World to Come

Concise Bible Dictionary:

The word translated “world” in the following passages is αἰών (see WORLD): it may therefore be rendered “the age to come.” The Lord declared that the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost of attributing His miracles to the power of Satan, should not be forgiven in the present age, nor in the age to come (Matt. 12:3232And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come. (Matthew 12:32)). He also promised that those who gave up property or earthly relations for the sake of the kingdom of God, should, beside present blessing, have eternal life in the age to come (Mark 10:3030But he shall receive an hundredfold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the world to come eternal life. (Mark 10:30); Luke 18:3030Who shall not receive manifold more in this present time, and in the world to come life everlasting. (Luke 18:30)). Christ has been exalted above every name named in this world or in the world to come (Eph. 1:2121Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come: (Ephesians 1:21)). In Hebrews 6:55And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, (Hebrews 6:5) Paul speaks of some who had tasted of the powers of the age to come, doubtless alluding to miracles.
The word in Hebrews 2:55For unto the angels hath he not put in subjection the world to come, whereof we speak. (Hebrews 2:5) is οἰκουμένη, “habitable earth.” The habitable earth to come is not put in subjection to angels, but to the Son of Man.
The “present age” was well understood by the Jews to be in contrast to that age which should be introduced by the Messiah. Saints in Old Testament times looked forward to this, as for example Abraham (John 8:5656Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad. (John 8:56); Rom. 4:1313For the promise, that he should be the heir of the world, was not to Abraham, or to his seed, through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. (Romans 4:13); Heb. 11:1010For he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God. (Hebrews 11:10)). Christians are able by faith to enjoy even now the blessings of that coming age, when the Lord with universal sway will establish His kingdom on earth, and have everything under His administration (Compare Rom. 14:1717For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost. (Romans 14:17)). Every moral question will be settled then. The world to come will usher in eternity (1. Cor. 15:24,28).

From Anstey’s Doctrinal Definitions:

There are at least ten different expressions that refer to the time when Christ will have His day of glory and power in this world: