Concise Bible Dictionary:

We read that Abraham sent the sons of Keturah and of his concubines “eastward, to the east country” (Gen. 25:66But unto the sons of the concubines, which Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and sent them away from Isaac his son, while he yet lived, eastward, unto the east country. (Genesis 25:6)). There were also the descendants of Ishmael and those of Esau. Many of these became princes, and there can be no doubt that their descendants still hold the land. There are some who call themselves Ishmaelite Arabs, and in the south there are still Joktanite Arabs. We read of Solomon receiving gifts or tribute from the kings of Arabia, 1 Kings 10:1515Beside that he had of the merchantmen, and of the traffic of the spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the governors of the country. (1 Kings 10:15). So did Jehoshaphat (2 Chron. 17:1111Also some of the Philistines brought Jehoshaphat presents, and tribute silver; and the Arabians brought him flocks, seven thousand and seven hundred rams, and seven thousand and seven hundred he goats. (2 Chronicles 17:11)); but in the days of Jehoram they attacked him, plundered his house, and carried away his wives and some of his sons (2 Chron. 21:1717And they came up into Judah, and brake into it, and carried away all the substance that was found in the king's house, and his sons also, and his wives; so that there was never a son left him, save Jehoahaz, the youngest of his sons. (2 Chronicles 21:17); 2 Chron. 22:11And the inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah his youngest son king in his stead: for the band of men that came with the Arabians to the camp had slain all the eldest. So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah reigned. (2 Chronicles 22:1)). They were defeated by Uzziah (2 Chron. 26:77And God helped him against the Philistines, and against the Arabians that dwelt in Gur-baal, and the Mehunims. (2 Chronicles 26:7)).
During the captivity some Arabians became settlers in Palestine and were enemies to Nehemiah (compare Neh. 2:1919But when Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, and Geshem the Arabian, heard it, they laughed us to scorn, and despised us, and said, What is this thing that ye do? will ye rebel against the king? (Nehemiah 2:19); Neh. 4:77But it came to pass, that when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and the Arabians, and the Ammonites, and the Ashdodites, heard that the walls of Jerusalem were made up, and that the breaches began to be stopped, then they were very wroth, (Nehemiah 4:7); Neh. 6:11Now it came to pass, when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and Geshem the Arabian, and the rest of our enemies, heard that I had builded the wall, and that there was no breach left therein; (though at that time I had not set up the doors upon the gates;) (Nehemiah 6:1)). Among the nations that had relations with Israel, and against whom judgment is pronounced are the Arabians (Isa. 21:13-1713The burden upon Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O ye travelling companies of Dedanim. 14The inhabitants of the land of Tema brought water to him that was thirsty, they prevented with their bread him that fled. 15For they fled from the swords, from the drawn sword, and from the bent bow, and from the grievousness of war. 16For thus hath the Lord said unto me, Within a year, according to the years of an hireling, and all the glory of Kedar shall fail: 17And the residue of the number of archers, the mighty men of the children of Kedar, shall be diminished: for the Lord God of Israel hath spoken it. (Isaiah 21:13‑17); Jer. 25:2424And all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mingled people that dwell in the desert, (Jeremiah 25:24)). And doubtless they will be included in the confederacies that will be raised against God’s ancient people when Israel is again restored to their land (Psa. 83).
In the New Testament “Arabians” were present on the day of Pentecost, but whether they were Jews or proselytes is not stated (Acts 2:1111Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God. (Acts 2:11)).

Jackson’s Dictionary of Scripture Proper Names:

gentilic of Arabia