Trumpets

Concise Bible Dictionary:

These were made of rams’ horns and perhaps of the horns of other animals. They were used on joyful occasions, and at the wars. There were two trumpets made of silver which the priests used, and instructions were given as to blowing different sounds for calling the princes together, or for summoning all the congregation, or as an alarm for war (Num. 10:1-101And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 2Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps. 3And when they shall blow with them, all the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 4And if they blow but with one trumpet, then the princes, which are heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto thee. 5When ye blow an alarm, then the camps that lie on the east parts shall go forward. 6When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys. 7But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. 8And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the trumpets; and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your generations. 9And if ye go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall be remembered before the Lord your God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies. 10Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the Lord your God. (Numbers 10:1‑10): Compare 1 Cor. 14:88For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle? (1 Corinthians 14:8)). At the dedication of the temple Solomon had a hundred and twenty priests sounding with trumpets (2 Chron. 5:1212Also the Levites which were the singers, all of them of Asaph, of Heman, of Jeduthun, with their sons and their brethren, being arrayed in white linen, having cymbals and psalteries and harps, stood at the east end of the altar, and with them an hundred and twenty priests sounding with trumpets:) (2 Chronicles 5:12)).
The use of trumpets set forth the public proclamation of God’s rights in His people, whether in their direction or in their relationship with Him.
When the Lord Jesus comes to fetch His saints it will be with the voice of the archangel and with the trump of God (1 Thess. 4:1616For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: (1 Thessalonians 4:16)). The “last trump” will sound at the resurrection of the saints (1 Cor. 15:5252In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. (1 Corinthians 15:52)). In the Roman army, when it was about to start, the trumpet sounded three times: at the first trumpet they pulled down their tents: at the second they put themselves in order; and when the last sounded they started.
In the judgments that are to fall upon the earth, as foretold in the Revelation, the Seven Seals introduce the Seven Trumpets: the first four fall upon the Roman earth, and refer to the state and circumstances of men; the latter three trumpets refer to the East, and fall upon the persons themselves. The Trumpets come in between the Seals and the Vials (Rev. 8:22And I saw the seven angels which stood before God; and to them were given seven trumpets. (Revelation 8:2)Rev. 9:1414Saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates. (Revelation 9:14)).

From Manners and Customs of the Bible:

1. Chatsotserah, “trumpet,” was a long, straight, and slender wind instrument, such as Moses was commanded to furnish for the service of the Israelites (Num. 10:22Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps. (Numbers 10:2)). Josephus gives this description of it: “In length it was little less than a cubit. It was composed of a narrow tube, somewhat thicker than a flute, but with so much breadth as was sufficient for admission of the breath of a man’s mouth; it ended in the form of a bell, like common trumpets” (Antiquities, book 3, chap. 12, § 6).
The chatsotserah was used for notifying the people of the different feasts, for signaling the change of camp, and for sounding alarms in time of war. See Numbers 10:1-101And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 2Make thee two trumpets of silver; of a whole piece shalt thou make them: that thou mayest use them for the calling of the assembly, and for the journeying of the camps. 3And when they shall blow with them, all the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 4And if they blow but with one trumpet, then the princes, which are heads of the thousands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto thee. 5When ye blow an alarm, then the camps that lie on the east parts shall go forward. 6When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey: they shall blow an alarm for their journeys. 7But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. 8And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the trumpets; and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your generations. 9And if ye go to war in your land against the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall be remembered before the Lord your God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies. 10Also in the day of your gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings; that they may be to you for a memorial before your God: I am the Lord your God. (Numbers 10:1‑10); Hosea 5:88Blow ye the cornet in Gibeah, and the trumpet in Ramah: cry aloud at Beth-aven, after thee, O Benjamin. (Hosea 5:8). It was at first used in sacrificial rites only on special occasions, but in the time of David and Solomon its use for such purposes was very much extended.
It is impossible to give an accurate description of the shophar, here and in other passages rendered “cornet,” but often translated “trumPeter” Our translators render it “trumpet,” except when, as in the text, they are compelled to make a distinction between it and chatsotserah, which they invariably render “trumPeter” See 1 Chronicles 15:2828Thus all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the Lord with shouting, and with sound of the cornet, and with trumpets, and with cymbals, making a noise with psalteries and harps. (1 Chronicles 15:28); 2 Chronicles 15:1414And they sware unto the Lord with a loud voice, and with shouting, and with trumpets, and with cornets. (2 Chronicles 15:14); Hosea 5:88Blow ye the cornet in Gibeah, and the trumpet in Ramah: cry aloud at Beth-aven, after thee, O Benjamin. (Hosea 5:8). It is translated “trumpet” in Exodus 19:1616And it came to pass on the third day in the morning, that there were thunders and lightnings, and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet exceeding loud; so that all the people that was in the camp trembled. (Exodus 19:16); Leviticus 25:99Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubilee to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, in the day of atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land. (Leviticus 25:9); Job 39:2525He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha; and he smelleth the battle afar off, the thunder of the captains, and the shouting. (Job 39:25); Joel 2:11Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy mountain: let all the inhabitants of the land tremble: for the day of the Lord cometh, for it is nigh at hand; (Joel 2:1); Amos 2:22But I will send a fire upon Moab, and it shall devour the palaces of Kerioth: and Moab shall die with tumult, with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet: (Amos 2:2).
Authorities differ as to its shape, some supposing it to have been straight, while others contend that it was more or less bent like a horn. The latter opinion would seem the more probable from the fact that the “horn,” (keren,) in Joshua 6:55And it shall come to pass, that when they make a long blast with the ram's horn, and when ye hear the sound of the trumpet, all the people shall shout with a great shout; and the wall of the city shall fall down flat, and the people shall ascend up every man straight before him. (Joshua 6:5), is elsewhere throughout that chapter spoken of as a shophar, or “trumPeter” From its name, which means “bright,” or “clear,” the shophar is thought to have had a clear, shrill sound. It was used for announcing the beginning of the year of jubilee, and for other ceremonial purposes; for calling the attention of the people to important proclamations; for declaration of war; and for demonstrations of joy. See Leviticus 25:99Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubilee to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, in the day of atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land. (Leviticus 25:9); Judges 3:2727And it came to pass, when he was come, that he blew a trumpet in the mountain of Ephraim, and the children of Israel went down with him from the mount, and he before them. (Judges 3:27); 1 Samuel 13:33And Jonathan smote the garrison of the Philistines that was in Geba, and the Philistines heard of it. And Saul blew the trumpet throughout all the land, saying, Let the Hebrews hear. (1 Samuel 13:3); 2 Chronicles 15:1414And they sware unto the Lord with a loud voice, and with shouting, and with trumpets, and with cornets. (2 Chronicles 15:14); Isaiah 12:33Therefore with joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation. (Isaiah 12:3).