Land of Egypt

Concise Bible Dictionary:

The conformation of Egypt is peculiar. The Nile forms at the Mediterranean what is called the Delta (from the Greek letter Δ reversed); it had formerly seven mouths (Isa. 11:1515And the Lord shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the river, and shall smite it in the seven streams, and make men go over dryshod. (Isaiah 11:15)), but now there are only two branches, which unite, and the river has been traced southward for more than 1500 miles. On each side of the valley in which the river runs is a range of hills, outside of which is mostly desert. The Nile valley is rarely more than twelve miles wide. The Delta and the valley are very productive. As to rain the country differs materially from Palestine, which “drinketh water of the rain of heaven”; for in Egypt, except by the sea-coast, it rarely rains, the land being watered from the river, which rises once a year, overflowing its banks in many places, and, as it retires, leaving a rich sediment on the soil. Canals convey the water to more distant parts. The land is watered “by the foot,” that is, by removing the soil, and letting the water flow.
The Delta, and as far south as Noph (Memphis, 29° 51' N), is Lower Egypt: and from Noph southward to the first Cataract (24° N) is Upper Egypt. The emblematic crowns representing the two districts were not the same; but the two were united in one crown when a king reigned over all Egypt. As there were many changes by different dynasties the same boundaries may not always have been preserved. Cush, or ETHIOPIA, extended much farther south, but is often mentioned in scripture along with Egypt (Psa. 68:3131Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God. (Psalm 68:31); Isa. 11:1111And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. (Isaiah 11:11); Isa. 20:44So shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians prisoners, and the Ethiopians captives, young and old, naked and barefoot, even with their buttocks uncovered, to the shame of Egypt. (Isaiah 20:4); Isa. 43:33For I am the Lord thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee. (Isaiah 43:3); Isa. 45:1414Thus saith the Lord, The labor of Egypt, and merchandise of Ethiopia and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee, and they shall be thine: they shall come after thee; in chains they shall come over, and they shall fall down unto thee, they shall make supplication unto thee, saying, Surely God is in thee; and there is none else, there is no God. (Isaiah 45:14); Nah. 3:99Ethiopia and Egypt were her strength, and it was infinite; Put and Lubim were thy helpers. (Nahum 3:9)). Ethiopian kings appear to have reigned in Egypt, and are included in their list of kings.
Hall of Columns at Karnak, Photo
Hall of Columns at Karnak, by Seti I, Dyn. XIX

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