Scourging

Concise Bible Dictionary:

This was a punishment inflicted by the Romans. The culprit was stripped and stretched by cords or thongs on a frame, and beaten with a whip or a rod. From about B.C. 300 Roman citizens were exempt from scourging. Paul availed himself of this privilege when he was about to be “examined” under this punishment (Acts 22:24-2924The chief captain commanded him to be brought into the castle, and bade that he should be examined by scourging; that he might know wherefore they cried so against him. 25And as they bound him with thongs, Paul said unto the centurion that stood by, Is it lawful for you to scourge a man that is a Roman, and uncondemned? 26When the centurion heard that, he went and told the chief captain, saying, Take heed what thou doest: for this man is a Roman. 27Then the chief captain came, and said unto him, Tell me, art thou a Roman? He said, Yea. 28And the chief captain answered, With a great sum obtained I this freedom. And Paul said, But I was free born. 29Then straightway they departed from him which should have examined him: and the chief captain also was afraid, after he knew that he was a Roman, and because he had bound him. (Acts 22:24‑29)). But he was thrice beaten with rods (2 Cor. 11:2525Thrice was I beaten with rods, once was I stoned, thrice I suffered shipwreck, a night and a day I have been in the deep; (2 Corinthians 11:25)). The Lord was subject to the pain and indignity of scourging (John 19:11Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him. (John 19:1)).

From Manners and Customs of the Bible:

It was customary among the Romans to scourge a condemned criminal before he was put to death. From Luke 23:1616I will therefore chastise him, and release him. (Luke 23:16), some have doubted whether the scourging of Jesus was a punishment of that character, inasmuch as Pilate there seems desirous to substitute scourging for crucifixion. It is not, however, a question of any practical moment, since the scourging was probably as severe as was usual in the cases of the condemned.
Scourging among the Romans was a more severe punishment than among the Jews. See note on Matthew 10:1717But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to the councils, and they will scourge you in their synagogues; (Matthew 10:17) (#656). The scourge was made of cords or thongs of leather, and especially of ox-hide. There was one sort with which slaves were beaten, the use of which was particularly dreadful. It was knotted with bones, or heavy, indented circles of bronze. Sometimes the thongs, two or three in number, terminated in hooks. Such an instrument of torture was called a scorpion. There was no legal limit to the number of blows, as among the Jews; but the unfortunate culprit, bound to a low pillar, so that his bent back might more readily receive the heavy strokes, was beaten with merciless severity, and death was sometimes the result of this cruel punishment. Paul refers to Roman scourging in 2 Corinthians 11:24-2524Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one. 25Thrice was I beaten with rods, once was I stoned, thrice I suffered shipwreck, a night and a day I have been in the deep; (2 Corinthians 11:24‑25).