Ax; Axe

Concise Bible Dictionary:

There are seven different Hebrew words translated “ax” or “axe,” with various shades of meaning (Deut. 19:55As when a man goeth into the wood with his neighbor to hew wood, and his hand fetcheth a stroke with the axe to cut down the tree, and the head slippeth from the helve, and lighteth upon his neighbor, that he die; he shall flee unto one of those cities, and live: (Deuteronomy 19:5); Judg. 9:4848And Abimelech gat him up to mount Zalmon, he and all the people that were with him; and Abimelech took an axe in his hand, and cut down a bough from the trees, and took it, and laid it on his shoulder, and said unto the people that were with him, What ye have seen me do, make haste, and do as I have done. (Judges 9:48); 2 Sam. 12:3131And he brought forth the people that were therein, and put them under saws, and under harrows of iron, and under axes of iron, and made them pass through the brickkiln: and thus did he unto all the cities of the children of Ammon. So David and all the people returned unto Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 12:31); 1 Chron. 20:33And he brought out the people that were in it, and cut them with saws, and with harrows of iron, and with axes. Even so dealt David with all the cities of the children of Ammon. And David and all the people returned to Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 20:3); Psa. 74:66But now they break down the carved work thereof at once with axes and hammers. (Psalm 74:6); Jer. 10:33For the customs of the people are vain: for one cutteth a tree out of the forest, the work of the hands of the workman, with the axe. (Jeremiah 10:3); Ezek. 26:99And he shall set engines of war against thy walls, and with his axes he shall break down thy towers. (Ezekiel 26:9); Matt. 3:1010And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. (Matthew 3:10): Luke 3:99And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: every tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. (Luke 3:9)).

“196. Axes” From Manners and Customs of the Bible:

There were doubtless different forms of ax in use among the Hebrews, as different words are used to signify the instrument. Garzen, the word used here and in Deuteronomy 20:1919When thou shalt besiege a city a long time, in making war against it to take it, thou shalt not destroy the trees thereof by forcing an axe against them: for thou mayest eat of them, and thou shalt not cut them down (for the tree of the field is man's life) to employ them in the siege: (Deuteronomy 20:19); 1 Kings 6:77And the house, when it was in building, was built of stone made ready before it was brought thither: so that there was neither hammer nor axe nor any tool of iron heard in the house, while it was in building. (1 Kings 6:7) and Isaiah 10:1515Shall the axe boast itself against him that heweth therewith? or shall the saw magnify itself against him that shaketh it? as if the rod should shake itself against them that lift it up, or as if the staff should lift up itself, as if it were no wood. (Isaiah 10:15), was probably an ax which was used for felling trees and for hewing large timber. Representations of ancient Assyrian and Egyptian axes have come down to us..Some of these axes are fastened to the handle by means of thongs. There is one kind, however, which is not so fastened, but which has an opening in it into which the helve is inserted, as with us. It bears a close resemblance to a modern ax, and from the reference in the text to the head slipping off seems to have been the garzen here spoken of. Egyptian axes were made of bronze, and perhaps of iron also. That some, at least, of the axes of the Hebrews were made of iron is evident from 2 Kings 6:5-65But as one was felling a beam, the axe head fell into the water: and he cried, and said, Alas, master! for it was borrowed. 6And the man of God said, Where fell it? And he showed him the place. And he cut down a stick, and cast it in thither; and the iron did swim. (2 Kings 6:5‑6).

“556. Heavy Axes” From Manners and Customs of the Bible:

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