Gal. 2:16 KJV (With Strong’s)

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16
Knowing
eido (Greek #1492)
used only in certain past tenses, the others being borrowed from the equivalent 3700 and 3708; properly, to see (literally or figuratively); by implication, (in the perfect tense only) to know
KJV usage: be aware, behold, X can (+ not tell), consider, (have) know(-ledge), look (on), perceive, see, be sure, tell, understand, wish, wot. Compare 3700.
Pronounce: i'-do
Origin: a primary verb
that
hoti (Greek #3754)
demonstrative, that (sometimes redundant); causative, because
KJV usage: as concerning that, as though, because (that), for (that), how (that), (in) that, though, why.
Pronounce: hot'-ee
Origin: neuter of 3748 as conjunction
a man
anthropos (Greek #444)
man-faced, i.e. a human being
KJV usage: certain, man.
Pronounce: anth'-ro-pos
Origin: from 435 and ὤψ (the countenance; from 3700)
c is
dikaioo (Greek #1344)
to render (i.e. show or regard as) just or innocent
KJV usage: free, justify(-ier), be righteous.
Pronounce: dik-ah-yo'-o
Origin: from 1342
not
ou (Greek #3756)
the absolute negative (compare 3361) adverb; no or not
KJV usage: + long, nay, neither, never, no (X man), none, (can-)not, + nothing, + special, un(-worthy), when, + without, + yet but. See also 3364, 3372.
Pronounce: oo
Origin: οὐκ (ook), and (before an aspirate) οὐχ (ookh) a primary word
justified
dikaioo (Greek #1344)
to render (i.e. show or regard as) just or innocent
KJV usage: free, justify(-ier), be righteous.
Pronounce: dik-ah-yo'-o
Origin: from 1342
by
ek (Greek #1537)
or ἐξ (ex) a primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence action or motion proceeds), from, out (of place, time, or cause; literal or figurative; direct or remote)
KJV usage: after, among, X are, at, betwixt(-yond), by (the means of), exceedingly, (+ abundantly above), for(- th), from (among, forth, up), + grudgingly, + heartily, X heavenly, X hereby, + very highly, in, ...ly, (because, by reason) of, off (from), on, out among (from, of), over, since, X thenceforth, through, X unto, X vehemently, with(-out). Often used in composition, with the same general import; often of completion.
Pronounce: ek
the works
ergon (Greek #2041)
toil (as an effort or occupation); by implication, an act
KJV usage: deed, doing, labour, work.
Pronounce: er'-gon
Origin: from a primary (but obsolete) ἔργω (to work)
of the law
nomos (Greek #3551)
law (through the idea of prescriptive usage), genitive case (regulation), specially, (of Moses (including the volume); also of the Gospel), or figuratively (a principle)
KJV usage: law.
Pronounce: nom'-os
Origin: from a primary νέμω (to parcel out, especially food or grazing to animals)
, but
ean (Greek #1437)
a conditional particle; in case that, provided, etc.; often used in connection with other particles to denote indefiniteness or uncertainty
KJV usage: before, but, except, (and) if, (if) so, (what-, whither-)soever, though, when (-soever), whether (or), to whom, (who-)so(-ever). See 3361.
Pronounce: eh-an'
Origin: from 1487 and 302
*
me (Greek #3361)
(adverb) not, (conjunction) lest; also (as an interrogative implying a negative answer (whereas 3756 expects an affirmative one)) whether
KJV usage: any but (that), X forbear, + God forbid, + lack, lest, neither, never, no (X wise in), none, nor, (can-)not, nothing, that not, un(-taken), without. Often used in compounds in substantially the same relations. See also 3362, 3363, 3364, 3372, 3373, 3375, 3378.
Pronounce: may
Origin: a primary particle of qualified negation (whereas 3756 expresses an absolute denial)
by
dia (Greek #1223)
through (in very wide applications, local, causal, or occasional)
KJV usage: after, always, among, at, to avoid, because of (that), briefly, by, for (cause) ... fore, from, in, by occasion of, of, by reason of, for sake, that, thereby, therefore, X though, through(-out), to, wherefore, with (-in). In composition it retains the same general importance.
Pronounce: dee-ah'
Origin: a primary preposition denoting the channel of an act
the faith
pistis (Greek #4102)
persuasion, i.e. credence; moral conviction (of religious truth, or the truthfulness of God or a religious teacher), especially reliance upon Christ for salvation; abstractly, constancy in such profession; by extension, the system of religious (Gospel) truth itself
KJV usage: assurance, belief, believe, faith, fidelity.
Pronounce: pis'-tis
Origin: from 3982
d of Jesus
Iesous (Greek #2424)
Jesus (i.e. Jehoshua), the name of our Lord and two (three) other Israelites
KJV usage: Jesus.
Pronounce: ee-ay-sooce'
Origin: of Hebrew origin (03091)
Christ
Christos (Greek #5547)
anointed, i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus
KJV usage: Christ.
Pronounce: khris-tos'
Origin: from 5548
, even
kai (Greek #2532)
and, also, even, so then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words
KJV usage: and, also, both, but, even, for, if, or, so, that, then, therefore, when, yet.
Pronounce: kahee
Origin: apparently, a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force
we
hemeis (Greek #2249)
we (only used when emphatic)
KJV usage: us, we (ourselves).
Pronounce: hay-mice'
Origin: nominative plural of 1473
have believed
pisteuo (Greek #4100)
to have faith (in, upon, or with respect to, a person or thing), i.e. credit; by implication, to entrust (especially one's spiritual well-being to Christ)
KJV usage: believe(-r), commit (to trust), put in trust with.
Pronounce: pist-yoo'-o
Origin: from 4102
in
eis (Greek #1519)
to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases
KJV usage: (abundant-)ly, against, among, as, at, (back-)ward, before, by, concerning, + continual, + far more exceeding, for (intent, purpose), fore, + forth, in (among, at, unto, -so much that, -to), to the intent that, + of one mind, + never, of, (up-)on, + perish, + set at one again, (so) that, therefore(-unto), throughout, til, to (be, the end, -ward), (here-)until(-to), ...ward, (where-)fore, with. Often used in composition with the same general import, but only with verbs (etc.) expressing motion (literally or figuratively).
Pronounce: ice
Origin: a primary preposition
Jesus
Iesous (Greek #2424)
Jesus (i.e. Jehoshua), the name of our Lord and two (three) other Israelites
KJV usage: Jesus.
Pronounce: ee-ay-sooce'
Origin: of Hebrew origin (03091)
Christ
Christos (Greek #5547)
anointed, i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus
KJV usage: Christ.
Pronounce: khris-tos'
Origin: from 5548
, that
hina (Greek #2443)
in order that (denoting the purpose or the result)
KJV usage: albeit, because, to the intent (that), lest, so as, (so) that, (for) to. Compare 3363.
Pronounce: hin'-ah
Origin: probably from the same as the former part of 1438 (through the demonstrative idea; compare 3588)
we might be justified
dikaioo (Greek #1344)
to render (i.e. show or regard as) just or innocent
KJV usage: free, justify(-ier), be righteous.
Pronounce: dik-ah-yo'-o
Origin: from 1342
by
ek (Greek #1537)
or ἐξ (ex) a primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence action or motion proceeds), from, out (of place, time, or cause; literal or figurative; direct or remote)
KJV usage: after, among, X are, at, betwixt(-yond), by (the means of), exceedingly, (+ abundantly above), for(- th), from (among, forth, up), + grudgingly, + heartily, X heavenly, X hereby, + very highly, in, ...ly, (because, by reason) of, off (from), on, out among (from, of), over, since, X thenceforth, through, X unto, X vehemently, with(-out). Often used in composition, with the same general import; often of completion.
Pronounce: ek
the faith
pistis (Greek #4102)
persuasion, i.e. credence; moral conviction (of religious truth, or the truthfulness of God or a religious teacher), especially reliance upon Christ for salvation; abstractly, constancy in such profession; by extension, the system of religious (Gospel) truth itself
KJV usage: assurance, belief, believe, faith, fidelity.
Pronounce: pis'-tis
Origin: from 3982
of Christ
Christos (Greek #5547)
anointed, i.e. the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus
KJV usage: Christ.
Pronounce: khris-tos'
Origin: from 5548
, and
kai (Greek #2532)
and, also, even, so then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words
KJV usage: and, also, both, but, even, for, if, or, so, that, then, therefore, when, yet.
Pronounce: kahee
Origin: apparently, a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force
not
ou (Greek #3756)
the absolute negative (compare 3361) adverb; no or not
KJV usage: + long, nay, neither, never, no (X man), none, (can-)not, + nothing, + special, un(-worthy), when, + without, + yet but. See also 3364, 3372.
Pronounce: oo
Origin: οὐκ (ook), and (before an aspirate) οὐχ (ookh) a primary word
by
ek (Greek #1537)
or ἐξ (ex) a primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence action or motion proceeds), from, out (of place, time, or cause; literal or figurative; direct or remote)
KJV usage: after, among, X are, at, betwixt(-yond), by (the means of), exceedingly, (+ abundantly above), for(- th), from (among, forth, up), + grudgingly, + heartily, X heavenly, X hereby, + very highly, in, ...ly, (because, by reason) of, off (from), on, out among (from, of), over, since, X thenceforth, through, X unto, X vehemently, with(-out). Often used in composition, with the same general import; often of completion.
Pronounce: ek
the works
ergon (Greek #2041)
toil (as an effort or occupation); by implication, an act
KJV usage: deed, doing, labour, work.
Pronounce: er'-gon
Origin: from a primary (but obsolete) ἔργω (to work)
of the law
nomos (Greek #3551)
law (through the idea of prescriptive usage), genitive case (regulation), specially, (of Moses (including the volume); also of the Gospel), or figuratively (a principle)
KJV usage: law.
Pronounce: nom'-os
Origin: from a primary νέμω (to parcel out, especially food or grazing to animals)
: for by
dioti (Greek #1360)
on the very account that, or inasmuch as
KJV usage: because (that), for, therefore.
Pronounce: dee-ot'-ee
Origin: from 1223 and 3754
e the works
ergon (Greek #2041)
toil (as an effort or occupation); by implication, an act
KJV usage: deed, doing, labour, work.
Pronounce: er'-gon
Origin: from a primary (but obsolete) ἔργω (to work)
of
ek (Greek #1537)
or ἐξ (ex) a primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence action or motion proceeds), from, out (of place, time, or cause; literal or figurative; direct or remote)
KJV usage: after, among, X are, at, betwixt(-yond), by (the means of), exceedingly, (+ abundantly above), for(- th), from (among, forth, up), + grudgingly, + heartily, X heavenly, X hereby, + very highly, in, ...ly, (because, by reason) of, off (from), on, out among (from, of), over, since, X thenceforth, through, X unto, X vehemently, with(-out). Often used in composition, with the same general import; often of completion.
Pronounce: ek
the law
nomos (Greek #3551)
law (through the idea of prescriptive usage), genitive case (regulation), specially, (of Moses (including the volume); also of the Gospel), or figuratively (a principle)
KJV usage: law.
Pronounce: nom'-os
Origin: from a primary νέμω (to parcel out, especially food or grazing to animals)
shall
dikaioo (Greek #1344)
to render (i.e. show or regard as) just or innocent
KJV usage: free, justify(-ier), be righteous.
Pronounce: dik-ah-yo'-o
Origin: from 1342
no
ou (Greek #3756)
the absolute negative (compare 3361) adverb; no or not
KJV usage: + long, nay, neither, never, no (X man), none, (can-)not, + nothing, + special, un(-worthy), when, + without, + yet but. See also 3364, 3372.
Pronounce: oo
Origin: οὐκ (ook), and (before an aspirate) οὐχ (ookh) a primary word
flesh
sarx (Greek #4561)
flesh (as stripped of the skin), i.e. (strictly) the meat of an animal (as food), or (by extension) the body (as opposed to the soul (or spirit), or as the symbol of what is external, or as the means of kindred), or (by implication) human nature (with its frailties (physically or morally) and passions), or (specially), a human being (as such)
KJV usage: carnal(-ly, + -ly minded), flesh(-ly).
Pronounce: sarx
Origin: probably from the base of 4563
*
pas (Greek #3956)
apparently a primary word; all, any, every, the whole
KJV usage: all (manner of, means), alway(-s), any (one), X daily, + ever, every (one, way), as many as, + no(-thing), X thoroughly, whatsoever, whole, whosoever.
Pronounce: pas
Origin: including all the forms of declension
be justified
dikaioo (Greek #1344)
to render (i.e. show or regard as) just or innocent
KJV usage: free, justify(-ier), be righteous.
Pronounce: dik-ah-yo'-o
Origin: from 1342
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More on:

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Cross References

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Ministry on This Verse

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that.
Gal. 2:19• 19For I through the law am dead to the law, that I might live unto God. (Gal. 2:19)
;
Gal. 3:10‑12• 10For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.
11But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, it is evident: for, The just shall live by faith.
12And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.
(Gal. 3:10‑12)
;
Gal. 5:4• 4Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace. (Gal. 5:4)
;
Job 9:2‑3,29• 2I know it is so of a truth: but how should man be just with God?
3If he will contend with him, he cannot answer him one of a thousand.
29If I be wicked, why then labor I in vain?
(Job 9:2‑3,29)
;
Job 25:4• 4How then can man be justified with God? or how can he be clean that is born of a woman? (Job 25:4)
;
Psa. 130:3‑4• 3If thou, Lord, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand?
4But there is forgiveness with thee, that thou mayest be feared.
(Psa. 130:3‑4)
;
Luke 10:25‑29• 25And, behold, a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted him, saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?
26He said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou?
27And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbor as thyself.
28And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and thou shalt live.
29But he, willing to justify himself, said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbor?
(Luke 10:25‑29)
;
Acts 13:38‑39• 38Be it known unto you therefore, men and brethren, that through this man is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins:
39And by him all that believe are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses.
(Acts 13:38‑39)
;
Rom. 3:19‑20,27‑28• 19Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.
20Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.
27Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what law? of works? Nay: but by the law of faith.
28Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.
(Rom. 3:19‑20,27‑28)
;
Rom. 4:2,13‑15• 2For if Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory; but not before God.
13For the promise, that he should be the heir of the world, was not to Abraham, or to his seed, through the law, but through the righteousness of faith.
14For if they which are of the law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise made of none effect:
15Because the law worketh wrath: for where no law is, there is no transgression.
(Rom. 4:2,13‑15)
;
Phil. 3:9• 9And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith: (Phil. 3:9)
but.
Gal. 3:13‑14,22‑24• 13Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:
14That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.
22But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.
23But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed.
24Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.
(Gal. 3:13‑14,22‑24)
;
Gal. 4:5• 5To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. (Gal. 4:5)
;
Rom. 1:17• 17For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith. (Rom. 1:17)
;
Rom. 3:21‑26,28,30• 21But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets;
22Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:
23For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;
24Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus:
25Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God;
26To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.
28Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.
30Seeing it is one God, which shall justify the circumcision by faith, and uncircumcision through faith.
(Rom. 3:21‑26,28,30)
;
Rom. 4:5‑6,24‑25• 5But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness.
6Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works,
24But for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead;
25Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification.
(Rom. 4:5‑6,24‑25)
;
Rom. 5:1‑2,8‑9• 1Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:
2By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.
8But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.
9Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him.
(Rom. 5:1‑2,8‑9)
;
Rom. 8:3,30‑34• 3For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:
30Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.
31What shall we then say to these things? If God be for us, who can be against us?
32He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things?
33Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God's elect? It is God that justifieth.
34Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.
(Rom. 8:3,30‑34)
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1 Cor. 6:11• 11And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God. (1 Cor. 6:11)
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2 Cor. 5:19‑21• 19To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation.
20Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God.
21For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.
(2 Cor. 5:19‑21)
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Phil. 3:9• 9And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith: (Phil. 3:9)
;
Heb. 7:18‑19• 18For there is verily a disannulling of the commandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness thereof.
19For the law made nothing perfect, but the bringing in of a better hope did; by the which we draw nigh unto God.
(Heb. 7:18‑19)
we have.
Gal. 2:20• 20I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me. (Gal. 2:20)
;
John 6:68‑69• 68Then Simon Peter answered him, Lord, to whom shall we go? thou hast the words of eternal life.
69And we believe and are sure that thou art that Christ, the Son of the living God.
(John 6:68‑69)
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John 20:31• 31But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name. (John 20:31)
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Acts 4:12• 12Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved. (Acts 4:12)
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1 Peter 1:2,8‑9,18‑21• 2Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.
8Whom having not seen, ye love; in whom, though now ye see him not, yet believing, ye rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory:
9Receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls.
18Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers;
19But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:
20Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you,
21Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God.
(1 Peter 1:2,8‑9,18‑21)
;
1 Peter 2:24• 24Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed. (1 Peter 2:24)
;
1 Peter 3:18• 18For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: (1 Peter 3:18)
;
2 Peter 1:1• 1Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ, to them that have obtained like precious faith with us through the righteousness of God and our Saviour Jesus Christ: (2 Peter 1:1)
;
1 John 1:7• 7But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin. (1 John 1:7)
;
1 John 2:1‑2• 1My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous:
2And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.
(1 John 2:1‑2)
;
Rev. 7:9,14• 9After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands;
14And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.
(Rev. 7:9,14)
for.
 He {Peter} had imperiled the gospel, for the bearing of his act, as the apostle shows, was to destroy the truth of the gospel. (Galatians 2 by H. Smith)

J. N. Darby Translation

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16
but knowing that a man is not justified on the principle of works of law nora but by the faith of Jesus Christ, *we* also have believed on Christ Jesus, that we might be justified on the principle of the faith of Christ; and not of works of law; because on the principle of works of law no flesh shall be justified.

JND Translation Notes

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a
The Greek has the sense of "but," with an exclusive force, which I have endeavoured to render by "nor" in brackets. see Rom. 7.7; 14.14; 1 Cor. 7.17; Gal. 1.7. We may translate perhaps, "but only."

W. Kelly Translation

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16
aknowing that no man is justified by works of law, but by faith of Jesus Christ, even we believed on Christ Jesus, that we might be justified by faith of Christ and not by works of law; because by works of law shall no flesh be justified.

WK Translation Notes

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a
but: [Q. Galatians 2:16. It has been lately asserted on the strength of ἐὰν μή in this verse, that, since it is by faith of Him who is the end and fulfilling of the law that men are justified, it involves in itself the full virtue of a legal righteousness. The apostle does not say, as he often does elsewhere, that man is not justified by works but by faith simply; but that he is not justified by works of law "except through faith of Jesus Christ," that faith receiving as its portion not only a clearance from all legal blame, but by imputation the positive merit also of that righteousness of law, which described by Moses, is found only in the man Christ Jesus and with the rest of His personal perfections carried to the account of those who have by grace their redemption and their acceptance equally in Him.... Is it true, in short, that this is the natural force of the words ἐὰν μὴ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ as contrasted with ἐκ πίστεως Χριστοῦ, and that it would be possible to justify the authorized version only on the assumption of a large ellipsis? "Man is not justified by works of law" (and therefore not justified at all), except by faith of Jesus Christ. Does the remainder of the verse, as it stands in the original, appear to forbid this? INQUIRER.]
A. I do not think the smallest doubt can rest on the sense of Galatians 2:16. We have only to read the rest of the verse to make the meaning of the apostle perfectly clear, and more than clear if possible, earnestly contradicting such a sense: ἐκ πίστεως Χριστοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἐξ ἔργωνβ νόμου. That makes his meaning incontrovertible. But he adds, as anxious to insist on the point, διότι ἐξ ἔργων νόμου οὐ δικαιωθήσεται πᾶσα σάρξ. How this can be an explanation that we shall be justified by works of law by the faith of Christ, I am at a loss to understand. But it is a mistake as to the force of εἰ μή or εἰ δὲ μή. Not that it is not used as "unless" or "except." But its connection with the main idea of the previous phrase, and the opposition to the manner there stated, is common: it is really stronger than ἀλλά, having the force of only, or but only. Compare Romans 14:14, where the δἰ αὐτοῦ must be left out, and the unclean, or main idea taken by itself. Only in that case a thing is unclean, and the point is the opposition to the way or manner. It is exactly so here. There κοινός is the common idea, justifying here, δἰ αὐτοῦ the special case hypothetically put and denied. Introduce δἰ αὐτού, into the second member of the sentence and you make nonsense of the whole. And so you do here if we read what follows. So Matthew 12:4. It was not lawful for him to eat nor those with him, but only for the priests. So Luke 4:26, 27, but (or but only) to Sarepta, which was not in Israel: so as to Naaman. There is always the contradiction of or opposition to something in εἰ μή. The question is to what? In the first case it is of priests to common Jews; in Luke it is to "in Israel;" in Romans "by nature" or to him who so esteems it; in Galatians law and Christ; and always a common idea too, as in Matthew, lawfulness to eat; in Luke, widows or lepers; in Romans uncleanness; in Galatians, justifying. Hence the common idea is not uncommonly left out, and only εἰ δέ μή put in, and the contradicting matter only stated. Meyer, Ellicott, De Wette, Hammond, Fritzsche on Romans 14:14, all take it as "but," or "but only" in Galatians 2:16. The difference of ἀλλά seems to me to be that there is not necessarily a common point or subject as well as contrast, but simply contrast (not this, but that) with εἰ μή there is always a common point about which the contrast takes place. But it is a great mistake to think that it makes the whole antecedent clause the common point, which is what the question would do, so that the clause following it is a condition simply of the whole. You may see the grammatical statements in Klotz's Devarius, Hoogeveen or Viger, Bos' Ellipses, and Winer 654, (sec. 66), the rests under εἰ μή, and the Commentaries in loco. In both, passages from the classics will be found. The point of the difference of ἀλλά and εἰ μή has not been noticed that I am aware of; but I think it will be found just.
There does not seem to me to be the smallest doubt as to the sense of the passage; at any rate, that it means what the question supposes by the grammatical force of the words is a mistake. Passages such as Romans 14:14 demonstrate it, and others too, as Mark 13:32; Rev. 9:4. In 1 Corinthians 7:17 it stands elliptically by itself for "only." Romans 3:27 fully confirms what I have said of the difference of ἀλλά. When the supposed common point is set as to be, and a condition or way of it is negatived, what follows εἰ μή is exclusive and contradictory of the condition or way. Thus οὐδέ τις ἄλλος αἴτιοςἀθανάτων ει μή νεφεληγερέτα Ζεύς. A cause is supposed, .αλλος negatived, εἰ μή exclusive and contradictory of ἄλλος; when there is no negative and the case supposed, the εἰ μή negatives the supposition and says why.
Μιλτιάδην δὲ τὸν ἐν Μαραθῶνι εἰς τὸ Βάραθρον ἐμβαλεῖν ἐψηφίσαντο, καὶ εἰ μὴ διὰ τὸν πρύτανιν ἐνέπεσεν ἄν. If it had not been for the Prytanis, he would have fallen into it. There are cases where μή is left out, and εἰ δέ put with a possible substitution. It answers in the cases of exclusion to אֶפֶם in Hebrew. See Wolff's Curae in loco. When the whole sentence is negative, the εἰ μή becomes a positive affirmation of what follows, as 1 Corinthians 10:13, Mark 8:14, and others. Schtitz's Hoogeveen gives a pretty full explanation under the words εἰ μή. In result, the negation of works, or faith in Christ to the contradiction or exclusion of works of law, is clearly the sense of the passage. (Bible Treasury 9:112)
but: the rendering [in the RV] of verse 16 in the text is really strange, "save" being here most inadequate to convey the strongly oppositive exception conveyed by ἐὰν μή. The margin "but only" is much better, for it excludes works of law, whereas "save" admits of them conjointly with faith in Jesus Christ. Now the entire argument, and especially this verse, contradicts any such combination. Justification is not a law-work; it is through faith. We believed on Christ Jesus that we might be justified by faith in Him, and not by law-works, because by law-works shall no flesh be justified. Hence every shade of orthodoxy concurs in giving a stronger opposition to the phrase than the Company convey in their singularly mild version. Law-works are excluded from being put with faith in Christ in order to justification. It is really stronger that ἀλλά, whatever the common point implied besides the contrast. (Bible Treasury 13:377)
^ law... ^: Here we see, too, how little the Revisers estimated the force of the anarthrous construction. They put in the margin "works of law," and "law," where their text gives "the works of the law," and "the law;" and they do not always mark this, as twice in the latter part of verse 16. It is as opposed to fact as to philological principle that the article was inserted or omitted arbitrarily. Prepositions are no exceptions, though from their nature they suit with peculiar facility the anarthrous usage; but the presence or the absence of the article depends on its general principle. Thus in Romans 3:19 the article is twice required with νόμος, and once with a preposition; in verse 20 it is twice left out just as correctly, and in verse 21 it is once both omitted and inserted with ν., and in each with a preposition; in the last verse of the chapter it is twice anarthrous, and in both the object of verbs. It is bad grammar and perhaps feeble theology to confound ωόμον with τὸν ν. The apostle generalizes, though no doubt "the" law falls under the expressly characteristic term. So it is often in Romans, as in Galatians and elsewhere; but there is not the least backwardness or laxity in giving the article with this word or any other where its presence is really wanted. The indefinite article of our tongue would be quite improper in all or most of these cases; nor does English idiom forbid the exact representation of its anarthrous usage in at least very many instances like these cited, and Galatians 2:19, 21, 3:2, 5. Verses 10-13 are valuable in confirming the refutation of the too prevalent fallacy, where we have the broad principle in its characteristic and therefore anarthrous form, and then the article for the particular matter of fact; see again the principle in verse 11, and the fact in verses 12, 13. If the Company had understood the true force of the anarthrous usage, they never would in my opinion have agreed to consign to the margin what ought to have been unhesitatingly set out in the text. (Bible Treasury 13:377)
works of ^ law: The margin (2) [of the RV, "works of law",] is better than the text [of the RV] or the softer American [correctors of the RV] view. (Bible Treasury 14:379)