Concise Bible Dictionary:

The Greek form is ἀββᾶ “father: it is the same as Ab in Hebrew, but was pronounced Abba in the time of our Saviour. It occurs three times in the New Testament, and is always followed by “father,” and translated Abba Father; that is, the “abba” is transcribed and not translated: if it were translated it would be “Father Father.” In the Greek it stands thus: ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ the “Abba” being Aramaic, and the “Father” Greek. In the Old Testament Ab was not restricted in its use to children. Elisha used it toward Elijah; servants applied it to their masters (see 2 Kings 2:12; 5:13; 6:2112And Elisha saw it, and he cried, My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof. And he saw him no more: and he took hold of his own clothes, and rent them in two pieces. (2 Kings 2:12)
13And his servants came near, and spake unto him, and said, My father, if the prophet had bid thee do some great thing, wouldest thou not have done it? how much rather then, when he saith to thee, Wash, and be clean? (2 Kings 5:13)
21And the king of Israel said unto Elisha, when he saw them, My father, shall I smite them? shall I smite them? (2 Kings 6:21)
). Jehovah asked, “Hath the rain a father?” (Job 38:2828Hath the rain a father? or who hath begotten the drops of dew? (Job 38:28)). In the New Testament it appears to be used in a stricter sense of relationship: “Ye have received the Spirit of adoption [or sonship], whereby we cry, Abba Father,” (Rom. 8:1515For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. (Romans 8:15)); and “because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying, Abba Father” (Gal. 4:66And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. (Galatians 4:6)). The only other instance is when the Lord thus addresses His Father (Mark 14:3636And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee; take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what thou wilt. (Mark 14:36)); and the Spirit in the hearts of believers puts the very words He used into their lips. It has been suggested that in the two words the Jew and the Gentile each say “Father” in his own language — the Aramaic being then spoken by the Jews, and Greek the language of the Gentiles in Palestine and many other places. God had been revealed in the Old Testament as Jehovah, the Almighty, but it was reserved for New Testament times for Him to be made known to believers in the relationship of Father (compare John 20:1717Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God. (John 20:17)).

Strong’s Dictionary of Greek Words:

of Chaldee origin (2); father as a vocative
KJV Usage:

Jackson’s Dictionary of Scripture Proper Names:


Potts’ Bible Proper Names:

Father:-term applied to God by Jesus; Chaldaic form of Hebrew, Ab., Mark 14:36. {Pater}