Anointing

Boyd’s Bible Dictionary:

(to smear on). Anointing with oil or ointment, a common practice in the East (Gen. 28:18; 31:1318And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. (Genesis 28:18)
13I am the God of Beth-el, where thou anointedst the pillar, and where thou vowedst a vow unto me: now arise, get thee out from this land, and return unto the land of thy kindred. (Genesis 31:13)
; Deut. 28:4040Thou shalt have olive trees throughout all thy coasts, but thou shalt not anoint thyself with the oil; for thine olive shall cast his fruit. (Deuteronomy 28:40); Ruth 3:33Wash thyself therefore, and anoint thee, and put thy raiment upon thee, and get thee down to the floor: but make not thyself known unto the man, until he shall have done eating and drinking. (Ruth 3:3)). A mark of respect (Luke 7:4646My head with oil thou didst not anoint: but this woman hath anointed my feet with ointment. (Luke 7:46), Psa. 23:55Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over. (Psalm 23:5)); or of induction to priestly office (Ex. 40:1515And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst anoint their father, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office: for their anointing shall surely be an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations. (Exodus 40:15); Num. 3:33These are the names of the sons of Aaron, the priests which were anointed, whom he consecrated to minister in the priest's office. (Numbers 3:3)); or to kingly office (1 Sam. 9:16; 10:116To morrow about this time I will send thee a man out of the land of Benjamin, and thou shalt anoint him to be captain over my people Israel, that he may save my people out of the hand of the Philistines: for I have looked upon my people, because their cry is come unto me. (1 Samuel 9:16)
1Then Samuel took a vial of oil, and poured it upon his head, and kissed him, and said, Is it not because the Lord hath anointed thee to be captain over his inheritance? (1 Samuel 10:1)
); or as an act of consecration (Ex. 28:4141And thou shalt put them upon Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office. (Exodus 28:41)); or as an act of healing (Mark 6:1313And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them. (Mark 6:13)). Christ was anointed with the Holy Ghost (Luke 4:1818The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, (Luke 4:18); Acts 4:27; 10:3827For of a truth against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together, (Acts 4:27)
38How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power: who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil; for God was with him. (Acts 10:38)
; Isa. 61:11The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me; because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound; (Isaiah 61:1); Psa. 45:77Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. (Psalm 45:7)).

Concise Bible Dictionary:

There are several Hebrew words thus translated, but some of them occur but once, as
2. Psalm 92:1010But my horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of an unicorn: I shall be anointed with fresh oil. (Psalm 92:10), “I shall be anointed with fresh oil,” from “to pour over,” “overflow with” oil.
5. suk, “to anoint the body after washing,” like ἀλείφω in the New Testament, is commonly used for the practice among the orientals of anointing the body, or its parts, for comfort, appearance, friendliness, healing, or burial. For the ordinary toilet (compare Ruth 3:33Wash thyself therefore, and anoint thee, and put thy raiment upon thee, and get thee down to the floor: but make not thyself known unto the man, until he shall have done eating and drinking. (Ruth 3:3); 2 Sam. 12:2020Then David arose from the earth, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came into the house of the Lord, and worshipped: then he came to his own house; and when he required, they set bread before him, and he did eat. (2 Samuel 12:20); 2 Chron. 28:1515And the men which were expressed by name rose up, and took the captives, and with the spoil clothed all that were naked among them, and arrayed them, and shod them, and gave them to eat and to drink, and anointed them, and carried all the feeble of them upon asses, and brought them to Jericho, the city of palm trees, to their brethren: then they returned to Samaria. (2 Chronicles 28:15); Matt. 6:1717But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face; (Matthew 6:17)). To neglect this was a sign of mourning (2 Sam. 14:22And Joab sent to Tekoah, and fetched thence a wise woman, and said unto her, I pray thee, feign thyself to be a mourner, and put on now mourning apparel, and anoint not thyself with oil, but be as a woman that had a long time mourned for the dead: (2 Samuel 14:2); Dan. 10:33I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled. (Daniel 10:3)). As an act of courtesy (compare Luke 7:4646My head with oil thou didst not anoint: but this woman hath anointed my feet with ointment. (Luke 7:46); John 12:33Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with the odor of the ointment. (John 12:3)); the sick were also anointed (Mark 6:1313And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them. (Mark 6:13); James 5:1414Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord: (James 5:14)); also the dead body (Mark 14:88She hath done what she could: she is come aforehand to anoint my body to the burying. (Mark 14:8); Mark 16:11And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him. (Mark 16:1)). One of the punishments on Israel was that the olives should not yield oil for the anointing (Deut. 28:4040Thou shalt have olive trees throughout all thy coasts, but thou shalt not anoint thyself with the oil; for thine olive shall cast his fruit. (Deuteronomy 28:40); Mic. 6:1515Thou shalt sow, but thou shalt not reap; thou shalt tread the olives, but thou shalt not anoint thee with oil; and sweet wine, but shalt not drink wine. (Micah 6:15)).
6. mashach, χρἰς, “to spread over, to anoint” for an office. Kings were anointed: Saul, David, Solomon, Joash, Jehu, and Hazael are examples. Prophets were anointed; for Psalm 105:1515Saying, Touch not mine anointed, and do my prophets no harm. (Psalm 105:15) should read “anointed ones”; and compare 1 Kings 19:1616And Jehu the son of Nimshi shalt thou anoint to be king over Israel: and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah shalt thou anoint to be prophet in thy room. (1 Kings 19:16). Special oil made according to God’s directions was used for the anointing of the priests (Ex. 30:3030And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest's office. (Exodus 30:30); Ex. 40:1313And thou shalt put upon Aaron the holy garments, and anoint him, and sanctify him; that he may minister unto me in the priest's office. (Exodus 40:13)). With the same oil the tabernacle and its vessels were anointed (Ex. 40:9-109And thou shalt take the anointing oil, and anoint the tabernacle, and all that is therein, and shalt hallow it, and all the vessels thereof: and it shall be holy. 10And thou shalt anoint the altar of the burnt offering, and all his vessels, and sanctify the altar: and it shall be an altar most holy. (Exodus 40:9‑10)). The meat offering was anointed with oil (Lev. 2:1,41And when any will offer a meat offering unto the Lord, his offering shall be of fine flour; and he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense thereon: (Leviticus 2:1)
4And if thou bring an oblation of a meat offering baken in the oven, it shall be unleavened cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil. (Leviticus 2:4)
), typical of the pure humanity of the Lord Jesus, and of His being sealed by the Holy Spirit. The cleansed leper was anointed with oil (Lev. 14:17-1817And of the rest of the oil that is in his hand shall the priest put upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot, upon the blood of the trespass offering: 18And the remnant of the oil that is in the priest's hand he shall pour upon the head of him that is to be cleansed: and the priest shall make an atonement for him before the Lord. (Leviticus 14:17‑18)).
Whether this last anointing refers to persons or things and whether the oil is that specially prepared or common oil, the sanctification and power of the Holy Spirit is invariably typified thereby. Anointing with oil for consecration to office is not now enjoined on believers, for they are anointed with the Holy Spirit, and are also priests to God. John reminds even the babes in Christ that they have an unction from the Holy One, and the anointing (the same word, χρισμα) abideth in them (1 John 2:20,2720But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things. (1 John 2:20)
27But the anointing which ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach you: but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in him. (1 John 2:27)
). Thus, as in the Old Testament, the kings, prophets, and priests were anointed as set apart for God, so the Christian is by the Holy Spirit sanctified for God, both as to his position and service. See THE ANOINTED.

From Manners and Customs of the Bible:

Anointing was an ancient custom practiced by the Egyptians, and afterward by the Greeks and Romans and other nations. Olive oil was used, (see note on Psa. 92:1010But my horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of an unicorn: I shall be anointed with fresh oil. (Psalm 92:10), #446) either pure or mixed with fragrant and costly spices, often brought from a long distance. See note on Matthew 26:77There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head, as he sat at meat. (Matthew 26:7) (#712). The practice was in use, not only as a part of the ceremony in connection with the coronation of kings, (see note on 2 Kings 11:1212And he brought forth the king's son, and put the crown upon him, and gave him the testimony; and they made him king, and anointed him; and they clapped their hands, and said, God save the king. (2 Kings 11:12), #346) and at the installation of the High Priest (Psa. 133:22It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard: that went down to the skirts of his garments; (Psalm 133:2)), but as an act of courtesy and hospitality toward a guest. Thus, the Lord accuses Simon of a want of hospitality in neglecting to anoint the head of him whom he had invited to eat with him (Luke 7:4646My head with oil thou didst not anoint: but this woman hath anointed my feet with ointment. (Luke 7:46)). There are pictures on the Egyptian monuments representing guests having their heads anointed. Oil was used for other parts of the body as well as for the head, and at home as well as when visiting. The biblical references to the custom are numerous.
See Deuteronomy 28:4040Thou shalt have olive trees throughout all thy coasts, but thou shalt not anoint thyself with the oil; for thine olive shall cast his fruit. (Deuteronomy 28:40); Ruth 3:33Wash thyself therefore, and anoint thee, and put thy raiment upon thee, and get thee down to the floor: but make not thyself known unto the man, until he shall have done eating and drinking. (Ruth 3:3); Psalm 92:10; 104:1510But my horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of an unicorn: I shall be anointed with fresh oil. (Psalm 92:10)
15And wine that maketh glad the heart of man, and oil to make his face to shine, and bread which strengtheneth man's heart. (Psalm 104:15)
; Ecclesiastes 9:88Let thy garments be always white; and let thy head lack no ointment. (Ecclesiastes 9:8); Micah 6:1515Thou shalt sow, but thou shalt not reap; thou shalt tread the olives, but thou shalt not anoint thee with oil; and sweet wine, but shalt not drink wine. (Micah 6:15); Matthew 6:1717But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face; (Matthew 6:17). The neglect of anointing was considered a sign of mourning. See 2 Samuel 14:22And Joab sent to Tekoah, and fetched thence a wise woman, and said unto her, I pray thee, feign thyself to be a mourner, and put on now mourning apparel, and anoint not thyself with oil, but be as a woman that had a long time mourned for the dead: (2 Samuel 14:2); Daniel 10:33I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled. (Daniel 10:3). An anointed face, on the other hand, was a sign of joy; hence we read of being anointed with the “oil of gladness” (Psa. 45:77Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. (Psalm 45:7); Heb. 1:99Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. (Hebrews 1:9)).
Tavernier states that he found the Arabs always ready to accept a present of olive oil. As soon as one received it he lifted his turban and anointed his head, his face, and his beard, at the same time lifting his eyes to heaven and saying, “God be thanked!” Captain Wilson, an Oriental traveler, speaking of the custom alluded to in this passage, says: “I once had this ceremony performed on myself in the house of a great and rich Indian, in the presence of a large company. The gentleman of the house poured upon my hands and arms a delightful odoriferous perfume, put a golden cup into my hands, and poured wine into it until it ran over; assuring me, at the sometime, that it was a great pleasure to him to receive me, and that I should find a rich supply in his house” (Murder, Oriental Customs, No. 539).
The Psalmist in the text represents himself as an honored guest of Jehovah, who prepares a table for him, hospitably anoints him, and puts into his hands a full cup.