Judgment

Concise Bible Dictionary:

1. PENAL JUDGMENT. This may be administered on earth in God’s government of men or of His people, in accordance with the principles of the economy in force at the time; or hereafter for eternity, in accordance with God’s decrees. God’s four sore judgments on the living were threatened against Jerusalem, and have often fallen upon mankind generally, and will fall upon them in the future, as shown in the Revelation.
1. War, death by the sword either from an enemy from without, or in civil war.
2. Famine, which may arise from a dearth in the land, or by a city being besieged.
3. Noisome beasts, which doubtless includes the ravages of locusts, because they spoil the land and make it desolate.
4. Pestilence, which has often swept away its thousands (Ezek. 14:13-2113Son of man, when the land sinneth against me by trespassing grievously, then will I stretch out mine hand upon it, and will break the staff of the bread thereof, and will send famine upon it, and will cut off man and beast from it: 14Though these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they should deliver but their own souls by their righteousness, saith the Lord God. 15If I cause noisome beasts to pass through the land, and they spoil it, so that it be desolate, that no man may pass through because of the beasts: 16Though these three men were in it, as I live, saith the Lord God, they shall deliver neither sons nor daughters; they only shall be delivered, but the land shall be desolate. 17Or if I bring a sword upon that land, and say, Sword, go through the land; so that I cut off man and beast from it: 18Though these three men were in it, as I live, saith the Lord God, they shall deliver neither sons nor daughters, but they only shall be delivered themselves. 19Or if I send a pestilence into that land, and pour out my fury upon it in blood, to cut off from it man and beast: 20Though Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, as I live, saith the Lord God, they shall deliver neither son nor daughter; they shall but deliver their own souls by their righteousness. 21For thus saith the Lord God; How much more when I send my four sore judgments upon Jerusalem, the sword, and the famine, and the noisome beast, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast? (Ezekiel 14:13‑21)).
Besides these there are in various parts of the earth conflagrations, earthquakes, eruptions, cyclones, avalanches, floods, frosts, shipwrecks, sea-waves, and so forth, some of which happen every year. These occur in the providential government of God, and by them He continually makes Himself heard, and manifests His power (compare Job 37:1313He causeth it to come, whether for correction, or for his land, or for mercy. (Job 37:13)). But beside this providential government, there are often direct judgments, hence the prophet said, “When thy judgments are in the earth, the inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness” (Isa. 26:99With my soul have I desired thee in the night; yea, with my spirit within me will I seek thee early: for when thy judgments are in the earth, the inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness. (Isaiah 26:9)). Such judgments are, alas, too often accounted as natural phenomena or mere accidents or calamities, without any recognition of God, and are soon forgotten. They should warn men; as a slight shower often falls before a storm, so these frequent judgments are but the forerunners of the great storm of the wrath of God that will surely fall upon this guilty world, when the vials of His fury are poured out (compare Rev. 6-20).
All judgment, that is, the act of judging (κρίσις), whether of dead or living, has been committed to the Lord Jesus. He is represented as coming from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah, when He will tread the people in His anger, and trample them in His fury, and their blood will stain all His raiment (Isa. 63:1-31Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. 2Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? 3I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment. (Isaiah 63:1‑3)). His judgment falls on the living nations; also before Israel is restored to blessing, judgment from God will fall upon them. See TRIBULATION. Upon professing Christendom also God will execute judgment. See BABYLON THE GREAT. The eternal punishment of the wicked is called “eternal judgment” (Heb. 6:22Of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. (Hebrews 6:2)). The fallen angels are reserved unto judgment (2 Peter 2:44For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment; (2 Peter 2:4)): and everlasting fire is prepared for the devil and his angels (Matt. 25:4141Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: (Matthew 25:41)).
2. SESSIONAL JUDGMENT. The common expression “the General Judgment” does not occur in scripture. By this term is commonly understood that all mankind on “the day of judgment” will stand before God, or rather the Lord Jesus, to be judged according to their works, and there to hear their eternal destiny. But this is not according to scripture. In all the passages (except 1 John 4:1717Herein is our love made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment: because as he is, so are we in this world. (1 John 4:17), where it speaks of the Christian having boldness in the day of judgment) it is “day of judgment”; not the day of judgment, as referring to one specified time.
Besides the sessional judgment of the empires in Daniel 7:9-149I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. 10A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened. 11I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake: I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame. 12As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time. 13I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. 14And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. (Daniel 7:9‑14), there are two other such judgments in scripture, with more or less of detail, which do not take place at the same time, nor embrace the same people. The Lord Jesus has been appointed to judge the living and the dead (Acts 10:4242And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is he which was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead. (Acts 10:42)).
In Matthew 25 the living are judged, and in Revelation 20 the dead are judged, both of which cannot refer to the same judgment.
In Matt. 25 In Rev. 20
It is the living nations, and no mention of the dead, this earth being the scene of it, to which the Son of Man comes. It is the dead, and no mention of the living, the earth having “fled away” before His face who sits upon the great white throne.
Some are saved and some are lost. No mention of any saved: all are lost.
Judged solely according to their treatment of the Lord’s brethren, and no mention of general sins. Judged according to general sins, and no mention made of their treatment of the saints.
It is plain that these are separate and distinct judgments. The judgment of the “living” will be at the beginning of the Lord’s reign. After the Church has been taken to glory, Christ will still have His own servants doing His work upon the earth, such as His two witnesses in Revelation 11:33And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth. (Revelation 11:3) (compare also Matthew 10:2323But when they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another: for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son of man be come. (Matthew 10:23)). When He comes to reign, the nations will be judged as to how they have treated these whom He calls His “brethren.” The judgment of the wicked “dead” will be after the millennium, and will embrace all who have died in their sins from the creation of the world. They will be judged according to their works, and the secrets of men will then be judged.
Then the question arises as to the saints who may be alive at the coming of the Lord, and the thousands who have died. They cannot be included in either the judgment of Matthew 25 or of Revelation 20. As to their persons, whether they are to be saved or not, it is plainly stated in John 5:2424Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life. (John 5:24), that they will not come into judgment at all. “He that heareth My word, and believeth on Him that sent Me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into judgment; but is passed from death unto life.” The AV reads “condemnation,” but the word is κρíσις and is translated “judgment” in the same chapter in verses 22, 27, 30, and “damnation” in verse 29. It is the same word also in Hebrews 9:2727And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment: (Hebrews 9:27): “As it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment; unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.”
3. THE JUDGMENT-SEAT OF CHRIST. All will be manifested before this judgment-seat that they may receive the things done in the body whether it be good or bad (2 Cor. 5:1010For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. (2 Corinthians 5:10)). This does not clash with the above statement that the believer does “not come into judgment.” The Lord Jesus will sit on the judgment-seat, He who died for believers’ sins, and rose again for their justification; and He is the believer’s righteousness—He will not judge His own work. The saint, being divinely justified, cannot be judged, indeed, John 5:2424Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life. (John 5:24) declares he does not come into judgment at all. But he will be manifested: the things done in the body will be brought into review, all will then be seen by him in its true light, whether good or bad, and this will but serve to exalt the grace that has saved him.
Then an account will be required as to what sort of servant he has been. Has he used the talent committed to him? Some may have labored with improper materials, and such work will be burned up, and the workman will lose his reward, though he himself will be saved yet so as through fire. Whereas, with others, the work will abide, and the laborer will get a reward (1 Cor. 3:1414If any man's work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward. (1 Corinthians 3:14)). Each shall receive a reward according to his own labor (1 Cor. 3:88Now he that planteth and he that watereth are one: and every man shall receive his own reward according to his own labor. (1 Corinthians 3:8)). The apostle John exhorted the saints to abide in Christ that he, as a workman, might not be ashamed before Him at His coming (1 John 2:2828And now, little children, abide in him; that, when he shall appear, we may have confidence, and not be ashamed before him at his coming. (1 John 2:28); compare 2 John 1:1,81The elder unto the elect lady and her children, whom I love in the truth; and not I only, but also all they that have known the truth; (2 John 1)
8Look to yourselves, that we lose not those things which we have wrought, but that we receive a full reward. (2 John 8)
). These passages apply to the Christian’s service, to each of whom a talent is given.
The exhortation to the Philadelphians is “Hold that fast which thou hast that no man take thy crown” (Rev. 3:1111Behold, I come quickly: hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take thy crown. (Revelation 3:11)). And the Lord says “Behold, I come quickly; and My reward is with Me, to give to every man according as his work shall be” (Rev. 22:1212And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with me, to give every man according as his work shall be. (Revelation 22:12)). All that Christians do now will then be manifested; they should therefore seek to do such work as will stand the fire, and such as will be owned and approved of in that day by their Lord and Master. His love to us is “made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment, because as He is so are we in this world” (1 John 4:1717Herein is our love made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment: because as he is, so are we in this world. (1 John 4:17)).

From Anstey’s Doctrinal Definitions:

Scripture speaks of at least twelve different judgments:
1) the judgment of sin and sins
2) self-judgment
This has to do with the believer not sparing himself, but judging every evil thought, word, and action in his life, so as to maintain a good conscience, and thus be able to enjoy uninterrupted communion with God (1 Cor. 11:3131For if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged. (1 Corinthians 11:31)a). Israel’s circumcision at Gilgal is a type of this—typifying the cutting off (judging) of the activity of the flesh in our lives (Josh. 5). When they came from that place, they were victorious over their enemies (Josh. 10:7, 437So Joshua ascended from Gilgal, he, and all the people of war with him, and all the mighty men of valor. (Joshua 10:7)
43And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, unto the camp to Gilgal. (Joshua 10:43)
, etc.), but when they neglected to come from Gilgal to meet their enemies, they were defeated (Josh. 7:1-51But the children of Israel committed a trespass in the accursed thing: for Achan, the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, took of the accursed thing: and the anger of the Lord was kindled against the children of Israel. 2And Joshua sent men from Jericho to Ai, which is beside Beth-aven, on the east side of Beth-el, and spake unto them, saying, Go up and view the country. And the men went up and viewed Ai. 3And they returned to Joshua, and said unto him, Let not all the people go up; but let about two or three thousand men go up and smite Ai; and make not all the people to labor thither; for they are but few. 4So there went up thither of the people about three thousand men: and they fled before the men of Ai. 5And the men of Ai smote of them about thirty and six men: for they chased them from before the gate even unto Shebarim, and smote them in the going down: wherefore the hearts of the people melted, and became as water. (Joshua 7:1‑5)).
3) Governmental Judgment
This kind of judgment has to do with God’s present dealings with His people who wilfully go astray (1 Cor. 11:3232But when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world. (1 Corinthians 11:32); 1 Peter 1:1717And if ye call on the Father, who without respect of persons judgeth according to every man's work, pass the time of your sojourning here in fear: (1 Peter 1:17); 3:12b; 4:17). The extent of this governmental action pertains to their time on earth only; it has nothing to do with their eternal destiny. It does not pertain to believers only, but involves all who are in God’s house—including mere professing believers and those outside the house. In connection with believers, it could be called “the government of the Father” (1 Peter 1:1717And if ye call on the Father, who without respect of persons judgeth according to every man's work, pass the time of your sojourning here in fear: (1 Peter 1:17)), and in connection with unbelievers, it could be called “the government of God” (2 Peter 3).
Governmental judgment may be felt in a person’s life by God providentially allowing certain negative things to happen to him so that a person reaps what he sows (Gal. 6:7-87Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap. 8For he that soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth to the Spirit shall of the Spirit reap life everlasting. (Galatians 6:7‑8)). Since the Lord has “all power in heaven and on earth (Matt. 28:1818And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. (Matthew 28:18)), He is able to touch our lives in a thousand ways, if He chooses. For the believer, this kind of judgment is designed to arrest his attention and cause him to pass judgment on whatever it may be that the Lord is addressing in his life that is inconsistent with His holiness. Even after we have dealt with things that are not right in our lives, the Lord may still leave us to continue under the effects of His governmental judgment to keep us humble and dependent (2 Sam. 12:1010Now therefore the sword shall never depart from thine house; because thou hast despised me, and hast taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be thy wife. (2 Samuel 12:10)).
4) Administrative Judgment In The Assembly
A Scriptural assembly will exercise discipline when it is necessary. The assembly is responsible to maintain holiness and order in God’s house and should deal with problems before they get out of hand. If the assembly can correct the course a person may be pursuing before it reaches a point where it must put that person away from its fellowship, they have done a good work and have delivered that person from much trouble and sorrow in his life (James 5:19-2019Brethren, if any of you do err from the truth, and one convert him; 20Let him know, that he which converteth the sinner from the error of his way shall save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins. (James 5:19‑20)). This shows that the greater part of all Church discipline is to be exercised toward a person when he is still in fellowship.
There are three main areas of concern where a person may become defective and an administrative judgment of excommunication may be necessary. The following scenarios give the general procedure. This cannot be regimented and dealt with as though we were consulting a manual; each case must be handled on its own merit and with spiritual discernment (Gal. 6:11Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual, restore such an one in the spirit of meekness; considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted. (Galatians 6:1)):
A Worldly Person—(defective in walk).
This would apply to a wide variety of moral disorders (1 Cor. 5:1111But now I have written unto you not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such an one no not to eat. (1 Corinthians 5:11), etc.). Those who have the care of the flock at heart should attempt to “restore” a person overtaken in a fault (Gal. 6:11Brethren, if a man be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual, restore such an one in the spirit of meekness; considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted. (Galatians 6:1); John 13:1414If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one another's feet. (John 13:14)). They will seek to reach the person’s conscience in a gentle and caring way in an effort to turn him away from the course he may be on. If this does not reach him, the next step will be to “warn” him with a private rebuke (1 Thess. 5:1414Now we exhort you, brethren, warn them that are unruly, comfort the feebleminded, support the weak, be patient toward all men. (1 Thessalonians 5:14)). If the person persists in his course, but is not in any particular sin that would demand excommunication, those who take the lead might encourage the saints to “withdraw” from the person in an effort to reach him (2 Thess. 3:6-156Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which he received of us. 7For yourselves know how ye ought to follow us: for we behaved not ourselves disorderly among you; 8Neither did we eat any man's bread for nought; but wrought with labor and travail night and day, that we might not be chargeable to any of you: 9Not because we have not power, but to make ourselves an ensample unto you to follow us. 10For even when we were with you, this we commanded you, that if any would not work, neither should he eat. 11For we hear that there are some which walk among you disorderly, working not at all, but are busybodies. 12Now them that are such we command and exhort by our Lord Jesus Christ, that with quietness they work, and eat their own bread. 13But ye, brethren, be not weary in well doing. 14And if any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man, and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed. 15Yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. (2 Thessalonians 3:6‑15)). If a particular sin becomes manifest that requires excommunication, the assembly must then act, making a binding judgment to “put away” that person (Matt. 18:18-2018Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 19Again I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. 20For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them. (Matthew 18:18‑20); 1 Cor. 5:4, 11-134In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, (1 Corinthians 5:4)
11But now I have written unto you not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such an one no not to eat. 12For what have I to do to judge them also that are without? do not ye judge them that are within? 13But them that are without God judgeth. Therefore put away from among yourselves that wicked person. (1 Corinthians 5:11‑13)
).
A Heterodox Person—(defective in doctrine).
If a person adopts an erroneous doctrine, those who take the lead should “enjoin” him to teach no other doctrine than what is orthodox (1 Tim. 1:33As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some that they teach no other doctrine, (1 Timothy 1:3)). If he insists on propounding his erroneous ideas, the assembly is responsible to “judge” his teachings by calling for him to cease and desist from ministering in the meetings (1 Cor. 14:2929Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the other judge. (1 Corinthians 14:29)). If the person’s doctrines are blasphemous in nature, touching the Person and work of Christ, the assembly is to excommunicate him, because his teachings will defile others (Gal. 5:99A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. (Galatians 5:9)). The Apostle Paul did this to Hymenaeus and Alexander, delivering them to Satan that they might be “taught by discipline not to blaspheme” (1 Tim. 1:2020Of whom is Hymeneus and Alexander; whom I have delivered unto Satan, that they may learn not to blaspheme. (1 Timothy 1:20)). The assembly cannot directly deliver one to Satan as an apostle could do, but it can put him out of its fellowship, where God judges.
A Divisive Person—(heretical in spirit).
This has to do with a person who creates a rift in the assembly, having a party spirit in some cause. It is an ecclesiological evil and the most difficult of all evils to detect and deal with. Since this is detrimental to the unity of the assembly, it must be stopped. Firstly, brethren are to “avoid” those who cause such divisions (Rom. 16:17-1817Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned; and avoid them. 18For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly; and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple. (Romans 16:17‑18)). This is not speaking of those who follow in divisions, but of those who “cause” them—the instigators. A public rebuke is in order when someone divides the saints in some way (Gal. 2:12-1412For before that certain came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them which were of the circumcision. 13And the other Jews dissembled likewise with him; insomuch that Barnabas also was carried away with their dissimulation. 14But when I saw that they walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, I said unto Peter before them all, If thou, being a Jew, livest after the manner of Gentiles, and not as do the Jews, why compellest thou the Gentiles to live as do the Jews? (Galatians 2:12‑14); 1 Tim. 5:19-2019Against an elder receive not an accusation, but before two or three witnesses. 20Them that sin rebuke before all, that others also may fear. (1 Timothy 5:19‑20)). If the person continues to force his issues and divide the flock, the assembly has grounds to excommunicate him. Sowing discord among brethren is an abomination (Prov. 6:16-1916These six things doth the Lord hate: yea, seven are an abomination unto him: 17A proud look, a lying tongue, and hands that shed innocent blood, 18An heart that deviseth wicked imaginations, feet that be swift in running to mischief, 19A false witness that speaketh lies, and he that soweth discord among brethren. (Proverbs 6:16‑19)), a work of the flesh (Gal 5:2020Idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulations, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, (Galatians 5:20)), and the person(s) who divides the saints in that way should be excommunicated. (See Heresy.)
There are three main reasons why the assembly must carry out administrative judgments. Firstly, the assembly is responsible not to allow the Lord’s name to be associated with evil before the world (2 Cor. 7:1111For behold this selfsame thing, that ye sorrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you, yea, what clearing of yourselves, yea, what indignation, yea, what fear, yea, what vehement desire, yea, what zeal, yea, what revenge! In all things ye have approved yourselves to be clear in this matter. (2 Corinthians 7:11)). Secondly, holiness in the assembly must be maintained so that it is kept as a fit place for God’s holy presence (Eph. 2:2222In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit. (Ephesians 2:22); Psa. 93:55Thy testimonies are very sure: holiness becometh thine house, O Lord, for ever. (Psalm 93:5)) and to stop the leavening character of sin from affecting others (1 Cor. 5:6-86Your glorying is not good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? 7Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us: 8Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. (1 Corinthians 5:6‑8); Gal. 5:9-129A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. 10I have confidence in you through the Lord, that ye will be none otherwise minded: but he that troubleth you shall bear his judgment, whosoever he be. 11And I, brethren, if I yet preach circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution? then is the offence of the cross ceased. 12I would they were even cut off which trouble you. (Galatians 5:9‑12)). Thirdly, it is carried out in view of correcting and restoring the offender. He is put out and not socialized with (1 Cor. 5:1111But now I have written unto you not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such an one no not to eat. (1 Corinthians 5:11)), so that he might be broken down in repentance and restored to the Lord. When the person is repentant, the assembly is to receive him back into fellowship (2 Cor. 2:6-86Sufficient to such a man is this punishment, which was inflicted of many. 7So that contrariwise ye ought rather to forgive him, and comfort him, lest perhaps such a one should be swallowed up with overmuch sorrow. 8Wherefore I beseech you that ye would confirm your love toward him. (2 Corinthians 2:6‑8)). This loosing of a binding decision is also an administrative action of the assembly (Matt. 18:1818Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. (Matthew 18:18)).
5) Judgment Of The Believer’s Works
This judgment is in connection with believers and will occur in heaven after the Rapture at “the judgment seat of Christ” (Rom. 14:10-1110But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. 11For it is written, As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God. (Romans 14:10‑11); 2 Cor. 5:1010For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. (2 Corinthians 5:10)). The purpose of it is not to determine whether the person under review is fit for heaven—which has been settled by his faith in what Christ accomplished on the cross (John 5:2424Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life. (John 5:24); Rom. 8:11There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit. (Romans 8:1))—but rather to find things in his life that were done for the Lord and to reward him accordingly. Some Christians look at the judgment seat of Christ with trepidation, but we have nothing to fear because it will not be a judgment of our sins in a penal sense. It is not the person who is being judged at the judgment seat of Christ, but his works. The aspect of Christ’s judgment with believers is like that of a judge at an art show, not as a judge in a court of law. Knowing this, we have “boldness in the day of judgment” (1 John 4:1717Herein is our love made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment: because as he is, so are we in this world. (1 John 4:17)).
Some have thought that this review pertains only to our sins after we were saved. But this is not what Scripture teaches. It says, "Things done in his body" (2 Cor. 5:1010For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. (2 Corinthians 5:10)). To emphasize this point, C. H. Brown asked rhetorically, "Were you in your body before you were saved? Yes, you were; then it will be a manifestation of your whole life." E. Dennett said, "The whole of our past lives, the significance of every act, its motive as well as its object, will be made clear to us—clear as to the source of all, whether our activities sprang from the energy of the flesh or were produced by the Spirit of God" (Christ the Morning Star, p. 37).
Each time the judgment seat of Christ is mentioned in the New Testament it is viewed from a different perspective. Putting these references together, we learn that the Lord will examine every aspect of our lives. The areas of review are:
There are two main reasons for the judgment seat of Christ: one has a future bearing and the other has a present bearing.
As to the judgment seat’s future bearing, the grand result of the review will be the augmentation of the eternal praise of God and His Son! This will be accomplished in three ways:
A) The Lord will magnify the grace of God before our eyes, whereby our appreciation for what He has done to save us will be deepened in our souls significantly. This will require a review of our whole lives, wherein we will see our sins in the light of an infinitely holy God. J. N. Darby said, “In that day we will learn of the true badness of our flesh.” We will realize that our debt was far greater than we ever thought. Then, the Lord will show us the greatness of His grace that has risen over it all and has put our sins away on the righteous basis that cost Christ the agonies of the cross. We will see with greater depth than ever before, that “where sin abounded, grace did much more abound” (Rom. 5:2020Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound: (Romans 5:20)). As a result, a loud burst of praise will ring forth from us.
B) In reviewing our lives, the Lord will reveal the wisdom of His ways with us on earth. He will take us through the “whys” and the “wherefores” of our lives, step by step, and will show us that He hasn’t made any mistakes in what He has allowed to happen. In that day, He is going to answer all our hard questions about these things. When we look at our lives now, it may seem like a tangled mess, but in that day we’ll know the rhyme and reason of it all—and it will make perfect sense (Rom. 8:2828And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose. (Romans 8:28)). He is going to show us that there was a “need be” for it all (1 Peter 1:66Wherein ye greatly rejoice, though now for a season, if need be, ye are in heaviness through manifold temptations: (1 Peter 1:6)). We will know in a deeper way the truth of Psalm 18:3030As for God, his way is perfect: the word of the Lord is tried: he is a buckler to all those that trust in him. (Psalm 18:30): “As for God His way is perfect.” And we will praise Him for it.
As to the judgment seat’s present effect, a conscious realization of what it involves motivates the Christian to serve the Lord now while there is opportunity. Knowing that everything we do for Him now is going to have a reward and that there are people who are going to stand before the judgment seat of Christ in their sins to be sentenced to a lost eternity in Hell (if they don’t get saved), ought to motivate us to get busy in His service and “persuade men” to be “reconciled to God” (2 Cor. 5:11, 2011Knowing therefore the terror of the Lord, we persuade men; but we are made manifest unto God; and I trust also are made manifest in your consciences. (2 Corinthians 5:11)
20Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God. (2 Corinthians 5:20)
).
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Some have wondered whether the review before the judgment seat will be a public manifestation of our lives before all the saints in heaven, or a private affair. J. N. Darby was asked to reply to this question in the Bible Treasury (editor W. Kelly). "Ques. 2 Cor. 5:1010For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. (2 Corinthians 5:10)—Is the manifestation to be before brethren, or the Lord simply?" Ans. "I find nothing in Scripture which speaks of manifestation to brethren...." (Bible Treasury, vol. 1, p. 243; Collected Writings, vol. 13, p. 359).
W. Scott said, "All will come out at the judgment seat as a matter between each one and God. It will not be a public exposure before others" (Exposition of the Revelation, p. 399).
E. Dennett said, "The judgment seat of Christ....All this will be manifested to us at that time in the patient grace of our blessed Lord, to us individually, not necessarily to others in public" (Christ the Morning Star, pp. 36-37).
H. D. R. Jameson said, "'We must all appear (or, as it should read, be manifested) before the judgment seat of Christ.' Note here, however, that the word is 'manifested,' not judged, for no saint will ever come into judgment (see John 5:2424Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life. (John 5:24))...although our manifestation brings everything into view (not publically, I judge, but as between the individual and the Lord)" (Scripture Truth, vol. 1, pp. 317-318).
H. D'A. Champney said, "Though it is the judgment seat of Christ, He will not judge us as if we were criminals, but rather make manifest all our acts and ways....I do not think He will expose us before others, but rather to ourselves, and that, too, to magnify His grace and love which never failed us" (Wonderful Privileges – The Bride of Christ, p. 10).
F. B. Hole said, "He took them aside in private. Thus it will be with all of us when we reach Him at His coming. That will mean being manifested before His judgment seat; and it will be in the privacy and rest of His presence" (The Gospels and Acts, p. 162).
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The "all," in 2 Corinthians 5:1010For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. (2 Corinthians 5:10), includes all men. This means that the judgment seat of Christ actually extends to the Great White Throne judgment of unbelievers. Albeit, the character of the judgment will be altogether different. H. D. R. Jameson said, "As to the words 'we all,' it is evident from the context that the thought before the Apostle's mind embraces the appearing of all men before the judgment seat (the 'all' in verse 10 reaches in its scope to the full limits of the 'all' in verse 14), and as has been pointed out by the late Mr. Kelly, the Greek construction is accordingly different from that found in such a Scripture as 2 Corinthians 3:1818But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord. (2 Corinthians 3:18), where believers only are included" (Scripture Truth, vol. 1, p. 318).
6) The Consumption Judgment
This is a judgment that the Lord will execute on the apostate Jews at the end of the Great Tribulation, just before He appears out of heaven (Isa. 10:22-23; 28:2222For though thy people Israel be as the sand of the sea, yet a remnant of them shall return: the consumption decreed shall overflow with righteousness. 23For the Lord God of hosts shall make a consumption, even determined, in the midst of all the land. (Isaiah 10:22‑23)
22Now therefore be ye not mockers, lest your bands be made strong: for I have heard from the Lord God of hosts a consumption, even determined upon the whole earth. (Isaiah 28:22)
; Dan. 9:2727And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate. (Daniel 9:27)b). Since it will be before His Appearing, it will be done indirectly through an instrument raised up of God—the King of the North and his Arab confederacy (Psa. 83:1-81<<A Song or Psalm of Asaph.>> Keep not thou silence, O God: hold not thy peace, and be not still, O God. 2For, lo, thine enemies make a tumult: and they that hate thee have lifted up the head. 3They have taken crafty counsel against thy people, and consulted against thy hidden ones. 4They have said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. 5For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against thee: 6The tabernacles of Edom, and the Ishmaelites; of Moab, and the Hagarenes; 7Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; the Philistines with the inhabitants of Tyre; 8Assur also is joined with them: they have holpen the children of Lot. Selah. (Psalm 83:1‑8); Dan. 11:40-4240And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over. 41He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon. 42He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape. (Daniel 11:40‑42); Joel 2:1-111Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy mountain: let all the inhabitants of the land tremble: for the day of the Lord cometh, for it is nigh at hand; 2A day of darkness and of gloominess, a day of clouds and of thick darkness, as the morning spread upon the mountains: a great people and a strong; there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after it, even to the years of many generations. 3A fire devoureth before them; and behind them a flame burneth: the land is as the garden of Eden before them, and behind them a desolate wilderness; yea, and nothing shall escape them. 4The appearance of them is as the appearance of horses; and as horsemen, so shall they run. 5Like the noise of chariots on the tops of mountains shall they leap, like the noise of a flame of fire that devoureth the stubble, as a strong people set in battle array. 6Before their face the people shall be much pained: all faces shall gather blackness. 7They shall run like mighty men; they shall climb the wall like men of war; and they shall march every one on his ways, and they shall not break their ranks: 8Neither shall one thrust another; they shall walk every one in his path: and when they fall upon the sword, they shall not be wounded. 9They shall run to and fro in the city; they shall run upon the wall, they shall climb up upon the houses; they shall enter in at the windows like a thief. 10The earth shall quake before them; the heavens shall tremble: the sun and the moon shall be dark, and the stars shall withdraw their shining: 11And the Lord shall utter his voice before his army: for his camp is very great: for he is strong that executeth his word: for the day of the Lord is great and very terrible; and who can abide it? (Joel 2:1‑11), etc.). These armies will devastate the land of Israel from the north through to the south, killing about 10 million of the 15 million Jews who will be back in their homeland in those days (Zech. 13:88And it shall come to pass, that in all the land, saith the Lord, two parts therein shall be cut off and die; but the third shall be left therein. (Zechariah 13:8)).
7) The Harvest Judgment
This has to do with the Lord’s judgment of the Christianized nations in the West (Matt. 13:38-4238The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one; 39The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels. 40As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world. 41The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; 42And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. (Matthew 13:38‑42); Rev. 14:14-1614And I looked, and behold a white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat like unto the Son of man, having on his head a golden crown, and in his hand a sharp sickle. 15And another angel came out of the temple, crying with a loud voice to him that sat on the cloud, Thrust in thy sickle, and reap: for the time is come for thee to reap; for the harvest of the earth is ripe. 16And he that sat on the cloud thrust in his sickle on the earth; and the earth was reaped. (Revelation 14:14‑16)). It will be executed when He appears (Matt. 24:27, 3027For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. (Matthew 24:27)
30And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. (Matthew 24:30)
; 2 Thess. 1:7-97And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, 8In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: 9Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power; (2 Thessalonians 1:7‑9); Jude 14-1514And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, 15To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him. (Jude 14‑15); Rev. 1:7; 3:3; 11:157Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen. (Revelation 1:7)
3Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard, and hold fast, and repent. If therefore thou shalt not watch, I will come on thee as a thief, and thou shalt not know what hour I will come upon thee. (Revelation 3:3)
15And the seventh angel sounded; and there were great voices in heaven, saying, The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever. (Revelation 11:15)
, etc.). When the Lord comes out of heaven as a Warrior-King, He will destroy the armies of the Beast and cast its leader (with the Antichrist) into the lake of fire (Rev. 16:13-15; 19:11-2113And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet. 14For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty. 15Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame. (Revelation 16:13‑15)
11And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war. 12His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself. 13And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God. 14And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. 15And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God. 16And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS. 17And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God; 18That ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great. 19And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army. 20And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone. 21And the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse, which sword proceeded out of his mouth: and all the fowls were filled with their flesh. (Revelation 19:11‑21)
). At that time, the Lord will “send forth His angels to purge “the kingdom of the heavens” (i.e. Christendom) of unbelievers. These will be merely professing believers and those who have abandoned faith in God altogether—apostates, atheists, etc. All such will be cast directly into the lake of fire, without seeing death (Matt. 13:40-42, 49; 24:39-440As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world. 41The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; 42And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. (Matthew 13:40‑42)
49So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just, (Matthew 13:49)
). It is called the “Harvest” judgment because it is a discriminating work of separating the tares (the wicked) from among the wheat (the righteous). The wicked will be taken out in judgment and the righteous will live on into the millennial kingdom of Christ. This is the reverse of what will happen at the Rapture. At the Rapture the Lord takes the believers out of the earth (1 Thess. 1:10; 4:15-1810And to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, even Jesus, which delivered us from the wrath to come. (1 Thessalonians 1:10)
15For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep. 16For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: 17Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord. 18Wherefore comfort one another with these words. (1 Thessalonians 4:15‑18)
) and leaves the unbelievers behind to enter the Tribulation period (Matt. 25:10-1210And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut. 11Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. 12But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not. (Matthew 25:10‑12).)
8) The Winepress (Vintage) Judgment
After the Lord returns (His Appearing) and destroys the armies of the West and the armies of the King of the North, He will restore a remnant of all 12 tribes of Israel to Himself. Then, while newly-restored Israel will be dwelling safely in their land under the protection of the Lord, a final confederacy of Gentile armies under Gog (Russia) will make an attack on them (Ezek. 38-39). The Lord will defend Israel from these armies by roaring out of Zion to destroy them. This is “the Winepress” (Vintage) judgment (Rev. 14:17-2017And another angel came out of the temple which is in heaven, he also having a sharp sickle. 18And another angel came out from the altar, which had power over fire; and cried with a loud cry to him that had the sharp sickle, saying, Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe. 19And the angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. 20And the winepress was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the winepress, even unto the horse bridles, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs. (Revelation 14:17‑20); Isa. 63:1-61Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. 2Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? 3I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment. 4For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come. 5And I looked, and there was none to help; and I wondered that there was none to uphold: therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto me; and my fury, it upheld me. 6And I will tread down the people in mine anger, and make them drunk in my fury, and I will bring down their strength to the earth. (Isaiah 63:1‑6); Joel 3:12-1412Let the heathen be wakened, and come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat: for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about. 13Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the fats overflow; for their wickedness is great. 14Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision. (Joel 3:12‑14)). It is called “the Winepress” because as the grapes in a winepress are crushed indiscriminately, so will be the judgment of the sinners in this enormous confederacy. This judgment is in contrast to the Harvest Judgment wherein certain ones are selected for judgment and others are not. The Lord will go forth from Jerusalem to the land of Edom (a trans-Jordanic land some 200 miles southeast of Israel—Rev. 14:2020And the winepress was trodden without the city, and blood came out of the winepress, even unto the horse bridles, by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs. (Revelation 14:20)) and destroy the long train of Gog’s confederate armies that will have assembled there (Isa. 34:1-10; 63:1-61Come near, ye nations, to hear; and hearken, ye people: let the earth hear, and all that is therein; the world, and all things that come forth of it. 2For the indignation of the Lord is upon all nations, and his fury upon all their armies: he hath utterly destroyed them, he hath delivered them to the slaughter. 3Their slain also shall be cast out, and their stink shall come up out of their carcases, and the mountains shall be melted with their blood. 4And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll: and all their host shall fall down, as the leaf falleth off from the vine, and as a falling fig from the fig tree. 5For my sword shall be bathed in heaven: behold, it shall come down upon Idumea, and upon the people of my curse, to judgment. 6The sword of the Lord is filled with blood, it is made fat with fatness, and with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams: for the Lord hath a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Idumea. 7And the unicorns shall come down with them, and the bullocks with the bulls; and their land shall be soaked with blood, and their dust made fat with fatness. 8For it is the day of the Lord's vengeance, and the year of recompences for the controversy of Zion. 9And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch. 10It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever. (Isaiah 34:1‑10)
1Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. 2Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? 3I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raiment. 4For the day of vengeance is in mine heart, and the year of my redeemed is come. 5And I looked, and there was none to help; and I wondered that there was none to uphold: therefore mine own arm brought salvation unto me; and my fury, it upheld me. 6And I will tread down the people in mine anger, and make them drunk in my fury, and I will bring down their strength to the earth. (Isaiah 63:1‑6)
; Hab. 3:3-163God came from Teman, and the Holy One from mount Paran. Selah. His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise. 4And his brightness was as the light; he had horns coming out of his hand: and there was the hiding of his power. 5Before him went the pestilence, and burning coals went forth at his feet. 6He stood, and measured the earth: he beheld, and drove asunder the nations; and the everlasting mountains were scattered, the perpetual hills did bow: his ways are everlasting. 7I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction: and the curtains of the land of Midian did tremble. 8Was the Lord displeased against the rivers? was thine anger against the rivers? was thy wrath against the sea, that thou didst ride upon thine horses and thy chariots of salvation? 9Thy bow was made quite naked, according to the oaths of the tribes, even thy word. Selah. Thou didst cleave the earth with rivers. 10The mountains saw thee, and they trembled: the overflowing of the water passed by: the deep uttered his voice, and lifted up his hands on high. 11The sun and moon stood still in their habitation: at the light of thine arrows they went, and at the shining of thy glittering spear. 12Thou didst march through the land in indignation, thou didst thresh the heathen in anger. 13Thou wentest forth for the salvation of thy people, even for salvation with thine anointed; thou woundedst the head out of the house of the wicked, by discovering the foundation unto the neck. Selah. 14Thou didst strike through with his staves the head of his villages: they came out as a whirlwind to scatter me: their rejoicing was as to devour the poor secretly. 15Thou didst walk through the sea with thine horses, through the heap of great waters. 16When I heard, my belly trembled; my lips quivered at the voice: rottenness entered into my bones, and I trembled in myself, that I might rest in the day of trouble: when he cometh up unto the people, he will invade them with his troops. (Habakkuk 3:3‑16)). This judgment will mark the end of all wars (Psa. 46:99He maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth; he breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear in sunder; he burneth the chariot in the fire. (Psalm 46:9); Zech. 9:1010And I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem, and the battle bow shall be cut off: and he shall speak peace unto the heathen: and his dominion shall be from sea even to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth. (Zechariah 9:10)).
9) The Sessional Judgment
After the Lord’s Warrior-judgments are over (the Harvest & the Winepress), He will conduct a sessional judgment in connection with the remaining Gentile nations that are situated outside the prophetic earth (Matt. 25:3131When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: (Matthew 25:31)-46). Since all hostile powers will have been subdued by the Lord’s previous warrior-judgments, this will be a calm judgment before “the throne of His glory.” This throne is not in heaven, but on earth. It is not a judgment of the dead, as is the “great white throne” judgment (Rev. 20:11-1511And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them. 12And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. 13And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. 14And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. 15And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire. (Revelation 20:11‑15)), but rather, it is a judgment of living persons among the outlying nations of the world. The criterion on which the people of these nations are judged is simply whether or not they have been hostile toward the messengers of the gospel of the kingdom (“my brethren”)—not whether they have personally believed it. Those who have been hostile toward the Lord’s messengers and have rejected their message will be judged as a goat nation, and the guilty individuals of that nation will be cast into the lake of fire by the angels who will be the executors of this judgment (Matt. 25:3131When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: (Matthew 25:31)).
10) Millennial Judgment
When Christ sets up His millennial kingdom, He will “reign in righteousness(Isa. 32:1; 61:111Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment. (Isaiah 32:1)
11For as the earth bringeth forth her bud, and as the garden causeth the things that are sown in it to spring forth; so the Lord God will cause righteousness and praise to spring forth before all the nations. (Isaiah 61:11)
). The whole world will be forced to live righteously in what the Lord called “the regeneration (Matt. 19:2828And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. (Matthew 19:28)), and those who choose to do otherwise will be killed (providentially) by a judgment of the Lord. By the morning of the next day, the offender will be struck dead! (Psa. 34:12-1612What man is he that desireth life, and loveth many days, that he may see good? 13Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking guile. 14Depart from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it. 15The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and his ears are open unto their cry. 16The face of the Lord is against them that do evil, to cut off the remembrance of them from the earth. (Psalm 34:12‑16); Psa. 101:5-85Whoso privily slandereth his neighbor, him will I cut off: him that hath an high look and a proud heart will not I suffer. 6Mine eyes shall be upon the faithful of the land, that they may dwell with me: he that walketh in a perfect way, he shall serve me. 7He that worketh deceit shall not dwell within my house: he that telleth lies shall not tarry in my sight. 8I will early destroy all the wicked of the land; that I may cut off all wicked doers from the city of the Lord. (Psalm 101:5‑8); Zeph. 3:55The just Lord is in the midst thereof; he will not do iniquity: every morning doth he bring his judgment to light, he faileth not; but the unjust knoweth no shame. (Zephaniah 3:5) – margin; Zech. 5:1-41Then I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a flying roll. 2And he said unto me, What seest thou? And I answered, I see a flying roll; the length thereof is twenty cubits, and the breadth thereof ten cubits. 3Then said he unto me, This is the curse that goeth forth over the face of the whole earth: for every one that stealeth shall be cut off as on this side according to it; and every one that sweareth shall be cut off as on that side according to it. 4I will bring it forth, saith the Lord of hosts, and it shall enter into the house of the thief, and into the house of him that sweareth falsely by my name: and it shall remain in the midst of his house, and shall consume it with the timber thereof and the stones thereof. (Zechariah 5:1‑4))
11) the judgment of angels (evil)
After the Millennium, at the end of time, there will be a judgment of the evil angels (1 Cor. 6:33Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life? (1 Corinthians 6:3)), and they will be cast into the lake of fire with the devil (Matt. 25:4141Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: (Matthew 25:41)). The glorified saints will be engaged in assessing this judgment. The judgment will determine what degree of punishment each fallen angel will be assigned. The good or “elect” angels (1 Tim. 5:2121I charge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things without preferring one before another, doing nothing by partiality. (1 Timothy 5:21)) are not part of this judgment; they do not need to be judged.
12) The Great White Throne Judgment
This judgment will also occur at the end of the Millennium, when time has ceased. It concerns the wicked dead. All who have died in their sins without faith, from the beginning of time to the end of time will be judged by the Lord at His “great white throne” (Isa. 24:2222And they shall be gathered together, as prisoners are gathered in the pit, and shall be shut up in the prison, and after many days shall they be visited. (Isaiah 24:22); Rev. 20:11-1511And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them. 12And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. 13And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. 14And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. 15And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire. (Revelation 20:11‑15)). The wicked dead will be raised at that time and sentenced for the sins that they have committed (Rev. 20:1313And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. (Revelation 20:13)). They will be cast into the lake of fire (Hell) and punished there eternally (Matt. 25:4646And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal. (Matthew 25:46)). Their judgment will be “according to their works.” This means that some in Hell will suffer more, and some less, because all have a different number of sins and a different degree of responsibility (Luke 12:47-4847And that servant, which knew his lord's will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes. 48But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required: and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more. (Luke 12:47‑48)). God will not allow anyone to suffer in a lost eternity for something that he or she didn’t do. There will be no children or mentally handicapped persons punished in this judgment (Matt. 18:1010Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, That in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven. (Matthew 18:10)); God does not hold persons accountable for their actions who are not mentally responsible. The “small and great” who will be judged at that time are not children and adults, but insignificant and prominent sinners of this world who have died in their sins.
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