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Acts 26

Acts 26:2 KJV (With Strong’s)

I think
hegeomai (Greek #2233)
to lead, i.e. command (with official authority); figuratively, to deem, i.e. consider
KJV usage: account, (be) chief, count, esteem, governor, judge, have the rule over, suppose, think.
Pronounce: hayg-eh'-om-ahee
Origin: middle voice of a (presumed) strengthened form of 71
emautou (Greek #1683)
of myself so likewise the dative case ἐμαυτῷ (em-ow-to'), and accusative case ἐμαυτόν (em-ow-ton')
KJV usage: me, mine own (self), myself.
Pronounce: em-ow-too'
Origin: genitive case compound of 1700 and 846
makarios (Greek #3107)
supremely blest; by extension, fortunate, well off
KJV usage: blessed, happy(X -ier).
Pronounce: mak-ar'-ee-os
Origin: a prolonged form of the poetical μάκαρ (meaning the same)
, king
basileus (Greek #935)
a sovereign (abstractly, relatively, or figuratively)
KJV usage: king.
Pronounce: bas-il-yooce'
Origin: probably from 939 (through the notion of a foundation of power)
Agrippas (Greek #67)
wild-horse tamer; Agrippas, one of the Herods
KJV usage: Agrippa.
Pronounce: ag-rip'-pas
Origin: apparently from 66 and 2462
, because I shall
mello (Greek #3195)
to intend, i.e. be about to be, do, or suffer something (of persons or things, especially events; in the sense of purpose, duty, necessity, probability, possibility, or hesitation)
KJV usage: about, after that, be (almost), (that which is, things, + which was for) to come, intend, was to (be), mean, mind, be at the point, (be) ready, + return, shall (begin), (which, that) should (after, afterwards, hereafter) tarry, which was for, will, would, be yet.
Pronounce: mel'-lo
Origin: a strengthened form of 3199 (through the idea of expectation)
answer for myself
apologeomai (Greek #626)
to give an account (legal plea) of oneself, i.e. exculpate (self)
KJV usage: answer (for self), make defence, excuse (self), speak for self.
Pronounce: ap-ol-og-eh'-om-ahee
Origin: middle voice from a compound of 575 and 3056
this day
semeron (Greek #4594)
on the (i.e. this) day (or night current or just passed); generally, now (i.e. at present, hitherto)
KJV usage: this (to-)day.
Pronounce: say'-mer-on
Origin: neuter (as adverb) of a presumed compound of the article 3588 (t changed to s) and 2250
epi (Greek #1909)
properly, meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution (with the genitive case), i.e. over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.
KJV usage: about (the times), above, after, against, among, as long as (touching), at, beside, X have charge of, (be-, (where-))fore, in (a place, as much as, the time of, -to), (because) of, (up-)on (behalf of), over, (by, for) the space of, through(-out), (un-)to(-ward), with. In compounds it retains essentially the same import, at, upon, etc. (literally or figuratively).
Pronounce: ep-ee'
Origin: a primary preposition
sou (Greek #4675)
of thee, thy
KJV usage: X home, thee, thine (own), thou, thy.
Pronounce: soo
Origin: genitive case of 4771
peri (Greek #4012)
properly, through (all over), i.e. around; figuratively with respect to; used in various applications, of place, cause or time (with the genitive case denoting the subject or occasion or superlative point; with the accusative case the locality, circuit, matter, circumstance or general period)
KJV usage: (there-)about, above, against, at, on behalf of, X and his company, which concern, (as) concerning, for, X how it will go with, ((there-, where-)) of, on, over, pertaining (to), for sake, X (e-)state, (as) touching, (where-)by (in), with. In comparative, it retains substantially the same meaning of circuit (around), excess (beyond), or completeness (through).
Pronounce: per-ee'
Origin: from the base of 4008
all the things
pas (Greek #3956)
apparently a primary word; all, any, every, the whole
KJV usage: all (manner of, means), alway(-s), any (one), X daily, + ever, every (one, way), as many as, + no(-thing), X thoroughly, whatsoever, whole, whosoever.
Pronounce: pas
Origin: including all the forms of declension
hos (Greek #3739)
the relatively (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that
KJV usage: one, (an-, the) other, some, that, what, which, who(-m, -se), etc. See also 3757.
Pronounce: hos
Origin: ἥ (hay), and neuter ὅ (ho) probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article 3588)
I am accused
egkaleo (Greek #1458)
to call in (as a debt or demand), i.e. bring to account (charge, criminate, etc.)
KJV usage: accuse, call in question, implead, lay to the charge.
Pronounce: eng-kal-eh'-o
Origin: from 1722 and 2564
hupo (Greek #5259)
under, i.e. (with the genitive case) of place (beneath), or with verbs (the agency or means, through); (with the accusative case) of place (whither (underneath) or where (below) or time (when (at))
KJV usage: among, by, from, in, of, under, with. In the comparative, it retains the same general applications, especially of inferior position or condition, and specially, covertly or moderately.
Pronounce: hoop-o'
Origin: a primary preposition
the Jews
Ioudaios (Greek #2453)
Judaean, i.e. belonging to Jehudah
KJV usage: Jew(-ess), of Judaea.
Pronounce: ee-oo-dah'-yos
Origin: from 2448 (in the sense of 2455 as a country)

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J. N. Darby Translation

I count myself happy, king Agrippa, in having to answer to-day before thee concerning all of which I am accused by the Jews,

W. Kelly Translation

Touching all things of which I am accused by Jews, King Agrippa, I count myself happy that I am to make my defence before thee to-day11;

WK Translation Notes

,3,4,7 ^ Jews ... ^ Jews ... ^ Jews … ^ Jews: In this connection there is no article in the text of verses 2,3, as there should be none in verses 4 and 7, though in verse 4 there is much conflict among the MSS. (even the best uncials), and only Lachmann, and Alford, Tregelles, with Westcott and Hort, follow BCpm.E, et al., here, against the rest in omitting the article. Nor is it to be wondered at that Tischendorf, who had dropped it in his later editions up to the seventh, went back in his eighth to that of his earlier issues in 1841 and both of 1842. The fact is that the sense required in this phrase here seems without example in the New Testament, where in other cases πάντες οἰ Ἰουδαῖοι is the correct form, and the article, as far as I have noticed, could not be omitted without damage. Here there is a distinct and unusual peculiarity; for ’all the Jews’ are not meant, but all Jews knowing Paul before from the outset. This accordingly requires πάντες Ἰουδαῖοι προγινῶσκωντές με ἄνωθεν.
All Greek Testament students know of course the late Dean Alford’s note on verse 2, which seems a long-standing reproach to scholars and ought to have been repudiated far and wide: for I cannot doubt there must be not a few beside the late Bishop of Durham, who are aware of the fallacy. ’There is no force in Meyer’s observation that by the article before Ἰουδαίων, Paul wishes to express that the charges were made by some, not by all of the Jews. That omission is the one so often overlooked by the German critics (e.g., Stier also here), after a preposition. See Middl. ch. vi. § 1, and compare κατὰ Ἰουδαιόυς in the next verse, of which the above cannot be said’ (Greek Test. ii. 276, fifth ed. 1865).
Now it is admitted that the celebrated German expositor’s remark is imperfect, even though in many cases true. The omission of the article is due here and everywhere to presenting the word or combination of words characteristically, whilst the use of the article presents it as an object before the mind. There may be a very few exceptions, but these only prove that the rule is otherwise universal. And prepostions are in no way an exception, though they admit freely of serving to define the characteristic design of the anarthrous construction, which has been overlooked by English scholars quite as much perhaps as German. This is exactly one of the great defects of Bishop Middleton’s able treatise, which has for effect the making imaginary exceptions as numerous as the rule. This of itself ought to have indicated failure in generalization. John 4:9 is a plain illustration of the principle: not only πῶς σὸ Ἰουδαῖος ὤν which every one sees, but Ἰυοδαῖοι Σαμαρείταις where the article for either would be out of place if the object were, as it certainly is, to mark both characteristically.
It is no question of ’some’ no doubt. And the article might have been with truth prefixed to both; but the meaning would have been altered.
The two peoples would then stand contrasted as objects, not characteristically as they are now. Compare for this a selection from the book of Acts, chapters 2:5, 7, 9-11; 11:19; 14:1, 5, 19; 18:4; 19:10, 17; 20:21; 25:10. Again, any intelligent examination of the Greek Testament cannot fail to convince that the preposition makes no difference whatever. The article is or is not used with the word, in question like every other, in accordance with its principle of insertion or omission.
Thus in Matt. 28:15 character is the point, and therefore it is παρὰ Ιουδαίοις. In John 4:22 the Jews are the object, and hence it is ἐκ τῶν Ἰουδαίων: so in chapters 10:19, and 11:54, ἐν τοίς Ἰουδαλιοις in 11:19, ἐκ τῶν Ἰουδαίων; in 18:38, πρὸς τοὺς Ἰουδαοίυς. It is really a total oversight of the nice shades of thought in the Greek language to conceive that there is the least laxity or exception after prepositions. Perhaps the notion is due to the difficulty of always representing the distinction in English, which sometimes compels us to use our definite article where there is none in Greek. But this is no reason to deny that there is invariably an intended difference. Weigh Acts 23:8 where we have Σαδδουκαῖοι and Φαριοαῖοι without the article, though there is no preposition. If οἰ had been prefixed to each, it would have been true; but the absence of the article makes them characteristic, however hard it may be to express it in English.
And there is an analogous difference in the cases before us, alike when with or without prepositions. ’I am accused by Jews’ in verses 2 and 7 is far more forcible than if the article had been inserted. It was not lost on Agrippa or Festus or the Jews that heard it. Of all men Jews were the last to have accused Paul for proclaiming in Jesus the resurrection that is from among the dead. Sadduceanism had alas! withered up their old faith. As a fact, too, which may be weighed with Meyer and Stier, the Pharisees diverged in chapter 23 from the dominant faction which persecuted Paul. The preposition clearly gives not license, (ὐπό) Jews, not the Jews, being meant. Nor is it otherwise with κατὰ Ιουδαίους, however confidently urged. Doubtless ’according to the Jews’ would have been true in fact; but it is stated characteristically; and here again as ’Jews’, not ’the Jews’, is the force intended, so it is evident once more that the preposition does not really affect the question. The article is inserted or omitted with prepositions on its own principle. Lastly, to be correct, πάντες οἰ Ἰουδαῖοι would require οἰ προγινῶσκοντές qualifying the subject, πάντες Ἰοθδαῖοι προγινῶσκοντές is correct as it is given; for it means only all such Jews as previously knew Paul from the outset. In a word it is characteristic and therefore anarthrous. Not only is πάντες οἰ Ἰουδαῖοι the more usual expression, but quite distinct in sense; for it means the whole Jewish people as a known, definite and complete object, whereas the phrase here means all Jews qualified by the peculiar and described knowledge of Paul. (Exp. of Acts, p.367-8)
today ^: Beza alone adopted εἰδώς. (in his edition of 1582 and afterward) ’in uno codice peruetusto—certainly an error, for the three cursives that give it are comparatively modern. Had he known ἐπιοστάμενος there would have been better reason, as A C, et al., have it. But either is a gloss. (Exp. of Acts, p.366)