judgment, justification, ordinance, righteousness

“Justification” From Boyd’s Bible Dictionary:

(judicial righteousness). Through faith in the work of Christ, God places the believer in the state of being permanently righteous before Him (Rom. 5: 16). By the death of Christ, God now offers the free “gift of righteousness” (Rom. 5:1717For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.) (Romans 5:17)).

“Judgment” From Concise Bible Dictionary:

1. PENAL JUDGMENT. This may be administered on earth in God’s government of men or of His people, in accordance with the principles of the economy in force at the time; or hereafter for eternity, in accordance with God’s decrees. God’s four sore judgments on the living were threatened against Jerusalem, and have often fallen upon mankind generally, and will fall upon them in the future, as shown in the Revelation.
1. War, death by the sword either from an enemy from without, or in civil war.
2. Famine, which may arise from a dearth in the land, or by a city being besieged.
3. Noisome beasts, which doubtless includes the ravages of locusts, because they spoil the land and make it desolate.
4. Pestilence, which has often swept away its thousands (Ezek. 14:13-2113Son of man, when the land sinneth against me by trespassing grievously, then will I stretch out mine hand upon it, and will break the staff of the bread thereof, and will send famine upon it, and will cut off man and beast from it: 14Though these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they should deliver but their own souls by their righteousness, saith the Lord God. 15If I cause noisome beasts to pass through the land, and they spoil it, so that it be desolate, that no man may pass through because of the beasts: 16Though these three men were in it, as I live, saith the Lord God, they shall deliver neither sons nor daughters; they only shall be delivered, but the land shall be desolate. 17Or if I bring a sword upon that land, and say, Sword, go through the land; so that I cut off man and beast from it: 18Though these three men were in it, as I live, saith the Lord God, they shall deliver neither sons nor daughters, but they only shall be delivered themselves. 19Or if I send a pestilence into that land, and pour out my fury upon it in blood, to cut off from it man and beast: 20Though Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, as I live, saith the Lord God, they shall deliver neither son nor daughter; they shall but deliver their own souls by their righteousness. 21For thus saith the Lord God; How much more when I send my four sore judgments upon Jerusalem, the sword, and the famine, and the noisome beast, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast? (Ezekiel 14:13‑21)).
Besides these there are in various parts of the earth conflagrations, earthquakes, eruptions, cyclones, avalanches, floods, frosts, shipwrecks, sea-waves, and so forth, some of which happen every year. These occur in the providential government of God, and by them He continually makes Himself heard, and manifests His power (compare Job 37:1313He causeth it to come, whether for correction, or for his land, or for mercy. (Job 37:13)). But beside this providential government, there are often direct judgments, hence the prophet said, “When thy judgments are in the earth, the inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness” (Isa. 26:99With my soul have I desired thee in the night; yea, with my spirit within me will I seek thee early: for when thy judgments are in the earth, the inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness. (Isaiah 26:9)). Such judgments are, alas, too often accounted as natural phenomena or mere accidents or calamities, without any recognition of God, and are soon forgotten. They should warn men; as a slight shower often falls before a storm, so these frequent judgments are but the forerunners of the great storm of the wrath of God that will surely fall upon this guilty world, when the vials of His fury are poured out (compare Rev. 6-20).
All judgment, that is, the act of judging (κρίσις), whether of dead or living, has been committed to the Lord Jesus. He is represented as coming from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah, when He will tread the people in His anger, and trample them in His fury, and their blood will stain all His raiment (Isa. 63:1-31Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. 2Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? 3I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment. (Isaiah 63:1‑3)). His judgment falls on the living nations; also before Israel is restored to blessing, judgment from God will fall upon them. See TRIBULATION. Upon professing Christendom also God will execute judgment. See BABYLON THE GREAT. The eternal punishment of the wicked is called “eternal judgment” (Heb. 6:22Of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. (Hebrews 6:2)). The fallen angels are reserved unto judgment (2 Peter 2:44For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment; (2 Peter 2:4)): and everlasting fire is prepared for the devil and his angels (Matt. 25:4141Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: (Matthew 25:41)).
2. SESSIONAL JUDGMENT. The common expression “the General Judgment” does not occur in scripture. By this term is commonly understood that all mankind on “the day of judgment” will stand before God, or rather the Lord Jesus, to be judged according to their works, and there to hear their eternal destiny. But this is not according to scripture. In all the passages (except 1 John 4:1717Herein is our love made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment: because as he is, so are we in this world. (1 John 4:17), where it speaks of the Christian having boldness in the day of judgment) it is “day of judgment”; not the day of judgment, as referring to one specified time.
Besides the sessional judgment of the empires in Daniel 7:9-149I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. 10A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened. 11I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake: I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame. 12As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time. 13I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. 14And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. (Daniel 7:9‑14), there are two other such judgments in scripture, with more or less of detail, which do not take place at the same time, nor embrace the same people. The Lord Jesus has been appointed to judge the living and the dead (Acts 10:4242And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is he which was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead. (Acts 10:42)).
In Matthew 25 the living are judged, and in Revelation 20 the dead are judged, both of which cannot refer to the same judgment.
In Matt. 25 In Rev. 20
It is the living nations, and no mention of the dead, this earth being the scene of it, to which the Son of Man comes. It is the dead, and no mention of the living, the earth having “fled away” before His face who sits upon the great white throne.
Some are saved and some are lost. No mention of any saved: all are lost.
Judged solely according to their treatment of the Lord’s brethren, and no mention of general sins. Judged according to general sins, and no mention made of their treatment of the saints.
It is plain that these are separate and distinct judgments. The judgment of the “living” will be at the beginning of the Lord’s reign. After the Church has been taken to glory, Christ will still have His own servants doing His work upon the earth, such as His two witnesses in Revelation 11:33And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth. (Revelation 11:3) (compare also Matthew 10:2323But when they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another: for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come. (Matthew 10:23)). When He comes to reign, the nations will be judged as to how they have treated these whom He calls His “brethren.” The judgment of the wicked “dead” will be after the millennium, and will embrace all who have died in their sins from the creation of the world. They will be judged according to their works, and the secrets of men will then be judged.
Then the question arises as to the saints who may be alive at the coming of the Lord, and the thousands who have died. They cannot be included in either the judgment of Matthew 25 or of Revelation 20. As to their persons, whether they are to be saved or not, it is plainly stated in John 5:2424Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life. (John 5:24), that they will not come into judgment at all. “He that heareth My word, and believeth on Him that sent Me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into judgment; but is passed from death unto life.” The AV reads “condemnation,” but the word is κρíσις and is translated “judgment” in the same chapter in verses 22, 27, 30, and “damnation” in verse 29. It is the same word also in Hebrews 9:2727And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment: (Hebrews 9:27): “As it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment; unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.”
3. THE JUDGMENT-SEAT OF CHRIST. All will be manifested before this judgment-seat that they may receive the things done in the body whether it be good or bad (2 Cor. 5:1010For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. (2 Corinthians 5:10)). This does not clash with the above statement that the believer does “not come into judgment.” The Lord Jesus will sit on the judgment-seat, He who died for believers’ sins, and rose again for their justification; and He is the believer’s righteousness—He will not judge His own work. The saint, being divinely justified, cannot be judged, indeed, John 5:2424Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life. (John 5:24) declares he does not come into judgment at all. But he will be manifested: the things done in the body will be brought into review, all will then be seen by him in its true light, whether good or bad, and this will but serve to exalt the grace that has saved him.
Then an account will be required as to what sort of servant he has been. Has he used the talent committed to him? Some may have labored with improper materials, and such work will be burned up, and the workman will lose his reward, though he himself will be saved yet so as through fire. Whereas, with others, the work will abide, and the laborer will get a reward (1 Cor. 3:1414If any man's work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward. (1 Corinthians 3:14)). Each shall receive a reward according to his own labor (1 Cor. 3:88Now he that planteth and he that watereth are one: and every man shall receive his own reward according to his own labor. (1 Corinthians 3:8)). The apostle John exhorted the saints to abide in Christ that he, as a workman, might not be ashamed before Him at His coming (1 John 2:2828And now, little children, abide in him; that, when he shall appear, we may have confidence, and not be ashamed before him at his coming. (1 John 2:28); compare 2 John 1:1,81The elder unto the elect lady and her children, whom I love in the truth; and not I only, but also all they that have known the truth; (2 John 1)
8Look to yourselves, that we lose not those things which we have wrought, but that we receive a full reward. (2 John 8)
). These passages apply to the Christian’s service, to each of whom a talent is given.
The exhortation to the Philadelphians is “Hold that fast which thou hast that no man take thy crown” (Rev. 3:1111Behold, I come quickly: hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take thy crown. (Revelation 3:11)). And the Lord says “Behold, I come quickly; and My reward is with Me, to give to every man according as his work shall be” (Rev. 22:1212And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be. (Revelation 22:12)). All that Christians do now will then be manifested; they should therefore seek to do such work as will stand the fire, and such as will be owned and approved of in that day by their Lord and Master. His love to us is “made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment, because as He is so are we in this world” (1 John 4:1717Herein is our love made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment: because as he is, so are we in this world. (1 John 4:17)).

“Ordinance” From Concise Bible Dictionary:

This term in the Old Testament generally signifies that which God “ordered” for His people to observe. “They kept His testimonies, and the ordinance that He gave them” (Psa. 99:77He spake unto them in the cloudy pillar: they kept his testimonies, and the ordinance that he gave them. (Psalm 99:7)). “Ye are gone away from Mine ordinances” (Mal. 3:77Even from the days of your fathers ye are gone away from mine ordinances, and have not kept them. Return unto me, and I will return unto you, saith the Lord of hosts. But ye said, Wherein shall we return? (Malachi 3:7)). It is also applied to things in creation: God giveth “the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night” (Jer. 31:3535Thus saith the Lord, which giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, which divideth the sea when the waves thereof roar; The Lord of hosts is his name: (Jeremiah 31:35)). David made an ordinance (Ezra 3:1010And when the builders laid the foundation of the temple of the Lord, they set the priests in their apparel with trumpets, and the Levites the sons of Asaph with cymbals, to praise the Lord, after the ordinance of David king of Israel. (Ezra 3:10): Compare Neh. 10:3232Also we made ordinances for us, to charge ourselves yearly with the third part of a shekel for the service of the house of our God; (Nehemiah 10:32)). In the New Testament it refers especially to the enactments of the law: “ordinances of divine service” (Heb. 9:1,101Then verily the first covenant had also ordinances of divine service, and a worldly sanctuary. (Hebrews 9:1)
10Which stood only in meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed on them until the time of reformation. (Hebrews 9:10)
); “blotting out the handwriting of ordinances” (Col. 2:1414Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross; (Colossians 2:14)). It is also applied to human laws (Rom. 13:22Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. (Romans 13:2); 1 Peter 2:1313Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme; (1 Peter 2:13)); and to the rules of the moralists (Col. 2:2020Wherefore if ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances, (Colossians 2:20)). The directions that Paul had given to the Corinthians are in the AV called “ordinances” (1 Cor. 11:22Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered them to you. (1 Corinthians 11:2)); margin, “traditions.”

“Righteousness” From Concise Bible Dictionary:

A term frequently occurring in scripture expressing an attribute of God which maintains what is consistent with His own character, and necessarily judges what is opposed to it—sin. In man also it is the opposite of lawlessness or sin (1 John 3:4-74Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law. 5And ye know that he was manifested to take away our sins; and in him is no sin. 6Whosoever abideth in him sinneth not: whosoever sinneth hath not seen him, neither known him. 7Little children, let no man deceive you: he that doeth righteousness is righteous, even as he is righteous. (1 John 3:4‑7)); but it is plainly declared of man that, apart from a work of grace in him, “there is none righteous, no, not one” (Psalm 14:1-31<<To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David.>> The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good. 2The Lord looked down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there were any that did understand, and seek God. 3They are all gone aside, they are all together become filthy: there is none that doeth good, no, not one. (Psalm 14:1‑3); Rom. 3:1010As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one: (Romans 3:10)). But God has, independently of man, revealed His righteousness in the complete judgment and setting aside of sin, and of the state with which, in man, sin was connected. This was effected by the Son of God becoming man and taking on the cross, vicariously, the place of man as under the curse of the law, and in His being made sin and glorifying God in bearing the judgment of sin. Hence grace is established on the foundation of righteousness. The righteousness of God, declared and expressed in the saints in Christ, is thus the divinely given answer to Christ having been made sin. On the other hand, the lake of fire is an eternal expression of God’s righteous judgment. At the present moment God’s righteousness is revealed in the gospel and apprehended by faith.
This is an entirely different principle from that on which the Jew went, namely, that of seeking to establish their own righteousness, and not submitting to the righteousness of God (Rom. 10:33For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God. (Romans 10:3)). Their father Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness; and the faith of the believer is counted to him for righteousness, apart from works (Rom. 4:3,53For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness. (Romans 4:3)
5But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness. (Romans 4:5)
Christ Jesus is made unto us righteousness from God (1 Cor. 1:3030But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption: (1 Corinthians 1:30)). He is the end of the law for righteousness to all those who believe.
Besides the above, there is the practical righteousness which characterizes every Christian. By knowing God’s righteousness he becomes the servant of righteousness. The bride of the Lamb is represented as “arrayed in fine linen, clean and white:” which is “the righteousnesses of the saints” (Rev. 19:88And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints. (Revelation 19:8)).
The doctrine of the imputed righteousness of Christ, though largely acknowledged in Christendom, is not found in scripture. The explanation generally given of the doctrine is that Christ having perfectly kept the law, His obedience has formed a legal righteousness that is imputed to the believer as if the latter had himself kept the law. One passage of scripture proves this view to be incorrect: “If righteousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain” (Gal. 2:2121I do not frustrate the grace of God: for if righteousness come by the law, then Christ is dead in vain. (Galatians 2:21)). The force of the doctrine is to maintain the validity of the law in application to believers; and it stands in the way of their apprehending their death to the law by the body of Christ, so as to be married to Christ raised up from the dead, to bring forth fruit to God (Rom. 7:44Wherefore, my brethren, ye also are become dead to the law by the body of Christ; that ye should be married to another, even to him who is raised from the dead, that we should bring forth fruit unto God. (Romans 7:4)).

Strong’s Dictionary of Greek Words:

from 1344; an equitable deed; by implication, a statute or decision
KJV Usage:
judgment, justification, ordinance, righteousness