Crown

Concise Bible Dictionary:

In the AV the word “crown” represents the word zer, the border or molding placed round the top of the ark, the table of showbread, and the altar of incense (Ex. 37:2-272And he overlaid it with pure gold within and without, and made a crown of gold to it round about. 3And he cast for it four rings of gold, to be set by the four corners of it; even two rings upon the one side of it, and two rings upon the other side of it. 4And he made staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold. 5And he put the staves into the rings by the sides of the ark, to bear the ark. 6And he made the mercy seat of pure gold: two cubits and a half was the length thereof, and one cubit and a half the breadth thereof. 7And he made two cherubims of gold, beaten out of one piece made he them, on the two ends of the mercy seat; 8One cherub on the end on this side, and another cherub on the other end on that side: out of the mercy seat made he the cherubims on the two ends thereof. 9And the cherubims spread out their wings on high, and covered with their wings over the mercy seat, with their faces one to another; even to the mercy seatward were the faces of the cherubims. 10And he made the table of shittim wood: two cubits was the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the height thereof: 11And he overlaid it with pure gold, and made thereunto a crown of gold round about. 12Also he made thereunto a border of an handbreadth round about; and made a crown of gold for the border thereof round about. 13And he cast for it four rings of gold, and put the rings upon the four corners that were in the four feet thereof. 14Over against the border were the rings, the places for the staves to bear the table. 15And he made the staves of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold, to bear the table. 16And he made the vessels which were upon the table, his dishes, and his spoons, and his bowls, and his covers to cover withal, of pure gold. 17And he made the candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work made he the candlestick; his shaft, and his branch, his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, were of the same: 18And six branches going out of the sides thereof; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side thereof, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side thereof: 19Three bowls made after the fashion of almonds in one branch, a knop and a flower; and three bowls made like almonds in another branch, a knop and a flower: so throughout the six branches going out of the candlestick. 20And in the candlestick were four bowls made like almonds, his knops, and his flowers: 21And a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, and a knop under two branches of the same, according to the six branches going out of it. 22Their knops and their branches were of the same: all of it was one beaten work of pure gold. 23And he made his seven lamps, and his snuffers, and his snuffdishes, of pure gold. 24Of a talent of pure gold made he it, and all the vessels thereof. 25And he made the incense altar of shittim wood: the length of it was a cubit, and the breadth of it a cubit; it was foursquare; and two cubits was the height of it; the horns thereof were of the same. 26And he overlaid it with pure gold, both the top of it, and the sides thereof round about, and the horns of it: also he made unto it a crown of gold round about. 27And he made two rings of gold for it under the crown thereof, by the two corners of it, upon the two sides thereof, to be places for the staves to bear it withal. (Exodus 37:2‑27)).
In the New Testament the word commonly rendered “crown” is στέθανος, which is more a symbol of victory than of royalty. It is applied to the Son of Man and to others (Rev. 6:22And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer. (Revelation 6:2); Rev. 14:1414And I looked, and behold a white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat like unto the Son of man, having on his head a golden crown, and in his hand a sharp sickle. (Revelation 14:14)); and to the twenty-four elders in heaven, who cast their crowns before the throne (Rev. 4:4,104And round about the throne were four and twenty seats: and upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold. (Revelation 4:4)
10The four and twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying, (Revelation 4:10)
); also to the perishable crown won by the victors in the ancient contests, and to the imperishable crown of the Christian (1 Cor. 9:2525And every man that striveth for the mastery is temperate in all things. Now they do it to obtain a corruptible crown; but we an incorruptible. (1 Corinthians 9:25)). This latter is further described as a “crown of righteousness,” “crown of life,” “crown of glory” (2 Tim. 4:88Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing. (2 Timothy 4:8); Jas. 1:1212Blessed is the man that endureth temptation: for when he is tried, he shall receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath promised to them that love him. (James 1:12); 1 Pet. 5:44And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away. (1 Peter 5:4); Rev. 2:1010Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer: behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life. (Revelation 2:10)). These may refer to the same crown, viewed in different aspects. The Christian is exhorted to beware that no man take his crown (Rev. 3:1111Behold, I come quickly: hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take thy crown. (Revelation 3:11)).

“864. Temperance Chaplets” From Manners and Customs of the Bible:

1 Corinthians 9:2525And every man that striveth for the mastery is temperate in all things. Now they do it to obtain a corruptible crown; but we an incorruptible. (1 Corinthians 9:25). Every man that striveth for the mastery is temperate in all things. Now they do it to obtain a corruptible crown; but we an incorruptible.
Among the four sacred games of the ancient Greeks, the Olympic and the Isthmian were the most celebrated, the former taking the precedence. To these familiar games the apostle makes many allusions in his writings. (See further, note on Heb. 12:11Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, (Hebrews 12:1), #884.) There are two of such in this text.
1. Every competitor in these games was obliged to undergo a severe and protracted training, sometimes lasting nearly a year, during which time he carefully avoided excesses of every kind. A ‘passage from Epictetus so beautifully illustrates this text that it is cited by most commentators: “Would you be a victor in the Olympic games? so in good truth would I, for it is a glorious thing; but pray consider what, must go before, and what may follow, and so proceed to the attempt. You must then live by rule, eat what will be disagreeable, refrain from delicacies; you must oblige yourself to constant exercises at the appointed hour, in heat and cold; you must abstain from wine and cold liquors; in a word, you must be as submissive to all the directions of your master as to those of a physician” (Enchiridion, chap. 35).
Thus Paul says in the text: “Every man that striveth for the mastery is temperate in all things.”
2. The victor was rewarded with a crown or chaplet of leaves. The Olympic crown was made of the leaves of the wild olive, the Isthmian was made of pine or ivy. From the earliest periods of history chaplets of leaves were bestowed upon heroes who had conquered on the field of battle. Thus the Psalmist says of the triumphant Messiah: “Upon himself shall his crown flourish” (Psa. 132:1818His enemies will I clothe with shame: but upon himself shall his crown flourish. (Psalm 132:18)). The idea of a crown flourishing is very expressive when spoken of a leafy chaplet; though some commentators render the word shine. This is the sort of crown to which Paul refers in the text as “corruptible.” The crown of thorns which was placed on the Saviour’s head was a mockery of these wreaths of triumph, as well as of the golden crowns of kings. See Matthew 27:2929And when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews! (Matthew 27:29); Mark 15:1717And they clothed him with purple, and platted a crown of thorns, and put it about his head, (Mark 15:17); John 19:2,52And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe, (John 19:2)
5Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man! (John 19:5)
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“893. Many Crowns” From Manners and Customs of the Bible:

Monarchs who claimed authority over more than one country wore more than one crown. The kings of Egypt were crowned with the pshent, or united crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt. When Ptolemy Philometer entered Antioch as a conqueror he wore a triple crown, two for Egypt, and the third for Asia.
John saw him who was “King of kings and Lord of lords,” and “on his head were many crowns.” Thus, in a beautiful figure, the universal dominion of our blessed Lord is set forth.
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