “sons of day” (1 Thess. 5:5). It is also used to signify physical likeness: strong men are “sons of strength” (2 Kings 2:16, margin).
The idea of sonship differs somewhat in the case of Christians from that of being “children.” The thought of “children” is more of a generation which is of God. “Now are we the children of God” (1 John 3:2). “Sons” expresses the height of God’s calling, and properly refers to heaven and glory. It implies intelligently entering into the purpose of God. God is bringing many sons to glory (Heb. 2:10). Christians are represented as being both children and sons of God. The distinction between these two words is not always clearly maintained in the AV. In Rom. 9:26-27; 2 Cor. 3:7, 13; Gal. 3:7, 26; Eph. 2:2; Eph. 5:6; Col. 3:6; 1 Thess. 5:5; Heb. 11:22; Heb. 12:5; Rev. 2:14; Rev. 7:4; Rev. 12:5; Rev. 21:12 (and often in the Gospels and the Acts) “sons” (υἱός) should be read instead of “children.” On the other hand, in John 1:12; 1 Cor. 4:14,17; Phil. 2:15,22; 1 Tim. 1:2,18; 2 Tim. 1:2; 2 Tim. 2:1; Titus 1:4; Philem. 1:10; 1 John 3:1-2, “children” (τέκνον) should be read instead of “sons.” Both words are employed in the Epistles of Paul, but “τέκνον” only, as regards believers, in the writings of John, except Revelation 21:7. See SΟNS OF GOD.

Son of Man, The

The Lord constantly spoke of Himself as “the Son of Man,” a title that connected Him with universal headship, and not merely with Israel, especially in view of His sufferings and resurrection and kingdom. Though walking about this earth He could say, “The Son of Man which is in heaven” (John 3:13). He, though God, became truly man: could be weary and hungry, and sleep. He prayed as one in dependence on God; was forsaken of God, and died. Yet He was the righteous One—of another order morally from all other men: the Second man—out of heaven (1 Cor. 15:47).
According to Hebrews 2 Christ became Son of Man in order to—
1. “taste death for everything;”
2. to annul “him that had the power of death, that is, the devil;”
3. “to make propitiation for the sins of the people;” and
4. to be “able to succor them that are tempted.”
He is set as Son of Man over all the works of God’s hands, heir of all things, according to the counsels of God; He will reign until all enemies are under His feet, and be hailed as “King of kings and Lord of lords.” The Lord said, “The Son of man shall come in the glory of His Father, with His angels” (Matt. 16:27). In the meantime we do not find the title used in the Epistles and the Revelation except in Hebrews 2:6, a quotation from Psalm 8, which speaks of His universal dominion; and in Revelation 1:13 and Revelation 14:14, where He is ready for judgment. See JESUS CHRIST.

Son, The; Son of God

That the Lord Jesus is a divine Person is of the very foundation of scripture. In the commencement of the Gospel by John is the statement “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” Again, “Unto the Son He saith, “Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever” (Psa. 45:6; Heb. 1:8). Baptism is “in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost” (Matt. 28:19). Christ is spoken of as “the Son” in distinction from the Father, and glory attaches to Him as such. In many places, when the Lord was speaking of the Father, He spoke of Himself as relatively “the Son” (Matt. 11:27; &c). He was necessarily in the consciousness of the unity of the Godhead. Christ is also spoken of as God’s “only begotten Son” (John 1:14, 18; John 3:16, 18; 1 John 4:9). The word is μονογενής, and is equivalent to the Hebrew word yachid, which signifies “only one,” and hence “darling” (Psa. 22:20; Psa. 35:17). It is a term of endearment.
When the angel appeared to Mary, foretelling the birth of Jesus, he said, “That holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God” (Luke 1:35). Thus the word was to be fulfilled: “Jehovah hath said unto Me, Thou art My Son: this day have I begotten Thee” (Psa. 2:7; Acts 13:33, where the word “again” should be omitted; Heb. 1:5; Heb. 5:5). The Lord spoke of Himself as the Son of God (John 5:25; 9:35; and so forth.). He confessed it before the Jewish council (Luke 22:70). Having died on the cross to work out redemption (John 17:1,4; John 19:30), He was “declared to be the Son of God with power.... by the resurrection of [the] dead” (Rom. 1:4).

Song of Solomon

This is also called “the Song of Songs, or The Canticles,” though it is one poem, and not a collection of poems. The first verse states that it is by Solomon. The book stands alone, and has been variously interpreted. A favorite theory of German theologians and of many English is that it is literally a love story: that Solomon sought to draw away a lowly maiden from a shepherd, to whom she was betrothed; but to whom she remained faithful. That such a poem, with no higher teaching than this, should find a place in holy scripture, is impossible for the Christian who believes in inspiration to accept. With others it is held to represent “the pure love and mystical union and marriage of Christ and His church,” which will be seen to be the idea in the headings of the chapters in the AV. Passages in the New Testament that refer to the union of Christ and the church are referred to as bearing out this interpretation.
But a great deal of damage has been done to the right understanding of the Old Testament by supposing that wherever blessing is there spoken of, it must refer to the church. God has blessed and will bless others besides the church, especially His ancient people Israel. He uses also endearing terms to Israel. He says to her, “I will betroth thee unto Me forever; yea, I will betroth thee unto Me in righteousness, and in judgment, and in loving-kindness, and in mercies.” This declaration is associated with a day when she will call Jehovah Ishi (that is, husband), and shall no more call Him Baali—that is, master (Hos. 2:16,19). This is doubtless the key to the Song of Solomon. This is the union spoken of, with which the words of affection, that pass between Christ as Jehovah and the remnant of Israel that will be brought into blessing, are in accord. The song is prophetic, but does not reach to Christ and the church, though, when its right interpretation is seen, the Christian can apply some of its language as his own to the same Lord, who will also be manifested as the Bridegroom of the church. There is however this important difference: in the Canticles the result is more in anticipation, while with the Christian there is present realization of relationship: in other words, more of desire than of satisfaction.
From the above it will be seen that the bride is not simply a person, but symbolic of the earthly Jerusalem and the remnant whose names are registered as connected with God’s foundation, embracing all the faithful of Israel, looked upon as “the daughters of Jerusalem,” which represents the whole nation. This agrees with the language in many parts: for instance, “Draw me, we will run after thee. The king hath brought me into his chambers; we will be glad....the upright [plural] love thee” (Song of Sol. 1:4). Further, it is helpful to see who is the speaker in the various parts of the Song. As far as the bridegroom and the bride are concerned this is pointed out by the gender in the Hebrew. It seems evident too that a company, usually called virgins, also take part in the Song. The heart of Jerusalem is now being turned to the One they once refused (compare Matt. 23:37).
Song of Solomon 1:2. BRIDE AND VIRGINS. They value the love of the bridegroom more than wine. The bride owns that she is dark, but she is comely: the rays of affliction have scorched her like the sun (compare Isa. 3:24). She has been keeping the vineyards of the nations, not her own.
Song of Solomon 1:8. BRIDEGROOM. He delights in her, and esteems her as the fairest among women.
Song of Solomon 1:12. BRIDE. The bridegroom is “the king:” her spikenard sends forth a perfume: (compare John 12:1-8).
Song of Solomon 1:15. BRIDEGROOM. He acknowledges her beauty (compare Ezek. 16:14).
Song of Solomon 1:16. BRIDE. She admires her Lord, and appreciates her relationship: she says, “our house.”
Song of Solomon 2:1. BRIDE. She is a rose of Sharon, and a lily of the valleys.
Song of Solomon 2:2. BRIDEGROOM. His loved one is as a lily among thorns.
Song of Solomon 2:3. BRIDE. She calls him “my beloved,” and charges the daughters of Jerusalem not to disturb her loved one until he please. “Behold he cometh:” she does not yet possess him.
Song of Solomon 2:10. BRIDEGROOM. He invites her to partake of the pleasant fruits. The foxes must be caught that spoil the tender fruit. The joy must be full.
Song of Solomon 2:16. BRIDE. She is conscious of the relationship. He is hers, and she is his.
Song of Solomon 3. BRIDE. She is alone and in darkness; she seeks her beloved, but does not find him. She questions the watchmen, and as soon as she passes them she finds him. King Solomon is described, his bed, his chariot, and so forth; it is he who will bring in peace.
Song of Solomon 4:1. BRIDEGROOM. He declares what she is in his sight. She is the garden of his delights. He calls upon the north and the south winds to cause the fragrance to come forth. (Some believe Song of Solomon 4:6 to be the language of the bride.)
Song of Solomon 4:16. BRIDE. She responds, “Let my beloved come into his garden, and eat his pleasant fruits.”
Song of Solomon 5:1. BRIDEGROOM. He has come into his garden and tasted its delights: he calls his friends to share his joys: (compare John 3:29).
Song of Solomon 5:2. BRIDE. She has slept, and he is outside.
Song of Solomon 5:2. BRIDEGROOM. He asks to be admitted: his locks are wet with the drops of the night.
Song of Solomon 5:3. BRIDE. She is slothful and makes excuses. When she opens the door she finds he is gone. She goes about the city in search of him, and is smitten and shamed. She charges the daughters of Jerusalem that if they find him they will tell him that she is “sick of love.” They ask her what her beloved is more than another. She declares that he is “the chiefest among ten thousand;” “yea, he is altogether lovely.”
Song of Solomon 6:1. The bride is asked where he is gone: they will seek him with her.
Song of Solomon 6:2. BRIDE. She says he is gone into his garden. She declares her confidence that she is her beloved’s, and her beloved is hers.
Song of Solomon 6:4. BRIDEGROOM. He describes her as beautiful and undefiled: she exceeds all; she is the only one of her mother.
When Israel is thus brought into blessing she will be, as the virgins say in verse 10, “terrible as an army with banners.”
Song of Solomon 6:11. BRIDEGROOM. He goes to look for the fruits, and before he is aware he is carried up on the chariots of Ammi-nadib, “my willing people:” (compare Psalm 110:3).
In Song of Solomon 6:13 the bride is called upon to return under the name of Shulamite, “peaceable” (the feminine of Shalom, from which is also Solomon); and in the Shulamite they see, as it were, the company of two armies, doubtless alluding to the union in a future day of Judah and Israel.
Song of Solomon 7:1. BRIDEGROOM. He now describes his beloved as what she is to him.
Song of Solomon 7:9. “And the roof of thy mouth like the best wine.”.... BRIDE (interposing). “That goeth down smoothly for my beloved, and stealeth over the lips of them that are asleep.” (New Testament)
Song of Solomon 7:10. BRIDE. The bride’s experience has advanced: she responds, “I am my beloved’s, and his desire is toward me.” She invites him to come forth among the pleasant fruits—mutual enjoyment.
Song of Solomon 8:1. This is a recapitulation of the whole book. The bride speaks as if she was only longing after him.
Song of Solomon 8:5. The virgins ask who it is that comes up from the wilderness leaning upon her beloved.
Song of Solomon 8:5. BRIDEGROOM. He raised her up under the apple tree (which the bridegroom is called in Song of Solomon 2:3). The remnant will be recovered under Christ under the new covenant.
Song of Solomon 8:6. BRIDE. She asks to be set as a seal upon his heart and upon his arm: his love and his power will be for her.
Song of Solomon 8:8. The virgins speak of their “little sister:” what shall be done for her? This is doubtless an allusion to the ten tribes, who did not have to do with Christ when on earth, and who will be dealt with differently from the two tribes; but will be brought into the land and blessed there.
Song of Solomon 8:9. BRIDE. If the little sister be a wall, she shall be built upon; if a door, she shall be enclosed; but the bride is a wall, and is grown to maturity. She has a vineyard of her own, but Solomon must have a vineyard, from which he will receive fruit: not like Israel of old, which yielded no fruit.
Song of Solomon 8:13. BRIDEGROOM. He desires to hear the voice of her that walks in the gardens.
Song of Solomon 8:14. BRIDE. She responds, and bids her beloved to come without delay.
The whole Song of Solomon has been otherwise divided into six parts, (Song of Sol. 1:1; Song of Sol. 2:8; Song of Sol. 3:6; Song of Sol. 5:2; Song of Sol. 6:13; and Song of Sol. 8:5).
It is worthy of remark that whereas the bridegroom describes the bride to herself, the bride describes the bridegroom, not to himself, but to others. This is surely becoming of her. He tells her plainly of her preciousness in his sight, and of the perfection he beholds in her. This calls forth her assurance, and she declares his preciousness in her eyes. As said above, the interpretation of the book is that it embraces the union of Christ and the Jewish remnant in a future day. But it is the same Christ that loves the church, and His love demands the deepest affection in return. He cares for her love, and in Revelation 2:4-5, reproaches the Ephesian assembly that they had left their first love.
As a matter of interest it may be added that in the Alexandrian copy of the LXX some of the above divisions are made, and the speaker pointed out. In the Codex Sinaiticus these intimations are much more numerous than in the Alexandrian copy.



Songs of Degrees


Sons of God

This title is susceptible of considerable latitude of meaning and has various applications in scripture.
1. There were “sons of God” who took wives of “the daughters of men” (Gen. 6:4). These are believed by some to have been angels, permitted to take human form: (compare Jude 6-7). Others judge the descendants of Seth to be alluded to.
2. The angels who came to present themselves to God in the days of Job, and who shouted for joy when the foundations of the earth were laid, are called “sons of God” (Job 1:6; Job 2:1; Job 38:7).
3. The Gentiles, who had no place at all as God’s people, were to be called “sons of the living God” (Hos. 1:10).
4. Christians, those led of God’s Spirit, in the present dispensation are declared to be “sons of God” (Rom. 8:14,19; Gal. 4:6). It is their calling according to God’s purpose. See SON.




Morsel (John 13:26-30).


A believer of Berea who accompanied Paul from Greece into Asia (Acts 20:4). The editors of the Greek Testament add “[son] of Pyrrhus.”




Servant of Solomon, whose descendants returned from exile (Ezra 2:55; Neh. 7:57).




Valley in the land of the Philistines (Judg. 16:4). Identified with Wady es Surar, which has its source near BEEROTH.


Kinsman of Paul, whose salutations were sent to Rome (Rom. 16:21).


1. Chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who was beaten by the rabble (Acts 18:17).
2. One whom Paul (when at Ephesus) unites with himself in the First Epistle to the Corinthians (1 Cor. 1:1).


Servant of Solomon, whose descendants returned from exile (Ezra 2:55: Neh. 7:57).


Foolish (Jer. 4:22). Anglo-Saxon, sot, stupid.

Soul, Spirit

Man is composed of soul and body, though in certain cases the term “spirit” is added. Both soul and spirit are put in contrast to the body, as signifying the incorporeal part of man; but there is a distinction between soul and spirit. Soul is often employed to express the moral undying part of man’s being, and it is used sometimes to signify the person; as “all the souls that came with Jacob into Egypt” (Gen. 46:26); “eight souls” were saved in the ark (1 Pet. 3:20). “The soul that sinneth, it shall die” (Ezek. 18:4, 20).
The Hebrew word commonly translated “soul” is nephesh: in many instances this is translated “life” in the AV, as in Jonah 1:14: “Let us not perish for this man’s life,” or soul. In the New Testament the word ψυχή stands for both “life” and “soul:” “Whosoever will save his ‘life’ shall lose it; and whosoever will lose his ‘life’ for my sake shall find it. For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own ‘soul’? or what shall a man give in exchange for his ‘soul’?” (Matt. 16:25-26).
The soul, as distinguished from the spirit, is the seat of appetites and desires. The rich man said, “I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry” (Luke 12:19). That night his “soul” was required of him. The salvation of the soul cannot be distinguished from the salvation of the person.
The SPIRIT is distinctively the higher part of man, it marks the conscious individuality, and distinguishes man thus from the inferior creation. God breathed into man’s nostrils the breath of life, and by this man was set in relation with God, and cannot be really happy separated from Him, either in present existence or eternally. The words are ruach and πνεῦμα, and are the same as constantly used for God’s Spirit, the Holy Spirit, or Holy Ghost, and for the angels as spirits, and for evil spirits.
The word of God is sharp, and able to divide asunder the soul and spirit of a man, though it may not be easy for the human mind to see the division. The apostle prayed for the Thessalonians that spirit (which is probably viewed as the seat of God’s work), as well as soul and body might be sanctified (1 Thess. 5:23). In the Epistle to the Hebrews we read of the “spirits” of just men made perfect: their place is with God through redemption. Here “spirits” apparently signifies the persons apart from their bodies.
The Holy Spirit being given to the Christian, as the spring in him of life in Christ, he is exhorted to pray with the spirit, sing with the spirit, walk in the Spirit, so that in some cases it is difficult to distinguish between the Spirit of God and the Christian’s spirit.


In the Bible, as we might expect, the points of the compass are spoken of as they refer to the land of Palestine. The south would therefore indicate the part of the land which contained Judah’s and Simeon’s portions, or to the district still further south, a country little known (Gen. 12:9). It is called negeb in the Hebrew. Two other words are yamin and teman, signifying “the right hand,” and are translated “south” because the Israelites considered themselves as looking toward the East when speaking of the points of the compass (1 Sam. 23:19, 24; Psa. 89:12; Josh. 12:3; Josh. 13:4; Psa. 78:26; Isa. 43:6). Another word is darom, “bright, sunny region,” hence the “south” (Deut. 33:23; Job 37:17; Ezek. 40:24-45). In the New Testament, except in Acts 8:26 (where the word is μεσημβρία, “mid-day,” because the sun is then in the south; as the Latin meridies, “mid-day,” also signifies “south”), the word is νότος, “the south” (Matt. 12:42).

South Ramoth




Sower, Sowing

Besides the common reference to agriculture (for which see SEASONS), sowing is used symbolically for spreading the gospel, as in the parable of the Sower, of which the Lord graciously gave His own explanation. When He came to Israel He found no fruit, and He became the Sower, and sowed the good seed, which fell upon different descriptions of ground, with varied results, as the Lord explains. Notwithstanding the influence of Satan to hinder any seed taking root, some fell upon good ground (not good by nature, but prepared by God), and fruit was the result (Matt. 13:3-43). Whenever the gospel is preached, the seed is being sown, and doubtless falls upon different sorts of ground as in the parable. Blessed are they that sow beside all waters: God’s servant will reap if he does not faint.
Sowing is also the beautiful figure used as to placing the body in the ground. For the Christian it is sown a natural body, in corruption, dishonor, and weakness; but will be raised a spiritual body, in incorruption, in glory, and in power (1 Cor. 15:36-44).


The well-known country in Europe. It is mentioned in the New Testament only in relation to Paul’s purpose to visit it; but it is not known whether he went there between his first and second imprisonments or not (Rom. 15:24, 28).



Sparrow (Tsippor, στρουθίον)

It is supposed that various kinds of small birds are alluded to by these names, being so called because of their “chirping,” which would include the sparrow. The Hebrew word is often translated “bird,” but only twice “sparrow.” It is alluded to in the Psalms as a lonely one upon the housetop, and as such finding a house in the courts of God’s house (Psa. 84:3; Psa. 102:7). In Palestine sparrows are plentiful, and five were sold for two farthings, and yet the Lord said not one fell without His Father’s knowledge, adding “Ye are of more value than many sparrows.” If God cares for the birds (and here the diminutive is employed), surely He will care for His own beloved ones (Matt. 10:29, 31; Luke 12:6-7). There are several species of sparrow in Palestine, the Passer cisalpinus, etc. The Petrocossyphus cyaneus, or blue thrush, may be alluded to.


Paul was sent to Caesarea in the custody of two hundred of these troops. They are supposed to have been armed with a light lance (Acts 23:23).




Succeeded (Judg. 5:30). From the Anglo-Saxon spedan, to hasten, prosper.


These were much used in the East, and were of different kinds. See the various names by which they are designated, as myrrh, aloes, cassia, galbanum, stacte.


1. akkabish. This is known to be the spider by the web being referred to, which, as being very frail, illustrates the trust of the hypocrite, also the weaving of the wicked, which will not supply them with a garment (Job 8:14; Isa. 59:5).
2. semamith. This is supposed to refer to a lizard, which has wide feet like hands, by which it holds fast to the wall while pursuing its prey. It is translated “lizard” in the RV; but others prefer some species of spider (Prov. 30:28).


The sending of spies to ascertain the strength or state of an enemy’s country was known as early as (Gen. 42), when Joseph treated his brethren as such. Twelve were sent by Moses to search out the land of Palestine, the adoption of this means being first desired by the people, and afterward ordered by God. Only two brought up a faithful report, and had faith in God that He would give them possession (Num. 13). Two were also sent by Joshua, who were hidden by Rahab (Josh. 2; Josh. 6:23; Heb. 11:31). David and Absalom both used this stratagem (1 Sam. 26:4; 2 Sam. 15:10; compare Judg. 1:24).
Those are called “spies” whom the rulers of Israel sent to entrap the Lord. They were secret agents who, by feigning themselves just men, hoped to catch the Lord in His replies; but they were themselves put to shame, and confounded by His wisdom (Luke 20:20).

Spikenard (Nerd, νάρδος)

A plant that grows in India: so called, it is said, because of the spikes that grow out of its roots. Its root and leaves are imported. A costly ointment was made of it, giving off a sweet perfume (Song of Sol. 1:12; Song of Sol. 4:13-14; Mark 14:3; John 12:3). It has been identified with the Nardostachys jatamansi.



Spirit, the Holy



This word occurs often in the New Testament. It stands in contrast to what is earthly (Rom. 15:27); and to what is carnal, or of the flesh (1 Cor. 3:1). In short it may be said to be that which is of the Holy Spirit, in contrast to what is of the natural man.


The booty that was seized upon by an army when a city was taken. Except when forbidden by God, as in the case of Jericho, it was considered a lawful prize; and it was thus the Israelites suffered when their cities were captured by their enemies (Deut. 20:14; 2 Kings 21:14; Isa. 42:22).

Spoil, To

The kingdom of Satan was spoiled by One stronger than he when the Lord Jesus cast out demons from those possessed, and also especially when Satan’s power was annulled on the cross (Matt. 12:29; Mark 3:27; Col. 2:15; Heb. 2:14). The Hebrew believers had taken joyfully the plunder of their goods (Heb. 10:34). The Colossians were warned lest any should spoil (make a prey of) them through philosophy (Col. 2:8), a caution surely needed in the present day.




This mode of applying blood as a witness of death was
1. For protection. When all the firstborn in Egypt were to be smitten, the Israelites were told to “strike,” that is “sprinkle,” the side posts and lintels of their doors with the blood of a lamb, and Jehovah said, “When I see the blood I will pass over you.” Death had already nullified the power of death (Ex. 12:7, 13).
2. For purification. Aaron and his sons were sprinkled with blood. Moses “sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry, and almost all things are by the law purged with blood.” Death separated the priestly family from their own associations (Ex. 29:21; Heb. 9:21-22).
3. For presentation. In the burnt offering, the blood was sprinkled round about upon the altar; in the sin offering the blood was sprinkled seven times before the Lord before the vail of the sanctuary; and on the day of atonement the blood was sprinkled upon the mercy-seat eastward, and before the mercy-seat seven times (Lev. 1:5; Lev. 4:6; Lev. 16:14). Death became the means of God accomplishing His purposes of grace. The believer is redeemed, purified, and sanctified by the precious blood of Christ, and is ever before God “perfected” according to the preciousness of that blood (Heb. 9:14; Heb. 10:10, 14; 1 Pet. 1:19).
4. For confirmation. The covenant was sealed, and the people bound to it, by blood. Moses “sprinkled both the book and all the people” (Heb. 9:19).


A believer in Rome to whom Paul sent a salutation (Rom. 16:9).


The word nataph signifies “a drop” and is so translated in Job 36:27. Hence stacte is doubtless a spice that oozes from a tree in drops: it formed a part of the holy incense (Ex. 30:34). The RV has in its margin “opobalsamum.” It is probably the gum from the storax tree, Styrax officinalis.


Each tribe had its own standard, degel, and each family its own ensign, oth. In the camp the twelve tribes were arranged with three on each side, one of each three giving the name to that side or camp. Thus the standard of Judah is called the standard of the camp of Judah, which was on the east; the camp of Reuben on the south; the camp of Ephraim on the west; and the camp of Dan on the north. See CAMP.
Scripture does not state the form of the standards and ensigns. The Rabbis say that the standard of Judah resembled a lion (compare Gen. 49:9; Rev. 5:5); of Reuben a man; of Ephraim an ox (compare Deut. 33:17); and of Dan an eagle. If this were so, the same characters appear in the faces of the living creatures in Ezekiel 1:10 and in Revelation 4:4-7. For the Christian, CHRIST is the only standard, and His banner (degel) is LOVE.



Star in the East

From the account given of this star it is evident that it was one specially sent for the nativity, for it not only appeared to the Magi in the East, but guided them from Jerusalem to Bethlehem, and “stood over” where the young child was. Faith in the power of God dispels all difficulty as to the star (Matt. 2:1-10). There were traditions that God would raise up a deliverer, and the Magi may have heard of the Old Testament prophecies as to Messiah; but whether this be so or not, God, who provided the star, sent the Magi to find out the King of the Jews, and instructed them not to return to Herod.

Star, the Morning

This heralds in “the day.” The Lord Jesus is the bright and morning star, and He makes Himself known to the saints in that heavenly character, and Peter speaks of its rising in their hearts, though they wait for His appearing, to usher in full blessing on earth, when He will shine forth as the SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS (Rev. 2:28; Rev. 22:16; Mal. 4:2).

Stars, Seven

Amos 5:8. See PLEIADES.




The words are nechosheth or nechushah, and are often translated “brass.” Either copper, or some alloy is most probable, not what is now known as steel, though in the first three passages it is “a bow of steel” (2 Sam. 22:35; Job 20:24; Psalm 18:34; Jer. 15:1.2).


Christian convert at Corinth, who with his household was baptized by Paul: he was “the firstfruits of Achaia” (1 Cor. 1:16; 1 Cor. 16:15,17).


One of the seven chosen in the church at Jerusalem to minister the alms of the saints. He was a Greek-speaking Jew, who, though appointed to an office, yet in the energy of the Holy Ghost bore witness of the power consequent on Christ being glorified, and the Holy Spirit here (1 Tim. 3:13). Stephen was able to speak with such wisdom and power that his hearers could not withstand him. They suborned evil men to falsely accuse him, and he was dragged before the Jewish council, to whom his face appeared like that of an angel. He sketched the history of the people from Abraham, with which they were all familiar; but he laid bare from the outset the opposition of the Jews and of their fathers. Joseph they had refused; Moses they had repelled; they had turned to idolatry; had slain the prophets; had always resisted the Holy Ghost; and had been the betrayers and murderers of the Just One. Such was man’s history under culture and probation.
His hearers were cut to the heart, but did not repent: they gnashed their teeth at him. He, lifting up his eyes to heaven, saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God, and bore testimony to this. But they rushed upon him, cast him out of the city, and stoned him. He, like Jesus, prayed that their sin might not be laid to their charge, and, commending his spirit to the Lord, fell asleep.
Stephen’s martyrdom formed an epoch in the history of the church. Being a Hellenist, he in this respect differed from the apostles. He was chosen for the first martyr. To him the heaven was opened, and he bore witness to Jesus, the second Man, being at the right hand of God. It is at this juncture that Saul, who was destined to carry on the ministry of the gospel of the glory of Christ, is brought into view. He was then a young man, at whose feet the witnesses laid their clothes (Acts 6:5-15; Acts 7:8:2; Acts 11:19; Acts 22:20).
It has been asserted, by some critics, that Stephen made several mistakes in his address to the council! It is said, however, in scripture that he was “full of the Holy Ghost.” See SHECHEM.


Various words are used for these instruments of punishment.
1. mahpecheth, a wooden frame in which the feet, hands, and neck of a person were so fastened that his body was kept bent. Jeremiah was subjected to this punishment (Jer. 20:2-3).
2. sad, stocks in which the feet were shut up (Job 13:27; Job 33:11; Acts 16:24—ξύλον).
3. tsinoq, stocks which confined the hands and the feet (Jer. 29:26).
4. ekes, “a fetter or ancle-band” (Prov. 7:22).


A sect of the philosophers of Greece, founded by Zeno, and named after the Stoa, the porch at Athens where the philosopher assembled his pupils. He taught that there was one Supreme Being, but many subordinate gods, and that man had similar faculties to the gods. Intellect was to be their guide, and pleasures and pains of the body were not to be regarded. From this sect the English word “stoic” is derived. Pantheism, fatalism, and pride were the leading features of the stoics. Some of such were among the audience Paul addressed at Athens (Acts 17:18).



Stone, Corner



PRECIOUS STONES were much valued in Palestine. They were used in the breastplate of the high priest, Solomon garnished the temple with them, and they also abound in the description of the New Jerusalem in the Revelation. As the most costly things on earth they are selected to typify the graces of Christ as reflected in His saints (Ex. 28:17-20; 1 Chron. 29:2; Rev. 21:18-21).
MEMORIAL STONES. Large stones, or heaps of stones, were often raised to commemorate an event, or to be a witness of some compact (Gen. 28:18; Gen. 31:45-46; Josh. 7:26; Josh. 15:6; 1 Sam. 6:15; 1 Sam. 7:12). In the exploration of Palestine many large stones have been found, which apparently had been erected as memorial stones. Heaps of stones are also found where some enemy was defeated, and if the circumstances are known to the Arabs, every passerby is expected to add a stone.
BUILDING STONES. For the foundation of the temple Solomon ordered “great stones, costly stones, and hewed stones.” As Jerusalem was built on two or three hills, to obtain a level place for the temple much stonework had to be erected on the shelving rock, before any part of the temple itself could be commenced. Some of such stonework is still to be seen in situ. Some are “great stones,” one measures 38 feet 9 inches. They are so beautifully squared that they need no cement between them; they have a narrow draft cut along the edges. There is a quarry under Jerusalem, from which much stone had anciently been taken. See JERUSALEM.
Stones were also used for other purposes. In early days they were made into weapons; circumcision was practiced with sharp stones (Ex. 4:25; Josh. 5:2-3). The law was engraven on stones (Ex. 24:12; Josh. 8:32; 2 Cor. 3:7). Stones were cast upon land to spoil it for agriculture (2 Kings 3:19,25). They were used in the punishment of stoning (John 10:31-33). And given as a token of approval, as the white stone in (Rev. 2:17).
Metaphorically stones represent hardness, strength, firmness: as the “stony heart” (Ezek. 11:19; Ezek. 36:26). The Lord Jesus is the “stone” which the Jewish builders refused, but He became the head stone of the corner (Matt. 21:42). He is also the “living stone,” to whom the saints come as “living stones,” and are built up “a spiritual house” (1 Pet. 2:4-5).


This was a capital punishment enjoined in the law for certain offenses. Stones were thrown at the person until he was dead. In the case of Stephen he kneeled down. If the stones were aimed at the head a person would soon be stunned and fall. Paul was stoned and left for dead, but revived as the disciples stood around him More than once the Jews took up stones to kill the Lord, but He escaped out of their hands; His death must be by being “lifted up” from the earth (Num. 15:35; John 10:31; Acts 7:58-59; 2 Cor. 11:25).

Stork (Chasidah)

There are three particulars mentioned in scripture respecting this bird.
1. It makes its nest in the fir trees (Psa. 104:17). This agrees with the stork; it is a large bird, and selects a tree that is high and yet one that will well support its nest.
2. It is represented as in the heaven (Jer. 8:7). The stork flies very high, especially when migrating.
3. It has powerful wings (Zech. 5:9). This also agrees with the stork, its wings extending to more than six feet. The same Hebrew word occurs in Job 39:13 (see margin).
The word chasidah is kindred to the word translated “merciful,” and the bird is remarkable for its tender care, not only of its young, but of the aged. In the Levitical list it is classed among the unclean birds (Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18). This we might expect, as it feeds upon mice, snakes, and other reptiles, &c.
Both the black stork (ciconia nigra), and the white stork (c. alba) are numerous in Palestine. The former associate together in secluded and marshy districts, often in flocks. White storks prefer the habitations of man, where they roam about the streets, devouring the offal. They are much respected, and it would fare ill with anyone who would injure them. In some places they are of much value on account of their attacks upon the serpents.


1. This term was applied to any sojourning among the Israelites, who were not descendants of Israel. The law gave injunctions against the oppression of such (Num. 15:14-30).
2. Gentiles are also called “strangers” from the covenants of promise (Eph. 2:12), showing that the covenants made with Israel did in no wise embrace the Gentiles, though God’s grace at all times extended to them.
3. Those called strangers in 1 Peter 1:1 were Jews away from their own land: sojourners of the dispersion.
4. Both the Old Testament and the New Testament saints were and are strangers upon earth. David said, “I am a stranger with thee, and a sojourner, as all my fathers were” (Psa. 39:12). They “confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth” (Heb. 11:13). The same is true of the saints now (1 Pet. 2:11). Their citizenship is in heaven, and this earth is no longer their home or their rest.


This is spoken of as being eaten by the cattle, and it is foretold that it will be the food even of the lion in a future day. This agrees with the practice in the East where the straw is cut up or crushed, and used as food for cattle (1 Kings 4:28; Isa. 11:7). It was used in Egypt for mixing with the clay in making bricks: in some of the ancient Egyptian bricks the straw can be seen.

Stumbling Block (Mikshol, πρόσκομμα)

Anything placed in the way of another over which he might stumble and fall. It was forbidden in the law, and such things were to be removed out of the way of Israel (Lev. 19:14; Isa. 57:14). Their iniquity, however, became a stumbling block to them (Ezek. 7:19; Ezek. 14:3-7). In the church there should be care that nothing is practiced by one that might cause another to stumble (Rom. 14:13; 1 Cor. 8:9).
Jehovah of hosts was to be a sanctuary for the believing remnant, but He would be “for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offense to both the houses of Israel,” that is, He would become such through their unbelief in Jehovah’s intervention through the virgin’s child (Isa. 8:14)—where the word is negeph, “the act of stumbling.” When the Lord was on earth He became this stone of stumbling to the Jews, and remains the same to them and to the house of Israel where, through disobedient unbelief, He is still rejected (Rom. 9:32-33; 1 Pet. 2:8). Any who through grace receive the gospel become Christians and are merged in the church. In connection with the same, the word σκάνδαλον is employed: this is literally “the catch of a trap,” which being touched ensnares (Rom. 9:33—offense; Rom. 11:9; 1 Cor. 1:23; 1 Pet. 2:8—offense).
The same word is used for the snare that Balaam taught Balak to lay for the Israelites (Rev. 2:14). It is also the word employed for the “offenses,” or snares, that must, by the nature of things, exist in the world for the feet of the saints (Matt. 18:7; Luke 17:1): and in the remarkable instance when the Lord said to Peter, “Thou art an ‘offense’ unto me” (Matt. 16:23).


Son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher (1 Chron. 7:36).

Suborn, To

To procure witnesses secretly for the purpose of false declarations (Acts 6:11).


1. Canaanite city on the east of the Jordan, allotted to the tribe of Gad. Here Jacob built a house for himself and booths for his cattle. The elders of the city were punished by Gideon for not helping him when he was faint in pursuing the Midianites (Gen. 33:17; Josh. 13:27; Judg. 8:5-16; 1 Kings 7:46; 2 Chron. 4:17; Psa. 60:6; Psa. 108:7). Identified by some with Tell Darala, 32° 12' N, 35° 38' E.
2. First halting place of the Israelites when they left Rameses (Ex. 12:37; Ex. 13:20; Num. 33:5-6). Not identified.


A family of scribes at Jabez (1 Chron. 2:55). The signification of the name is not known.


A goddess whose worship was established at Samaria by the heathen of Babylon who were settled there (2 Kings 17:30). The name has been traced to Zarpanit, the goddess of wisdom, the lady of the deep, and wife of Bel-merodach.


Some unknown people who furnished troops to Shishak when he invaded Judah (2 Chron. 12:3). Gesenius suggests the meaning to be “dwellers in tents.” If so, some tribe of Arabs may be alluded to.




The sun was the greater light given to rule the day. The Israelites particularly observed this by beginning their day-time at sunrise (in distinction from 12 o’clock at night), and closing it at sunset, which necessarily made their days and their hours in summer much longer than in winter (Psa. 19:1-6; Psa. 113:3; Psa. 136:8).
SUN WORSHIP. The Israelites were cautioned against worshipping the sun, nevertheless they fell into that idolatry, and set up high places for the sun in Jerusalem (Deut. 4:19; 2 Kings 23:5,11).
SUN STANDING STILL (Josh. 10:12-27). No legitimate objection can be made to the statement that the sun “stood still;” for though it is now known that it is the earth that moves, yet astronomers still speak of the sun rising and setting, and use the word “solstice,” which signifies “sun standing still.” They would doubtless say the same as Joshua said if they were placed in similar circumstances.
The shadow of the gnomon going back ten degrees on the sun-dial in the days of Hezekiah, 2 Kings 20:10, may, as well as the above, have been produced by the light of the sun passing through a more dense medium; but in whatever way God may have chosen to accomplish these miracles, they are wonderful and divinely-given signs.
SIGNS IN THE SUN. These are probably symbolical of the eclipse and change of those in supreme authority over the earth in the latter days (Luke 21:25; Acts 2:20; Rev. 6:12).



Sun of Righteousness



In the East this is the chief meal of the day; it is enjoyed in the evening when the labors of the day are over and the partakers have only rest before them (Mark 6:21; John 12:2). It is typical of the fullness of grace set forth in our Lord Jesus Christ, to enjoy which Israel were first invited, and afterward the poor and outcast were compelled to come and taste in God’s house (Luke 14:16-24). See LORD’S SUPPER. The destruction of the two beasts and their armies is spoken of as providing a supper for the birds that fly in mid-heaven (Rev. 19:17).


Gate of the temple, or the king’s house (2 Kings 11:6). Apparently the same that is called “gate of the foundation” in 2 Chronicles 23:5.


To become surety for another is condemned in the Proverbs as being unwise: “he that hateth suretiship is sure.” To be surety for a stranger is totally condemned (Prov. 6:1; Prov. 11:15; Prov. 17:18; Prov. 22:26). Many a Christian has suffered by being surety for a friend. It may be difficult to refuse, but it is unrighteousness unless the one who is surety can bear the loss if it should fall upon him.
The Psalmist asks God to be surety for him for good (Psa. 119:122); and the Lord Jesus is made surety of a better testament, or covenant, than that made with Israel (Heb. 7:22). He is the powerful One who is certain of being able to bring to pass in its due time all that is foretold that He will do in carrying out the purpose of God.


In scripture this means an additional or added name, not a family name, as the word now implies (Isa. 44:5; Isa. 45:4; Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:16-17).




Persons whom the Assyrians imported into Samaria (Ezra 4:9). They are supposed to have been from Susa.


One of the women who had the honor of ministering to the Lord of their substance (Luke 8:3).


Father of Gaddi, of the tribe of Manasseh (Num. 13:11).


1. deror. This is interpreted “roving about,” which agrees well with the habits of the swallow or swift. They come and go, and are not domesticated (Prov. 26:2). In Psalm 84:3 it is typical of the wanderer finding rest and protection in God’s house.
2. agur, mentioned with the word sis, translated “crane” and “swallow;” but sis doubtless refers to the swallow, and agur to the crane. The swallow (or perhaps the swift) is mentioned as “chattering,” or having a “garrulous note,” and it is migratory (Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7). Several species of the swallow frequent Palestine: the Hirundo rustica, H. rufula, etc. A species of swift finds the Jordan valley warm enough in the winter, and need not migrate.


The Hebrew word is tanshemeth, and is mentioned among the unclean birds. The swan has been seen in Palestine, but it is rare, and, as it feeds on vegetation, it is supposed that some other bird is alluded to. The LXX and the Vulgate have the porphyrio and ibis. The RV has “horned owl” (Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:16). Probably some water fowl is referred to, and the purple waterhen, of the Rallidae family, is a bird that would necessarily be condemned as unclean because of its feeding upon reptiles as well as birds: it seizes its prey by its long toes and conveys it to its mouth. It frequents the marshes bordering the Mediterranean.




One of the animals classed among the unclean, and which is supposed to have been held in abhorrence as food by the Jews. The prophet Isaiah, however, charges them with eating swine’s flesh; and their apostasy was such that he says when they offered an oblation, it was as if they had offered swine’s blood: their heartless profession was abhorrent to God (Isa. 65:4; Isa. 66:3,17). It is not recorded whether the Gadarenes were Jews or Gentiles, who lost their swine by the demons’ possession of them (Matt. 8:32; Mark 5:13). The swine are typical of the most defiled and degraded, to whom apostates are compared, and before whom holy things should not be cast (Matt. 7:6; 2 Pet. 2:22). The prodigal had reached the lowest point of degradation when he would fain have satisfied his hunger with the swine’s food (Luke 15:16).


This is constantly referred to in scripture as the instrument of death, and is mentioned in the New Testament as being borne by the magistrate (Rom. 13:4), showing that the gospel does not set aside God’s governmental principle of capital punishment which was enjoined after the flood (Gen. 9:5-6). See Armor, ARMS.
SWORD OF THE SPIRIT. This is the word (ρῆμα) of God, what His mouth has spoken, and is the only offensive weapon given to Christians with which to fight the Lord’s battles (Eph. 6:17). The word (λόγος) of God is likened to a two-edged sword (Heb. 4:12), and the words of the Lord Jesus when He will come forth in judgment on Christendom and the world are compared to a “sharp two-edged sword” (Rev. 1:16; Rev. 19:15).

Sycamine (συκάμινος)

This is mentioned only in Luke 17:6; and as the same writer speaks also of the sycamore tree, the two are deemed to be distinct. The sycamore is supposed to be the mulberry, still called in Greece sycamenia. Both the black and white mulberry (Morns nigra and alba) are common in Palestine, their leaves being the food of silkworms.

Sycamore (Shiqmah, συκομωραία)

This is a tree large enough for a man to rest in its branches, as Zacchaeus did (Luke 19:4). It was known in Egypt, and was plentiful in Palestine. Amos was a “gatherer of sycamore fruit.” David had a special overseer of such trees (1 Kings 10:27; 1 Chron. 27:28; Psa. 78:47; Isa. 9:10; Amos 7:14). It is supposed to be the sycamore-fig, or fig-mulberry (Ficus sycomorus). Its wood is very durable. The Egyptian mummy coffins made of it have remained sound after the entombment of thousands of years.


City of Samaria in the vicinity of which was Jacob’s well, where the Lord met the woman of Samaria, and where He stayed two days, and many of the Samaritans believed on Him (John 4:5). Identified with Askar, 32° 13' N, 35° 17' E. Jacob’s well is about half a mile from the village.




Town in the south of Egypt, bordering on Ethiopia (Ezek. 29:10; Ezek. 30:6). The expression, “from the tower of Syene,” is better translated “from Migdol to Syene,” even unto the border of Ethiopia, as it is in the margin. The word is really SEVENEH, as in the RV. It is now called Assuan, about 24° N, 33° E.


Scripture abounds with symbols, some parts containing far more than others. Ezekiel, Daniel, and the Revelation are especially full of them. Symbols present, in a concrete form and image, abstract qualities and facts to the mind. In reading scripture, it is necessary to follow carefully the general use of such and such a symbol, throughout the inspired oracles. Thus a lion represents “force;” the sun represents “supreme authority;” eagles, “rapidity of judgment,” and so forth. There is doubtless an abstract idea in each symbol, though it may not always be easy to discover it, and it might vary somewhat in being applied to different subjects. This principle is altogether violated by taking leaven to signify “evil” in the offerings in Leviticus, and what is “good” in the parable of “the leaven hid in the meal” in Matthew and Luke, as is often done.


This word occurs but once in the AV of the Old Testament (Psalm 74:8), but the same Hebrew word (med) is many times translated “congregation.” Mr. Darby and the RV margin translate in Psalm 74:8 “places of assembly.” The word συναγωγή occurs very often in the LXX, but as a translation of some twenty different Hebrew words: “congregation” or “gathering” is the main thought. As far as is known there were no buildings called synagogues in Old Testament times. It has been judged that they arose after the captivity, and may perhaps have been occasioned by a desire to perpetuate the work begun by the people calling upon Ezra to read to them the book of the law, when those who heard were deeply affected (Neh. 8-9).
In the exploration of Palestine remains of buildings have been discovered, which are judged to have been synagogues. They are uniform in plan, and differ from the ruins of churches, temples, and mosques. In two of them an inscription in Hebrew was over the main entrance, one in connection with a seven-branched candlestick, and the other with figures of the paschal lamb. A plain rectangular building answered the purpose. They were often erected by general contributions, though at times by a rich Jew, or in some instances by a Gentile, as the one built by the centurion at Capernaum (Luke 7:5).
An ark was placed at one end, in which were deposited the sacred books. Near this was the place of honor, or the “chief seats,” which some sought after (Matt. 23:6, James 2:2-3—where the word translated “assembly” is “synagogue”). Nearer the center of the building was a raised platform with a kind of desk or pulpit, where the reader stood. A screen separated the women from the men.
It is known that a portion of the law and of the prophets was read every Sabbath, and it is clear from Acts 13:15 that if anyone was present who had a “word of exhortation for the people,” the opportunity was given for its delivery. Prayers also were doubtless offered, but how far these resembled the modern Jewish ritual is not known. The Lord spoke of the hypocrites who loved to pray standing in the synagogues, where they also ostentatiously offered their alms (Matt. 6:2,5).
It was the custom of the Lord to visit the synagogues, and in them He wrought some of His miracles and taught the people (Matt. 4:23). In Luke 4 the Lord, in the synagogue at Nazareth, stood up to read, and there was handed to Him the book of the prophet Isaiah. After reading a portion which set forth His own attitude among them (stopping in the middle of a sentence), He sat down and spake “gracious words” to them. His exposition of the passage is not given except “This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears.” It is recorded that the people were in the habit of freely expressing their opinions respecting what was taught, and here they said, “Is not this Joseph’s son?” In Acts 13:45 the Jews “spake against those things which were spoken by Paul, contradicting and blaspheming.”
Paul also was permitted to speak in the synagogue at Damascus, when he showed the Jews that Jesus was the Son of God (Acts 9:20); and often afterward he “reasoned” or “disputed” (διαλέγομαι) with the Jews in their synagogues (Acts 18:4, 19; Acts 19:8).
It is important to see that everywhere in their own buildings a clear testimony was borne by the Lord Himself as to the significance of His appearance among them; and afterward by Paul and others to the work He had accomplished by His death and resurrection for them—reference being constantly made to the scriptures which they professed to reverence and to follow. The reality of the testimony was happily proved by the salvation of many, and which left those who refused it without excuse.
To be “put out of the synagogue” was the Jewish excommunication. The Lord told His disciples that this would be enforced towards them (John 9:22; John 16:2). The only case recorded is that of the man born blind, when he bore testimony to Christ. It was a happy exchange for him, for the Lord thereupon revealed Himself to him as the Son of God (John 9:34-38). Of others we read that many of the chief rulers believed on the Lord, but feared to confess Him lest they should be cast out, “for they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God” (John 12:42-43).
It is evident from what Pilate said to the Jews in reference to the Lord—”Take ye him, and judge him according to your law”—that they were allowed to judge certain matters and to inflict limited punishments (John 18:31). This appears to have been carried out wherever there was a synagogue, though it is not clear who were the judges, probably the “elders” mentioned in Luke 7:3. The Lord told His disciples that they would be scourged in the synagogues (Matt. 10:17); and Paul confessed that when persecuting the church he had imprisoned and beaten in every synagogue those that believed on the Lord (Acts 22:19). Paul himself doubtless suffered the like punishment in the same buildings (2 Cor. 11:24). Thus a very undignified use was made of their places of worship.
The officials connected with the synagogues were—
1. The zaqenim, πρεσβύτεροι, the elders (Luke 7). These were presided over by
2. An ἀρχισυνάγωγος, ruler of the synagogue (Mark 5:22,35-36,38; Luke 8:49; Luke 13:14; Acts 13:15; Acts 18:8,17). In the last two passages the AV has “chief ruler,” but the Greek is the same.
3. The sheliach, a delegate of the congregation, who acted as chief reader: he is not mentioned in the New Testament.
4. The chazzan, ὑπηρέτης, translated in the AV “servant, minister, officer,” only once mentioned in connection with the synagogue as the “attendant” to whom the Lord gave the book when He had done reading (Luke 4:20).
5. The batlanim, described as “leisure men,” who attended meetings regularly. There were at least ten of these attached to each synagogue, so as to form a quorum, ten being the lowest number to form a congregation.
SYNAGOGUE OF SATAN. Some who professed, like Jews, to have a claim to be considered the people of God on the ground of hereditary right. These are declared to be liars, for they really form a congregation of Satan, doing his work in seducing the saints from their heavenly character (Rev. 2:9; Rev. 3:9). In both cases they may be Jews actually, though disowned of God.


A believing woman at Philippi whom Paul exhorted along with Euodias to be of the same mind (Phil. 4:2).


City on the eastern coast of Sicily, at which port the ship touched that conveyed Paul to Rome (Acts 28:12).


See MAACHAH, No. 10.

Syria, Syrian

In scripture this name mostly signifies the district lying north and north-east of Palestine, the inhabitants of which were Syrians. If from Dan to Beersheba be taken as the boundaries of Palestine, it leaves for Syria a district quite as large on its north, besides extending also to the Euphrates on the east. For the sub-divisions of Syria mentioned in scripture see ARAM.
There are but few references to the Syrians in the early part of scripture. In connection with Rebekah the wife of Isaac, Laban (grandson of Nahor, Abraham’s brother) “the Syrian” is introduced (Gen. 25:20; Gen. 28:5; Gen. 31:20,24); and an Israelite, in presenting his basket of first-fruits, was instructed to confess before the Lord, “A Syrian ready to perish was my father,” followed by a rehearsal of what God had done for the descendants of Jacob, and how He had brought them into the promised land (Deut. 26:5). The only reference to the name in the New Testament is in Luke 4:27, where it is stated that there were many lepers in Israel in the days of Elisha, but none were cured but Naaman the Syrian.
Damascus was the capital of the part of Syria which was often in conflict with Israel. It was conquered in David’s reign and was subject to Solomon; but after the division of the kingdom it revolted and was again hostile to Israel. It became merged into the Assyrian and Babylonian empires. After that it passed to the Persians, and then submitted to Alexander the Great. On his death it came under the power of Seleucus Nicator, who built Antioch and made it his capital. For many years his successors contended with the Ptolemies for the possession of Palestine. See ANTIOCHUS. In B.C. 63 Syria was conquered by Pompey, and Palestine became subject to Rome. After the decline of Rome, Syria and Palestine had many different masters, and eventually fell into the hands of the Turks, who are still their owners.
The only governor of Syria mentioned in the New Testament is Cyreniu (Luke 2:2). Palestine was divided into sub-provinces after the death of Herod. The Lord in His journeys visited some of the borders of Syria, and His fame went throughout all Syria (Matt. 4:24). After Antioch had become a sort of central station from whence the gospel went out to the Gentiles, Paul traveled throughout Syria and Cilicia confirming the churches (Acts 15:23,41).
It will be seen that the physical features of Western Syria and Palestine are very similar—their natural contour indeed being the same.

Syriac, Syrian Tongue

The language that was spoken in Syria was substantially the same as Chaldee. The Hebrew word is aramith. See ARAMAIC (2 Kings 18:26; Ezra 4:7; Isa. 36:11; Dan. 2:4).


The designation of the woman whose daughter was possessed by a demon. She belonged to Phenice in Syria: the name embraced both these proper names. By birth she was a Greek, which here probably means simply “Gentile” (Mark 7:26). In Matthew 15:22 she is called “a woman of Canaan.”
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